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Sample records for acid biosensor based

  1. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  2. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid-containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA A. KRATASYUK

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reshetilov AN, Kitova AE, Arkhipova AV, Kratasyuk VA, Rai MK. 2012. Determination of ethanol in acetic acid containing samples by a biosensor based on immobilized Gluconobacter cells. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 97-100. A biosensor based on Gluconobacter oxydans VKM B-1280 bacteria was used for detection of ethanol in the presence of acetic acid. It was assumed that this assay could be useful for controlling acetic acid production from ethanol and determining the final stage of the fermentation process. Measurements were made using a Clark electrode-based amperometric biosensor. The effect of pH of the medium on the sensor signal and the analytical parameters of the sensor (detection range, sensitivity were investigated. The residual content of ethanol in acetic acid samples was analyzed. The results of the study are important for monitoring the acetic acid production process, as they represent a method of tracking its stages

  3. Electrochemical paper-based peptide nucleic acid biosensor for detecting human papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teengam, Prinjaporn [Program in Petrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Siangproh, Weena [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, 10110 (Thailand); Tuantranont, Adisorn [Nanoelectronics and MEMS Laboratory, National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Henry, Charles S. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523 (United States); Vilaivan, Tirayut [Organic Synthesis Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Chailapakul, Orawon, E-mail: corawon@chula.ac.th [Electrochemistry and Optical Spectroscopy Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand); Nanotec-CU Center of Excellence on Food and Agriculture, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-02-01

    A novel paper-based electrochemical biosensor was developed using an anthraquinone-labeled pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA) probe (AQ-PNA) and graphene-polyaniline (G-PANI) modified electrode to detect human papillomavirus (HPV). An inkjet printing technique was employed to prepare the paper-based G-PANI-modified working electrode. The AQ-PNA probe baring a negatively charged amino acid at the N-terminus was immobilized onto the electrode surface through electrostatic attraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to verify the AQ-PNA immobilization. The paper-based electrochemical DNA biosensor was used to detect a synthetic 14-base oligonucleotide target with a sequence corresponding to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA by measuring the electrochemical signal response of the AQ label using square-wave voltammetry before and after hybridization. It was determined that the current signal significantly decreased after the addition of target DNA. This phenomenon is explained by the rigidity of PNA-DNA duplexes, which obstructs the accessibility of electron transfer from the AQ label to the electrode surface. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit of HPV type 16 DNA was found to be 2.3 nM with a linear range of 10–200 nM. The performance of this biosensor on real DNA samples was tested with the detection of PCR-amplified DNA samples from the SiHa cell line. The new method employs an inexpensive and disposable device, which easily incinerated after use and is promising for the screening and monitoring of the amount of HPV-DNA type 16 to identify the primary stages of cervical cancer. - Highlights: • A paper-based DNA biosensor using AQ-PNA probe and G-PANI modified electrode was first developed. • This developed DNA biosensor was highly specific over the non-complementary DNA. • This sensor was successfully applied to detect the HPV-DNA type 16 obtained from cancer cell lines. • This sensor is inexpensive and

  4. Determination of uric acid level by polyaniline and poly (allylamine: Based biosensor

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    Nasrul Wathoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The uric acid biosensor has been much developed by immobilizing uricase enzyme into the membrane of conductive polymer and the membrane of polyelectrolyte such as polyaniline (PANI and poly (allylamine (PAA respectively. The purpose of this research was to create a new amperometric uric acid biosensor by immobilization of uricase in combination between PANI and PAA membranes. The working electrode was Pt plate (0.5 mm. The auxiliary and the reference electrode were Pt wire 0.4 mm and Ag/AgCl respectively. Uricase, uric acid, PAA, pyrrole and glutaraldehyde were supplied from Sigma. All other chemical was obtained from Merck. The biosensor was created by immobilizing of uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on PANI composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode while the polyelectrolyte layer of PAA were prepared via layer-by-layer assembly on the electrode, functioning as H 2 O 2 -selective film. Standard of deviation, coefficient of variation (CV and coefficient of correlation (r analysis were used in this study. The biosensor had a good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and it could be used up to 27 times with the CV value of 3.97%. The presence of other compounds such as glucose and ascorbic acid gave 1.3 ± 1.13% and 3.27 ± 2.29% respectively on the interference effect toward the current response of uric acid biosensor. The polymer combination of PANI and PAA can be used as a selective matrix of uric acid biosensor.

  5. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  6. An integrated paper-based sample-to-answer biosensor for nucleic acid testing at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jane Ru; Hu, Jie; Tang, Ruihua; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shangsheng; Ren, Hui; Wen, Ting; Li, XiuJun; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Xu, Feng

    2016-02-07

    With advances in point-of-care testing (POCT), lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been explored for nucleic acid detection. However, biological samples generally contain complex compositions and low amounts of target nucleic acids, and currently require laborious off-chip nucleic acid extraction and amplification processes (e.g., tube-based extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)) prior to detection. To the best of our knowledge, even though the integration of DNA extraction and amplification into a paper-based biosensor has been reported, a combination of LFA with the aforementioned steps for simple colorimetric readout has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time an integrated paper-based biosensor incorporating nucleic acid extraction, amplification and visual detection or quantification using a smartphone. A handheld battery-powered heating device was specially developed for nucleic acid amplification in POC settings, which is coupled with this simple assay for rapid target detection. The biosensor can successfully detect Escherichia coli (as a model analyte) in spiked drinking water, milk, blood, and spinach with a detection limit of as low as 10-1000 CFU mL(-1), and Streptococcus pneumonia in clinical blood samples, highlighting its potential use in medical diagnostics, food safety analysis and environmental monitoring. As compared to the lengthy conventional assay, which requires more than 5 hours for the entire sample-to-answer process, it takes about 1 hour for our integrated biosensor. The integrated biosensor holds great potential for detection of various target analytes for wide applications in the near future.

  7. Bienzymatic Acetylcholinesterase and Choline Oxidase Immobilized Biosensor Based on a Phenyl Carboxylic Acid-Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

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    So-Ra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bienzymatic acetylcholinesterase (AChE and choline oxidase (ChOx immobilized biosensor based on a phenyl carboxylic acid-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE and carbon-screen printed electrode (SPE was fabricated for acetylcholine detection in human blood samples. Phenyl carboxylic acid-modified MWNT supports were prepared by electrochemical polymerization of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salts, which were synthesized by an amine group and sodium nitrite, on the surface of the MWNT-modified GCE and SPE in 0.1 M PBS. The successful fabrication of the AChE-ChOx-immobilized biosensor was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The sensing range of the biosensor based on a GCE and SPE was 1.0~10 μM and 10~100 μM, respectively. The interfering effect of 0.1 M L-ascorbic acid, 0.1 M L-cysteine, and 0.1 M uric acid to 0.1 M acetylcholine was 3.00%, 9.00%, and 3.00%, respectively. Acetylcholine in a human blood sample was detected by the AChE-ChOx-immobilized biosensor.

  8. Highly sensitive uric acid biosensor based on individual zinc oxide micro/nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanguang; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Lin, Pei; Fang, Xiaofei; Lei, Yang; Ma, Siwei; Zhang, Yue

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of individual zinc oxide (ZnO) micro/nanowires in an electrochemical biosensor for uric acid. The wires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and possess uniform morphology and high crystallinity as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence studies. The enzyme uricase was then immobilized on the surface of the ZnO micro/nanowires by physical adsorption, and this was proven by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The resulting uric acid biosensor undergoes fast electron transfer between the active site of the enzyme and the surface of the electrode. It displays high sensitivity (89.74 μA cm −2 mM −1 ) and a wide linear analytical range (between 0.1 mM and 0.59 mM concentrations of uric acid). This study also demonstrates the potential of the use of individual ZnO micro/nanowires for the construction of highly sensitive nano-sized biosensors. (author)

  9. Development of a Bacterial Biosensor for Rapid Screening of Yeast p-Coumaric Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Khatri, Narendar K.; Zsohar, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    device, rapidly sort droplets containing yeast cells producing high amounts of extracellular p-coumaric acid using the fluorescent E. coli biosensor signal. As additional biosensors become available, such approaches will find broad applications for screening of an extracellular product.......Transcription factor-based biosensors are used to identify producer strains, a critical bottleneck in cell factory engineering. Here, we address two challenges with this methodology: transplantation of heterologous transcriptional regulators into new hosts to generate functional biosensors...... and biosensing of the extracellular product concentration that accurately reflects the effective cell factory production capacity. We describe the effects of different translation initiation rates on the dynamic range of a p-coumaric acid biosensor based on the Bacillus subtilis transcriptional repressor Pad...

  10. Ultraselective electrochemiluminescence biosensor based on locked nucleic acid modified toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction and junction-probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Dongzhi; Liu, Zhijing; Cai, Shuxian; Chen, Mei; Zhao, Yanping; Li, Chunyan; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Jinghua

    2014-12-07

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is applied in toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) to develop a junction-probe electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection in the BRCA1 gene related to breast cancer. More than 65-fold signal difference can be observed with perfectly matched target sequence to single-base mismatched sequence under the same conditions, indicating good selectivity of the ECL biosensor.

  11. A Conductive Porous Structured Chitosan-grafted Polyaniline Cryogel for use as a Sialic Acid Biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatoni, Amin; Numnuam, Apon; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn; Thavarungkul, Panote

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel chitosan grafted polyaniline cryogel was used as support for a highly stable and sensitive biosensor. • The use of two enzymes mediated with ferrocene showed a high selectivity for sialic acid. • The biosensor provided a rapid sialic acid detection in blood. - Abstract: A porous conductive supporting material base on chitosan grafted polyaniline (CPANI) cryogel was developed for the fabrication of a sialic acid biosensor. Two enzymes, N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase (NAL) and pyruvate oxidase (PYO), were employed together with an electrochemical detector. The electron transfer was further enhanced by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and mediated by ferrocene (Fc) entrapped in the cryogel pores wall. A sialic acid derived electroactive product was detected amperometrically in a flow injection system. The fabricated sialic acid biosensor provided excellent analytical performances with a wide linear range of 0.025 to 15.0 mM and a limit of detection of 18 μM. Under the low applied potential of 0.20 V versus a Ag/AgCl, common electroactive interfering compounds such as ascorbic acid, uric acid and pyruvic acid were not detected and they have no effect on the analysis of sialic acid. The fabricated sialic acid biosensor also demonstrated a high stability after up to 100 injections. The reliability of the biosensor to detect sialic acid in blood plasma was in good agreement (P > 0.05) with a standard periodic-resorcinol spectrophotometric method. This easy to prepare conductive and biocompatible porous structure should be a prospective supporting material for biosensor development

  12. Cholinesterase-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Recently, cholinesterase-based biosensors are widely used for assaying anticholinergic compounds. Primarily biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful analytical tools for fast screening of inhibitors, such as organophosphates and carbamates. The present review is aimed at compilation of the most important facts about cholinesterase based biosensors, types of physico-chemical transduction, immobilization strategies and practical applications.

  13. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zulaikha Mazlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R2 = 0.979 and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  14. A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Siti Zulaikha; Lee, Yook Heng; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2017-12-09

    Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM ( R ² = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.

  15. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated electrochemical gluconic acid biosensor based on self-assembled monolayer-modified gold electrodes. Application to the analysis of gluconic acid in musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, S; Gamella, M; Serra, B; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2007-03-21

    An integrated amperometric gluconic acid biosensor constructed using a gold electrode (AuE) modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on which gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH, 0.84 U) and the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, 1.5 micromol) were coimmobilized by covering the electrode surface with a dialysis membrane is reported. The working conditions selected were Eapp=+0.15 V and 25+/-1 degrees C. The useful lifetime of one single TTF-GADH-MPA-AuE was surprisingly long. After 53 days of continuous use, the biosensor exhibited 86% of the original sensitivity. A linear calibration plot was obtained for gluconic acid over the 6.0x10(-7) to 2.0x10(-5) M concentration range, with a limit of detection of 1.9x10(-7) M. The effect of potential interferents (glucose, fructose, galactose, arabinose, and tartaric, citric, malic, ascorbic, gallic, and caffeic acids) on the biosensor response was evaluated. The behavior of the biosensor in a flow-injection system in connection with amperometric detection was tested. The analytical usefulness of the biosensor was evaluated by determining gluconic acid in wine and must samples, and the results obtained were validated by comparison with those provided by using a commercial enzyme test kit.

  17. A novel fluorescence biosensor for sensitivity detection of tyrosinase and acid phosphatase based on nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhengyi; Na, Weidan; Liu, Xiaotong; Liu, Hua; Su, Xingguang

    2018-01-02

    In this paper, we developed a sensitive fluorescence biosensor for tyrosinase (TYR) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity detection based on nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs). Tyrosine could be catalyzed by TYR to generate dopaquinone, which could efficiently quench the fluorescence of N-GQDs, and the degree of fluorescence quenching of N-GQDs was proportional to the concentration of TYR. In the presence of ACP, l-Ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AAP) was hydrolyzed to generate ascorbic acid (AA), and dopaquinone was reduced to l-dopa, resulting in the fluorescence recovery of the quenched fluorescence by dopaquinone. Thus, a novel fluorescence biosensor for the detection of TYR and ACP activity based on N-GQDs was constructed. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the fluorescence intensity was linearly correlated with the concentration of TYR and ACP in the range of 0.43-3.85 U mL -1 and 0.04-0.7 mU mL -1 with a detection limit of 0.15 U mL -1 and 0.014 mU mL -1 , respectively. The feasibility of the proposed biosensor in real samples assay was also studied and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Galactose Biosensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods with Galactose Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of galactose biosensor based on functionalised ZnO nanorods is described. The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on ZnO nanorods in conjunction with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker molecule. The IRAS study provided evidence for the interaction of galactose oxidase with the surface of ZnO nanorods. The electromotive force (EMF response of the galactose biosensor was measured by potentiometric method. We observed that the proposed biosensor has a linear detection range over a concentration range from 10 mM to 200 mM with good sensitivity of 89.10±1.23 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor has shown fast time response of less than 10 s and a good selectivity towards galactose in the presence of common interferents such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose, and magnesium ions. The galactose biosensor based on galactose oxidase immobilized ZnO nanorods has a shelf life more than four weeks.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of microparticles based on poly-methacrylic acid with glucose oxidase for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás Pérez, J P; López-Ruiz, B; López-Cabarcos, E

    2016-01-01

    In the line of the applicability of biocompatible monomers pH and temperature dependent, we assayed poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles as immobilization system in the design of enzymatic biosensors. Glucose oxidase was used as enzyme model for the study of microparticles as immobilization matrices and as biological material in the performance of glucose biosensors. The enzyme immobilization method was optimized by investigating the influence of monomer concentration and cross-linker content (N',N'-methylenebisacrylamide), used in the preparation of the microparticles in the response of the biosensors. The kinetics of the polymerization and the effects of the temperature were studied, also the conversion of the polymerization was determinates by a weight method. The structure of the obtained p-MAA microparticles were studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning microscopy (DSC). The particle size measurements were performed with a Galai-Cis 1 particle analyzer system. Furthermore, the influence of the swelling behavior of hydrogel matrix as a function of pH and temperature were studied. Analytical properties such as sensitivity, linear range, response time and detection limit were studied for the glucose biosensors. The sensitivity for glucose detection obtained with poly-methacrylic acid (p-MAA) microparticles was 11.98mAM(-1)cm(-2) and 10μM of detection limit. A Nafion® layer was used to eliminate common interferents of the human serum such as uric and ascorbic acids. The biosensors were used to determine glucose in human serum samples with satisfactory results. When stored in a frozen phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) at -4°C, the useful lifetime of all biosensors was at least 550 days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid amplification/detection of nucleic acid targets utilizing a HDA/thin film biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenison, Robert; Jaeckel, Heidi; Klonoski, Joshua; Latorra, David; Wiens, Jacinta

    2014-08-07

    Thin film biosensors exploit a flat, optically coated silicon-based surface whereupon formation of nucleic acid hybrids are enzymatically transduced in a molecular thin film that can be detected by the unaided human eye under white light. While the limit of sensitivity for detection of nucleic acid targets is at sub-attomole levels (60 000 copies) many clinical specimens containing bacterial pathogens have much lower levels of analyte present. Herein, we describe a platform, termed HDA/thin film biosensor, which performs helicase-dependant nucleic acid amplification on a thin film biosensor surface to improve the limit of sensitivity to 10 copies of the mecA gene present in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus. As double-stranded DNA is unwound by helicase it was either bound by solution-phase DNA primers to be copied by DNA polymerase or hybridized to surface immobilized probe on the thin film biosensor surface to be detected. Herein, we show that amplification reactions on the thin film biosensor are equivalent to in standard thin wall tubes, with detection at the limit of sensitivity of the assay occurring after 30 minutes of incubation time. Further we validate the approach by detecting the presence of the mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from positive blood culture aliquots with high specificity (signal/noise ratio of 105).

  1. The Development of Reproducible and Selective Uric Acid Biosensor by Using Electrodeposited Polytyramine as Matrix Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manihar Situmorang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile method for the construction of reproducible and high selective uric acid biosensor is explained. Electrodeposited polytyramine is used as biosensor matrixes due to its compatibility to immobilize enzyme uric oxidase in the membrane electrode. The precise control over the charge passed during deposition of polytyramine allows concomitant control over the thickness of the deposited enzyme layers onto the surface of the electrode. The uric acid biosensor showed a sensitive response to uric acid with a linear calibration curve lies in the concentration range of 0.1–2.5 mM, slope 0.066 µA mM-1, and the limit detection was 0.01 mM uric acid (S/N = 3. The biosensor shown excellent reproducibility, the variation between response curves for uric acid lies between RSD 1% at low concentrations and up to RSD 6% at saturation concentration. Uric acid biosensor is free from normal interference. The biosensor showed good stability and to be applicable to determine uric acid in real samples. Analysis of uric acid in the reference standard serum samples by the biosensor method are all agreed with the real value from supplier. Standard samples were also analyzed independently by two methods: the present biosensor method and the standard UV-Vis spectrophotometry method, gave a correlation coefficient of 0.994. This result confirms that the biosensor method meets the rigid demands expected for uric acid in real samples.

  2. Tyrosinase-Based Biosensors for Selective Dopamine Detection

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    Monica Florescu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel tyrosinase-based biosensor was developed for the detection of dopamine (DA. For increased selectivity, gold electrodes were previously modified with cobalt (II-porphyrin (CoP film with electrocatalytic activity, to act both as an electrochemical mediator and an enzyme support, upon which the enzyme tyrosinase (Tyr was cross-linked. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for electrochemical detection and the reduction current of dopamine-quinone was measured as a function of dopamine concentration. Our experiments demonstrated that the presence of CoP improves the selectivity of the electrode towards dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA, with a linear trend of concentration dependence in the range of 2–30 µM. By optimizing the conditioning parameters, a separation of 130 mV between the peak potentials for ascorbic acid AA and DA was obtained, allowing the selective detection of DA. The biosensor had a sensitivity of 1.22 ± 0.02 µA·cm−2·µM−1 and a detection limit of 0.43 µM. Biosensor performances were tested in the presence of dopamine medication, with satisfactory results in terms of recovery (96%, and relative standard deviation values below 5%. These results confirmed the applicability of the biosensors in real samples such as human urine and blood serum.

  3. An amperometric uric acid biosensor based on Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl] suberate crosslinker/3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane surface modified ITO glass electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, Tarushee; Rajesh; Kumar, Devendra; Tanwar, Vinod Kumar; Sharma, Vikash; Singh, Nahar; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2010-01-01

    A label free, amperometric uric acid biosensor is described by immobilizing enzyme uricase through a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using a crosslinker, Bis[sulfosuccinimidyl]suberate (BS 3 ) on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plate. The biosensor (uricase/BS 3 /APTES/ITO) was characterized by, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques. Chronoamperometric response was measured as a function of uric acid concentration in aqueous solution (pH 7.4). The biosensor shows a linear response over a concentration range of 0.05 to 0.58 mM with a sensitivity of 39.35 μA mM -1 . The response time is 50 s reaching to a 95% steady state current value and about 90% of enzyme activity is retained for about 7 weeks. These results indicate an efficient binding of enzyme with the crosslinker over the surface of APTES modified ITO glass plates, which leads to an improved sensitivity and shelf life of the biosensor.

  4. Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; , Junhong; Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua

    2017-06-14

    The disclosure provides a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor and uses thereof. In particular, to FET-based biosensors using thermally reduced graphene-based sheets as a conducting channel decorated with nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugates. The present disclosure also relates to FET-based biosensors using metal nitride/graphene hybrid sheets. The disclosure provides a method for detecting a target biomolecule in a sample using the FET-based biosensor described herein.

  5. Nuclear track-based biosensors with the enzyme laccase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arellano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México, C.P. 52005 (Mexico); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernández, G. [Division de Ciencias Naturales e Ingeneria, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Artificios 40, Col. Hidalgo, Del. Álvaro Obregón C.P. 01120, México, D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, D.F. (Mexico); Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Alfonta, L. [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We construct a biosensor using polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. • We use the biosensor for quantitation of phenolic compounds. • The biosensor can detect picomolar concentrations for some phenolic compounds. - Abstract: A new type of biosensors for detecting phenolic compounds is presented here. These sensors consist of thin polymer foils with laccase-clad etched nuclear tracks. The presence of suitable phenolic compounds in the sensors leads to the formation of enzymatic reaction products in the tracks, which differ in their electrical conductivities from their precursor materials. These differences correlate with the concentrations of the phenolic compounds. Corresponding calibration curves have been established for a number of compounds. The sensors thus produced are capable to cover between 5 and 9 orders of magnitude in concentration – in the best case down to some picomoles. The sensor's detection sensitivity strongly depends on the specific compound. It is highest for caffeic acid and acid blue 74, followed by ABTS and ferulic acid.

  6. Electrochemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped CdSe QDs for Sensing Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electrochemiluminescence (ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by the immobilization of CdSe QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE with 4-aminothiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD was immobilized onto the fabricated CdSe QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, a fluorescence spectrometer (PL, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped CdSe QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  7. Detection of triglyceride using an iridium nano-particle catalyst based amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    The detection and quantification of triglyceride (TG) using an iridium nano-particle modified carbon based biosensor was successfully carried out in this study. The detection procedures were based on the electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced NADH. TG was hydrolyzed by lipase and the glycerol produced was catalytically oxidized by NAD-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase producing NADH in a solution containing NAD(+). Glyceryl tributyrate, a short chain triglyceride, was chosen as the substrate for the evaluation of this TG biosensor in bovine serum and human serum. A linear response to glyceryl tributyrate in the concentration range of 0 to 10 mM and a sensitivity of 7.5 nA mM(-1) in bovine serum and 7.0 nA mM(-1) in human serum were observed experimentally. The potential interference of species such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was assessed. The incorporation of a selected surfactant and an increase in the incubation temperature appeared to enhance the performance of this biosensor. The conditions for the determination of TG levels in bovine serum using this biosensor were optimized, with sunflower seed oil being used as an analyte to simulate the detection of TG in blood. The experimental results demonstrated that this iridium nano-particle modified working electrode based biosensor provided a relatively simple means for the accurate determination of TG in serum.

  8. Electro chemiluminescence Biosensor Based on Thioglycolic Acid-Capped Cd Se QDs for Sensing Glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, E. Y.; Ye, J. H.; Choi, S. H.; Jung, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to detect low level glucose concentration, an electro chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se quantum dots (QDs) was fabricated by the immobilization of Cd Se QDs after modifying the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with 4-amino thiophenol diazonium salts by the electrochemical method. For the detection of glucose concentration, glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized onto the fabricated Cd Se QDs-modified electrode. The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs was characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a fluorescence spectrometer (PL), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The fabricated ECL biosensor based on TGA-capped Cd Se QDs is suitable for the detection of glucose concentrations in real human blood samples.

  9. Electronic Biosensors Based on III-Nitride Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirste, Ronny; Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2015-01-01

    We review recent advances of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT)-based electronic biosensors. We discuss properties and fabrication of III-nitride-based biosensors. Because of their superior biocompatibility and aqueous stability, GaN-based devices are ready to be implemented as next-generation biosensors. We review surface properties, cleaning, and passivation as well as different pathways toward functionalization, and critically analyze III-nitride-based biosensors demonstrated in the literature, including those detecting DNA, bacteria, cancer antibodies, and toxins. We also discuss the high potential of these biosensors for monitoring living cardiac, fibroblast, and nerve cells. Finally, we report on current developments of covalent chemical functionalization of III-nitride devices. Our review concludes with a short outlook on future challenges and projected implementation directions of GaN-based HEMT biosensors.

  10. Detection of antimycolic acid antibodies by liposomal biosensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -mycolic acid antibodies by liposomal biosensors Running title: Antibody detection by liposomal biosensors Y. Lemmer1,3, S.T., Thanyani1, P.J. Vrey1, C.H.S. Driver2, L. Venter1, S. van Wyngaardt1, A.M.C. ten Bokum1, K.I. Ozoemena2, L.A. Pilcher2, D...H values. The anionic phosphatidyl residues (pKa ? 3.5) only become neutralised below pH 4, while the cationic state of choline (pKa = 13.9) is maintained over the full pH range measured (Tatulian et al., 1993). It is therefore expected that the stability...

  11. Construction of Microbial-based Biosensor to Measure BOD of Industrial Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Mahdavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study a cell-based biosensor for measurement of BOD was designed and developed. Activated sludge collected from wastewater treatment plant of Shahinshahr was used as biological receptor and a Clark cell was used as transducer. According to the results obtained from the sensor calibration, a linear relationship between the current changes and glucose-glutamic acid (GAA standard concentrations up to 50 mg/L was observed. The BOD values of different industrial wastewaters, inlet and outlet of treatment plant of Ardineh Company (Isfahan, and also  inlet and outlet of domestic wastewater treatment plant of Shahinshahr, and outlet of treatment plant of Pegah Company (Isfahan were measured using this biosensor. Comparison of the results of this biosensor and the results of the standard BOD test (BOD5 showed that the mean percentage error measured by the sensor was +29.6%. The results concerning the stability of the designed biosensor showed a stability time of 3 days for the response of biosensor.

  12. Gold nanostar-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Pinyi; Zhang, Di; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xinghua; Song, Daqian

    2016-01-01

    A new high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on biofunctional gold nanostars (AuNSs) and carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide (cGO) sheets was described. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anisotropic structure of AuNSs, which concentrates the electric charge density on its sharp tips, could enhance the local electromagnetic field and the electronic coupling effect significantly. cGO was obtained by a diazonium reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Compared with GO, cGO could immobilize more antibodies due to the abundant carboxylic groups on its surface. Testing results show that there are fairly large improvements in the analytical performance of the SPR biosensor using cGO/AuNSs-antigen conjugate, and the detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 0.0375 μg mL"−"1, which is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor. - Highlights: • A sensitive and versatile SPR biosensor was constructed for detection of pig IgG. • Biofunctional gold nanostars were used to amplify the response signals. • The strategy employed carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide as biosensing substrate. • The detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor.

  13. Gold nanostar-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Pinyi; Zhang, Di; Li, Shuo; Wang, Xinghua; Song, Daqian, E-mail: songdq@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-03-24

    A new high-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on biofunctional gold nanostars (AuNSs) and carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide (cGO) sheets was described. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the anisotropic structure of AuNSs, which concentrates the electric charge density on its sharp tips, could enhance the local electromagnetic field and the electronic coupling effect significantly. cGO was obtained by a diazonium reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with 4-aminobenzoic acid. Compared with GO, cGO could immobilize more antibodies due to the abundant carboxylic groups on its surface. Testing results show that there are fairly large improvements in the analytical performance of the SPR biosensor using cGO/AuNSs-antigen conjugate, and the detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 0.0375 μg mL{sup −1}, which is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor. - Highlights: • A sensitive and versatile SPR biosensor was constructed for detection of pig IgG. • Biofunctional gold nanostars were used to amplify the response signals. • The strategy employed carboxyl-functionalized graphene oxide as biosensing substrate. • The detection limit of the proposed biosensor is 32 times lower than that of graphene oxide-based biosensor.

  14. Improved biosensor-based detection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Described is a new biosensor-based detection system for effector compounds, useful for in vivo applications in e.g. screening and selecting of cells which produce a small molecule effector compound or which take up a small molecule effector compound from its environment. The detection system...... comprises a protein or RNA-based biosensor for the effector compound which indirectly regulates the expression of a reporter gene via two hybrid proteins, providing for fewer false signals or less 'noise', tuning of sensitivity or other advantages over conventional systems where the biosensor directly...

  15. High-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ning; Fang, Jiaru; Zou, Ling; Wan, Hao; Pan, Yuxiang; Su, Kaiqi; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-01

    Cell-based bioassays were effective method to assess the compound toxicity by cell viability, and the traditional label-based methods missed much information of cell growth due to endpoint detection, while the higher throughputs were demanded to obtain dynamic information. Cell-based biosensor methods can dynamically and continuously monitor with cell viability, however, the dynamic information was often ignored or seldom utilized in the toxin and drug assessment. Here, we reported a high-efficient and high-content cytotoxic recording method via dynamic and continuous cell-based impedance biosensor technology. The dynamic cell viability, inhibition ratio and growth rate were derived from the dynamic response curves from the cell-based impedance biosensor. The results showed that the biosensors has the dose-dependent manners to diarrhetic shellfish toxin, okadiac acid based on the analysis of the dynamic cell viability and cell growth status. Moreover, the throughputs of dynamic cytotoxicity were compared between cell-based biosensor methods and label-based endpoint methods. This cell-based impedance biosensor can provide a flexible, cost and label-efficient platform of cell viability assessment in the shellfish toxin screening fields.

  16. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  17. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  18. A novel glucose biosensor based on phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles for sensitive detection of glucose in real samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wenbo; Fang, Yi; Zhu, Qinshu; Wang, Kuai; Liu, Min; Huang, Xiaohua; Shen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    An effective strategy for preparation amperometric biosensor by using the phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs) as special modified materials is proposed. In such a strategy, glucose oxidase (GOD) was selected as model protein to fabricate glucose biosensor in the presence of phosphonic acid-functionalized silica nanoparticles (PFSi NPs). The PFSi NPs were first modified on the surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode, then, GOD was adsorbed onto the PFSi NPs film by drop-coating. The PFSi NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The interaction of PFSi NPs with GOD was investigated by the circular dicroism spectroscopy (CD). The results showed PFSi NPs could essentially maintain the native conformation of GOD. The direct electron transfer of GOD on (PFSi NPs)/GCE electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose. The proposed biosensor modified with PFSi NPs displayed a fast amperometric response (5 s) to glucose, a good linear current–time relation over a wide range of glucose concentrations from 5.00 × 10 −4 to 1.87 × 10 −1 M, and a low detection limit of 2.44 × 10 −5 M (S/N = 3). Moreover, the biosensor can be used for assessment of the concentration of glucose in many real samples (relative error < 3%). The GOD biosensor modified with PFSi NPs will have essential meaning and practical application in future that attributed to the simple method of fabrication and good performance

  19. Activity and Stability of Biofilm Uricase of Lactobacillus plantarum for Uric Acid Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswantini, Dyah; Rachmatia, Rescy; Diana, Novita Rose; Nurhidayat, Novik; Akhiruddin; Saprudin, Deden

    2016-01-01

    Research of uric acid biosensor used a Lactobacillus plantarum was successfully conducted. Lactobacillus plantarum could produce uricase that could be used as uric acid biosensor. Therefore, lifetime of bacteria were quite short that caused the bacteria could not detect uric acid for a long time. To avoid this problem, development of biofilm for uric acid biosensor is important. Biofilms is a structured community of bacterial cells, stick together and are able to maintain a bacteria in an extreme environments. The purpose of present study was to determine and compare the activity of uricase produced by L. plantarum, deposited whithin biofilm and planktonic bacteria on glassy carbon electrode (GCEb & GCE), also to determine the stability of biofilm. The optimization process was conducted by using temperature, pH, and substrate concentration as the parameters. It showed that the activity of uricase within biofilm was able to increase the oxidation current. GCEb and GCE yielded the oxidation current in the amount of 47.24 μA and 23.04 μA, respectively, under the same condition. Results indicated that the optimum condition for uric acid biosensor using biofilm were pH 10, temperature of 40 oC, and uric acid concentration of 5 mM. The stability of GCEb decreased after 10 hours used, with decreasing percentage over 86.33%. This low stability probably caused by the unprotected active site of the enzyme that the enzyme is easier to experience the denaturation.

  20. Preparation of Oxygen Meter Based Biosensor for Determination of Triglyceride in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BHAMBI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for preparation of a dissolved oxygen meter (make Aqualytic, Germany based triglyceride biosensor employing a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase The biosensor measures dissolved O2 utilized in the oxidation of triglyceride (TG by membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO, which is directly proportional to (TG concentration. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10-15 sec at pH 7.5 and 39.5 ºC. A linear relationship was obtained between the (TG concentration from 5mM to 20mM and oxygen consumed (mg/L. The biosensor was employed for determination of triglyceride in serum. The within and between batch coefficient of variation (CV were < 2.18 % and < 1.7% respectively. The minimum detection limit of the biosensor was 0.35 mM. A study of interference revealed that ascorbic acid, cholesterol and bilirubin caused 13%, 15%, and 12% interference, respectively.The biosensor is portable and can be used outside the laboratory.

  1. Development of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kyung Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to develop a single-walled carbon nanotube- (SWCNT- based biosensor to detect Staphylococcus aureus. The specificity of 11 bacteria and polyclonal anti-Staphylococcus aureus antibodies (pAbs was determined using an indirect ELISA. The pAbs were immobilized onto sensor platform after the hybridization of 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (PBASE. The resistance difference (ΔR was calculated using a potentiostat. The bacteria detected by the biosensor were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum concentration of SWCNTs on the platform was determined to be 0.1 mg/mL. The binding of pAbs with S. aureus resulted in a significant increase in resistance value of the biosensor (P<0.05. The SEM images confirmed the specific binding of S. aureus on the biosensor. The SWCNT-based biosensor was able to detect S. aureus with a limit of detection (LOD of 4 log⁡CFU/mL.

  2. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kee-Shyuan; Lee, Yook Heng; Musa, Ahmad; Salmah, Abdul Aziz; Zamri, Ishak

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM) and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method. PMID:27873839

  3. A novel biosensor based on boronic acid functionalized metal-organic frameworks for the determination of hydrogen peroxide released from living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongxia; Lü, Wenjuan; Zuo, Xianwei; Zhu, Qian; Pan, Congjie; Niu, Xiaoying; Liu, Juanjuan; Chen, HongLi; Chen, Xingguo

    2017-09-15

    In this work, we report a durable and sensitive H 2 O 2 biosensor based on boronic acid functionalized metal-organic frameworks (denoted as MIL-100(Cr)-B) as an efficient immobilization matrix of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). MIL-100(Cr)-B features a hierarchical porous structure, extremely high surface area, and sufficient recognition sites, which can significantly increase HRP loading and prevent them from leakage and deactivation. The H 2 O 2 biosensor can be easily achieved without any complex processing. Meanwhile, the immobilized HRP exhibited enhanced stability and remarkable catalytic activity towards H 2 O 2 reduction. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a fast response time (less than 4s) to H 2 O 2 in a wide linear range of 0.5-3000μM with a low detection limit of 0.1μM, as well as good anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. These excellent performances substantially enable the proposed biosensor to be used for the real-time detection of H 2 O 2 released from living cells with satisfactory results, thus showing the potential application in the study of H 2 O 2 -involved dynamic pathological and physiological process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Progress in Lectin-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of lectin-based biosensors used for the determination of glucose, pathogenic bacteria and toxins, cancer cells, and lectins. Lectin proteins have been widely used for the construction of optical and electrochemical biosensors by exploiting the specific binding affinity to carbohydrates. Among lectin proteins, concanavalin A (Con A is most frequently used for this purpose as glucose- and mannose-selective lectin. Con A is useful for immobilizing enzymes including glucose oxidase (GOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP on the surface of a solid support to construct glucose and hydrogen peroxide sensors, because these enzymes are covered with intrinsic hydrocarbon chains. Con A-modified electrodes can be used as biosensors sensitive to glucose, cancer cells, and pathogenic bacteria covered with hydrocarbon chains. The target substrates are selectively adsorbed to the surface of Con A-modified electrodes through strong affinity of Con A to hydrocarbon chains. A recent topic in the development of lectin-based biosensors is a successful use of nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, for amplifying output signals of the sensors. In addition, lectin-based biosensors are useful for studying glycan expression on living cells.

  5. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Zamri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P. The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together with ALP into a sol gel/chitosan biosensor membrane has led to the enhancement of the biosensor response, with an improved linear response range to the substrate AA2P (5-120 μM and increased sensitivity. Using the inhibition property of the ALP, the biosensor was applied to the determination of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The use of Fe3O4 nanoparticles gives a two-fold improvement in the sensitivity towards 2,4-D, with a linear response range of 0.5-30 μgL-1. Exposure of the biosensor to other toxicants such as heavy metals demonstrated only slight interference from metals such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Ag2+ and Pb2+. The biosensor was shown to be useful for the determination of the herbicide 2, 4-D because good recovery of 95-100 percent was obtained, even though the analysis was performed in water samples with a complex matrix. Furthermore, the results from the analysis of 2,4-D in water samples using the biosensor correlated well with a HPLC method.

  6. Analytical modeling of glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourasl, Ali H; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmani, Meisam; Chin, Huei Chaeng; Lim, Cheng Siong; Ismail, Razali; Tan, Michael Loong Peng

    2014-01-15

    In recent years, carbon nanotubes have received widespread attention as promising carbon-based nanoelectronic devices. Due to their exceptional physical, chemical, and electrical properties, namely a high surface-to-volume ratio, their enhanced electron transfer properties, and their high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes can be used effectively as electrochemical sensors. The integration of carbon nanotubes with a functional group provides a good and solid support for the immobilization of enzymes. The determination of glucose levels using biosensors, particularly in the medical diagnostics and food industries, is gaining mass appeal. Glucose biosensors detect the glucose molecule by catalyzing glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of oxygen. This action provides high accuracy and a quick detection rate. In this paper, a single-wall carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensor for glucose detection is analytically modeled. In the proposed model, the glucose concentration is presented as a function of gate voltage. Subsequently, the proposed model is compared with existing experimental data. A good consensus between the model and the experimental data is reported. The simulated data demonstrate that the analytical model can be employed with an electrochemical glucose sensor to predict the behavior of the sensing mechanism in biosensors.

  7. Amperometric detection of glucose in fruit juices with polypyrrole-based biosensor with an integrated permselective layer for exclusion of interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2017-08-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy)-based bilayer amperometric glucose biosensor integrated with a permselective layer has been developed for detection of glucose in the presence of interferences. It comprises of a PPy-GOx film grown, in the absence of electrolyte, as an inner layer, and a permselective PPy-Cl film as an outer layer. The PPy-GOx/PPy-Cl bilayer biosensor was effective in rejecting 98% of ascorbic acid and 100% of glycine, glutamic acid and uric acid. With an outer layer thickness of 6.6nm, the bilayer biosensor gave nearly identical glucose response to that of a single layer PPy-GOx biosensor. The biosensor also exhibited good reproducibility (1.9% rsd, n=10), high stability (more than 2months), wide linear range (0.5-24mM), low K m (8.4mM), high I max (77.2μAcm -2 ), low detection limit (26.9μM) and good sensitivity (3.5μAcm -2 mM -1 ). The bilayer biosensor was successfully employed for glucose determination in various fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schuster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S- layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.

  9. S-Layer Protein-Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-04-11

    The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D) protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.

  10. Laccase-based biosensor for the determination of polyphenol index in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fusco, Massimo; Tortolini, Cristina; Deriu, Daniela; Mazzei, Franco

    2010-04-15

    In this work we have developed and characterized the use of Laccases from Trametes versicolor (TvL) and Trametes hirsuta (ThL) as biocatalytic components of electrochemical biosensors for the determination of polyphenol index in wines. Polyazetidine prepolimer (PAP) was used as immobilizing agent, multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes screen-printed electrodes as sensors (MWCNTs-SPE and SWCNTs-SPE) and gallic acid as standard substrate. The amperometric measurements were carried out by using a flow system at a fixed potential of -100 mV vs. silver/silver chloride electrode in Britton-Robinson buffer 0.1 mol L(-1), pH 5. The results were compared with those obtained with the Folin-Ciocalteau reference method. The results obtained in the analysis of twelve Italian wines put in evidence the better suitability of ThL-MWCNTs-based biosensor in the determination of the polyphenol index in wines. This biosensor shows fast and reliable amperometric responses to gallic acid with a linear range 0.1-18.0 mg L(-1) (r(2)=0.999). The influence of the interferences on both spectrophotometric and electrochemical measurements have been carefully evaluated. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RNA aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for selective and label-free analysis of dopamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farjami, Elahe; Campos, Rui; Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup

    2013-01-01

    , including dopamine precursors and metabolites and other neurotransmitters (NT). Here we report an electrochemical RNA aptamer-based biosensor for analysis of dopamine in the presence of other NT. The biosensor exploits a specific binding of dopamine by the RNA aptamer, immobilized at a cysteamine......, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (l-DOPA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), methyldopamine, and tyramine, which gave negligible signals under conditions of experiments (electroanalysis at 0.185 V vs Ag/AgCl). The interference from ascorbic and uric acids was eliminated by application...... as a general strategy not to restrict the conformational freedom and binding properties of surface-bound aptamers and, thus, be applicable for the development of other aptasensors...

  12. Micro- and nanogap based biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Jules L.

    2017-01-01

    Biosensors are used for the detection of a range of analytes for applications in healthcare, food production, environmental monitoring and biodefence. However, many biosensing platforms are large, expensive, require skilled operators or necessitate the analyte to be labelled. Direct electrochemical detection methods present a particularly attractive platform due to the simplified instrumentation when compared to other techniques such as fluorescence-based biosensors. With modern integrated ci...

  13. Use of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Biosensor Response to the Herbicide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Kee-Shyuan; Lee, Yook Heng; Musa, Ahmad; Salmah, Abdul Aziz; Zamri, Ishak

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to have an average diameter of 5.48 ±1.37 nm. An electrochemical biosensor based on immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles was studied. The amperometric biosensor was based on the reaction of ALP with the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P). The incorporation of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles together wit...

  14. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based glucose biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, A.; Hövell, W.F.M. van; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors for the recognition of glucose oxidase (GOx) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) were fabricated for the first time. The resulting biosensor has potential applications for long-term glucose measurements.

  15. A signal-on electrogenerated chemiluminescent biosensor for lead ion based on DNAzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Fen; Sun Bo; Qi Honglan; Zhang Hongge; Gao Qiang; Zhang Chengxiao

    2011-01-01

    A highly reproducible and sensitive signal-on electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on the DNAzyme for the determination of lead ion was developed. The ECL biosensor was fabricated by covalently coupling 5'-amino-DNAzyme-tagged with ruthenium bis (2,2'-bipyridine) (2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-ethylenediamine (Ru1-17E') onto the surface of graphite electrode modified with 4-aminobenzoic acid, and then a DNA substrate with a ribonucleotide adenosine hybridized with Ru1-17E' on the electrode. Upon binding of Pb 2+ to the Ru1-17E' to form a complex which catalyzed the cleavage of the DNA substrate, the double-stranded DNA was dissociated and thus led to a high ECL signal. The signal linearly increases with the concentration of Pb 2+ in the range from 5.0 to 80 pM with a detection limit of 1.4 pM and a relative standard derivation of 2.3%. This work demonstrates that using DNAzyme tagged with ruthenium complex as an ECL probe and covalently coupling method for the fabrication of the ECL biosensor with high sensitivity, good stability and significant regeneration ability is promising approach.

  16. Disposable biosensor based on cathodic electrochemiluminescence of tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) for uric acid determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesta-Claver, J.; Rodríguez-Gómez, R.; Capitán-Vallvey, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cathodic ECL offers conventional and non-aggressive analysis conditions. ► The ECL hydrogen peroxide/ruthenium complex system for uric acid determination is novel. ► The ruthenium complex is electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed electrodes. ► The quantification of the uric acid is based on a Stern–Volmer type equation. ► The use of the cathodic ECL working methodology reduces interferences during analysis. -- Abstract: A new method for uric acid (UA) determination based on the quenching of the cathodic ECL of the tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)–uricase system is described. The biosensor is based on a double-layer design containing first tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy) 3 2+ ) electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed cells and uricase in chitosan as a second layer. The uric acid biosensing is based on the ECL quenching produced by uric acid over the cathodic ECL caused by immobilized Ru(bpy) 3 2+ in the presence of uricase. The use of a −1.1 V pulse for 1 s with a dwelling time of 10 s makes it possible to estimate the initial enzymatic rate, which is used as the analytical signal. The Stern–Volmer type calibration function shows a dynamic range from 1.0 × 10 −5 to 1.0 × 10 −3 M with a limit of detection of 3.1 × 10 −6 M and an accuracy of 13.6% (1.0 × 10 −4 M, n = 5) as relative standard deviation. Satisfactory results were obtained for urine samples, creating an affordable alternative for uric acid determination

  17. Biosensor. Seitai sensa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, I [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

    1993-06-15

    Present state of the art of biosensors is described by taking taste sensors and odor sensors as examples. Bio-devices that response only to specific chemical substances are made using membranes that recognize particular molecules. Biosensors are constructed in combination of bio-devices with electronics devices that transduce the response of bio-devices to electric signals. Enzymes are used often as bio-devices to recognize molecules. They recognize strictly chemical substances and promote chemical reactions. Devices to measure electrochemically substances consumed or produced in the reactions serve as sensors. For taste sensors, inosinic acid or glutamic acid that is a component of taste, is recognized and measured. Combination of various bio-devices other than enzymes with various transducers makes it possible to produce biosensors based on a variety of principles. Odor sensors recognize odors by measuring frequency change of the electrode of quartz oscillator. The change occurs with weight change due to odorous substances absorbed on the oscillator electrode coated with lipids which exist in olfactory cells. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  18. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis-Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and the lowest Michaelis-Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  19. ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors with different coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Juneui; Lim, Sangwoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based glucose biosensors using different coupling agents. ► Highest sensitivity for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. ► Larger amount of glucose oxidase and lower electron transfer resistance for (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane-treated biosensor. - Abstract: ZnO-nanowire-based glucose biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) onto a linker attached to ZnO nanowires. Different coupling agents were used, namely (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and (3-aminopropyl)methyldiethoxysilane (APS), to increase the affinity of GOx binding to ZnO nanowires. The amount of GOx immobilized on the ZnO nanowires, the performance, sensitivity, and Michaelis–Menten constant of each biosensor, and the electron transfer resistance through the biosensor were all measured in order to investigate the effect of the coupling agent on the ZnO nanowire-based biosensor. Among the different biosensors, the APS-treated biosensor had the highest sensitivity (17.72 μA cm −2 mM −1 ) and the lowest Michaelis–Menten constant (1.37 mM). Since APS-treated ZnO nanowires showed the largest number of C-N groups and the lowest electron transfer resistance through the biosensor, we concluded that these properties were the key factors in the performance of APS-treated glucose biosensors.

  20. A ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for the exosomal microRNAs detection based on bipedal DNA walkers propelled by locked nucleic acid modified toehold mediate strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Liang-Liang; Hou, Mei-Feng; Xia, Yao-Kun; He, Wen-Hui; Yan, An; Weng, Yun-Ping; Zeng, Lu-Peng; Chen, Jing-Hua

    2018-04-15

    Sensitive and selective detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer cells derived exosomes have attracted rapidly growing interest owing to their potential in diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we design a ratiometric electrochemical biosensor based on bipedal DNA walkers for the attomolar detection of exosomal miR-21. In the presence of miR-21, DNA walkers are activated to walk continuously along DNA tracks, resulting in conformational changes as well as considerable increases of the signal ratio produced by target-respond and target-independent reporters. With the signal cascade amplification of DNA walkers, the biosensor exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity with the limit of detection (LOD) down to 67 aM. Furthermore, owing to the background-correcting function of target-independent reporters termed as reference reporters, the biosensor is robust and stable enough to be applied in the detection of exosomal miR-21 extracted from breast cancer cell lines and serums. In addition, because locked nucleic acid (LNA) modified toehold mediate strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) has extraordinary discriminative ability, the biosensor displays excellent selectivity even against the single-base-mismatched target. It is worth mentioning that our sensor is regenerative and stable for at least 5 cycles without diminution in sensitivity. In brief, the high sensitivity, selectivity and reproducibility, together with cheap, make the proposed biosensor a promising approach for exosomal miRNAs detection, in conjunction with early point-of-care testing (POCT) of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fluorescent Biosensors Based on Single-Molecule Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Li, Ying; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-09-20

    Biosensors for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid quantification of specific biomolecules make great contributions to biomedical research, especially molecular diagnostics. However, conventional methods for biomolecular assays often suffer from insufficient sensitivity and poor specificity. In some case (e.g., early disease diagnostics), the concentration of target biomolecules is too low to be detected by these routine approaches, and cumbersome procedures are needed to improve the detection sensitivity. Therefore, there is an urgent need for rapid and ultrasensitive analytical tools. In this respect, single-molecule fluorescence approaches may well satisfy the requirement and hold promising potential for the development of ultrasensitive biosensors. Encouragingly, owing to the advances in single-molecule microscopy and spectroscopy over past decades, the detection of single fluorescent molecule comes true, greatly boosting the development of highly sensitive biosensors. By in vitro/in vivo labeling of target biomolecules with proper fluorescent tags, the quantification of certain biomolecule at the single-molecule level is achieved. In comparison with conventional ensemble measurements, single-molecule detection-based analytical methods possess the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, good selectivity, rapid analysis time, and low sample consumption. Consequently, single-molecule detection may be potentially employed as an ideal analytical approach to quantify low-abundant biomolecules with rapidity and simplicity. In this Account, we will summarize our efforts for developing a series of ultrasensitive biosensors based on single-molecule counting. Single-molecule counting is a member of single-molecule detection technologies and may be used as a very simple and ultrasensitive method to quantify target molecules by simply counting the individual fluorescent bursts. In the fluorescent sensors, the signals of target biomolecules may be translated to the

  2. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN; Wang, Xiaoling [San Jose, CA

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  3. Yeast-based biosensors: design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Adebola; Sherer, Michael; Tyo, Keith E J

    2015-02-01

    Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription-dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription-independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  4. A new amperometric method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli density using a self-assembled monolayer-based bienzyme biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hui; Zhang Wen; Geng Ping; Wang Qingjiang; Jin Litong; Wu Zirong; Lou Min

    2006-01-01

    A new amperometric method was developed for rapid detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) density using a bienzyme biosensor. The bienzyme biosensor was fabricated based on the covalent immobilization of laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) monolayer. The bienzyme biosensor showed a high sensitivity in determination of the polyphenolic compounds, which was microbially generated from the salicylic acid (SA) added into the culture medium during the course of E. coli metabolism. Since the amount of polyphenolic compounds depends on E. coli density, the bienzyme biosensor was applied for the rapid and high sensitive detection of E. coli density after the E. coli solution was incubated in culture medium with salicylic acid for 2.5 h at 37 deg. C. By chronoamperometry, the amplified response current was obtained at the bienzyme biosensor, due to the substrate recycling of the polyphenolic compounds driven by bienzyme-catalyzed oxidation and electrochemical reduction. The amplified response current at the biosensor was linear with the E. coli density ranging from 1.6 x 10 3 to 1.0 x 10 7 cells/mL. The bienzyme biosensor could detect the E. coli density with a detection limit of 9.7 x 10 2 cells/mL within 3 h

  5. Disposable biosensor based on cathodic electrochemiluminescence of tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) for uric acid determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesta-Claver, J.; Rodríguez-Gómez, R. [ECsens, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus Fuentenueva, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Capitán-Vallvey, L.F., E-mail: lcapitan@ugr.es [ECsens, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus Fuentenueva, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-04-03

    Highlights: ► Cathodic ECL offers conventional and non-aggressive analysis conditions. ► The ECL hydrogen peroxide/ruthenium complex system for uric acid determination is novel. ► The ruthenium complex is electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed electrodes. ► The quantification of the uric acid is based on a Stern–Volmer type equation. ► The use of the cathodic ECL working methodology reduces interferences during analysis. -- Abstract: A new method for uric acid (UA) determination based on the quenching of the cathodic ECL of the tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)–uricase system is described. The biosensor is based on a double-layer design containing first tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}) electrochemically immobilized on graphite screen-printed cells and uricase in chitosan as a second layer. The uric acid biosensing is based on the ECL quenching produced by uric acid over the cathodic ECL caused by immobilized Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in the presence of uricase. The use of a −1.1 V pulse for 1 s with a dwelling time of 10 s makes it possible to estimate the initial enzymatic rate, which is used as the analytical signal. The Stern–Volmer type calibration function shows a dynamic range from 1.0 × 10{sup −5} to 1.0 × 10{sup −3} M with a limit of detection of 3.1 × 10{sup −6} M and an accuracy of 13.6% (1.0 × 10{sup −4} M, n = 5) as relative standard deviation. Satisfactory results were obtained for urine samples, creating an affordable alternative for uric acid determination.

  6. Design Strategies for Aptamer-Based Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Liang, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Nandi

    2010-01-01

    Aptamers have been widely used as recognition elements for biosensor construction, especially in the detection of proteins or small molecule targets, and regarded as promising alternatives for antibodies in bioassay areas. In this review, we present an overview of reported design strategies for the fabrication of biosensors and classify them into four basic modes: target-induced structure switching mode, sandwich or sandwich-like mode, target-induced dissociation/displacement mode and competitive replacement mode. In view of the unprecedented advantages brought about by aptamers and smart design strategies, aptamer-based biosensors are expected to be one of the most promising devices in bioassay related applications. PMID:22399891

  7. Nanomaterials based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Bansi D; Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Chandra Mouli

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors have enormous potential to contribute to the evolution of new molecular diagnostic techniques for patients suffering with cancerous diseases. A major obstacle preventing faster development of biosensors pertains to the fact that cancer is a highly complex set of diseases. The oncologists currently rely on a few biomarkers and histological characterization of tumors. Some of the signatures include epigenetic and genetic markers, protein profiles, changes in gene expression, and post-translational modifications of proteins. These molecular signatures offer new opportunities for development of biosensors for cancer detection. In this context, conducting paper has recently been found to play an important role towards the fabrication of a biosensor for cancer biomarker detection. In this paper we will focus on results of some of the recent studies obtained in our laboratories relating to fabrication and application of nanomaterial modified paper based biosensors for cancer biomarker detection. (paper)

  8. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  9. Highly sensitive and selective cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changzhi; Wan, Li; Jiang, Li; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kui

    2008-12-01

    A cholesterol biosensor based on direct electron transfer of a hemoglobin-encapsulated chitosan-modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed for highly sensitive and selective analysis of serum samples. Modified by films containing hemoglobin and cholesterol oxidase, the electrode was prepared by encapsulation of enzyme in chitosan matrix. The hydrogen peroxide produced by the catalytic oxidation of cholesterol by cholesterol oxidase was reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized hemoglobin and used to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The linear response of cholesterol concentrations ranged from 1.00 x 10(-5) to 6.00 x 10(-4) mol/L, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969 and estimated detection limit of cholesterol of 9.5 micromol/L at a signal/noise ratio of 3. The cholesterol biosensor can efficiently exclude interference by the commonly coexisting ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, and epinephrine. The sensitivity to the change in the concentration of cholesterol as the slope of the calibration curve was 0.596 A/M. The relative standard deviation was under 4.0% (n=5) for the determination of real samples. The biosensor is satisfactory in the determination of human serum samples.

  10. Clinical validation of integrated nucleic acid and protein detection on an electrochemical biosensor array for urinary tract infection diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection that poses a substantial healthcare burden, yet its definitive diagnosis can be challenging. There is a need for a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method that could allow early detection of UTI and reduce unnecessary antibiotics. Pathogen identification along with quantitative detection of lactoferrin, a measure of pyuria, may provide useful information towards the overall diagnosis of UTI. Here, we report an integrated biosensor platform capable of simultaneous pathogen identification and detection of urinary biomarker that could aid the effectiveness of the treatment and clinical management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated pathogen 16S rRNA and host lactoferrin detection using the biosensor array was performed on 113 clinical urine samples collected from patients at risk for complicated UTI. For pathogen detection, the biosensor used sandwich hybridization of capture and detector oligonucleotides to the target analyte, bacterial 16S rRNA. For detection of the protein biomarker, the biosensor used an analogous electrochemical sandwich assay based on capture and detector antibodies. For this assay, a set of oligonucleotide probes optimized for hybridization at 37°C to facilitate integration with the immunoassay was developed. This probe set targeted common uropathogens including E. coli, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. as well as less common uropathogens including Serratia, Providencia, Morganella and Staphylococcus spp. The biosensor assay for pathogen detection had a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 89%. A significant correlation was found between LTF concentration measured by the biosensor and WBC and leukocyte esterase (p<0.001 for both. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We successfully demonstrate simultaneous detection of nucleic acid and host immune marker on a single biosensor array in clinical samples. This platform can be used for

  11. Conductimetric Biosensor for the Detection of Uric Acid by Immobilization Uricase on Nata de Coco Membrane—Pt Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Mulyasuryani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A conductimetric enzyme biosensor for uric acid detection has been developed. The uricase, as enzyme, is isolated from Candida utilis and immobilized on a nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode. The biosensor demonstrates a linear response to urate over the concentration range 1-6 ppm and has good selectivity properties. The response is affected by the membrane thickness and pH change in the range 7.5-9.5. The response time is three minutes in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. Application of the biosensor to the determination of uric acid in human serum gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by medical laboratory. The operational stability of the biosensor was not less than three days and the relative error is smaller than 10%.

  12. Development of an Amperometric Biosensor Platform for the Combined Determination of L-Malic, Fumaric, and L-Aspartic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhlen, Désirée L; Pilas, Johanna; Schöning, Michael J; Selmer, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Three amperometric biosensors have been developed for the detection of L-malic acid, fumaric acid, and L -aspartic acid, all based on the combination of a malate-specific dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and diaphorase (DIA, EC 1.8.1.4). The stepwise expansion of the malate platform with the enzymes fumarate hydratase (FH, EC 4.2.1.2) and aspartate ammonia-lyase (ASPA, EC 4.3.1.1) resulted in multi-enzyme reaction cascades and, thus, augmentation of the substrate spectrum of the sensors. Electrochemical measurements were carried out in presence of the cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and the redox mediator hexacyanoferrate (III) (HCFIII). The amperometric detection is mediated by oxidation of hexacyanoferrate (II) (HCFII) at an applied potential of + 0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. For each biosensor, optimum working conditions were defined by adjustment of cofactor concentrations, buffer pH, and immobilization procedure. Under these improved conditions, amperometric responses were linear up to 3.0 mM for L-malate and fumarate, respectively, with a corresponding sensitivity of 0.7 μA mM -1 (L-malate biosensor) and 0.4 μA mM -1 (fumarate biosensor). The L-aspartate detection system displayed a linear range of 1.0-10.0 mM with a sensitivity of 0.09 μA mM -1 . The sensor characteristics suggest that the developed platform provides a promising method for the detection and differentiation of the three substrates.

  13. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)], E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2008-05-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively.

  14. Improved electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor based on polyaniline-polyvinyl sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal; Sumana, G.; Arora, Kavita; Singh, Harpal; Malhotra, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    DNA biosensor based on polyaniline (PANI)-polyvinyl sulphonate (PVS) has been fabricated using electrochemical entrapment technique for detection of organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). These double stranded calf thymus DNA (dsCT-DNA) entrapped PANI-PVS/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) bioelectrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry (SWV), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance techniques, respectively. These dsCT-DNA entrapped PANI-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been found to have response time of 30 s, stability of about 6 months and detection limit for chlorpyrifos and malathion as 0.5 ppb and 0.01 ppm, respectively

  15. Fabrication of Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conducting Polyaniline (NSPANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha SAINI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 biosensors based on nanostructured conducting polyaniline (NSPANI (synthesized using sodiumdodecyl sulphate (SDS as structure directing agent were developed. Because of the large specific surface area, excellent conductivity of NSPANI, horseradish peroxidase (HRP and glucose oxidase (GOx could be easily immobilized with high loading and activity. In addition the small dimensions and the high surface-to-volume ratio of the NSCP allow the rapid transmission of electron and enhance current response. The linear dynamic range of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is 5–40 mM for glucose and 1–50 mM for H2O2, respectively where as the bulk PANI exhibits linearity between 5-20 mM/l. The miniature optical glucose biosensor also exhibits good reproducibility. The storage stability of optical glucose and H2O2 biosensors is two weeks for glucose and five days for H2O2. The high response value of NSPANI based biosensors as compared to bulk PANI based biosensor reflects higher enzymatic affinity of GOx/NSPANI and HRP/NSPANI with glucose and H2O2 due to biocompatibility, active surface area and high electron communication capability of nanobiopolymer film. In conclusion, the NSPANI based biosensors proposed herein have many advantages such as a low response time, high reproducibility, high sensitivity, stable and wide dynamic range.

  16. Electrochemical L-Lactic Acid Sensor Based on Immobilized ZnO Nanorods with Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimleang Khun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF response of L-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 × 10−4–1 × 100 mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 ± 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards L-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks.

  17. Electrochemical L-lactic acid sensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Shah, Syed Muhammad Usman Ali; Khun, Kimleang; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this work, fabrication of gold coated glass substrate, growth of ZnO nanorods and potentiometric response of lactic acid are explained. The biosensor was developed by immobilizing the lactate oxidase on the ZnO nanorods in combination with glutaraldehyde as a cross linker for lactate oxidase enzyme. The potentiometric technique was applied for the measuring the output (EMF) response of l-lactic acid biosensor. We noticed that the present biosensor has wide linear detection range of concentration from 1 × 10(-4)-1 × 10(0) mM with acceptable sensitivity about 41.33 ± 1.58 mV/decade. In addition, the proposed biosensor showed fast response time less than 10 s, a good selectivity towards l-lactic acid in presence of common interfering substances such as ascorbic acid, urea, glucose, galactose, magnesium ions and calcium ions. The present biosensor based on immobilized ZnO nanorods with lactate oxidase sustained its stability for more than three weeks.

  18. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2016-11-10

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  19. Novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on MXene nanocomposite

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Nayuk, Pranati; Xia, Chuan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor platform based on Au/MXene nanocomposite for sensitive enzymatic glucose detection is reported. The biosensor leverages the unique electrocatalytic properties and synergistic effects between Au nanoparticles and MXene sheets. An amperometric glucose biosensor is fabricated by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on Nafion solubilized Au/ MXene nanocomposite over glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The biomediated Au nanoparticles play a significant role in facilitating the electron exchange between the electroactive center of GOx and the electrode. The GOx/Au/MXene/Nafion/GCE biosensor electrode displayed a linear amperometric response in the glucose concentration range from 0.1 to 18 mM with a relatively high sensitivity of 4.2 μAmM−1 cm−2 and a detection limit of 5.9 μM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited excellent stability, reproducibility and repeatability. Therefore, the Au/MXene nanocomposite reported in this work is a potential candidate as an electrochemical transducer in electrochemical biosensors.

  20. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-02-15

    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct evidence of advantage of using nanosized zeolite Beta for ISFET-based biosensor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soy, Esin; Galioglu, Sezin; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Sacco, Albert; Akata, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Analytical characteristics of urease- and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)- based ion sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) biosensors were investigated by the incorporation of zeolite Beta nanoparticles with varying Si/Al ratios. The results obtained by the zeolite-modified ISFET transducers suggested that the Si/Al ratio strongly influenced the biosensor performances due to the electrostatic interactions among enzyme, substrate, and zeolite surface as well as the nature of the enzymatic reaction. Using relatively small nanoparticles (62.7 ± 10, 76.2 ± 10, and 77.1 ± 10 nm) rather than larger particles, that are widely used in the literature, allow us to produce more homogenous products which will give more control over the quantity of materials used on the electrode surface and ability to change solely Si/Al ratio without changing other parameters such as particle size, pore volume, and surface area. This should enable the investigation of the individual effect of changing acidic and electronic nature of this material on the biosensor characteristics. According to our results, high biosensor sensitivity is evident on nanosize and submicron size particles, with the former resulting in higher performance. The sensitivity of biosensors modified by zeolite particles is higher than that to the protein for both types of biosensors. Most significantly, our results show that the performance of constructed ISFET-type biosensors strongly depends on Si/Al ratio of employed zeolite Beta nanoparticles as well as the type of enzymatic reaction employed. All fabricated biosensors demonstrated high signal reproducibility and stability for both BuChE and urease.

  2. Silicon-on-Insulator Nanowire Based Optical Waveguide Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingyu; Liu, Yong; Chen, Yangqing; He, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Optical waveguide biosensors based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire have been developed for label free molecular detection. This paper reviews our work on the design, fabrication and measurement of SOI nanowire based high-sensitivity biosensors employing Vernier effect. Biosensing experiments using cascaded double-ring sensor and Mach-Zehnder- ring sensor integrated with microfluidic channels are demonstrated (paper)

  3. Microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for toxic carbon monoxide monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    This study presents an innovative microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. The hypothesis for the function of the biosensor is that CO inhibits bacterial activity in the anode and thereby reduces electricity production. A mature electrochemically active biofilm...... increasing CO concentration over 70%. Besides, the response time of the biosensor was 1 h. The compact design and simple operation of the biosensor makes it easy to be integrated in existing CO-based industrial facilities either as a forewarning sensor for CO toxicity or even as an individual on...

  4. Engineering nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Man; Liu, Yang; Geng, Jinhui; Kou, Xiaohong; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Dayong

    2018-05-30

    Food safety always remains a grand global challenge to human health, especially in developing countries. To solve food safety pertained problems, numerous strategies have been developed to detect biological and chemical contaminants in food. Among these approaches, nanomaterials-based biosensors provide opportunity to realize rapid, sensitive, efficient and portable detection, overcoming the restrictions and limitations of traditional methods such as complicated sample pretreatment, long detection time, and relying on expensive instruments and well-trained personnel. In this review article, we provide a cross-disciplinary perspective to review the progress of nanomaterials-based biosensors for the detection of food contaminants. The review article is organized by the category of food contaminants including pathogens/toxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and illegal additives. In each category of food contaminant, the biosensing strategies are summarized including optical, colorimetric, fluorescent, electrochemical, and immune- biosensors; the relevant analytes, nanomaterials and biosensors are analyzed comprehensively. Future perspectives and challenges are also discussed briefly. We envision that our review could bridge the gap between the fields of food science and nanotechnology, providing implications for the scientists or engineers in both areas to collaborate and promote the development of nanomaterials-based biosensors for food safety detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepaniak, Michael J.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1993-01-01

    A fiber optic-based regenerable biosensor. The biosensor is particularly suitable for use in microscale work in situ. In one embodiment, the biosensor comprises a reaction chamber disposed adjacent the distal end of a waveguide and adapted to receive therein a quantity of a sample containing an analyte. Leading into the chamber is a plurality of capillary conduits suitable for introducing into the chamber antibodies or other reagents suitable for selective interaction with a predetermined analyte. Following such interaction, the contents of the chamber may be subjected to an incident energy signal for developing fluorescence within the chamber that is detectable via the optical fiber and which is representative of the presence, i.e. concentration, of the selected analyte. Regeneration of the biosensor is accomplished by replacement of the reagents and/or the analyte, or a combination of these, at least in part via one or more of the capillary conduits. The capillary conduits extend from their respective terminal ends that are in fluid communication with the chamber, away from the chamber to respective location(s) remote from the chamber thereby permitting in situ location of the chamber and remote manipulation and/or analysis of the activity with the chamber.

  6. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-07-18

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process.

  7. Nanostructured enzymatic biosensor based on fullerene and gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzellotto, C; Favero, G; Antonelli, M L; Tortolini, C; Cannistraro, S; Coppari, E; Mazzei, F

    2014-05-15

    In this work a novel electrochemical biosensing platform based on the coupling of two different nanostructured materials (gold nanoparticles and fullerenols) displaying interesting electrochemical features, has been developed and characterized. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibit attractive electrocatalytic behavior stimulating in the last years, several sensing applications; on the other hand, fullerene and its derivatives are a very promising family of electroactive compounds although they have not yet been fully employed in biosensing. The methodology proposed in this work was finalized to the setup of a laccase biosensor based on a multilayer material consisting in AuNPs, fullerenols and Trametes versicolor Laccase (TvL) assembled layer by layer onto a gold (Au) electrode surface. The influence of different modification step procedures on the electroanalytical performance of biosensors has been evaluated. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to characterize the modification of surface and to investigate the bioelectrocatalytic biosensor response. This biosensor showed fast amperometric response to gallic acid, which is usually considered a standard for polyphenols analysis of wines, with a linear range 0.03-0.30 mmol L(-1) (r(2)=0.9998), with a LOD of 0.006 mmol L(-1) or expressed as polyphenol index 5.0-50 mg L(-1) and LOD 1.1 mg L(-1). A tentative application of the developed nanostructured enzyme-based biosensor was performed evaluating the detection of polyphenols either in buffer solution or in real wine samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a Capillary-driven, Microfluidic, Nucleic Acid Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei HE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An ideal point-of-care device would incorporate the simplicity and reliability of a lateral flow assay with a microfluidic device. Our system consists of self-priming microfluidics with sealed conjugate pads of reagent delivery and an absorbent pad for additional fluid draw. Using poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA as a substrate, we have developed a single-step surface modification method which allows strong capillary flow within a sealed microchannel. Conjugate pads within the device held trapped complex consisting of the magnetic beads and nucleic-acid-probe-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP. Magnetic beads were released when sample entered the chamber and hybridized with the complex. The complex was immobilized over a magnet while a luminol co-reactant stream containing H2O2 was merged with the channel. A plate reader was able to quantify the chemiluminescence signal. This new format of biosensor will allow for a smaller and more sensitive biosensor, as well as commercial-scale manufacturing and low materials cost.

  9. Microbial Fuels Cell-Based Biosensor for Toxicity Detection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuoyu Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented deterioration of environmental quality, rapid recognition of toxic compounds is paramount for performing in situ real-time monitoring. Although several analytical techniques based on electrochemistry or biosensors have been developed for the detection of toxic compounds, most of them are time-consuming, inaccurate, or cumbersome for practical applications. More recently, microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensors have drawn increasing interest due to their sustainability and cost-effectiveness, with applications ranging from the monitoring of anaerobic digestion process parameters (VFA to water quality detection (e.g., COD, BOD. When a MFC runs under correct conditions, the voltage generated is correlated with the amount of a given substrate. Based on this linear relationship, several studies have demonstrated that MFC-based biosensors could detect heavy metals such as copper, chromium, or zinc, as well as organic compounds, including p-nitrophenol (PNP, formaldehyde and levofloxacin. Both bacterial consortia and single strains can be used to develop MFC-based biosensors. Biosensors with single strains show several advantages over systems integrating bacterial consortia, such as selectivity and stability. One of the limitations of such sensors is that the detection range usually exceeds the actual pollution level. Therefore, improving their sensitivity is the most important for widespread application. Nonetheless, MFC-based biosensors represent a promising approach towards single pollutant detection.

  10. Immobilization of uricase on ZnO nanorods for a reagentless uric acid biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fenfen; Wang Xiaoli; Ai Shiyun; Sun Zhengdong; Wan Qiao; Zhu Ziqiang; Xian Yuezhong; Jin Litong; Yamamoto, Katsunobu

    2004-01-01

    A reagentless uric acid (UA) biosensor based on uricase immobilized on ZnO nanorods was developed. Direct electrochemistry and thermal stability of immobilized uricase were studied. The ZnO nanorods derived electrode retained the enzyme bioactivity and could enhance the electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode. This sensor showed a high thermal stability up to 85 deg. C and an electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of uric acid without the presence of an electron mediator. The electrocatalytic response showed a linear dependence on the uric acid concentration ranging from 5.0 x 10 -6 to 1.0 x 10 -3 mol L -1 with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10 -6 mol L -1 at 3σ. The apparent K M app value for the uric acid sensor was estimated to be 0.238 mM, showing a high affinity

  11. Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Field-Effect Transistor DNA Biosensors by a Directional Transfer Technique Based on CVD-Grown Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Le; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Zhongyue; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-08-12

    Most graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) biosensors are fabricated through a routine process, in which graphene is transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate and then devices are subsequently produced by micromanufacture processes. However, such a fabrication approach can introduce contamination onto the graphene surface during the lithographic process, resulting in interference for the subsequent biosensing. In this work, we have developed a novel directional transfer technique to fabricate G-FET biosensors based on chemical-vapor-deposition- (CVD-) grown single-layer graphene (SLG) and applied this biosensor for the sensitive detection of DNA. A FET device with six individual array sensors was first fabricated, and SLG obtained by the CVD-growth method was transferred onto the sensor surface in a directional manner. Afterward, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was covalently immobilized on the graphene surface, and DNA detection was realized by applying specific target DNA to the PNA-functionalized G-FET biosensor. The developed G-FET biosensor was able to detect target DNA at concentrations as low as 10 fM, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in a previous work. In addition, the biosensor was capable of distinguishing the complementary DNA from one-base-mismatched DNA and noncomplementary DNA. The directional transfer technique for the fabrication of G-FET biosensors is simple, and the as-constructed G-FET DNA biosensor shows ultrasensitivity and high specificity, indicating its potential application in disease diagnostics as a point-of-care tool.

  12. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on avidin-biotin conjugation for influenza virus (type A) detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Da-Jung; Kim, Ki-Chul; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2011-09-01

    An electrochemical DNA biosensor (E-DNA biosensor) was fabricated by avidin-biotin conjugation of a biotinylated probe DNA, 5'-biotin-ATG AGT CTT CTA ACC GAG GTC GAA-3', and an avidin-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to detect the influenza virus (type A). An avidin-modified GCE was prepared by the reaction of avidin and a carboxylic acid-modified GCE, which was synthesized by the electrochemical reduction of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium salt. The current value of the E-DNA biosensor was evaluated after hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The current value decreased after the hybridization of the probe DNA and target DNA. The DNA that was used follows: complementary target DNA, 5'-TTC GAC CTC GGT TAG AAG ACT CAT-3' and two-base mismatched DNA, 5'-TTC GAC AGC GGT TAT AAG ACT CAT-3'.

  13. Ultra-sensitive "turn-on" detection method for Hg(2+) based on mispairing biosensor and emulsion PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengyu; Tian, Wenying; Cheng, Nan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    Sensor-based detection methods have inspired the idea that chemical or physical signals could be converted to nucleic acid signals to be quantitatively detected using a combination of appropriate detection tools. To achieve ultra-sensitive and absolute quantitative detection of mercury ion (Hg(2+)), we have combined a mispairing biosensor for Hg(2+) and emulsion PCR. The parameters that might influence the biosensor step, such as the duration of isothermal amplification and the concentration of the sensor oligonucleotide, have been firstly optimized in our study to achieve the most efficient biosensor detection. The evaluation results of secondary structures between the biosensors with different number of T-Hg-T structures achieved by Circular Dichroism have indicated that the secondary hairpin structure would be varied according to the change of number of T-Hg-T structures, which could influence the quantitative detection results. Further optimization of number of T-Hg-T within the biosensor sequences showed that 5 T-Hg-T structures could generate the most efficient amplification. After the above optimizations, the emulsion PCR has been employed to achieve the absolute quantitation of nucleic acid signals. The final results have shown that the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in our study was as low as 40fmol, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 10fmol. The practical detection tests showed that the quantitative results were stable and accurate for all substrates. In conclusion, by combining a mispairing biosensor with emulsion PCR, we developed a flexible and stable quantitative "turn-on" detection method with ultra-sensitivity that can detect trace amounts Hg(2+) within different substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Glucose biosensor based on a platinum electrode modified with rhodium nanoparticles and with glucose oxidase immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xishan; Jian, Jinming; Liang, Bo; Ye, Xuesong; Zhang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an enzymatic glucose biosensor that is based on a flat platinum electrode which was covered with electrophoretically deposited rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles and then sintered to form a large surface area. The biosensor was obtained by depositing glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the Rh electrode. The electrical potential and the fractions of Nafion and GOx were optimized. The resulting biosensor has a very high sensitivity (68.1 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 15 mM (r = 0.989). The limit of detection is as low as 0.03 mM (at an SNR of 3). The glucose biosensor also is quite selective and is not interfered by electroactive substances including ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen. The lifespan is up to 90 days. It was applied to the determination of glucose in blood serum, and the results compare very well with those obtained with a clinical analyzer. (author)

  15. Recent advances in transition-metal dichalcogenides based electrochemical biosensors: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Huang, Ke-Jing; Wu, Xu

    2017-11-15

    Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) comprise a category of two-dimensional (2D) materials that offer exciting properties, including large surface area, metallic and semi-conducting electrical capabilities, and intercalatable morphologies. Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. TMDCs nanomaterials have been widely applied in various electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. The marriage of TMDCs and electrochemical biosensors has created many productive sensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and food safety. In recent years, an increasing number of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors are reported, suggesting TMDCs offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical biosensors. This review summarizes recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on TMDCs for detection of various inorganic and organic analytes in the last five years, including glucose, proteins, DNA, heavy metal, etc. In addition, we also point out the challenges and future perspectives related to the material design and development of TMDCs-based electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequence-specific label-free nucleic acid biosensor for the detection of the hepatitis C virus genotype 1a using a disposable pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Arslan, Halit

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple, sensitive, inexpensive, disposable and label-free electrochemical nucleic acid biosensor for the detection of the hepatitis C virus genotype 1a (HCV1a). The nucleic acid biosensor was designed with the amino-linked inosine-substituted 20-mer probes, which were immobilized onto a disposable pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by covalent linking. The proposed nucleic acid biosensor was linear in the range of 0.05 and 0.75 μM, exhibiting a limit of detection of 54.9 nM. The single-stranded synthetic PCR product analogs of HCV1a were also detected with satisfactory results under optimal conditions, showing the potential application of this biosensor.

  17. PRINCIPLES OF AFFINITY-BASED BIOSENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the amount of resources that have been invested by national and international academic, government, and commercial sectors to develop affinity-based biosensor products, little obvious success has been realized through commercialization of these devices for specific applic...

  18. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on less aggregated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Liping

    2017-03-15

    As a novel single-atom-thick sheet of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms, graphene (GR) has attracted extensive attention in recent years because of its unique and remarkable properties, such as excellent electrical conductivity, large theoretical specific surface area, and strong mechanical strength. However, due to the π-π interaction, GR sheets are inclined to stack together, which may seriously degrade the performance of GR with the unique single-atom layer. In recent years, an increasing number of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reported, which may reflect that GR has been considered as a kind of hot and promising electrode material for electrochemical sensor and biosensor construction. However, the active sites on GR surface induced by the irreversible GR aggregations would be deeply secluded inside the stacked GR sheets and therefore are not available for the electrocatalysis. So the alleviation or the minimization of the aggregation level for GR sheets would facilitate the exposure of active sites on GR and effectively upgrade the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Less aggregated GR with low aggregation and high dispersed structure can be used in improving the electrochemical activity of GR-based electrochemical sensors or biosensors. In this review, we summarize recent advances and new progress for the development of electrochemical sensors based on less aggregated GR. To achieve such goal, many strategies (such as the intercalation of carbon materials, surface modification, and structural engineering) have been applied to alleviate the aggregation level of GR in order to enhance the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Finally, the challenges associated with less aggregated GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as related future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A

    2017-10-20

    Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.

  20. Label-Free Electrical Detection Using Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzo Maehashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Label-free detections of biomolecules have attracted great attention in a lot of life science fields such as genomics, clinical diagnosis and practical pharmacy. In this article, we reviewed amperometric and potentiometric biosensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. In amperometric detections, CNT-modified electrodes were used as working electrodes to significantly enhance electroactive surface area. In contrast, the potentiometric biosensors were based on aptamer-modified CNT field-effect transistors (CNTFETs. Since aptamers are artificial oligonucleotides and thus are smaller than the Debye length, proteins can be detected with high sensitivity. In this review, we discussed on the technology, characteristics and developments for commercialization in label-free CNT-based biosensors.

  1. Wireless implantable electronic platform for chronic fluorescent-based biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdastri, Pietro; Susilo, Ekawahyu; Förster, Thilo; Strohhöfer, Christof; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    The development of a long-term wireless implantable biosensor based on fluorescence intensity measurement poses a number of technical challenges, ranging from biocompatibility to sensor stability over time. One of these challenges is the design of a power efficient and miniaturized electronics, enabling the biosensor to move from bench testing to long term validation, up to its final application in human beings. In this spirit, we present a wireless programmable electronic platform for implantable chronic monitoring of fluorescent-based autonomous biosensors. This system is able to achieve extremely low power operation with bidirectional telemetry, based on the IEEE802.15.4-2003 protocol, thus enabling over three-year battery lifetime and wireless networking of multiple sensors. During the performance of single fluorescent-based sensor measurements, the circuit drives a laser diode, for sensor excitation, and acquires the amplified signals from four different photodetectors. In vitro functionality was preliminarily tested for both glucose and calcium monitoring, simply by changing the analyte-binding protein of the biosensor. Electronics performance was assessed in terms of timing, power consumption, tissue exposure to electromagnetic fields, and in vivo wireless connectivity. The final goal of the presented platform is to be integrated in a complete system for blood glucose level monitoring that may be implanted for at least one year under the skin of diabetic patients. Results reported in this paper may be applied to a wide variety of biosensors based on fluorescence intensity measurement.

  2. A DNA biosensor based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of amine by a threading intercalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhiqiang; Tansil, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of DNA based a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) capture probe (CP) modified indium tin oxide electrode (ITO) is described in this report. After hybridization, a threading intercalator, N,N'-bis[(3-propyl)-imidazole]-1,4,5,8-naphthalene diimide (PIND) imidazole complexed with Ru(bpy) 2 Cl (PIND-Ru, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), was introduced to the biosensor. PIND-Ru selectively intercalated to double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) and became immobilized on the biosensor surface. Voltammetric tests showed highly stable and reversible electrochemical oxidation/reduction processes and the peak currents can directly be utilized for DNA quantification. When the tests were conducted in an amine-containing medium, Tris-HCl buffer for example, a remarkable improvement in the voltammetric response and noticeable enhancements of voltammetric and amperometric sensitivities were observed due to the electrocatalytic activity of the [Ru(bpy) 2 Cl] redox moieties. Electrocatalytic current was observed when as little as 3.0 attomoles of DNA was present in the sample solution

  3. A novel biosensor method for surfactant determination based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, I S; Soldatkin, O O; Arkhypova, V M; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2012-01-01

    A novel enzyme biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the determination of surfactants in aqueous solutions is described. Acetylcholinesterase-based bioselective element was deposited via glutaraldehyde on the surface of conductometric transducers. Different variants of inhibitory analysis of surfactants were tested, and finally surfactant's concentration was evaluated by measuring initial rate of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Besides, we studied the effect of solution characteristics on working parameters of the biosensor for direct measurement of acetylcholine and for inhibitory determination of surfactants. The biosensor's sensitivity to anionic and cationic surfactants (0.35 mg l −1 ) was tested. The high operational stability of the biosensor during determination of acetylcholine (RSD 2%) and surfactants (RSD 11%) was shown. Finally, we discussed the selectivity of the biosensor toward surfactants and other AChE inhibitors. The proposed biosensor can be used as a component of the multibiosensor for ecological monitoring of toxicants. (paper)

  4. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Li, Bingyu; Chen, Ningning; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  5. Design of nanostructured-based glucose biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komirisetty, Archana; Williams, Frances; Pradhan, Aswini; Konda, Rajini B.; Dondapati, Hareesh; Samantaray, Diptirani

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the design of glucose sensors that will be integrated with advanced nano-materials, bio-coatings and electronics to create novel devices that are highly sensitive, inexpensive, accurate, and reliable. In the work presented, a glucose biosensor and its fabrication process flow have been designed. The device is based on electrochemical sensing using a working electrode with bio-functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods. Among all metal oxide nanostructures, ZnO nano-materials play a significant role as a sensing element in biosensors due to their properties such as high isoelectric point (IEP), fast electron transfer, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and chemical stability which are very crucial parameters to achieve high sensitivity. Amperometric enzyme electrodes based on glucose oxidase (GOx) are used due to their stability and high selectivity to glucose. The device also consists of silicon dioxide and titanium layers as well as platinum working and counter electrodes and a silver/silver chloride reference electrode. Currently, the biosensors are being fabricated using the process flow developed. Once completed, the sensors will be bio-functionalized and tested to characterize their performance, including their sensitivity and stability.

  6. A reduced graphene oxide based electrochemical biosensor for tyrosine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junhua; Qiu, Jingjing; Li, Li; Ren, Liqiang; Zhang, Xianwen; Chaudhuri, Jharna; Wang, Shiren

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, a ‘green’ and safe hydrothermal method has been used to reduce graphene oxide and produce hemin modified graphene nanosheet (HGN) based electrochemical biosensors for the determination of l-tyrosine levels. The as-fabricated HGN biosensors were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The experimental results indicated that hemin was successfully immobilized on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (rGO) through π-π interaction. TEM images and EDX results further confirmed the attachment of hemin on the rGO nanosheet. Cyclic voltammetry tests were carried out for the bare glass carbon electrode (GCE), the rGO electrode (rGO/GCE), and the hemin-rGO electrode (HGN/GCE). The HGN/GCE based biosensor exhibits a tyrosine detection linear range from 5 × 10-7 M to 2 × 10-5 M with a detection limitation of 7.5 × 10-8 M at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The sensitivity of this biosensor is 133 times higher than that of the bare GCE. In comparison with other works, electroactive biosensors are easily fabricated, easily controlled and cost-effective. Moreover, the hemin-rGO based biosensors demonstrate higher stability, a broader detection linear range and better detection sensitivity. Study of the oxidation scheme reveals that the rGO enhances the electron transfer between the electrode and the hemin, and the existence of hemin groups effectively electrocatalyzes the oxidation of tyrosine. This study contributes to a widespread clinical application of nanomaterial based biosensor devices with a broader detection linear range, improved stability, enhanced sensitivity and reduced costs.

  7. Development of a Transcription Factor-Based Lactam Biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingwei; Barajas, Jesus F.; Burdu, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Lactams are an important class of commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced every year. Biological production of lactams could be greatly improved by high-throughput sensors for lactam biosynthesis. To identify biosensors of lactams, we applied a chemoi......Lactams are an important class of commodity chemicals used in the manufacture of nylons, with millions of tons produced every year. Biological production of lactams could be greatly improved by high-throughput sensors for lactam biosynthesis. To identify biosensors of lactams, we applied...... a chemoinformatic approach inspired by small molecule drug discovery. We define this approach as analogue generation toward catabolizable chemicals or AGTC. We discovered a lactam biosensor based on the ChnR/Pb transcription factor-promoter pair. The microbial biosensor is capable of sensing ε-caprolactam, Î......´-valerolactam, and butyrolactam in a dose-dependent manner. The biosensor has sufficient specificity to discriminate against lactam biosynthetic intermediates and therefore could potentially be applied for high-throughput metabolic engineering for industrially important high titer lactam biosynthesis....

  8. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....

  9. Recent Development of Nano-Materials Used in DNA Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future.

  10. Near infrared optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2018-06-01

    A near infrared (NIR) optical biosensor based on peptide functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hybrids for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive detection was developed. The TNT binding peptide was directly anchored on the sidewall of the SWCNTs using the π-π interaction between the aromatic amino acids and SWCNTs, forming the peptide-SWCNTs hybrids for near infrared absorption spectra measurement. The evidence of the morphology of peptide-SWCNTs hybrids was obtained using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that peptide-SWCNTs hybrids based NIR optical biosensor exhibited sensitive and highly selective for TNT explosive determination, addressing a promising optical biosensor for security application. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-05-03

    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  12. Oligonucleotide-based biosensors for in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Il Young; Lee, Eun Hee; Suh, Ah Young; Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Hyukjin

    2016-04-01

    Oligonucleotide-based biosensors have drawn much attention because of their broad applications in in vitro diagnostics and environmental hazard detection. They are particularly of interest to many researchers because of their high specificity as well as excellent sensitivity. Recently, oligonucleotide-based biosensors have been used to achieve not only genetic detection of targets but also the detection of small molecules, peptides, and proteins. This has further broadened the applications of these sensors in the medical and health care industry. In this review, we highlight various examples of oligonucleotide-based biosensors for the detection of diseases, drugs, and environmentally hazardous chemicals. Each example is provided with detailed schematics of the detection mechanism in addition to the supporting experimental results. Furthermore, future perspectives and new challenges in oligonucleotide-based biosensors are discussed.

  13. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on in situ reconstituted cholesterol oxidase on an immobilized monolayer of flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan-C; Espuelas, Javier; Castillo, Juan-R

    2004-10-01

    A new amperometric biosensor for determining cholesterol based on deflavination of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and subsequent reconstitution of the apo-protein with a complexed flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) monolayer is described. The charge transfer mediator pyrroquinoline quinone (PQQ) was covalently bound to a cystamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on an Au electrode. Boronic acid (BA) was then bound to PQQ using the carbodiimide procedure, and the BA ligand was complexed to the FAD molecules on which the apo-ChOx was subsequently reconstituted. The effective release of the FAD from the enzyme and the successful reconstitution were verified using molecular fluorescence and cyclic voltammetry. The optimal orientation of FAD toward the PQQ mediator and the distances between FAD and PQQ and between PQQ and electrode enhance the charge transfer, very high sensitivity (about 2,500 nAmM(-1)cm(-2)) being obtained for cholesterol determination. The biosensor is selective toward electroactive interferents (ascorbic acid and uric acid) and was tested in reference serum samples, demonstrating excellent accuracy (relative errors below 3% in all cases). The biosensor activity can be successfully regenerated in a simple process by successive reconstitution with batches of recently prepared apo-ChOx on the same immobilized Au/SAM-PQQ-BA-FAD monolayer (it was tested five times); the lifetime of the biosensor is about 45-60 days.

  14. Biosensors Used for Quantification of Nitrates in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-Galindo Raul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is essential for the plant because it is used for the production of chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, and other cellular compounds; nitrogen is available in two forms: ammonium and nitrate. Several tools have been used to quantify nitrates in plants such as the Kjeldahl method and Dumas combustion digestion; however, they are destructive and long time-consuming methods. To solve these disadvantages, methods such as selective electrodes, optical sensors, reflectometers, and images based sensors have been developed; nonetheless, all these techniques show interference when carrying out measurements. Currently, biosensors based on genetic constructions, based on the response of promoter gene fused to Gene Fluorescent Protein (GFP, are gaining popularity, because they improve the accuracy of measurements of nitrate by avoiding the interference of carriers ion, high salt conditions, and other factors. The present review shows the different methods to quantify the nitrogen in plants; later, a biosensors perspective is presented, mainly focused on biosensors based on organism genetically modified. The review presents a list of promoter and reporter genes that could be used to develop different kind of sensors, and a perspective of sensors to measure quantitatively the nitrogen is presented.

  15. Nanomaterials-based enzyme electrochemical biosensors operating through inhibition for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, Sevinc; Ozkan, Sibel A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-03-15

    In recent years great progress has been made in applying nanomaterials to design novel biosensors. Use of nanomaterials offers to biosensing platforms exceptional optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Nanomaterials can increase the surface of the transducing area of the sensors that in turn bring an increase in catalytic behaviors. They have large surface-to-volume ratio, controlled morphology and structure that also favor miniaturization, an interesting advantage when the sample volume is a critical issue. Biosensors have great potential for achieving detect-to-protect devices: devices that can be used in detections of pollutants and other treating compounds/analytes (drugs) protecting citizens' life. After a long term focused scientific and financial efforts/supports biosensors are expected now to fulfill their promise such as being able to perform sampling and analysis of complex samples with interest for clinical or environment fields. Among all types of biosensors, enzymatic biosensors, the most explored biosensing devices, have an interesting property, the inherent inhibition phenomena given the enzyme-substrate complex formation. The exploration of such phenomena is making remarkably important their application as research and applied tools in diagnostics. Different inhibition biosensor systems based on nanomaterials modification has been proposed and applied. The role of nanomaterials in inhibition-based biosensors for the analyses of different groups of drugs as well as contaminants such as pesticides, phenolic compounds and others, are discussed in this review. This deep analysis of inhibition-based biosensors that employ nanomaterials will serve researchers as a guideline for further improvements and approaching of these devices to real sample applications so as to reach society needs and such biosensor market demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucose Sensing Using Capacitive Biosensor Based on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambran Hartono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film-based capacitive biosensor was developed for glucose sensing. This device consists of a PVDF film sandwiched between two electrodes. A capacitive biosensor measures the dielectric properties of the dielectric layers at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode. A glucose oxidase (GOx enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode to oxidize glucose. In practice, the biochemical reaction of glucose with the GOx enzyme generates free electron carriers. Consequently, the potential difference between the electrodes is increased, resulting in a measurable voltage output of the biosensor. The device was tested for various glucose concentrations in the range of 0.013 to 5.85 M, and various GOx enzyme concentrations between 4882.8 and 2.5 million units/L. We found that the sensor output increased with increasing glucose concentration up to 5.85 M. These results indicate that the PVDF film-based capacitive biosensors can be properly applied to glucose sensing and provide opportunities for the low-cost fabrication of glucose-based biosensors based on PVDF materials.

  17. Fabrication of fluorescence-based biosensors from functionalized CdSe and CdTe quantum dots for pesticide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Tran, Thi Kim; Vu, Duc Chinh; Thuy Ung, Thi Dieu; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Nguyen, Ngoc Hai; Dao, Tran Cao; Pham, Thu Nga; Nguyen, Quang Liem

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results on the fabrication of highly sensitive fluorescence biosensors for pesticide detection. The biosensors are actually constructed from the complex of quantum dots (QDs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and acetylthiocholine (ATCh). The biosensor activity is based on the change of luminescence from CdSe and CdTe QDs with pH, while the pH is changed with the hydrolysis rate of ATCh catalyzed by the enzyme AChE, whose activity is specifically inhibited by pesticides. Two kinds of QDs were used to fabricate our biosensors: (i) CdSe QDs synthesized in high-boiling non-polar organic solvent and then functionalized by shelling with two monolayers (2-ML) of ZnSe and eight monolayers (8-ML) of ZnS and finally capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to become water soluble; and (ii) CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous phase then shelled with CdS. For normal checks the fabricated biosensors could detect parathion methyl (PM) pesticide at very low contents of ppm with the threshold as low as 0.05 ppm. The dynamic range from 0.05 ppm to 1 ppm for the pesticide detection could be expandable by increasing the AChE amount in the biosensor. (paper)

  18. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Fernández Gavela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  19. Last Advances in Silicon-Based Optical Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Gavela, Adrián; Grajales García, Daniel; Ramirez, Jhonattan C; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-02-24

    We review the most important achievements published in the last five years in the field of silicon-based optical biosensors. We focus specially on label-free optical biosensors and their implementation into lab-on-a-chip platforms, with an emphasis on developments demonstrating the capability of the devices for real bioanalytical applications. We report on novel transducers and materials, improvements of existing transducers, new and improved biofunctionalization procedures as well as the prospects for near future commercialization of these technologies.

  20. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated

  1. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated. (author)

  2. Development of mercury (II) ion biosensors based on mercury-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Xu, Li; Xu, Qin; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Yan, Juan; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) contamination can be accumulated along the food chain and cause serious threat to the public health. Plenty of research effort thus has been devoted to the development of fast, sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring Hg(2+). Thymine was demonstrated to specifically combine with Hg(2+) and form a thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structure, with binding constant even higher than T-A Watson-Crick pair in DNA duplex. Recently, various novel Hg(2+) biosensors have been developed based on T-rich Mercury-Specific Oligonucleotide (MSO) probes, and exhibited advanced selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection. In this review, we explained recent development of MSO-based Hg(2+) biosensors mainly in 3 groups: fluorescent biosensors, colorimetric biosensors and electrochemical biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-06-30

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. An Amperometric Biosensor for Uric Acid Determination Prepared From Uricase Immobilized in Polyaniline-Polypyrrole Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arslan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A new amperometric uric acid biosensor was developed by immobilizing uricase by a glutaraldehyde crosslinking procedure on polyaniline-polypyrrole (pani-ppy composite film on the surface of a platinum electrode. Determination of uric acid was performed by the oxidation of enzymatically generated H2O2 at 0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The linear working range of the biosensor was 2.5×10-6 – 8.5×10-5 M and the response time was about 70 s. The effects of pH, temperature were investigated and optimum parameters were found to be 9.0, 55 oC, respectively. The stability and reproducibility of the enzyme electrode have been also studied.

  5. Biosensors and environmental health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preedy, Victor R; Patel, Vinood B

    2012-01-01

    ..., bacterial biosensors, antibody-based biosensors, enzymatic, amperometric and electrochemical aspects, quorum sensing, DNA-biosensors, cantilever biosensors, bioluminescence and other methods and applications...

  6. Fiber optic-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligler, Frances S.

    1991-01-01

    The NRL fiber optic biosensor is a device which measures the formation of a fluorescent complex at the surface of an optical fiber. Antibodies and DNA binding proteins provide the mechanism for recognizing an analyze and immobilizing a fluorescent complex on the fiber surface. The fiber optic biosensor is fast, sensitive, and permits analysis of hazardous materials remote from the instrumentation. The fiber optic biosensor is described in terms of the device configuration, chemistry for protein immobilization, and assay development. A lab version is being used for assay development and performance characterization while a portable device is under development. Antibodies coated on the fiber are stable for up to two years of storage prior to use. The fiber optic biosensor was used to measure concentration of toxins in the parts per billion (ng/ml) range in under a minute. Immunoassays for small molecules and whole bacteria are under development. Assays using DNA probes as the detection element can also be used with the fiber optic sensor, which is currently being developed to detect biological warfare agents, explosives, pathogens, and toxic materials which pollute the environment.

  7. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chong; Han, Qiaorong; Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin; Wang, Weijuan; Zhao, Wenbo; Zhou, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− . Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health

  8. A label-free and high sensitive aptamer biosensor based on hyperbranched polyester microspheres for thrombin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Han, Qiaorong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Daoying; Xu, Weimin [Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014 (China); Wang, Weijuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhao, Wenbo, E-mail: zhaowenbo@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, Biomedical Functional Materials Collaborative Innovation Center, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhou, Min, E-mail: zhouminnju@126.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-11-19

    Highlights: • A label-free thrombin aptamer biosensor applied in whole blood has been developed. • The aptamer biosensor showed a wide detection range and a low detection limit. • The antibiofouling idea utilized for biosensor is significant for diagnostics. - Abstract: In this paper, we have synthesized hyperbranched polyester microspheres with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA) and developed a label-free electrochemical aptamer biosensor using thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) as receptor for the measurement of thrombin in whole blood. The indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface modified with HBPE-CA microspheres was grafted with TBA, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivity for thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the modified ITO electrode surface greatly restrained access of electrons for a redox probe of [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−}. Moreover, the aptamer biosensor could be used for detection of thrombin in whole blood, a wide detection range (10 fM–100 nM) and a detection limit on the order of 0.90 fM were demonstrated. Control experiments were also carried out by using bull serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in the absence of thrombin. The good stability and repeatability of this aptamer biosensor were also proved. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development of highly sensitive label-free sensors based on aptamer with lower cost than current technology. The integration of the technologies, which include anticoagulant, sensor and nanoscience, will bring significant input to high-performance biosensors relevant to diagnostics and therapy of interest for human health.

  9. A novel approach for rapidly and cost-effectively assessing toxicity of toxic metals in acidic water using an acidophilic iron-oxidizing biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Kuo-Chih; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Contamination by heavy metals and metalloids is a serious environmental and health concern. Acidic wastewaters are often associated with toxic metals which may enter and spread into agricultural soils. Several biological assays have been developed to detect toxic metals; however, most of them can only detect toxic metals in a neutral pH, not in an acidic environment. In this study, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (IOB) Strain Y10 was isolated, characterized, and used to detect toxic metals toxicity in acidic water at pH 2.5. The colorimetric acidophilic IOB biosensor was based on the inhibition of the iron oxidizing ability of Strain Y10, an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium, by metals toxicity. Our results showed that Strain Y10 is acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium. Thiobacillus caldus medium (TCM) (pH 2.5) supplied with both S 4 O 6 2- and glucose was the optimum growth medium for Strain Y10. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of Strain Y10 was 45 °C and pH 2.5, respectively. Our study demonstrates that the color-based acidophilic IOB biosensor can be semi-quantitatively observed by eye or quantitatively measured by spectrometer to detect toxicity from multiple toxic metals at pH 2.5 within 45 min. Our study shows that monitoring toxic metals in acidic water is possible by using the acidophilic IOB biosensor. Our study thus provides a novel approach for rapid and cost-effective detection of toxic metals in acidic conditions that can otherwise compromise current methods of chemical analysis. This method also allows for increased efficiency when screening large numbers of environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzyme-linked, aptamer-based, competitive biolayer interferometry biosensor for palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shunxiang; Zheng, Xin; Hu, Bo; Sun, Mingjuan; Wu, Jihong; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Lianghua

    2017-03-15

    In this study, we coupled biolayer interferometry (BLI) with competitive binding assay through an enzyme-linked aptamer and developed a real-time, ultra-sensitive, rapid quantitative method for detection of the marine biotoxin palytoxin. Horseradish peroxidase-labeled aptamers were used as biorecognition receptors to competitively bind with palytoxin, which was immobilized on the biosensor surface. The palytoxin: horseradish peroxidase-aptamer complex was then submerged in a 3,3'-diaminobenzidine solution, which resulted in formation of a precipitated polymeric product directly on the biosensor surface and a large change in the optical thickness of the biosensor layer. This change could obviously shift the interference pattern and generate a response profile on the BLI biosensor. The biosensor showed a broad linear range for palytoxin (200-700pg/mL) with a low detection limit (0.04pg/mL). Moreover, the biosensor was applied to the detection of palytoxin in spiked extracts and showed a high degree of selectivity for palytoxin, good reproducibility, and stability. This enzyme-linked, aptamer-based, competitive BLI biosensor offers a promising method for rapid and sensitive detection of palytoxin and other analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Xie, Yibing; Du, Hongxiu; Xia, Chi; Wang, Yong; Tian, Fang

    2014-01-01

    A glucose biosensor has been fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on unhybridized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using an optimized cross-linking technique. The TiO 2 nanotube arrays were synthesized directly on a titanium substrate by anodic oxidation. The structure and morphology of electrode material were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performances of the glucose biosensor were conducted by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements. It gives a linear response to glucose in the 0.05 to 0.65 mM concentration range, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981, a sensitivity of 199.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 , and a detection limit as low as 3.8 µM. This glucose biosensor exhibited high selectivity for glucose determination in the presence of ascorbic acid, sucrose and other common interfering substances. This glucose biosensor also performed good reproducibility and long-time storage stability. This optimized cross-linking technique could open a new avenue for other enzyme biosensors fabrication. (author)

  12. Synthesis and utilization of carbon nanotubes for fabrication of electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes. - Highlights: • This review discusses synthesis and applications of carbon nanotubes sensors. • The review summarizes contributions of carbon nanotube to electrochemical biosensor. • Good electrical conductivity makes carbon nanotubes a good material for biosensors. • Carbon nanotubes promotes electron transfer that aids biosensing of biomolecules. - Abstract: This review summarizes the most recent contributions in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of carbon nanotubes to the assembly of carbon nanotube-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future expectations. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving carbon nanotubes sensors have been reported ever since the first design of carbon nanotube electrochemical biosensors. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes allow them to act as “electron wire” between the redox center of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make them very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Carbon nanotubes promote the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, hemoglobin and biomolecules, such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine pesticides, metals ions and hydrogen peroxide.

  13. Synthesis and utilization of carbon nanotubes for fabrication of electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T., E-mail: abdul.lawal@yahoo.com

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanotubes. - Highlights: • This review discusses synthesis and applications of carbon nanotubes sensors. • The review summarizes contributions of carbon nanotube to electrochemical biosensor. • Good electrical conductivity makes carbon nanotubes a good material for biosensors. • Carbon nanotubes promotes electron transfer that aids biosensing of biomolecules. - Abstract: This review summarizes the most recent contributions in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of carbon nanotubes to the assembly of carbon nanotube-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future expectations. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving carbon nanotubes sensors have been reported ever since the first design of carbon nanotube electrochemical biosensors. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes allow them to act as “electron wire” between the redox center of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make them very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Carbon nanotubes promote the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, hemoglobin and biomolecules, such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine pesticides, metals ions and hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Graphene-Based Materials for Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phitsini Suvarnaphaet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The advantages conferred by the physical, optical and electrochemical properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have contributed to the current variety of ultrasensitive and selective biosensor devices. In this review, we present the points of view on the intrinsic properties of graphene and its surface engineering concerned with the transduction mechanisms in biosensing applications. We explain practical synthesis techniques along with prospective properties of the graphene-based materials, which include the pristine graphene and functionalized graphene (i.e., graphene oxide (GO, reduced graphene oxide (RGO and graphene quantum dot (GQD. The biosensing mechanisms based on the utilization of the charge interactions with biomolecules and/or nanoparticle interactions and sensing platforms are also discussed, and the importance of surface functionalization in recent up-to-date biosensors for biological and medical applications.

  15. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of terminal deoxynucleoside transferase-mediated extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Liu, Zhoujie; Peng, Huaping; Zheng, Yanjie; Lin, Zhen; Liu, Ailin; Chen, Wei; Lin, Xinhua

    2017-12-15

    Previously reported electrochemical DNA biosensors based on in-situ polymerization approach reveal that terminal deoxynucleoside transferase (TdTase) has good amplifying performance and promising application in the design of electrochemical DNA biosensor. However, this method, in which the background is significantly affected by the amount of TdTase, suffers from being easy to produce false positive result and poor stability. Herein, we firstly present a novel electrochemical DNA biosensor based on grafting-to mode of TdTase-mediated extension, in which DNA targets are polymerized in homogeneous solution and then hybridized with DNA probes on BSA-based DNA carrier platform. It is surprising to find that the background in the grafting-to mode of TdTase-based electrochemical DNA biosensor have little interference from the employed TdTase. Most importantly, the proposed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows greatly improved detection performance over the in-situ polymerization approach-based electrochemical DNA biosensor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An InN/InGaN Quantum Dot Electrochemical Biosensor for Clinical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Zaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-dimensional InN/InGaN quantum dots (QDs are demonstrated for realizing highly sensitive and efficient potentiometric biosensors owing to their unique electronic properties. The InN QDs are biochemically functionalized. The fabricated biosensor exhibits high sensitivity of 97 mV/decade with fast output response within two seconds for the detection of cholesterol in the logarithmic concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−3 M. The selectivity and reusability of the biosensor are excellent and it shows negligible response to common interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. We also compare the biosensing properties of the InN QDs with those of an InN thin film having the same surface properties, i.e., high density of surface donor states, but different morphology and electronic properties. The sensitivity of the InN QDs-based biosensor is twice that of the InN thin film-based biosensor, the EMF is three times larger, and the response time is five times shorter. A bare InGaN layer does not produce a stable response. Hence, the superior biosensing properties of the InN QDs are governed by their unique surface properties together with the zero-dimensional electronic properties. Altogether, the InN QDs-based biosensor reveals great potential for clinical diagnosis applications.

  17. An InN/InGaN Quantum Dot Electrochemical Biosensor for Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Naveed ul Hassan; Gómez, Victor J.; Rodriguez, Paul E.D. Soto; Kumar, Praveen; Zaman, Saima; Willander, Magnus; Nötzel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Low-dimensional InN/InGaN quantum dots (QDs) are demonstrated for realizing highly sensitive and efficient potentiometric biosensors owing to their unique electronic properties. The InN QDs are biochemically functionalized. The fabricated biosensor exhibits high sensitivity of 97 mV/decade with fast output response within two seconds for the detection of cholesterol in the logarithmic concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−3 M. The selectivity and reusability of the biosensor are excellent and it shows negligible response to common interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. We also compare the biosensing properties of the InN QDs with those of an InN thin film having the same surface properties, i.e., high density of surface donor states, but different morphology and electronic properties. The sensitivity of the InN QDs-based biosensor is twice that of the InN thin film-based biosensor, the EMF is three times larger, and the response time is five times shorter. A bare InGaN layer does not produce a stable response. Hence, the superior biosensing properties of the InN QDs are governed by their unique surface properties together with the zero-dimensional electronic properties. Altogether, the InN QDs-based biosensor reveals great potential for clinical diagnosis applications. PMID:24132228

  18. Hybridization assay of insect antifreezing protein gene by novel multilayered porous silicon nucleic acid biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liangliang; Zhang, Hongyan; Mo, Jiaqing; Zhong, Furu; Lv, Changwu; Ma, Ji; Jia, Zhenhong

    2013-01-15

    A fabrication of a novel simple porous silicon polybasic photonic crystal with symmetrical structure has been reported as a nucleic acid biosensor for detecting antifreeze protein gene in insects (Microdera puntipennis dzhungarica), which would be helpful in the development of some new transgenic plants with tolerance of freezing stress. Compared to various porous silicon-based photonic configurations, porous silicon polytype layered structure is quite easy to prepare and shows more stability; moreover, polybasic photonic crystals with symmetrical structure exhibit interesting optical properties with a sharp resonance in the reflectance spectrum, giving a higher Q factor which causes higher sensitivity for sensing performance. In this experiment, DNA oligonucleotides were immobilized into the porous silicon pores using a standard crosslink chemistry method. The porous silicon polybasic symmetrical structure sensor possesses high specificity in performing controlled experiments with non-complementary DNA. The detection limit was found to be 21.3nM for DNA oligonucleotides. The fabricated multilayered porous silicon-based DNA biosensor has potential commercial applications in clinical chemistry for determination of an antifreeze protein gene or other genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosensors based on cantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mar; Carrascosa, Laura G; Zinoviev, Kiril; Plaza, Jose A; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Microcantilevers based-biosensors are a new label-free technique that allows the direct detection of biomolecular interactions in a label-less way and with great accuracy by translating the biointeraction into a nanomechanical motion. Low cost and reliable standard silicon technologies are widely used for the fabrication of cantilevers with well-controlled mechanical properties. Over the last years, the number of applications of these sensors has shown a fast growth in diverse fields, such as genomic or proteomic, because of the biosensor flexibility, the low sample consumption, and the non-pretreated samples required. In this chapter, we report a dedicated design and a fabrication process of highly sensitive microcantilever silicon sensors. We will describe as well an application of the device in the environmental field showing the immunodetection of an organic toxic pesticide as an example. The cantilever biofunctionalization process and the subsequent pesticide determination are detected in real time by monitoring the nanometer-scale bending of the microcantilever due to a differential surface stress generated between both surfaces of the device.

  20. Silicon Wafer-Based Platinum Microelectrode Array Biosensor for Near Real-Time Measurement of Glutamate in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel T. Maidment

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS technologies, we have developed silicon wafer-based platinum microelectrode arrays (MEAs modified with glutamate oxidase (GluOx for electroenzymatic detection of glutamate in vivo. These MEAs were designed to have optimal spatial resolution for in vivo recordings. Selective detection of glutamate in the presence of the electroactive interferents, dopamine and ascorbic acid, was attained by deposition of polypyrrole and Nafion. The sensors responded to glutamate with a limit of detection under 1μM and a sub-1-second response time in solution. In addition to extensive in vitro characterization, the utility of these MEA glutamate biosensors was also established in vivo. In the anesthetized rat, these MEA glutamate biosensors were used for detection of cortically-evoked glutamate release in the ventral striatum. The MEA biosensors also were applied to the detection of stress-induced glutamate release in the dorsal striatum of the freely-moving rat.

  1. Investigation of a Photoelectrochemical Passivated ZnO-Based Glucose Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Jung Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A vapor cooling condensation system was used to deposit high quality intrinsic ZnO thin films and intrinsic ZnO nanorods as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET glucose biosensors. The sensing sensitivity of the resulting glucose biosensors operated in the linear range was 13.4 μA mM−1 cm−2. To improve the sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors, the photoelectrochemical method was utilized to passivate the sidewall surfaces of the ZnO nanorods. The sensing sensitivity of the ZnO-based glucose biosensors with passivated ZnO nanorods was significantly improved to 20.33 μA mM−1 cm−2 under the same measurement conditions. The experimental results verified that the sensing sensitivity improvement was the result of the mitigation of the Fermi level pinning effect caused by the dangling bonds and the surface states induced on the sidewall surface of the ZnO nanorods.

  2. Photonic crystals: emerging biosensors and their promise for point-of-care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Hakan; Poyraz, Muhammet; Inci, Fatih; Lifson, Mark A; Baday, Murat; Cunningham, Brian T; Demirci, Utkan

    2017-01-23

    Biosensors are extensively employed for diagnosing a broad array of diseases and disorders in clinical settings worldwide. The implementation of biosensors at the point-of-care (POC), such as at primary clinics or the bedside, faces impediments because they may require highly trained personnel, have long assay times, large sizes, and high instrumental cost. Thus, there exists a need to develop inexpensive, reliable, user-friendly, and compact biosensing systems at the POC. Biosensors incorporated with photonic crystal (PC) structures hold promise to address many of the aforementioned challenges facing the development of new POC diagnostics. Currently, PC-based biosensors have been employed for detecting a variety of biotargets, such as cells, pathogens, proteins, antibodies, and nucleic acids, with high efficiency and selectivity. In this review, we provide a broad overview of PCs by explaining their structures, fabrication techniques, and sensing principles. Furthermore, we discuss recent applications of PC-based biosensors incorporated with emerging technologies, including telemedicine, flexible and wearable sensing, smart materials and metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges associated with existing biosensors, and provide an outlook for PC-based biosensors and their promise at the POC.

  3. Indicator Based and Indicator - Free Electrochemical DNA Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerman, Kagan

    2001-01-01

    The utility and advantages of an indicator free and MB based sequence specific DNA hybridization biosensor based on guanine and adenine oxidation signals and MB reduction signals have been demonstrated...

  4. A novel FbFP-based biosensor toolbox for sensitive in vivo determination of intracellular pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Christian; Wingen, Marcus; Potzkei, Janko; Gensch, Thomas; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas

    2017-09-20

    The intracellular pH is an important modulator of various bio(techno)logical processes such as enzymatic conversion of metabolites or transport across the cell membrane. Changes of intracellular pH due to altered proton distribution can thus cause dysfunction of cellular processes. Consequently, accurate monitoring of intracellular pH allows elucidating the pH-dependency of (patho)physiological and biotechnological processes. In this context, genetically encoded biosensors represent a powerful tool to determine intracellular pH values non-invasively and with high spatiotemporal resolution. We have constructed a toolbox of novel genetically encoded FRET-based pH biosensors (named Fluorescence Biosensors for pH or FluBpH) that utilizes the FMN-binding fluorescent protein EcFbFP as donor domain. In contrast to many fluorescent proteins of the GFP family, EcFbFP exhibits a remarkable tolerance towards acidic pH (pK a ∼3.2). To cover the broad range of physiologically relevant pH values, three EYFP variants exhibiting pK a values of 5.7, 6.1 and 7.5 were used as pH-sensing FRET acceptor domains. The resulting biosensors FluBpH 5.7, FluBpH 6.1 and FluBpH 7.5 were calibrated in vitro and in vivo to accurately evaluate their pH indicator properties. To demonstrate the in vivo applicability of FluBpH, changes of intracellular pH were ratiometrically measured in E. coli cells during acid stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  6. Microfabricated Electrochemical Cell-Based Biosensors for Analysis of Living Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellular biochemical parameters can be used to reveal the physiological and functional information of various cells. Due to demonstrated high accuracy and non-invasiveness, electrochemical detection methods have been used for cell-based investigation. When combined with improved biosensor design and advanced measurement systems, the on-line biochemical analysis of living cells in vitro has been applied for biological mechanism study, drug screening and even environmental monitoring. In recent decades, new types of miniaturized electrochemical biosensor are emerging with the development of microfabrication technology. This review aims to give an overview of the microfabricated electrochemical cell-based biosensors, such as microelectrode arrays (MEA, the electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS technique, and the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS. The details in their working principles, measurement systems, and applications in cell monitoring are covered. Driven by the need for high throughput and multi-parameter detection proposed by biomedicine, the development trends of electrochemical cell-based biosensors are also introduced, including newly developed integrated biosensors, and the application of nanotechnology and microfluidic technology.

  7. Engineering prokaryotic transcriptional activators as metabolite biosensors in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise; Snoek, Tim; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin

    2016-01-01

    ,cis-muconic acid at different levels, and found that reporter gene output correlated with production. The transplantation of prokaryotic transcriptional activators into the eukaryotic chassis illustrates the potential of a hitherto untapped biosensor resource useful for biotechnological applications....... real-time monitoring of production has attracted attention. Here we applied systematic engineering of multiple parameters to search for a general biosensor design in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on small-molecule binding transcriptional activators from the prokaryote superfamily...

  8. Roughness effect on the efficiency of dimer antenna based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication process of nanodevices is continually improved. However, most of the nanodevices, such as biosensors present rough surfaces with mean roughness of some nanometers even if the deposition rate of material is more controlled. The effect of roughness on performance of biosensors was fully addressed for plane biosensors and gratings, but rarely addressed for biosensors based on Local Plasmon Resonance. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate numerically the influence of nanometric roughness on the efficiency of a dimer nano-biosensor (two levels of roughness are considered. Therefore, we propose a general numerical method, that can be applied to any other nanometric shape, to take into account the roughness in a three dimensional model. The study focuses on both the far-field, which corresponds to the experimental detected data, and the near-field, responsible for exciting and then detecting biological molecules. The results suggest that the biosensor efficiency is highly sensitive to the surface roughness. The roughness can produce important shifts of the extinction efficiency peak and a decrease of its amplitude resulting from changes in the distribution of near-field and absorbed electric field intensities.

  9. DNA Nanotechnology-Enabled Interfacial Engineering for Biosensor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dekai; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai

    2018-06-12

    Biosensors represent biomimetic analytical tools for addressing increasing needs in medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, security, and biodefense. Nevertheless, widespread real-world applications of biosensors remain challenging due to limitations of performance, including sensitivity, specificity, speed, and reproducibility. In this review, we present a DNA nanotechnology-enabled interfacial engineering approach for improving the performance of biosensors. We first introduce the main challenges of the biosensing interfaces, especially under the context of controlling the DNA interfacial assembly. We then summarize recent progress in DNA nanotechnology and efforts to harness DNA nanostructures to engineer various biological interfaces, with a particular focus on the use of framework nucleic acids. We also discuss the implementation of biosensors to detect physiologically relevant nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, ions, and other biomarkers. This review highlights promising applications of DNA nanotechnology in interfacial engineering for biosensors and related areas.

  10. Engineering Rugged Field Assays to Detect Hazardous Chemicals Using Spore-Based Bacterial Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial whole cell-based biosensors have been genetically engineered to achieve selective and reliable detection of a wide range of hazardous chemicals. Although whole-cell biosensors demonstrate many advantages for field-based detection of target analytes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. Most notably, their often modest shelf life and need for special handling and storage make them challenging to use in situations where access to reagents, instrumentation, and expertise are limited. These problems can be circumvented by developing biosensors in Bacillus spores, which can be engineered to address all of these concerns. In its sporulated state, a whole cell-based biosensor has a remarkably long life span and is exceptionally resistant to environmental insult. When these spores are germinated for use in analytical techniques, they show no loss in performance, even after long periods of storage under harsh conditions. In this chapter, we will discuss the development and use of whole cell-based sensors, their adaptation to spore-based biosensors, their current applications, and future directions in the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel conductometric biosensor based on hexokinase for determination of adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, I S; Kucherenko, D Yu; Soldatkin, O O; Lagarde, F; Dzyadevych, S V; Soldatkin, A P

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a simple and inexpensive reusable biosensor for determination of the concentration of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) in aqueous samples. The biosensor is based on a conductometric transducer which contains two pairs of gold interdigitated electrodes. An enzyme hexokinase was immobilized onto one pair of electrodes, and bovine serum albumin-onto another pair (thus, a differential mode of measurement was used). Conditions of hexokinase immobilization on the transducer by cross-linking via glutaraldehyde were optimized. Influence of experimental conditions (concentration of magnesium ions, ionic strength and concentration of the working buffer) on the biosensor work was studied. The reproducibility of biosensor responses and operational stability of the biosensor were checked during one week. Dry storage at -18 °C was shown to be the best conditions to store the biosensor. The biosensor was successfully applied for measurements of ATP concentration in pharmaceutical samples. The proposed biosensor may be used in future for determination of ATP and/or glucose in water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photonic crystal-based optical biosensor: a brief investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, J.; Selvendran, S.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional photonic crystal biosensor for medical applications based on two waveguides and a nanocavity was explored with different shoulder-coupled nanocavity structures. The most important biosensor parameters, like the sensitivity and quality factor, can be significantly improved. By injecting an analyte into a sensing hole, the refractive index of the hole was changed. This refractive index biosensor senses the changes and shifts its operating wavelength accordingly. The transmission characteristics of light in the biosensor under different refractive indices that correspond to the change in the analyte concentration are analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method. The band gap for each structure is designed and observed by the plane wave expansion method. These proposed structures are designed to obtain an analyte refractive index variation of about 1–1.5 in an optical wavelength range of 1.250–1.640 µm. Accordingly, an improved sensitivity of 136.6 nm RIU‑1 and a quality factor as high as 3915 is achieved. An important feature of this structure is its very small dimensions. Such a combination of attributes makes the designed structure a promising element for label-free biosensing applications.

  13. A sensitive DNA biosensor based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction for capture probe immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingxiang; Ding, Yingtao; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Shulian; Zhang, Bin; Ni, Jiancong; Gao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction between probe DNA and the sulfonic dye of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid that electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode. -- Highlights: •A versatile sulfonic dye of ANS was electrodeposited on a GCE. •A DNA biosensor was fabricated based on a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. •High probe DNA density of 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 was determined. •A wide linear range and a low detection limit were obtained. -- Abstract: A novel DNA biosensor was fabricated through a facile sulfamide coupling reaction. First, the versatile sulfonic dye molecule of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulfonate (AN-SO 3 − ) was electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to form a steady and ordered AN-SO 3 − layer. Then the amino-terminated capture probe was covalently grafted to the surface of SO 3 − -AN deposited GCE through the sulfamide coupling reaction between the amino groups in the probe DNA and the sulfonic groups in the AN-SO 3 − . The step-by-step modification process was characterized by electrochemistry and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Using Ru(NH 3 ) 6 3+ as probe, the probe density and the hybridization efficiency of the biosensor were determined to be 3.18 × 10 13 strands cm −2 and 86.5%, respectively. The hybridization performance of the biosensor was examined by differential pulse voltammetry using Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) as the indicator. The selectivity experiments showed that the biosensor presented distinguishable response after hybridization with the three-base mismatched, non-complementary and complementary sequences. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents of Co(phen) 3 3+/2+ increased linearly with the logarithm values of the concentration of the complementary sequences in the range from 1.0 × 10 −13 M to 1.0 × 10 −8 M with

  14. Biosensor-based microRNA detection: techniques, design, performance, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Mutharasan, Raj

    2014-04-07

    The current state of biosensor-based techniques for amplification-free microRNA (miRNA) detection is critically reviewed. Comparison with non-sensor and amplification-based molecular techniques (MTs), such as polymerase-based methods, is made in terms of transduction mechanism, associated protocol, and sensitivity. Challenges associated with miRNA hybridization thermodynamics which affect assay selectivity and amplification bias are briefly discussed. Electrochemical, electromechanical, and optical classes of miRNA biosensors are reviewed in terms of transduction mechanism, limit of detection (LOD), time-to-results (TTR), multiplexing potential, and measurement robustness. Current trends suggest that biosensor-based techniques (BTs) for miRNA assay will complement MTs due to the advantages of amplification-free detection, LOD being femtomolar (fM)-attomolar (aM), short TTR, multiplexing capability, and minimal sample preparation requirement. Areas of future importance in miRNA BT development are presented which include focus on achieving high measurement confidence and multiplexing capabilities.

  15. DNA nanotechnology-enabled biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jie; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yinan; Wang, Lianhui; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors employ biological molecules to recognize the target and utilize output elements which can translate the biorecognition event into electrical, optical or mass-sensitive signals to determine the quantities of the target. DNA-based biosensors, as a sub-field to biosensor, utilize DNA strands with short oligonucleotides as probes for target recognition. Although DNA-based biosensors have offered a promising alternative for fast, simple and cheap detection of target molecules, there still exist key challenges including poor stability and reproducibility that hinder their competition with the current gold standard for DNA assays. By exploiting the self-recognition properties of DNA molecules, researchers have dedicated to make versatile DNA nanostructures in a highly rigid, controllable and functionalized manner, which offers unprecedented opportunities for developing DNA-based biosensors. In this review, we will briefly introduce the recent advances on design and fabrication of static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, and summarize their applications for fabrication and functionalization of DNA-based biosensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  17. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed.

  18. ZnO Nanorods Based Enzymatic Biosensor for Selective Determination of Penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Ali, Syed Muhammad Usman; Khun, Kimleang; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2011-10-27

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of a biosensor based on well aligned single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods which were grown on gold coated glass substrate using a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. The ZnO nanorods were immobilized with penicillinase enzyme using the physical adsorption approach in combination with N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide (ANB-NOS) as cross linking molecules. The potentiometric response of the sensor configuration revealed good linearity over a large logarithmic concentration range from 100 µM to 100 mM. During the investigations, the proposed sensor showed a good stability with high sensitivity of ~121 mV/decade for sensing of penicillin. A quick electrochemical response of less than 5 s with a good selectivity, repeatability, reproducibility and a negligible response to common interferents such as Na1+, K1+, d-glucose, l-glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, urea, sucrose, lactose, glycine, penicilloic acid and cephalosporins, was observed.

  19. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josypčuk, Bohdan, E-mail: josypcuk@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Barek, Jiří [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Josypčuk, Oksana [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O{sub 2} concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L{sup −1} with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L{sup −1}. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

  20. Polymer Based Biosensors for Medical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    , environmental monitoring and food safety. The detected element varies from a single molecule (such as glucose), a biopolymer (such as DNA or a protein) to a whole organism (such as bacteria). Due to their easy use and possible miniaturization, biosensors have a high potential to come out of the lab...... and be available for use by everybody. To fulfil these purposes, polymers represent very appropriate materials. Many nano- and microfabrication methods for polymers are available, allowing a fast and cheap production of devices. This chapter will present the general concept of a biosensor in a first part......The objective of this chapter is to give an overview about the newest developments in biosensors made of polymers for medical applications. Biosensors are devices that can recognize and detect a target with high selectivity. They are widely used in many fields such as medical diagnostic...

  1. Direct Determination of a Small-Molecule Drug, Valproic Acid, by an Electrically-Detected Microcantilever Biosensor for Personalized Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-Sun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct, small-molecule determination of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, was investigated by a label-free, nanomechanical biosensor. Valproic acid has long been used as an antiepileptic medication, which is administered through therapeutic drug monitoring and has a narrow therapeutic dosage range of 50–100 μg·mL−1 in blood or serum. Unlike labeled and clinically-used measurement techniques, the label-free, electrical detection microcantilever biosensor can be miniaturized and simplified for use in portable or hand-held point-of-care platforms or personal diagnostic tools. A micromachined microcantilever sensor was packaged into the micro-channel of a fluidic system. The measurement of the antiepileptic drug, valproic acid, in phosphate-buffered saline and serum used a single free-standing, piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor in a thermally-controlled system. The measured surface stresses showed a profile over a concentration range of 50–500 μg·mL−1, which covered the clinically therapeutic range of 50–100 μg·mL−1. The estimated limit of detection (LOD was calculated to be 45 μg·mL−1, and the binding affinity between the drug and the antibody was measured at around 90 ± 21 μg·mL−1. Lastly, the results of the proposed device showed a similar profile in valproic acid drug detection with those of the clinically-used fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

  2. Biosensor-based real-time monitoring of paracetamol photocatalytic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas-Blanchard, Carole; Istamboulié, Georges; Bontoux, Margot; Plantard, Gaël; Goetz, Vincent; Noguer, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents for the first time the integration of a biosensor for the on-line, real-time monitoring of a photocatalytic degradation process. Paracetamol was used as a model molecule due to its wide use and occurrence in environmental waters. The biosensor was developed based on tyrosinase immobilization in a polyvinylalcohol photocrosslinkable polymer. It was inserted in a computer-controlled flow system installed besides a photocatalytic reactor including titanium dioxide (TiO2) as photocatalyst. It was shown that the biosensor was able to accurately monitor the paracetamol degradation with time. Compared with conventional HPLC analysis, the described device provides a real-time information on the reaction advancement, allowing a better control of the photodegradation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigues, Margalida; Abellà, Jordi; Colominas, Sergi

    2017-11-14

    Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan) onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO₂NTAs) has been evaluated. The GOx-Chitosan/TiO₂NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM -1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%), reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%), accuracy (95-105% recovery), and robustness (RSD = 3.3%). Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx-Chitosan/TiO₂NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated.

  4. Smartphone based non-invasive salivary glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-12-15

    The present work deals with the development of a non-invasive optical glucose biosensor using saliva samples and a smartphone. The sensor was fabricated with a simple methodology by immobilization of Glucose oxidase enzyme along with a pH responsive dye on a filter paper based strip. The strip changes color upon reaction with glucose present in saliva and the color changes were detected using a smartphone camera through RGB profiling. This standalone biosensor showed good sensitivity and low interference while operating within 20 s response time. We used various means for improvements such as the use of slope method instead of differential response; use of a responsive pH indicator and made numerous tweaks in the smartphone app. Calibration with spiked saliva samples with slopes for (R + G + B) pixels revealed an exponentially increasing calibration curve with a linear detection range of 50-540 mg/dL, sensitivity of 0.0012 pixels sec -1 /mg dL -1 and LOD of 24.6 mg/dL. The biosensor was clinically validated on both healthy and diabetic subjects divided into several categories based on sex, age, diabetic status etc. and correlation between blood and salivary glucose has been established for better standardization of the sensor. Correlation of 0.44 was obtained between blood and salivary glucose in healthy individuals whereas it was 0.64 and 0.94 in case of prediabetic and diabetic patients respectively. The developed biosensor has the potential to be used for mass diagnosis of diabetes especially in such areas where people remain prohibited from routine analysis due to high healthcare cost. Apart from that, a smartphone would be the only device the user needs for this measurement, along with a disposable low cost test strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance of a Cyanobacteria Whole Cell-Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Heavy Metal and Pesticide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmijah Surif

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whole cell biosensors always face the challenge of low stability of biological components and short storage life. This paper reports the effects of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA immobilization on a whole cell fluorescence biosensor for the detection of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, and pesticides (dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, and chlorpyrifos. The biosensor was produced by entrapping the cyanobacterium Anabaena torulosa on a cellulose membrane, followed by applying a layer of pHEMA, and attaching it to a well. The well was then fixed to an optical probe which was connected to a fluorescence spectrophotometer and an electronic reader. The optimization of the biosensor using several factors such as amount of HEMA and drying temperature were undertaken. The detection limits of biosensor without pHEMA for Cu, Cd, Pb, 2,4-D and chlorpyrifos were 1.195, 0.027, 0.0100, 0.025 and 0.025 µg/L respectively. The presence of pHEMA increased the limits of detection to 1.410, 0.250, 0.500, 0.235 and 0.117 µg/L respectively. pHEMA is known to enhance the reproducibility of the biosensor with average relative standard deviation (RSD of ±1.76% for all the pollutants tested, 48% better than the biosensor without pHEMA (RSD = ±3.73%. In storability test with Cu 5 µg/L, the biosensor with pHEMA performed 11.5% better than the test without pHEMA on day-10 and 5.2% better on day-25. pHEMA is therefore a good candidate to be used in whole cell biosensors as it increases reproducibility and enhances biosensor storability.

  6. Application of the SSB biosensor to study in vitro transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alexander; Hari-Gupta, Yukti; Toseland, Christopher P

    2018-02-12

    Gene expression, catalysed by RNA polymerases (RNAP), is one of the most fundamental processes in living cells. The majority of methods to quantify mRNA are based upon purification of the nucleic acid which leads to experimental inaccuracies and loss of product, or use of high cost dyes and sensitive spectrophotometers. Here, we describe the use of a fluorescent biosensor based upon the single stranded binding (SSB) protein. In this study, the SSB biosensor showed similar binding properties to mRNA, to that of its native substrate, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). We found the biosensor to be reproducible with no associated loss of product through purification, or the requirement for expensive dyes. Therefore, we propose that the SSB biosensor is a useful tool for comparative measurement of mRNA yield following in vitro transcription. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of Peanut Allergen Ara h 6 in Commercially Processed Foods using a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Abdus; Oh, Jun-Hyun; Park, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Jinyoung

    2018-06-12

    Background : The peanut protein Arachis hypogaea (Ara h) 6 is one ofthe most serious food allergens that contributes to food-related, life-threatening problems worldwide. The extremely low allergic dose demands for more selective and rapid methods for detecting Ara h 6. Objective : The goal of this study was to develop a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based biosensor for the rapid detection of Ara h 6 in commercial food products. Methods : The detection principle of this biosensor was based on the binding of Ara h 6 to the anti-Ara h 6 antibody (pAb) through 1-pyrenibutanoic acid succinimidyl ester. The resistance difference (ΔR) was calculated via linear sweep voltammetry using a potentiostat. Results : The ∆R increased as the Ara h 6 concentrations increased above the range of 10 0 -10 7 pg/L. A specificity analysis showed that the anti-Ara h 6 pAb selectively interacted with Ara h 6 molecules in the buffer solution (pH 7.4). Conclusions : This research proposes that an SWCNT-based biosensor in self-assembly with antibodies could be an effective tool for the rapid detection of allergen proteins in food. Highlights : The developed biosensor exhibited higher sensitivity and selectivity. Application studies resulted in precise Ara h 6 detection in peanut-containing processed food.

  8. Biosensors based on gold nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Vidotti,Marcio; Carvalhal,Rafaela F.; Mendes,Renata K.; Ferreira,Danielle C. M.; Kubota,Lauro T.

    2011-01-01

    The present review discusses the latest advances in biosensor technology achieved by the assembly of biomolecules associated with gold nanoparticles in analytical devices. This review is divided in sections according to the biomolecule employed in the biosensor development: (i) immunocompounds; (ii) DNA/RNA and functional DNA/RNA; and (iii) enzymes and Heme proteins. In order to facilitate the comprehension each section was subdivided according to the transduction mode. Gold nanoparticles bas...

  9. Nanoparticle-functionalized nucleic acids: A strategy for amplified electrochemical detection of some single-base mismatches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahangar, Laleh Enayati; Mehrgardi, Masoud A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, nanoparticle-functionalized nucleic acids were employed to improve the sensitivity of electrochemical DNA biosensors that make capable them to detect different types of single-base mismatches (SBMs), including thermodynamically stable ones. The present biosensor was constructed by the immobilization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) on the surface of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) via SH-functionalized DNA. A redox probe of 2-mercapto-1-methyl imidazole (MMI), which has different electrochemical behavior on Pt-NP and CPE, was used. This behavior helps to overcome the pinhole effect in DNA hybridization biosensors. Additionally, in the present biosensor, the positioning of the redox probe under the SBM in DNA, which decreases the sensitivity of most DNA biosensors, did not contribute to the observed electrochemical signal.

  10. Nanoparticle-functionalized nucleic acids: A strategy for amplified electrochemical detection of some single-base mismatches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahangar, Laleh Enayati [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrgardi, Masoud A., E-mail: m.mehrgardi@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, nanoparticle-functionalized nucleic acids were employed to improve the sensitivity of electrochemical DNA biosensors that make capable them to detect different types of single-base mismatches (SBMs), including thermodynamically stable ones. The present biosensor was constructed by the immobilization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) on the surface of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) via SH-functionalized DNA. A redox probe of 2-mercapto-1-methyl imidazole (MMI), which has different electrochemical behavior on Pt-NP and CPE, was used. This behavior helps to overcome the pinhole effect in DNA hybridization biosensors. Additionally, in the present biosensor, the positioning of the redox probe under the SBM in DNA, which decreases the sensitivity of most DNA biosensors, did not contribute to the observed electrochemical signal.

  11. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yuan; Zhou, Yanli; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2012-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC), carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitiv...

  12. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, A; Ghodsi, J; Afraz, A; Yurchenko, O; Urban, G

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13μmolL(-1) and detection limit of 25nmolL(-1). The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical and optical biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Rui; Li, Chang Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2011-06-01

    Nanomaterials and nanostructures exhibit unique size-tunable and shape-dependent physicochemical properties that are different from those of bulk materials. Advances of nanomaterials and nanostructures open a new door to develop various novel biosensors. The present work has reviewed the recent progress in electrochemical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescent biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanostructures. An emphasis is put on the research that demonstrates how the performance of biosensors such as the limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity is improved by the use of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  14. Biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors for determination of some substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyadevych, Sergei V; Soldatkin, Alexey P; Korpan, Yaroslav I; Arkhypova, Valentyna N; El'skaya, Anna V; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Martelet, Claude; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2003-10-01

    This paper is a review of the authors' publications concerning the development of biosensors based on enzyme field-effect transistors (ENFETs) for direct substrates or inhibitors analysis. Such biosensors were designed by using immobilised enzymes and ion-selective field-effect transistors (ISFETs). Highly specific, sensitive, simple, fast and cheap determination of different substances renders them as promising tools in medicine, biotechnology, environmental control, agriculture and the food industry. The biosensors based on ENFETs and direct enzyme analysis for determination of concentrations of different substrates (glucose, urea, penicillin, formaldehyde, creatinine, etc.) have been developed and their laboratory prototypes were fabricated. Improvement of the analytical characteristics of such biosensors may be achieved by using a differential mode of measurement, working solutions with different buffer concentrations and specific agents, negatively or positively charged additional membranes, or genetically modified enzymes. These approaches allow one to decrease the effect of the buffer capacity influence on the sensor response in an aim to increase the sensitivity of the biosensors and to extend their dynamic ranges. Biosensors for the determination of concentrations of different toxic substances (organophosphorous pesticides, heavy metal ions, hypochlorite, glycoalkaloids, etc.) were designed on the basis of reversible and/or irreversible enzyme inhibition effect(s). The conception of an enzymatic multibiosensor for the determination of different toxic substances based on the enzyme inhibition effect is also described. We will discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages of biosensors based on the ENFETs developed and also demonstrate their practical application.

  15. Computational design of auxotrophy-dependent microbial biosensors for combinatorial metabolic engineering experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naama; Shlomi, Tomer

    2011-01-21

    Combinatorial approaches in metabolic engineering work by generating genetic diversity in a microbial population followed by screening for strains with improved phenotypes. One of the most common goals in this field is the generation of a high rate chemical producing strain. A major hurdle with this approach is that many chemicals do not have easy to recognize attributes, making their screening expensive and time consuming. To address this problem, it was previously suggested to use microbial biosensors to facilitate the detection and quantification of chemicals of interest. Here, we present novel computational methods to: (i) rationally design microbial biosensors for chemicals of interest based on substrate auxotrophy that would enable their high-throughput screening; (ii) predict engineering strategies for coupling the synthesis of a chemical of interest with the production of a proxy metabolite for which high-throughput screening is possible via a designed bio-sensor. The biosensor design method is validated based on known genetic modifications in an array of E. coli strains auxotrophic to various amino-acids. Predicted chemical production rates achievable via the biosensor-based approach are shown to potentially improve upon those predicted by current rational strain design approaches. (A Matlab implementation of the biosensor design method is available via http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/~tomersh/tools).

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Adsorption in Surface-based Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus

    The present Ph.D. dissertation concerns the application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which is a surface-based biosensor technology, for studies of adsorption dynamics. The thesis contains both experimental and theoretical work. In the theoretical part we develop the theory...... cell of the surface-based biosensor, in addition to the sensor surface, is investigated. In the experimental part of the thesis we use a Biacore SPR sensor to study lipase adsorption on model substrate surfaces, as well as competitive adsorption of lipase and surfactants. A part of the experimental...

  17. Potentiality of application of the conductometric L-arginine biosensors for the real sample analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffrezic-Renault N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine an influence of serum components on the L-arginine biosensor sensitivity and to formulate practical recommendations for its reliable analysis. Methods. The L-arginine biosensor comprised arginase and urease co-immobilized by cross-linking. Results. The biosensor specificity was investigated based on a series of representative studies (namely, through urea determination in the serum; inhibitory effect studies of mercury ions; high temperature treatment of sensors; studying the biosensor sensitivity to the serum treated by enzymes, and selectivity studies. It was found that the response of the biosensor to the serum injections was determined by high sensitivity of the L-arginine biosensor toward not only to L-arginine but also toward two other basic amino acids (L-lysine and L-histidine. Conclusions. A detailed procedure of optimization of the conductometric biosensor for L-arginine determination in blood serum has been proposed.

  18. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofiber based Biosensor Platform for Glucose Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamun, Khandaker A.; Tulip, Fahmida S.; MacArthur, Kimberly; McFarlane, Nicole; Islam, Syed K.; Hensley, Dale

    2014-03-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have recently become an important tool for biosensor design. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) have excellent conductive and structural properties with many irregularities and defect sites in addition to exposed carboxyl groups throughout their surfaces. These properties allow a better immobilization matrix compared to carbon nanotubes and offer better resolution when compared with the FET-based biosensors. VACNFs can be deterministically grown on silicon substrates allowing optimization of the structures for various biosensor applications. Two VACNF electrode architectures have been employed in this study and a comparison of their performances has been made in terms of sensitivity, sensing limitations, dynamic range, and response time. The usage of VACNF platform as a glucose sensor has been verified in this study by selecting an optimum architecture based on the VACNF forest density. Read More: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0129156414500062

  19. A low cost color-based bacterial biosensor for measuring arsenic in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Using arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater for drinking or irrigation has caused major health problems for humans around the world, raising a need to monitor As level efficiently and economically. This study developed a color-based bacterial biosensor which is easy-to-use and inexpensive for measuring As and could be complementary to current As detecting techniques. The arsR-lacZ recombinant gene cassette in nonpathogenic strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used in the color-based biosensor which could be observed by eyes or measured by spectrometer. The developed bacterial biosensor demonstrates a quantitative range from 10 to 500μgL(-1) of As in 3-h reaction time. Furthermore, the biosensor was able to successfully detect and estimate As concentration in groundwater sample by measuring optical density at 595nm (OD595). Among different storage methods used in this study, biosensor in liquid at 4°C showed the longest shelf life about 9d, and liquid storage at RT and cell pellet could also be stored for about 3-5d. In conclusion, this study showed that the As biosensor with reliable color signal and economical preservation methods is useful for rapid screening of As pollutant, providing the potential for large scale screening and better management strategies for environmental quality control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margalida Artigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTAs has been evaluated. The GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM−1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%, reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%, accuracy (95–105% recovery, and robustness (RSD = 3.3%. Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated.

  1. Analytical Parameters of an Amperometric Glucose Biosensor for Fast Analysis in Food Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Amperometric biosensors based on the use of glucose oxidase (GOx) are able to combine the robustness of electrochemical techniques with the specificity of biological recognition processes. However, very little information can be found in literature about the fundamental analytical parameters of these sensors. In this work, the analytical behavior of an amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of GOx using a hydrogel (Chitosan) onto highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTAs) has been evaluated. The GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor showed a sensitivity of 5.46 μA·mM−1 with a linear range from 0.3 to 1.5 mM; its fundamental analytical parameters were studied using a commercial soft drink. The obtained results proved sufficient repeatability (RSD = 1.9%), reproducibility (RSD = 2.5%), accuracy (95–105% recovery), and robustness (RSD = 3.3%). Furthermore, no significant interferences from fructose, ascorbic acid and citric acid were obtained. In addition, the storage stability was further examined, after 30 days, the GOx–Chitosan/TiO2NTAs biosensor retained 85% of its initial current response. Finally, the glucose content of different food samples was measured using the biosensor and compared with the respective HPLC value. In the worst scenario, a deviation smaller than 10% was obtained among the 20 samples evaluated. PMID:29135931

  2. Novel biosensors based on flavonoid-responsive transcriptional regulators introduced into Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Malla, Sailesh

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the construction of two flavonoid biosensors, which can be applied for metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli strains. The biosensors are based on transcriptional regulators combined with autofluorescent proteins. The transcriptional activator FdeR from Herbaspirillum...... and externally added flavonoid concentration. The QdoR-biosensor was successfully applied for detection of kaempferol production in vivo at the single cell level by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Furthermore, the amount of kaempferol produced highly correlated with the specific fluorescence of E. coli...... cells containing a flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (fls1). We expect the designed biosensors to be applied for isolation of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. © 2013 The Authors....

  3. Nucleic Acids and Enzymes at Electrodes: Electrochemical Nanomedical Biosensors and Biofuel Cell Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferapontova, Elena

    Starting from the development of the first electrochemical biosensor for glucose, as far as in 1962, the electrochemical biosensor research area underwent a dramatic evolution both in scientific and commercial directions. At present, electrochemical biosensors are widely used in medical practice,...... perspectives of the biosensor research and such biotechnological applications as enzyme electrodes for sustainable energy production (6) will be discussed.......Starting from the development of the first electrochemical biosensor for glucose, as far as in 1962, the electrochemical biosensor research area underwent a dramatic evolution both in scientific and commercial directions. At present, electrochemical biosensors are widely used in medical practice......, by offering extremely sensitive and accurate yet simple, rapid, and inexpensive biosensing platforms (1). In this talk, I will discuss the developed at iNANO reagentless enzymatic biosensors, in which the enzyme is directly electronically coupled to the electrode (1-3), and advanced genosensor platforms...

  4. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Stefano; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 %_v_o_l), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm"2 (1574 μA/%_v_o_l cm"2) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003%_v_o_l). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  5. A paper-based nanomodified electrochemical biosensor for ethanol detection in beers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cinti@uniroma2.it; Basso, Mattia; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana, E-mail: fabiana.arduini@uniroma2.it

    2017-04-01

    Herein, we report the first example of a paper-based screen-printed biosensor for the detection of ethanol in beer samples. Common office paper was adopted to fabricate the analytical device. The properties of this paper-based screen-printed electrode (SPE) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, and they were compared with the well-established polyester-based SPEs as well. Paper demonstrated similar properties when compared with polyester, highlighting suitability towards its utilization in sensor development, with the advantages of low cost and simple disposal by incineration. A nanocomposite formed by Carbon Black (CB) and Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PBNPs), namely CB/PBNPs, was utilized as an electrocatalyst to detect the hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction between alcohol oxidase (AOx) and ethanol. After optimizing the analytical parameters, such as pH, enzyme, concentration, and working potential, the developed biosensor allowed a facile quantification of ethanol up to 10 mM (0.058 %{sub vol}), with a sensitivity of 9.13 μA/mM cm{sup 2} (1574 μA/%{sub vol} cm{sup 2}) and a detection limit equal to 0.52 mM (0.003%{sub vol}). These satisfactory performances rendered the realized paper-based biosensor reliable over the analysis of ethanol contained in four different types of beers, including Pilsner, Weiss, Lager, and alcohol-free. The proposed manufacturing approach offers an affordable and sustainable tool for food quality control and for the realization of different electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well. - Highlights: • Novel ethanol biosensor fabricated onto office paper. • Enhanced hydrogen peroxide detection using Carbon black/Prussian blue nanoparticles. • Only 100 μL required to perform measurements. • Paper-based electrochemical device coupled with a portable potentiostat. • Rapid quantification of ethanol in beer samples.

  6. Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped diamond (BDD thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC, carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described.

  7. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Rebecca L; Papalia, Giuseppe A; Flynn, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users...... the remaining panel of participants was 620 pM with a standard deviation of 980 pM. These results demonstrate that when this biosensor assay was designed and executed appropriately, the reported rate constants were consistent, and independent of which protein was immobilized and which biosensor was used....

  8. Enhancement of affinity-based biosensors: effect of sensing chamber geometry on sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lynn, Nicholas Scott; Šípová, Hana; Adam, Pavel; Homola, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2013), s. 1413-1421 ISSN 1473-0197 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : SURFACE-BASED BIOSENSORS * DIFFUSION * PLASMON RESONANCE BIOSENSOR Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 5.748, year: 2013

  9. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, A., E-mail: ali.hajian@fmf.uni-freiburg.de [Freiburg Materials Research Center, FMF, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str.21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Laboratory for Sensors, Department of Microsystems Engineering, IMTEK, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Ghodsi, J.; Afraz, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yurchenko, O. [Freiburg Materials Research Center, FMF, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str.21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Urban, G. [Freiburg Materials Research Center, FMF, University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str.21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Laboratory for Sensors, Department of Microsystems Engineering, IMTEK, University of Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13 μmol L{sup −1} and detection limit of 25 nmol L{sup −1}. The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new methylparaben biosensor was constructed by modification of carbon paste electrode with hemoglobin and MWCNTs. • The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode and electrochemical behavior of the methylparaben on the electrode surface were studied. • The response of modified GCE was analyzed by voltammetry technique (CV and DPV). • The electrode was used to the determination of methylparaben in real samples • The performance of the fabricated biosensor was satisfactorily compared to the previously reported electrochemical sensors for methylparaben determination.

  10. Nanomolar detection of methylparaben by a cost-effective hemoglobin-based biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajian, A.; Ghodsi, J.; Afraz, A.; Yurchenko, O.; Urban, G.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a new biosensor for methylparaben determination using electrocatalytic properties of hemoglobin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric oxidation of methylparaben by the proposed biosensor in phosphate buffer (pH = 7.0), a physiological pH, was studied and it was confirmed that methylparaben undergoes a one electron-one proton reaction in a diffusion-controlled process. The biosensor was fabricated by carbon paste electrode modified with hemoglobin and multiwalled carbon nanotube. Based on the excellent electrochemical properties of the modified electrode, a sensitive voltammetric method was used for determination of methylparaben within a linear range from 0.1 to 13 μmol L −1 and detection limit of 25 nmol L −1 . The developed biosensor possessed accurate and rapid response to methylparaben and showed good sensitivity, stability, and repeatability. Finally, the applicability of the proposed biosensor was verified by methylparaben evaluation in various real samples. - Highlights: • A new methylparaben biosensor was constructed by modification of carbon paste electrode with hemoglobin and MWCNTs. • The electrochemical properties of the modified electrode and electrochemical behavior of the methylparaben on the electrode surface were studied. • The response of modified GCE was analyzed by voltammetry technique (CV and DPV). • The electrode was used to the determination of methylparaben in real samples • The performance of the fabricated biosensor was satisfactorily compared to the previously reported electrochemical sensors for methylparaben determination.

  11. Fluorescent Biosensor for Phosphate Determination Based on Immobilized Polyfluorene-Liposomal Nanoparticles Coupled with Alkaline Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Zehra; Martínez-Tomé, Maria José; Mallavia, Ricardo; Mateo, C Reyes

    2017-01-11

    This work describes the development of a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The biosensor is composed of the enzyme ALP and the conjugated cationic polyfluorene HTMA-PFP. The working principle of the biosensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of this polyelectrolyte by p-nitrophenol (PNP), a product of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) catalyzed by ALP. Because HTMA-PFP forms unstable aggregates in buffer, with low fluorescence efficiency, previous stabilization of the polyelectrolyte was required before the development of the biosensor. HTMA-PFP was stabilized through its interaction with lipid vesicles to obtain stable blue-emitting nanoparticles (NPs). Fluorescent NPs were characterized, and the ability to be quenched by PNP was evaluated. These nanoparticles were coupled to ALP and entrapped in a sol-gel matrix to produce a biosensor that can serve as a screening platform to identify ALP inhibitors. The components of the biosensor were examined before and after sol-gel entrapment, and the biosensor was optimized to allow the determination of phosphate ion in aqueous medium.

  12. Microbial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    A microbial biosensor is an analytical device that couples microorganisms with a transducer to enable rapid, accurate and sensitive detection of target analytes in fields as diverse as medicine, environmental monitoring, defense, food processing and safety. The earlier microbial biosensors used the respiratory and metabolic functions of the microorganisms to detect a substance that is either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes. Recently, genetically engineered microorganisms based on fusing of the lux, gfp or lacZ gene reporters to an inducible gene promoter have been widely applied to assay toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the recent trends in the development and application of microbial biosensors. Current advances and prospective future direction in developing microbial biosensor have also been discussed

  13. Detection of parathyroid hormone using an electrochemical impedance biosensor based on PAMAM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hormone-based impedimetric biosensor to determine parathyroid hormone (PTH) level in serum for diagnosis and monitoring treatment of hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid cancer. The interaction between PTH and the biosensor was investigated by an electrochemical method. The biosensor was based on the gold electrode modified by 12-mercapto dodecanoic (12MDDA). Antiparathyroid hormone (anti-PTH) was covalently immobilized on to poly amidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) which was bound to a 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) couple, self-assembled monolayer structure from one of the other NH2 sites. The immobilization of anti-PTH was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscope techniques. After the optimization studies of immobilization materials such as 12MDDA, EDC-NHS, PAMAM, and glutaraldehyde, the performance of the biosensor was investigated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. PTH was detected within a linear range of 10-60 fg/mL. Finally the described biosensor was used to monitor PTH levels in artificial serum samples. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Extended Solution Gate OFET-based Biosensor for Label-free Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Detection with Polyethylene Glycol-Containing Bioreceptor Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Dailey, Jennifer; Li, Hui; Jang, Hyun-June; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Jeff Tza-Huei; Everett, Allen D; Katz, Howard E

    2017-05-25

    A novel organic field effect transistor (OFET) -based biosensor is described for label-free glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) detection. We report the first use of an extended solution gate structure where the sensing area and the organic semiconductor are separated, and a reference electrode is not needed. Different molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are mixed into the bio-receptor layer to help extend the Debye screening length. The drain current change was significantly increased with the help of higher molecular weight PEGs, as they are known to reduce the dielectric constant. We also investigated the sensing performance under different gate voltage (V g ). The sensitivity increased after we decreased V g from -5 V to -2 V, because the lower V g is much closer to the OFET threshold voltage and the influence of attached negatively charged proteins become more apparent. Finally, the selectivity experiments toward different interferents were performed. The stability and selectivity are promising for clinical applications.

  15. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  16. Label-free detection of glycoproteins by the lectin biosensor down to attomolar level using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertok, Tomas; Sediva, Alena; Katrlik, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Pavol; Mikula, Milan; Nosko, Martin; Tkac, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present here an ultrasensitive electrochemical biosensor based on a lectin biorecognition capable to detect concentrations of glycoproteins down to attomolar (aM) level by investigation of changes in the charge transfer resistance (Rct) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). On polycrystalline gold modified by an aminoalkanethiol linker layer, gold nanoparticles were attached. A Sambucus nigra agglutinin was covalently immobilised on a mixed self-assembled monolayer formed on gold nanoparticles and finally, the biosensor surface was blocked by poly(vinylalcohol). The lectin biosensor was applied for detection of sialic acid containing glycoproteins fetuin and asialofetuin. Building of a biosensing interface was carefully characterised by a broad range of techniques such as electrochemistry, EIS, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface plasmon resonance with the best performance of the biosensor achieved by application of HS-(CH2)11-NH2 linker and gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 20 nm. The lectin biosensor responded to an addition of fetuin (8.7% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (338 ± 11) Ω decade-1 and to asialofetuin (≤ 0.5% of sialic acid) with sensitivity of (109 ± 10) Ω decade-1 with a blank experiment with oxidised asialofetuin (without recognisable sialic acid) revealing sensitivity of detection of (79 ± 13) Ω decade-1. These results suggest the lectin biosensor responded to changes in the glycan amount in a quantitative way with a successful validation by a lectin microarray. Such a biosensor device has a great potential to be employed in early biomedical diagnostics of diseases such as arthritis or cancer, which are connected to aberrant glycosylation of protein biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:23601864

  17. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  18. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito-Peña, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valdés, Mayra Granda [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Glahn-Martínez, Bettina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, Maria C., E-mail: mcmbondi@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  19. A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A S Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-07-22

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

  20. A Large Response Range Reflectometric Urea Biosensor Made from Silica-Gel Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A.S. Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol–gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50–500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors. PMID:25054632

  1. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo; Long, Yumei; Li, Weifeng; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K M app ) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay

  2. A sensitive glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Dai, Xingxin; Li, Jianguo [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Long, Yumei, E-mail: yumeilong@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China); Li, Weifeng, E-mail: liweifeng@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Tu, Yifeng [College of Chemistry, Chemical engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); The Key Lab of Health Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou (China)

    2015-04-01

    Nano-Ag particles were coated with colloidal carbon (Ag@C) to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of biosensor. The core–shell structure was evidenced by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that the carbon shell is rich of function groups such as − OH and − COOH. The as-prepared Ag@C core–shell structure can offer favorable microenvironment for immobilizing glucose oxidase and the direct electrochemistry process of glucose oxidase (GOD) at Ag@C modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was realized. The modified electrode exhibited good response to glucose. Under optimum experimental conditions the biosensor linearly responded to glucose concentration in the range of 0.05–2.5 mM, with a detection limit of 0.02 mM (S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis–Menten constant (K{sub M}{sup app}) of the biosensor is calculated to be 1.7 mM, suggesting high enzymatic activity and affinity toward glucose. In addition, the GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE shows good reproducibility and long-term stability. These results suggested that core–shell structured Ag@C is an ideal matrix for the immobilization of the redox enzymes and further the construction of the sensitive enzyme biosensor. - Highlights: • Enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOD was achieved at Ag@C modified electrode. • A novel glucose biosensor based on Ag@C core–shell structure was developed. • The designed GOD-Ag@C/Nafion/GCE biosensor showed favorable analysis properties. • The biosensor is easy to prepare and can be applied for real sample assay.

  3. Studies Regarding the Membranous Support of a Glucose Biosensor Based on Gox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bizerea-Spiridon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available To obtain glucose biosensors based on glucose oxidase (GOx, the enzyme can be immobilized on the sensitive surface of a glass electrode by different techniques: deposition on membranous support (cellophane or other macromolecular material or entrapment in a matrix. Deposition on membranous support also involves cross-linking with glutaraldehyde or entrapment in silica gel, following the sol-gel procedure. The aim of this preliminary work was to study the influence of cellophane replacement with a PVA based membranous support on the glucose biosensor performance. The data obtained at pH measurements of buffer solutions with cellophane and PVA membranous supports respectively, show that the PVA based membrane assures superior performances of the biosensor for low glucose concentrations determination (about 10-4 M. These results allow the transition to an improved immobilization technique, namely the enzyme entrapment in membranous material.

  4. Speciation of chromium using chronoamperometric biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo-Pérez, Ana; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Alonso-Lomillo, MAsunción; Arcos-Martínez, MJulia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(III) on tyrosinase based biosensors using SPCEs. • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(VI) on GOx based biosensors using SPCEs. • High degree of sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of both chromium species. • Bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric determination of both chromium species in the same sample. - Abstract: Chronoamperometric assays based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase (GOx) inactivation have been developed for the monitoring of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Tyrosinase was immobilized by crosslinking on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as electron transfer mediator. The tyrosinase/SPC TTF E response to pyrocatechol is inhibited by Cr(III). This process, that is not affected by Cr(VI), allows the determination of Cr(III) with a capability of detection of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM and a reproducibility of 5.5%. GOx modified screen-printed carbon platinised electrodes (SPC Pt Es) were developed for the selective determination of Cr(VI) using ferricyanide as redox mediator. The biosensor was able to discriminate two different oxidation states of chromium being able to reject Cr(III) and to detect the toxic species Cr(VI). Chronoamperometric response of the biosensor towards glucose decreases with the presence of Cr(VI), with a capability of detection of 90.5 ± 7.6 nM and a reproducibility of 6.2%. A bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric biosensor was finally developed using a tyrosinase/SPC TTF E and a GOx/SPC Pt E connected in array mode for the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in spiked tap water and in waste water from a tannery factory samples

  5. Speciation of chromium using chronoamperometric biosensors based on screen-printed electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Pérez, Ana, E-mail: anacp@ubu.es; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga, E-mail: olgado@ubu.es; Alonso-Lomillo, MAsunción, E-mail: malomillo@ubu.es; Arcos-Martínez, MJulia, E-mail: jarcos@ubu.es

    2014-06-23

    Highlights: • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(III) on tyrosinase based biosensors using SPCEs. • Chronoamperometric determination of Cr(VI) on GOx based biosensors using SPCEs. • High degree of sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of both chromium species. • Bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric determination of both chromium species in the same sample. - Abstract: Chronoamperometric assays based on tyrosinase and glucose oxidase (GOx) inactivation have been developed for the monitoring of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Tyrosinase was immobilized by crosslinking on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) containing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as electron transfer mediator. The tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E response to pyrocatechol is inhibited by Cr(III). This process, that is not affected by Cr(VI), allows the determination of Cr(III) with a capability of detection of 2.0 ± 0.2 μM and a reproducibility of 5.5%. GOx modified screen-printed carbon platinised electrodes (SPC{sub Pt}Es) were developed for the selective determination of Cr(VI) using ferricyanide as redox mediator. The biosensor was able to discriminate two different oxidation states of chromium being able to reject Cr(III) and to detect the toxic species Cr(VI). Chronoamperometric response of the biosensor towards glucose decreases with the presence of Cr(VI), with a capability of detection of 90.5 ± 7.6 nM and a reproducibility of 6.2%. A bipotentiostatic chronoamperometric biosensor was finally developed using a tyrosinase/SPC{sub TTF}E and a GOx/SPC{sub Pt}E connected in array mode for the simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in spiked tap water and in waste water from a tannery factory samples.

  6. Highly sensitive dendrimer-based nanoplasmonic biosensor for drug allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Mesa-Antunez, Pablo; Estevez, M-Carmen; Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio Jesus; Otte, Marinus A; Sepulveda, Borja; Collado, Daniel; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Torres, Maria Jose; Perez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Lechuga, Laura M

    2015-04-15

    A label-free biosensing strategy for amoxicillin (AX) allergy diagnosis based on the combination of novel dendrimer-based conjugates and a recently developed nanoplasmonic sensor technology is reported. Gold nanodisks were functionalized with a custom-designed thiol-ending-polyamido-based dendron (d-BAPAD) peripherally decorated with amoxicilloyl (AXO) groups (d-BAPAD-AXO) in order to detect specific IgE generated in patient's serum against this antibiotic during an allergy outbreak. This innovative strategy, which follows a simple one-step immobilization procedure, shows exceptional results in terms of sensitivity and robustness, leading to a highly-reproducible and long-term stable surface which allows achieving extremely low limits of detection. Moreover, the viability of this biosensor approach to analyze human biological samples has been demonstrated by directly analyzing and quantifying specific anti-AX antibodies in patient's serum without any sample pretreatment. An excellent limit of detection (LoD) of 0.6ng/mL (i.e. 0.25kU/L) has been achieved in the evaluation of clinical samples evidencing the potential of our nanoplasmonic biosensor as an advanced diagnostic tool to quickly identify allergic patients. The results have been compared and validated with a conventional clinical immunofluorescence assay (ImmunoCAP test), confirming an excellent correlation between both techniques. The combination of a novel compact nanoplasmonic platform and a dendrimer-based strategy provides a highly sensitive label free biosensor approach with over two times better detectability than conventional SPR. Both the biosensor device and the carrier structure hold great potential in clinical diagnosis for biomarker analysis in whole serum samples and other human biological samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosensors and bioelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Karunakaran, Chandran; Benjamin, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors and Bioelectronics presents the rapidly evolving methodologies that are relevant to biosensors and bioelectronics fabrication and characterization. The book provides a comprehensive understanding of biosensor functionality, and is an interdisciplinary reference that includes a range of interwoven contributing subjects, including electrochemistry, nanoparticles, and conducting polymers. Authored by a team of bioinstrumentation experts, this book serves as a blueprint for performing advanced fabrication and characterization of sensor systems-arming readers with an application-based re

  8. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.

  9. Cantilever-Based Microwave Biosensors: Analysis, Designs and Optimizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Jónasson, Sævar Þór

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel microwave readout scheme for measuring deflection of cantilevers in nanometer range. The cantilever deflection can be sensed by the variation of transmission levels or resonant frequencies of microwave signals. The sensitivity of the cantilever biosensor based on LC...

  10. A Graphene-Based Biosensing Platform Based on Regulated Release of an Aptameric DNA Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Chen, Yongli; Li, Song; Lin, Shuo; Jiang, Yuyang

    2015-11-09

    A novel biosensing platform was developed by integrating an aptamer-based DNA biosensor with graphene oxide (GO) for rapid and facile detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, as a model target). The DNA biosensor, which is locked by GO, is designed to contain two sensing modules that include recognition site for ATP and self-replication track that yields the nicking domain for Nt.BbvCI. By taking advantage of the different binding affinity of single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA and aptamer-target complex toward GO, the DNA biosensor could be efficiently released from GO in the presence of target with the help of a complementary DNA strand (CPDNA) that partially hybridizes to the DNA biosensor. Then, the polymerization/nicking enzyme synergetic isothermal amplification could be triggered, leading to the synthesis of massive DNA amplicons, thus achieving an enhanced sensitivity with a wide linear dynamic response range of four orders of magnitude and good selectivity. This biosensing strategy expands the applications of GO-DNA nanobiointerfaces in biological sensing, showing great potential in fundamental research and biomedical diagnosis.

  11. Instrumentation to Measure the Capacitance of Biosensors by Sinusoidal Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar KATHUROJU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Micro Controller based instrumentation to measure the capacitance of biosensors is developed. It is based on frequency domain technique with sinusoidal wave input. Changes in the capacitance of biosensor because of the analyte specific reaction are calculated by knowing the current flowing through the sample. A dedicated 8-bit microcontroller (AT89C52 and its associated peripherals are employed for the hardware and application specific software is developed in ‘C’ language. The paper describes the methodology, instrumentation details along with a specific application to glucose sensing. The measurements are conducted with glucose oxidase based capacitance biosensor and the obtained results are compared with the conventional method of sugar measurements using the UV-Visible spectroscopy (Phenol-Sulphuric acid assay method. Measurement accuracy of the instrument is found to be ± 5 %. Experiments are conducted on glucose sensor with different bias voltages. It is found that for bias voltages varying from 0.5 to 0.7 Volt, the measurements are good for this application.

  12. Kinetics of Antibody Binding to Membranes of Living Bacteria Measured by a Photonic Crystal-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Rostova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical biosensors based on photonic crystal surface waves (PC SWs offer a possibility to study binding interactions with living cells, overcoming the limitation of rather small evanescent field penetration depth into a sample medium that is characteristic for typical optical biosensors. Besides this, simultaneous excitation of s- and p-polarized surface waves with different penetration depths is realized here, permitting unambiguous separation of surface and volume contributions to the measured signal. PC-based biosensors do not require a bulk signal correction, compared to widely used surface plasmon resonance-based devices. We developed a chitosan-based protocol of PC chip functionalization for bacterial attachment and performed experiments on antibody binding to living bacteria measured in real time by the PCSW-based biosensor. Data analysis reveals specific binding and gives the value of the dissociation constant for monoclonal antibodies (IgG2b against bacterial lipopolysaccharides equal to KD = 6.2 ± 3.4 nM. To our knowledge, this is a first demonstration of antibody-binding kinetics to living bacteria by a label-free optical biosensor.

  13. Progress of new label-free techniques for biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Wang, Yajun; Feng, Qiliang; Wei, Ye; Ji, Jianlong; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The detection techniques used in biosensors can be broadly classified into label-based and label-free. Label-based detection relies on the specific properties of labels for detecting a particular target. In contrast, label-free detection is suitable for the target molecules that are not labeled or the screening of analytes which are not easy to tag. Also, more types of label-free biosensors have emerged with developments in biotechnology. The latest developed techniques in label-free biosensors, such as field-effect transistors-based biosensors including carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensors, graphene field-effect transistor biosensors and silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors, magnetoelastic biosensors, optical-based biosensors, surface stress-based biosensors and other type of biosensors based on the nanotechnology are discussed. The sensing principles, configurations, sensing performance, applications, advantages and restriction of different label-free based biosensors are considered and discussed in this review. Most concepts included in this survey could certainly be applied to the development of this kind of biosensor in the future.

  14. Graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold as elite nanomaterials for fabrication of biosensors for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ahlawat, Wandit; Kumar, Rajesh; Dilbaghi, Neeraj

    2015-08-15

    Technological advancements worldwide at rapid pace in the area of materials science and nanotechnology have made it possible to synthesize nanoparticles with desirable properties not exhibited by the bulk material. Among variety of available nanomaterials, graphene, carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide and gold nanopartilces proved to be elite and offered amazing electrochemical biosensing. This encourages us to write a review which highlights the recent achievements in the construction of genosensor, immunosensor and enzymatic biosensor based on the above nanomaterials. Carbon based nanomaterials offers a direct electron transfer between the functionalized nanomaterials and active site of bioreceptor without involvement of any mediator which not only amplifies the signal but also provide label free sensing. Gold shows affinity towards immunological molecules and is most routinely used for immunological sensing. Zinc oxide can easily immobilize proteins and hence offers a large group of enzyme based biosensor. Modification of the working electrode by introduction of these nanomaterials or combination of two/three of above nanomaterials together and forming a nanocomposite reflected the best results with excellent stability, reproducibility and enhanced sensitivity. Highly attractive electrochemical properties and electrocatalytic activity of these elite nanomaterials have facilitated achievement of enhanced signal amplification needed for the construction of ultrasensitive electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of glucose, cholesterol, Escherichia coli, influenza virus, cancer, human papillomavirus, dopamine, glutamic acid, IgG, IgE, uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetlycholine, cortisol, cytosome, sequence specific DNA and amino acids. Recent researches for bedside biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon Nanotubes-Based Potentiometric Bio-Sensors for Determination of Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jaworska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using disposable plastic-carbon potentiometric sensors as enzyme biosensors was examined. Urease enzyme was immobilized on poly(vinyl chloride based H+- or NH4+-selective membranes using cellulose acetate. This approach has resulted in a potentiometric response on changing the pH of the solution or NH4+ ion content due to an enzymatic reaction that occurs between urease and urea. Both types of potentiometric biosensors for urea were characterized by good analytical parameters as high sensitivity and fast response time.

  16. Poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole)/polypyrrole composite nanowires for glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hairong; Zhang Aifeng; Sun Yanan; Ru Xiaoning; Ge Dongtao; Shi Wei

    2012-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor based on poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole) (PPyCOOH)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite nanowires was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on the nanowires via covalent linkages. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were fabricated by a facile two-step electrochemical synthesis route. First, PPy nanowires were synthesized in phosphate buffer solution using organic sulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonate acid, as soft-template. Then, PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were obtained by polymerizing 1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole onto PPy nanowires via electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscopic, FT-IR spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammograms were used to characterize the structural and electrical behaviors of the composite nanowires. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires exhibited uniform diameter, high reactive site (-COOH), large specific surface, excellent electroactivity and good adhesion to electrode. The glucose biosensor was constructed by covalently coupling GOD to the composite nanowires. The biosensor response was rapid (5 s), highly sensitive (33.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) with a wide linear range (up to 10.0 mM) and low detection limit (0.63 μM); it also exhibited high stability and specificity to glucose. The attractive electrochemical and structural properties of PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires suggested potential application for electrocatalysis and biosensor.

  17. An acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on graphene-gold nanocomposite and calcined layered double hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chen; Guo, Yemin; Sun, Xia; Zheng, Yuhe; Wang, Xiangyou

    2014-05-10

    In this study, a novel acetylcholinesterase-based biosensor was fabricated. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with the aid of Cu-Mg-Al calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH). CLDH can provide a bigger effective surface area for AChE loading, which could improve the precision and stability of AChE biosensor. However, the poor electroconductibility of CLDHs could lead to the low sensitivity of AChE biosensor. In order to effectively compensate the disadvantages of CLDHs, graphene-gold nanocomposites were used for improving the electron transfer rate. Thus, the graphene-gold nanocomposite (GN-AuNPs) was firstly modified onto the GCE, and then the prepared CLDH-AChE composite was immobilized onto the modified GCE to construct a sensitive AChE biosensor for pesticides detection. Relevant parameters were studied in detail and optimized, including the pH of the acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) solution, the amount of AChE immobilized on the biosensor and the inhibition time governing the analytical performance of the biosensor. The biosensor detected chlorpyrifos at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 150μg/L. The detection limit for chlorpyrifos was 0.05μg/L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of conductometric biosensors based on alkaline phosphatases for the water quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhetskyy, A.

    2008-09-01

    Researches are focused on the elaboration of enzymatic microconductometric device for heavy metal ions detection in water solutions. The manuscript includes a general introduction, the first chapter contains bibliographic review, the second chapter described the fundamentals of conductometric transducers, the third chapter examining the possibility to create and to optimize conductometric biosensor based on bovine alkaline phosphatase for heavy metals ions detection, the fourth chapter devoted to creation and optimization of conductometric biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase active microalgae and sol gel technology, the last chapter described application of the proposed algal biosensor for measurements of heavy metal ions toxicity of waste water, general conclusions stating the progresses achieved in the field of environmental monitoring

  19. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on titanium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nur Hamidah Abdul; Heng, Lee Yook; Hashim, Uda

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a biosensor utilizing modified titania, TiO2 particles using aminopropyl-triethoxy-silane, (APTS) for developing hydrogen peroxide biosensor is presented. The surface of Ti-APTS particles is used as a support for hemoglobin immobilization via covalent bonding. The performance of the biosensor is determined by differential pulse voltammetry. The linear response was observed at the reduction current of redox mediator probe [FeCN6]3-/4- at potential between 0.22 V to 0.24 V. The preliminary result for electrochemistry study on this modified electrode is reported. The preliminary linear range is obtained from 1×10-2 M to 1×10-8 M.

  20. Biosensors based on β-galactosidase enzyme: Recent advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv K; Leblanc, Roger M

    2017-10-15

    Many industries are striving for the development of more reliable and robust β-galactosidase biosensors that exhibit high response rate, increased detection limit and enriched useful lifetime. In a newfangled technological atmosphere, a trivial advantage or disadvantage of the developed biosensor may escort to the survival and extinction of the industry. Several alternative strategies to immobilize β-galactosidase enzyme for their utilization in biosensors have been developed in recent years in the quest of maximum utility by controlling the defects seen in the previous biosensors. The overwhelming call for on-line measurement of different sample constituents has directed science and industry to search for best practical solutions and biosensors are witnessed as the best prospect. The main objective of this paper is to serve as a narrow footbridge by comparing the literary works on the β-galactosidase biosensors, critically analyze their use in the construction of best biosensor by showing the pros and cons of the predicted methods for the practical use of biosensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Disposable bioluminescence-based biosensor for detection of bacterial count in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinping; Liu, Xiaohong; Tian, Qing; Yue, Weiwei; Zeng, Jing; Chen, Guangquan; Cai, Xinxia

    2009-11-01

    A biosensor for rapid detection of bacterial count based on adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence has been developed. The biosensor is composed of a key sensitive element and a photomultiplier tube used as a detector element. The disposable sensitive element consists of a sampler, a cartridge where intracellular ATP is chemically extracted from bacteria, and a microtube where the extracted ATP reacts with the luciferin-luciferase reagent to produce bioluminescence. The bioluminescence signal is transformed into relevant electrical signal by the detector and further measured with a homemade luminometer. Parameters affecting the amount of the extracted ATP, including the types of ATP extractants, the concentrations of ATP extractant, and the relevant neutralizing reagent, were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the biosensor showed a linear response to standard bacteria in a concentration range from 10(3) to 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter with a correlation coefficient of 0.925 (n=22) within 5min. Moreover, the bacterial count of real food samples obtained by the biosensor correlated well with those by the conventional plate count method. The proposed biosensor, with characteristics of low cost, easy operation, and fast response, provides potential application to rapid evaluation of bacterial contamination in the food industry, environment monitoring, and other fields.

  2. New CNT/poly(brilliant green) and CNT/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based electrochemical enzyme biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Madalina M; Pifferi, Valentina; Falciola, Luigi; Brett, Christopher M A

    2016-07-13

    A combination of the electroactive polymer poly(brilliant green) (PBG) or conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) with carbon nanotubes to obtain CNT/PBG and CNT/PEDOT modified carbon film electrodes (CFE) has been investigated as a new biosensor platform, incorporating the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) as test enzyme, alcohol oxidase (AlcOx) or alcohol dehydrogenase (AlcDH). The sensing parameters were optimized for all biosensors based on CNT/PBG/CFE, CNT/PEDOT/CFE platforms. Under optimized conditions, both GOx biosensors exhibited very similar sensitivities, while in the case of AlcOx and AlcDH biosensors, AlcOx/CNT/PBG/CFE was found to give a higher sensitivity and lower detection limit. The influence of dissolved O2 on oxidase-biosensor performance was investigated and was shown to be different for each enzyme. Comparisons were made with similar reported biosensors, showing the advantages of the new biosensors, and excellent selectivity against potential interferents was successfully demonstrated. Finally, alcohol biosensors were successfully used for the determination of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif, E-mail: e.erhan@gyte.edu.tr

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44-1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 {mu}g/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 3}Fe(CN){sub 6} has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  4. Amperometric nitrate biosensor based on Carbon nanotube/Polypyrrole/Nitrate reductase biofilm electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Faruk; Korkut Ozoner, Seyda; Ergenekon, Pinar; Erhan, Elif

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the construction and characterization of an amperometric nitrate biosensor based on the Polypyrrole (PPy)/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) film. Nitrate reductase (NR) was both entrapped into the growing PPy film and chemically immobilized via the carboxyl groups of CNTs to the CNT/PPy film electrode. The optimum amperometric response for nitrate was obtained in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS), pH 7.5 including 0.1 M lithium chloride and 7 mM potassium ferricyanide with an applied potential of 0.13 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, 3 M NaCl). Sensitivity was found to be 300 nA/mM in a linear range of 0.44–1.45 mM with a regression coefficient of 0.97. The biosensor response showed a higher linear range in comparison to standard nitrate analysis methods which were tested in this study and NADH based nitrate biosensors. A minimum detectable concentration of 0.17 mM (S/N = 3) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.4% (n = 7) was obtained for the biosensor. Phenol and glucose inhibit the electrochemical reaction strictly at a concentration of 1 μg/L and 20 mg/L, respectively. The biosensor response retained 70% of its initial response over 10 day usage period when used everyday. - Highlights: ► K 3 Fe(CN) 6 has been used for the first time as mediator for nitrate reductase. ► Better performance was obtained in comparison to other nitrate biosensor studies operated with various mediators. ► Analytical parameters were better than standard nitrate analysis methods.

  5. Plasmonic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    The unique optical properties of plasmon resonant nanostructures enable exploration of nanoscale environments using relatively simple optical characterization techniques. For this reason, the field of plasmonics continues to garner the attention of the biosensing community. Biosensors based on propagating surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) in films are the most well-recognized plasmonic biosensors, but there is great potential for the new, developing technologies to surpass the robustness and popularity of film-based SPR sensing. This review surveys the current plasmonic biosensor landscape with emphasis on the basic operating principles of each plasmonic sensing technique and the practical considerations when developing a sensing platform with the various techniques. The 'gold standard' film SPR technique is reviewed briefly, but special emphasis is devoted to the up-and-coming localized surface plasmon resonance and plasmonically coupled sensor technology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Polymer slab waveguides for the optical detection of nanoparticles in evanescent field based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teigell Beneitez, N.; Missinne, J.; Schleipen, J.J.H.B.; Orsel, J.G.; Prins, M.W.J.; Steenberge, Van G.; Cartwright, A.N.; Nicolau, D.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a polymer optical waveguide integration technology for the detection of nanoparticles in an evanescent field based biosensor. In the proposed biosensor concept, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are used as optical contrast labels. The nanoparticles capture target molecules from a sample

  7. A Biosensor for Urea from Succinimide-Modified Acrylic Microspheres Based on Reflectance Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available New acrylic microspheres were synthesised by photopolymerisation where the succinimide functional group was incorporated during the microsphere preparation. An optical biosensor for urea based on reflectance transduction with a large linear response range to urea was successfully developed using this material. The biosensor utilized succinimide-modified acrylic microspheres immobilized with a Nile blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294 for optical detection and urease enzyme was immobilized on the surface of the microspheres via the succinimide groups. No leaching of the enzyme or chromoionophore was observed. Hydrolysis of the urea by urease changes the pH and leads to a color change of the immobilized chromoionophore. When the color change was monitored by reflectance spectrophotometry, the linear response range of the biosensor to urea was from 0.01 to 1,000 mM (R2 = 0.97 with a limit of detection of 9.97 mM. The biosensor response showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation = 1.43%, n = 5 with no interference by major cations such as Na+, K+, NH4+ and Mg2+. The use of reflectance as a transduction method led to a large linear response range that is better than that of many urea biosensors based on other optical transduction methods.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors for Space Molecule Detection and Clinical Molecular Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie

    2001-01-01

    Both space molecule detection and clinical molecule diagnostics need to develop ultra sensitive biosensors for detection of less than attomole molecules such as amino acids for DNA. However all the electrode sensor systems including those fabricated from the existing carbon nanotubes, have a background level of nA (nanoAmp). This has limited DNA or other molecule detection to nA level or molecules whose concentration is, much higher than attomole level. A program has been created by NASA and NCI (National Cancer Institute) to exploit the possibility of carbon nanotube based biosensors to solve this problem for both's interest. In this talk, I will present our effort on the evaluation and novel design of carbon nanotubes as electrode biosensors with strategies to minimize background currents while maximizing signal intensity.The fabrication of nanotube electrode arrays, immobilization of molecular probes on nanotube electrodes and in vitro biosensor testing will also be discussed.

  9. Label-free DNA biosensor based on resistance change of platinum nanoparticles assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotadis, Evangelos; Voutyras, Konstantinos; Chatzipetrou, Marianneza; Tsekenis, Georgios; Patsiouras, Lampros; Madianos, Leonidas; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Zergioti, Ioanna; Tsoukalas, Dimitris

    2016-07-15

    A novel nanoparticle based biosensor for the fast and simple detection of DNA hybridization events is presented. The sensor utilizes hybridized DNA's charge transport properties, combining them with metallic nanoparticle networks that act as nano-gapped electrodes. The DNA hybridization events can be detected by a significant reduction in the sensor's resistance due to the conductive bridging offered by hybridized DNA. By modifying the nanoparticle surface coverage, which can be controlled experimentally being a function of deposition time, and the structural properties of the electrodes, an optimized biosensor for the in situ detection of DNA hybridization events is ultimately fabricated. The fabricated biosensor exhibits a wide response range, covering four orders of magnitude, a limit of detection of 1nM and can detect a single base pair mismatch between probe and complementary DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on DNA-Hb modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Fan Yin; Shin, Hoon-Kyu; Kwon, Young-Soo

    2006-01-01

    A hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) biosensor based on DNA-hemoglobin (Hb) modified electrode is described in this paper. The sensor was designed by DNA and hemoglobin dropletting onto gold electrode surface layer by layer. The sensor based on the direct electron transfer of iron of hemoglobin showed a well electrocatalytic response to the reduction of the H 2 O 2 . This sensor offered an excellent electrochemical response for H 2 O 2 concentration below micromole level with high sensitivity and selectivity and short response time. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as, pH, potential were optimized and assessed. The levels of the RSD's ( 2 O 2 was observed from 10 to 120 μM with the detection limit of 0.4 μM (based on the S/N = 3)

  11. SH2 Domain-Based FRET Biosensor for Measuring BCR-ABL Activity in Living CML Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Mari; Asano, Yumi; Nakada, Shigeyuki; Ohba, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) displaying distinct spectra have shed their light on a wide range of biological functions. Moreover, sophisticated biosensors engineered to contain single or multiple FPs, including Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors, spatiotemporally reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying a variety of pathophysiological processes. However, their usefulness for applied life sciences has yet to be fully explored. Recently, our research group has begun to expand the potential of FPs from basic biological research to the clinic. Here, we describe a method to evaluate the responsiveness of leukemia cells from patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitors using a biosensor based on FP technology and the principle of FRET. Upon phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue of the biosensor, binding of the SH2 domain to phosphotyrosine induces conformational change of the biosensor and brings the donor and acceptor FPs into close proximity. Therefore, kinase activity and response to kinase inhibitors can be monitored by an increase and a decrease in FRET efficiency, respectively. As in basic research, this biosensor resolves hitherto arduous tasks and may provide innovative technological advances in clinical laboratory examinations. State-of-the-art detection devices that enable such innovation are also introduced.

  12. The sensitivity research of multiparameter biosensors based on HEMT by the mathematic modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, V. G.; Gudkov, A. G.; Agasieva, S. V.; Gorlacheva, E. N.; Shashurin, V. D.; Zybin, A. A.; Evseenkov, A. S.; Parnes, Y. M.

    2017-11-01

    The numerical impact modeling of some external effects on the CVC of biosensors based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures (HEMT) was carried out. The mathematical model was created that allowed to predict the behavior of the drain current depending on condition changes on the heterostructure surface in the gate region and to start the process of directed construction optimization of the biosensors based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT with the aim of improving their performance. The calculation of the drain current of the biosensor construction was carried out to confirm the reliability of the developed mathematical model and obtained results.

  13. Nanomaterials-based biosensors for detection of microorganisms and microbial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarlie, Laura; Ow, Sian Yang; Su, Xiaodi

    2017-04-01

    Detection of microorganisms and microbial toxins is important for health and safety. Due to their unique physical and chemical properties, nanomaterials have been extensively used to develop biosensors for rapid detection of microorganisms with microbial cells and toxins as target analytes. In this paper, the design principles of nanomaterials-based biosensors for four selected analyte categories (bacteria cells, toxins, mycotoxins, and protozoa cells), closely associated with the target analytes' properties is reviewed. Five signal transducing methods that are less equipment intensive (colorimetric, fluorimetric, surface enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemical, and magnetic relaxometry methods) is described and compared for their sensory performance (in term oflimit of detection, dynamic range, and response time) for all analyte categories. In the end, the suitability of these five sensing principles for on-site or field applications is discussed. With a comprehensive coverage of nanomaterials, design principles, sensing principles, and assessment on the sensory performance and suitability for on-site application, this review offers valuable insight and perspective for designing suitable nanomaterials-based microorganism biosensors for a given application. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Photoelectrochemical enzymatic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2017-06-15

    Enzymatic biosensors have been valuable bioanalytical devices for analysis of diverse targets in disease diagnosis, biological and biomedical research, etc. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis is a recently emerged method that promptly becoming a subject of new research interests due to its attractive potential for future bioanalysis with high sensitivity and specificity. PEC enzymatic biosensors integrate the inherent sensitivities of PEC bioanalysis and the selectivity of enzymes and thus share their both advantages. Currently, PEC enzymatic biosensors have become a hot topic of significant research and the recent impetus has grown rapidly as demonstrated by increased research papers. Given the pace of advances in this area, this review will make a thorough discussion and survey on the fundamentals, sensing strategies, applications and the state of the art in PEC enzymatic biosensors, followed by future prospects based on our own opinions. We hope this work could provide an accessible introduction to PEC enzymatic biosensors for any scientist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); School of Engineering and Technology, ITM University, Gurgaon-122017 (India); Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110012 (India); Malhotra, Bansi Dhar, E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042 (India)

    2015-05-11

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10{sup −15} M to 10{sup −11} M.

  18. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2015-05-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic-based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10-15 M to 10-11 M.

  19. Quantum dot-based microfluidic biosensor for cancer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrera, Aditya Sharma; Pandey, Chandra Mouli; Ali, Md. Azahar; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2015-01-01

    We report results of the studies relating to fabrication of an impedimetric microfluidic–based nucleic acid sensor for quantification of DNA sequences specific to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). The sensor chip is prepared by patterning an indium–tin–oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate via wet chemical etching method followed by sealing with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for fluid control. The fabricated microfluidic chip comprising of a patterned ITO substrate is modified by depositing cadmium selenide quantum dots (QCdSe) via Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Further, the QCdSe surface has been functionalized with specific DNA probe for CML detection. The probe DNA functionalized QCdSe integrated miniaturized system has been used to monitor target complementary DNA concentration by measuring the interfacial charge transfer resistance via hybridization. The presence of complementary DNA in buffer solution significantly results in decreased electro-conductivity of the interface due to presence of a charge barrier for transport of the redox probe ions. The microfluidic DNA biosensor exhibits improved linearity in the concentration range of 10 −15 M to 10 −11 M

  20. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Mei; Hou, Changjun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10"−"1"4 to 1.0 × 10"−"8 M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10"−"1"5 M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high selectivity to

  1. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hou, Changjun, E-mail: houcj@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huo, Danqun [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Key Laboratory of Fundamental Science of Micro/Nano-Device and System Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Mei [Key Laboratory of Biorheology Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fa, Huanbao [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: A novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor based on hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH) was first developed for the detection of the specific-sequence target DNA. This schematic represents the fabrication procedure of our DNA biosensor. - Highlights: • An ultrasensitive DNA electrochemical biosensor was developed. • CuO NWs entangled with the SWCNTs formed a mesh structure with good conductivity. • It is the first time use of CuONWs-SWCNTs hybrid nanocomposite for DNA detection. • The biosensor is simple, selective, stable, and sensitive. • The biosensor has great potential for use in analysis of real samples. - Abstract: Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10{sup −14} to 1.0 × 10{sup −8} M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10{sup −15} M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high

  2. Giant Magnetoresistance-based Biosensor for Detection of Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Venkatramana D; Wu, Kai; Perez, Andres M; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a simple and sensitive method for the detection of influenza A virus based on giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biosensor. This assay employs monoclonal antibodies to viral nucleoprotein (NP) in combination with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Presence of influenza virus allows the binding of MNPs to the GMR sensor and the binding is proportional to the concentration of virus. Binding of MNPs onto the GMR sensor causes change in the resistance of sensor, which is measured in a real time electrical readout. GMR biosensor detected as low as 1.5 × 10(2) TCID50/mL virus and the signal intensity increased with increasing concentration of virus up to 1.0 × 10(5) TCID50/mL. This study showed that the GMR biosensor assay is relevant for diagnostic application since the virus concentration in nasal samples of influenza virus infected swine was reported to be in the range of 10(3) to 10(5) TCID50/mL.

  3. Development of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, G., E-mail: gajin@imech.ac.c [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Y.H.; Liu, L.; Niu, Y.; Chen, S. [NML, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Bei-si-huan west Rd., Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Q.; Jiang, T.J. [Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2011-02-28

    So far, combined with a microfluidic reactor array system, an engineering system of biosensor based on imaging ellipsometry is installed for biomedical applications, such as antibody screen, hepatitis B markers detection, cancer markers spectrum and virus recognition, etc. Furthermore, the biosensor in total internal reflection (TIR) mode has be improved by a spectroscopic light, optimization settings of polarization and low noise CCD which brings an obvious improvement of 10 time increase in the sensitivity and SNR, and 50 times lower concentration in the detection limit with a throughput of 48 independent channels and the time resolution of 0.04 S.

  4. Paper-based Biosensor for Rapid Colorimetric Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current project proposes to develop a real-time method for identification of targeted microorganisms using a paper-based biosensor system with ease-of-use,...

  5. Hybrid Macro-Micro Fluidics System for a Chip-Based Biosensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamanaha, C. R; Whitman, L. J; Colton, R.J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators...

  6. Ratiometric Matryoshka biosensors from a nested cassette of green- and orange-emitting fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Cindy; Foret, Jessica; Oltrogge, Luke M; De Michele, Roberto; Kleist, Thomas J; Ho, Cheng-Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B

    2017-09-05

    Sensitivity, dynamic and detection range as well as exclusion of expression and instrumental artifacts are critical for the quantitation of data obtained with fluorescent protein (FP)-based biosensors in vivo. Current biosensors designs are, in general, unable to simultaneously meet all these criteria. Here, we describe a generalizable platform to create dual-FP biosensors with large dynamic ranges by employing a single FP-cassette, named GO-(Green-Orange) Matryoshka. The cassette nests a stable reference FP (large Stokes shift LSSmOrange) within a reporter FP (circularly permuted green FP). GO- Matryoshka yields green and orange fluorescence upon blue excitation. As proof of concept, we converted existing, single-emission biosensors into a series of ratiometric calcium sensors (MatryoshCaMP6s) and ammonium transport activity sensors (AmTryoshka1;3). We additionally identified the internal acid-base equilibrium as a key determinant of the GCaMP dynamic range. Matryoshka technology promises flexibility in the design of a wide spectrum of ratiometric biosensors and expanded in vivo applications.Single fluorescent protein biosensors are susceptible to expression and instrumental artifacts. Here Ast et al. describe a dual fluorescent protein design whereby a reference fluorescent protein is nested within a reporter fluorescent protein to control for such artifacts while preserving sensitivity and dynamic range.

  7. Droplet-based microscale colorimetric biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis via a graphene nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xia; Luo Ming; Shi Liyang; Ji Xinghu; He Zhike

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: With a microvalve manipulate technique combined with droplet platform, a microscale fluorescence-based colorimetric sensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed via a graphene nanoprobe. Highlights: ► A quantitative detection for multiplexed DNA is first realized on droplet platform. ► The DNA detection is relied on a simple fluorescence-based colorimetric method. ► GO is served as a quencher for two different DNA fluorescent probes. ► This present work provides a rapid, sensitive, visual and convenient detection tool for droplet biosensor. - Abstract: The development of simple and inexpensive DNA detection strategy is very significant for droplet-based microfluidic system. Here, a droplet-based biosensor for multiplexed DNA analysis is developed with a common imaging device by using fluorescence-based colorimetric method and a graphene nanoprobe. With the aid of droplet manipulation technique, droplet size adjustment, droplet fusion and droplet trap are realized accurately and precisely. Due to the high quenching efficiency of graphene oxide (GO), in the absence of target DNAs, the droplet containing two single-stranded DNA probes and GO shows dark color, in which the DNA probes are labeled carboxy fluorescein (FAM) and 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), respectively. The droplet changes from dark to bright color when the DNA probes form double helix with the specific target DNAs leading to the dyes far away from GO. This colorimetric droplet biosensor exhibits a quantitative capability for simultaneous detection of two different target DNAs with the detection limits of 9.46 and 9.67 × 10 −8 M, respectively. It is also demonstrated that this biosensor platform can become a promising detection tool in high throughput applications with low consumption of reagents. Moreover, the incorporation of graphene nanoprobe and droplet technique can drive the biosensor field one more step to some extent.

  8. A New Laccase Biosensor For Polyphenols Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.F. Rebelo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of polyphenols in human health is a well known fact. Prompted by that, a very intensive research has been directed to get a method to detect them, wich will improve the current ones. Laccase (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.2 is a multi-copper oxidase, wich couples catalytic oxidation of phenolic substrates with four electron reduction of dioxygen to water [1]. A maximum catalytic response in oxigenated electrolyte was observed between 4.5 and 5.5 [2], while for pH > 6.9 the laccase was found to be inactive [3]. We prepared a biosensor with laccase immobilised on a polyether sulphone membrane, at pH 4.5, wich was applied at Universal Sensors base electrode. Reduction of the product of oxidation of several polyphenols, catalysed by laccase, was done at a potential for wich the polyphenol of interest was found to respond. Reduction of catechol was found to occur at a potential of -200mV, wich is often referred to in the literature for polyphenolic biosensors. However other polyphenols did not respond at that potential. It was observed that (+- catechin produced a very large cathodic current when +100mV were applied to the laccase biosensor, both in aqueous acetate and 12% ethanol acetate buffer, whereas caffeic acid responded at -50mV. Other polyphenols tested were gallic acid, malvidin, quercetin, rutin, trans-resveratrol

  9. Amperometric inhibition biosensors based on horseradish peroxidase and gold sononanoparticles immobilized onto different electrodes for cyanide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aisha; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; de Cisneros, José Luis Hidalgo-Hidalgo; Palacios-Santander, José María; Amine, Aziz

    2015-02-01

    New biosensors based on inhibition for the detection of cyanide and the comparison of the analytical performances of nine enzyme biosensor designs by using three different electrodes: Sonogel-Carbon, glassy carbon and gold electrodes were discussed. Three different horseradish peroxidase immobilization procedures with and without gold sononanoparticles were studied. The amperometric measurements were performed at an applied potential of -0.15V vs. Ag/AgCl in 50mM sodium acetate buffer solution pH=5.0. The apparent kinetic parameters (Kmapp, Vmaxapp) of immobilized HRP were calculated in the absence of inhibitor (cyanide) by using caffeic acid, hydroquinone, and catechol as substrates. The presence of gold sononanoparticles enhanced the electron transfer reaction and improved the analytical performance of the biosensors. The HRP kinetic interactions reveal non-competitive binding of cyanide with an apparent inhibition constant (Ki) of 2.7μM and I50 of 1.3μM. The determination of cyanide can be achieved in a dynamic range of 0.1-58.6μM with a detection limit of 0.03μM which is lower than those reported by previous studies. Hence this biosensing methodology can be used as a new promising approach for detecting cyanide. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A Toolbox of Genetically Encoded FRET-Based Biosensors for Rapid l-Lysine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Steffen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fast development of microbial production strains for basic and fine chemicals is increasingly carried out in small scale cultivation systems to allow for higher throughput. Such parallelized systems create a need for new rapid online detection systems to quantify the respective target compound. In this regard, biosensors, especially genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based biosensors, offer tremendous opportunities. As a proof-of-concept, we have created a toolbox of FRET-based biosensors for the ratiometric determination of l-lysine in fermentation broth. Methods: The sensor toolbox was constructed based on a sensor that consists of an optimized central lysine-/arginine-/ornithine-binding protein (LAO-BP flanked by two fluorescent proteins (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP, Citrine. Further sensor variants with altered affinity and sensitivity were obtained by circular permutation of the binding protein as well as the introduction of flexible and rigid linkers between the fluorescent proteins and the LAO-BP, respectively. Results: The sensor prototype was applied to monitor the extracellular l-lysine concentration of the l-lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum strain DM1933 in a BioLector® microscale cultivation device. The results matched well with data obtained by HPLC analysis and the Ninhydrin assay, demonstrating the high potential of FRET-based biosensors for high-throughput microbial bioprocess optimization.

  11. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Li, Fang; Nordin, Anis Nurashikin; Voiculescu, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs) were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device's sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35∼45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection. PMID:23459387

  12. A Novel Cell-Based Hybrid Acoustic Wave Biosensor with Impedimetric Sensing Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Voiculescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel multiparametric biosensor system based on living cells will be presented. The biosensor system includes two biosensing techniques on a single device: resonant frequency measurements and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. The multiparametric sensor system is based on the innovative use of the upper electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM resonator as working electrode for the ECIS technique. The QCM acoustic wave sensor consists of a thin AT-cut quartz substrate with two gold electrodes on opposite sides. For integration of the QCM with the ECIS technique a semicircular counter electrode was fabricated near the upper electrode on the same side of the quartz crystal. Bovine aortic endothelial live cells (BAECs were successfully cultured on this hybrid biosensor. Finite element modeling of the bulk acoustic wave resonator using COMSOL simulations was performed. Simultaneous gravimetric and impedimetric measurements performed over a period of time on the same cell culture were conducted to validate the device’s sensitivity. The time necessary for the BAEC cells to attach and form a compact monolayer on the biosensor was 35~45 minutes for 1.5 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 60 minutes for 2.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; 70 minutes for 3.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs; and 100 minutes for 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 BAECs. It was demonstrated that this time is the same for both gravimetric and impedimetric measurements. This hybrid biosensor will be employed in the future for water toxicity detection.

  13. Development of miniaturized pH biosensors based on electrosynthesized polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segut, Olivier; Lakard, Boris; Herlem, Guillaume; Rauch, Jean-Yves; Jeannot, Jean-Claude; Robert, Laurent; Fahys, Bernard

    2007-08-06

    A new type of pH biosensor was developed for biological applications. This biosensor was fabricated using silicon microsystem technology and consists in two platinum microelectrodes. The first microelectrode was coated by an electrosynthesized polymer and acted as the pH sensitive electrode when the second one was coated by a silver layer and was used as the reference electrode. Then, this potentiometric pH miniaturized biosensor based on electrosynthesized polypyrrole or electrosynthesized linear polyethylenimine films was tested. The potentiometric responses appeared reversible and linear to pH changes in the range from pH 4 to 9. More, the responses were fast (less than 1 min for all sensors), they were stable in time since PPy/PEI films were stable during more than 30 days, and no interference was observed. The influence of the polymer thickness was also studied.

  14. A disposable biosensor based on immobilization of laccase with silica spheres on the MWCNTs-doped screen-printed electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biosensors have attracted increasing attention as reliable analytical instruments in in situ monitoring of public health and environmental pollution. For enzyme-based biosensors, the stabilization of enzymatic activity on the biological recognition element is of great importance. It is generally acknowledged that an effective immobilization technique is a key step to achieve the construction quality of biosensors. Results A novel disposable biosensor was constructed by immobilizing laccase (Lac with silica spheres on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-doped screen-printed electrode (SPE. Then, it was characterized in morphology and electrochemical properties by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The characterization results indicated that a high loading of Lac and a good electrocatalytic activity could be obtained, attributing to the porous structure, large specific area and good biocompatibility of silica spheres and MWCNTs. Furthermore, the electrochemical sensing properties of the constructed biosensor were investigated by choosing dopamine (DA as the typical model of phenolic compounds. It was shown that the biosensor displays a good linearity in the range from 1.3 to 85.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.42 μM (S/N = 3, and the Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp was calculated to be 3.78 μM. Conclusion The immobilization of Lac was successfully achieved with silica spheres to construct a disposable biosensor on the MWCNTs-doped SPE (MWCNTs/SPE. This biosensor could determine DA based on a non-oxidative mechanism in a rapid, selective and sensitive way. Besides, the developed biosensor could retain high enzymatic activity and possess good stability without cross-linking reagents. The proposed immobilization approach and the constructed biosensor offer a great potential for the fabrication of the enzyme-based biosensors and the analysis of phenolic compounds.

  15. Amperometric Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Application in Food and Beverage Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csöoregi, Elisabeth; Gáspñr, Szilveszter; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mattiasson, Bo; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    Continuous, sensitive, selective, and reliable monitoring of a large variety of different compounds in various food and beverage samples is of increasing importance to assure a high-quality and tracing of any possible source of contamination of food and beverages. Most of the presently used classical analytical methods are often requiring expensive instrumentation, long analysis times and well-trained staff. Amperometric enzyme-based biosensors on the other hand have emerged in the last decade from basic science to useful tools with very promising application possibilities in food and beverage industry. Amperometric biosensors are in general highly selective, sensitive, relatively cheap, and easy to integrate into continuous analysis systems. A successful application of such sensors for industrial purposes, however, requires a sensor design, which satisfies the specific needs of monitoring the targeted analyte in the particular application, Since each individual application needs different operational conditions and sensor characteristics, it is obvious that biosensors have to be tailored for the particular case. The characteristics of the biosensors are depending on the used biorecognition element (enzyme), nature of signal transducer (electrode material) and the communication between these two elements (electron-transfer pathway).

  16. Mining the Sinorhizobium meliloti transportome to develop FRET biosensors for sugars, dicarboxylates and cyclic polyols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bourdès

    Full Text Available Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET biosensors are powerful tools to detect biologically important ligands in real time. Currently FRET bisosensors are available for twenty-two compounds distributed in eight classes of chemicals (two pentoses, two hexoses, two disaccharides, four amino acids, one nucleobase, two nucleotides, six ions and three phytoestrogens. To expand the number of available FRET biosensors we used the induction profile of the Sinorhizobium meliloti transportome to systematically screen for new FRET biosensors.Two new vectors were developed for cloning genes for solute-binding proteins (SBPs between those encoding FRET partner fluorescent proteins. In addition to a vector with the widely used cyan and yellow fluorescent protein FRET partners, we developed a vector using orange (mOrange2 and red fluorescent protein (mKate2 FRET partners. From the sixty-nine SBPs tested, seven gave a detectable FRET signal change on binding substrate, resulting in biosensors for D-quinic acid, myo-inositol, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, β-diglucosides (cellobiose and gentiobiose, D-galactose and C4-dicarboxylates (malate, succinate, oxaloacetate and fumarate. To our knowledge, we describe the first two FRET biosensor constructs based on SBPs from Tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP transport systems.FRET based on orange (mOrange2 and red fluorescent protein (mKate2 partners allows the use of longer wavelength light, enabling deeper penetration of samples at lower energy and increased resolution with reduced back-ground auto-fluorescence. The FRET biosensors described in this paper for four new classes of compounds; (i cyclic polyols, (ii L-deoxy sugars, (iii β-linked disaccharides and (iv C4-dicarboxylates could be developed to study metabolism in vivo.

  17. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalkar, Sunitha; Baryeh, Kwaku; Liu, Guodong

    2017-12-15

    We report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN)-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle with a diameter of around 15nm was used as a tag to label a detection DNA probe, which was complementary with the part of target DNA. A capture DNA probe was immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. Sandwich-type hybridization reactions among the FCN-labeled DNA probe, target DNA and capture DNA probe were performed on the lateral flow biosensor. In the presence of target DNA, FCNs were captured on the test zone of the biosensor and the fluorescent intensity of the captured FCNs was measured with a portable fluorescent reader. After systematic optimizations of experimental parameters (the components of running buffers, the concentration of detection DNA probe used in the preparation of FCN-DNA conjugates, the amount of FCN-DNA dispensed on the conjugate pad and the dispensing cycles of the capture DNA probes on the test-zone), the biosensor could detect a minimum concentration of 0.4 fM DNA. This study provides a rapid and low-cost approach for DNA detection with high sensitivity, showing great promise for clinical application and biomedical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A global benchmark study using affinity-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, Rebecca L.; Papalia, Giusseppe A.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Beusink, J.B.; Pak, Brian J.; Myszka, David G.; more, more

    2009-01-01

    To explore the variability in biosensor studies, 150 participants from 20 countries were given the same protein samples and asked to determine kinetic rate constants for the interaction. We chose a protein system that was amenable to analysis using different biosensor platforms as well as by users

  19. Lignin and silicate based hydrogels for biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrs, S. L.; Jairam, S.; Vanegas, D. C.; Tong, Z.; McLamore, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    Advances in biocompatible materials and electrocatalytic nanomaterials have extended and enhanced the field of biosensors. Immobilization of biorecognition elements on nanomaterial platforms is an efficient technique for developing high fidelity biosensors. Single layer (i.e., Langmuir-Blodgett) protein films are efficient, but disadvantages of this approach include high cost, mass transfer limitations, and Vromer competition for surface binding sites. There is a need for simple, user friendly protein-nanomaterial sensing membranes that can be developed in laboratories or classrooms (i.e., outside of the clean room). In this research, we develop high fidelity nanomaterial platforms for developing electrochemical biosensors using sustainable biomaterials and user-friendly deposition techniques. Catalytic nanomaterial platforms are developed using a combination of self assembled monolayer chemistry and electrodeposition. High performance biomaterials (e.g., nanolignin) are recovered from paper pulp waste and combined with proteins and nanomaterials to form active sensor membranes. These methods are being used to develop electrochemical biosensors for studying physiological transport in biomedical, agricultural, and environmental applications.

  20. Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on Spinach Using Phage-Based Magnetoelastic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengen Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phage-based magnetoelastic (ME biosensors have been studied as an in-situ, real-time, wireless, direct detection method of foodborne pathogens in recent years. This paper investigates an ME biosensor method for the detection of Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh spinach leaves. A procedure to obtain a concentrated suspension of Salmonella from contaminated spinach leaves is described that is based on methods outlined in the U.S. FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual for the detection of Salmonella on leafy green vegetables. The effects of an alternative pre-enrichment broth (LB broth vs. lactose broth, incubation time on the detection performance and negative control were investigated. In addition, different blocking agents (BSA, Casein, and Superblock were evaluated to minimize the effect of nonspecific binding. None of the blocking agents was found to be superior to the others, or even better than none. Unblocked ME biosensors were placed directly in a concentrated suspension and allowed to bind with Salmonella cells for 30 min before measuring the resonant frequency using a surface-scanning coil detector. It was found that 7 h incubation at 37 °C in LB broth was necessary to detect an initial spike of 100 cfu/25 g S. Typhimurium on spinach leaves with a confidence level of difference greater than 95% (p < 0.05. Thus, the ME biosensor method, on both partly and fully detection, was demonstrated to be a robust and competitive method for foodborne pathogens on fresh products.

  1. Novel, reagentless, amperometric biosensor for uric acid based on a chemically modified screen-printed carbon electrode coated with cellulose acetate and uricase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, M A; Hart, J P

    1994-05-01

    Amperometry in stirred solution has been used for the systematic evaluation of modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) with a view to developing a reagentless biosensor for uric acid. The developed system consists of a base cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPC) electrode tailored to the electrocatalytic oxidation of H2O2 by means of a cellulose acetate (CA)-uricase bilayer. Uricase was immobilized by drop-coating the enzyme onto the CA membrane covering the CoPC-SPCE. The device exploits the near-universal H2O2-generating propensity of oxidases, the permselectivity of the CA film towards H2O2 and the electrocatalytic oxidation of this product at the CoPC-SPCE. The electrochemical oxidation of the resulting Co+ species was used as the analytical signal, facilitating the application of a greatly reduced operating potential when compared with that required for direct oxidation of H2O2 at unmodified electrodes. The time required to achieve 95% of the steady-state current (t95i(ss)) was 44 s [relative standard deviation = 7.5% (n = 10)]. Amperometric calibrations were linear over the range from 13 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-3) mol dm-3, with the former representing the limit of detection. The CA membrane extended the linear range of the biosensor by over two orders of magnitude, when apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (Km') of immobilized and free enzymes are compared. This suggests that the process is diffusion-controlled and not governed by the kinetics of the enzyme. The precision of electrode fabrication was determined by cyclic voltammetry to be 4.9% (n = 6).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A sensitive acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on gold nanorods modified electrode for detection of organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Qiaolin; Han, Lei; Hou, Chuantao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Aihua

    2016-08-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on gold nanorods (AuNRs), was developed for the detection of organophosphate pesticide. Compared with Au@Ag heterogeneous NRs, AuNRs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties, which can electrocatalytically oxidize thiocholine, the hydrolysate of acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) by AChE at +0.55V (vs. SCE). The AChE/AuNRs/GCE biosensor was fabricated on basis of the inhibition of AChE activity by organophosphate pesticide. The biosensor could detect paraoxon in the linear range from 1nM to 5μM and dimethoate in the linear range from 5nM to 1μM, respectively. The detection limits of paraoxon and dimethoate were 0.7nM and 3.9nM, which were lower than the reported AChE biosensor. The proposed biosensor could restore to over 95% of its original current, which demonstrated the good reactivation. Moreover, the biosensor can be applicable to real water sample measurement. Thus, the biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and good stability, providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of electrochemical biosensor for detection of pathogenic microorganism in Asian dust events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Min-Sang; Shin, Minguk; Kim, Younghun; Jang, Min; Choi, Yoon-E; Park, Si Jae; Choi, Jonghoon; Lee, Jinyoung; Park, Chulhwan

    2017-05-01

    We developed a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of Bacillus subtilis, one of the microorganisms observed in Asian dust events, which causes respiratory diseases such as asthma and pneumonia. SWCNTs plays the role of a transducer in biological antigen/antibody reaction for the electrical signal while 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (1-PBSE) and ant-B. subtilis were performed as a chemical linker and an acceptor, respectively, for the adhesion of target microorganism in the developed biosensor. The detection range (10 2 -10 10  CFU/mL) and the detection limit (10 2  CFU/mL) of the developed biosensor were identified while the response time was 10 min. The amount of target B. subtilis was the highest in the specificity test of the developed biosensor, compared with the other tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Flavobacterium psychrolimnae, and Aquabacterium commune). In addition, target B. subtilis detected by the developed biosensor was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanochannels Photoelectrochemical Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Ruan, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Li-Bin; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-02-06

    Nanochannels have brought new opportunities for biosensor development. Herein, we present the novel concept of a nanochannels photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor based on the integration of a unique Cu x O-nanopyramid-islands (NPIs) photocathode, an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) catalytic chemistry. The Cu x O-NPIs photocathode possesses good performance, and further assembly with AAO yields a designed architecture composed of vertically aligned, highly ordered nanoarrays on top of the Cu x O-NPIs film. After biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) was stimulated within the channels, the biosensor was used for the successful detection of ALP activity. This study has not only provided a novel paradigm for an unconventional nanochannels PEC biosensor, which can be used for general bioanalytical purposes, but also indicated that the new concept of nanochannel-semiconductor heterostructures is a step toward innovative biomedical applications.

  5. Single walled carbon nanotube-based electrical biosensor for the label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, S. M.; Baek, Y. K.; Shin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based electrical biosensor consisting of a two-terminal resistor, and report its use for the specific, label-free detection of pathogenic bacteria via changes in conductance. The ability of this biosensor to recognize...... different pathogenic bacteria was analyzed, and conditions were optimized with different probe concentrations. Using this system, the reference strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were successfully detected; in both cases, the sensor showed a detection limit of 10 CFU....... This SWNT-based electrical biosensor will prove useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific handheld pathogen detectors....

  6. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Approaches to Optical Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fierke, Carol

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this proposal was to develop methodologies for the optimization of field-deployable optical biosensors, in general, and, in particular, to optimize a carbonic anhydrase-based fiber optic zinc biosensor...

  8. An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin

    2015-11-01

    In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.

  9. Naringenin-responsive riboswitch-based fluorescent biosensor module for Escherichia coli co-cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Yu; Jang, Sungho; Jones, J Andrew; Zill, Nicholas A; Linhardt, Robert J; Yuan, Qipeng; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Koffas, Mattheos A G

    2017-10-01

    The ability to design and construct combinatorial synthetic metabolic pathways has far exceeded our capacity for efficient screening and selection of the resulting microbial strains. The need for high-throughput rapid screening techniques is of upmost importance for the future of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Here we describe the development of an RNA riboswitch-based biosensor module with dual fluorescent reporters, and demonstrate a high-throughput flow cytometry-based screening method for identification of naringenin over producing Escherichia coli strains in co-culture. Our efforts helped identify a number of key operating parameters that affect biosensor performance, including the selection of promoter and linker elements within the sensor-actuator domain, and the effect of host strain, fermentation time, and growth medium on sensor dynamic range. The resulting biosensor demonstrates a high correlation between specific fluorescence of the biosensor strain and naringenin titer produced by the second member of the synthetic co-culture system. This technique represents a novel application for synthetic microbial co-cultures and can be expanded from naringenin to any metabolite if a suitable riboswitch is identified. The co-culture technique presented here can be applied to a variety of target metabolites in combination with the SELEX approach for aptamer design. Due to the compartmentalization of the two genetic constructs responsible for production and detection into separate cells and application as independent modules of a synthetic microbial co-culture we have subsequently reduced the need for re-optimization of the producer module when the biosensor is replaced or removed. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2235-2244. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on GMR in self-suspended-membrane-type germanium grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianyong; Zhang, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on the GMR effect in self-suspended-membrane-type gratings (SSGs) is proposed using multilayer plane waveguide theory. It is demonstrated from our calculations that the sensitivity of our bio-sensor is near the theoretical limit compared with a conventional GMR sensor. Based on the normalized eigenfunction of a single-layer homogeneous grating, the resonance curves with respect to different refractive indices of surrounding media are calculated, which confirm the estimated sensitivity. In addition, we design a highly sensitive bio-sensor in the near- and mid-IR wavelength region for liquid and gas detection respectively, the sensor can deliver a resolution over 1 × 10 −5 in the near-IR region in a large refractive index (1.3–1.7) range and provide better than 1 × 10 −6 in the mid-IR region, which is enough for various bio-material detections. Therefore, the bio-sensor we proposed is one or two orders more sensitive than conventional GMR sensors. (paper)

  11. Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments and soils using green fluorescent protein-based bacterial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, V.H.-C.; Chien, M.-T.; Tseng, Y.-Y.; Ou, K.-L.

    2006-01-01

    A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based bacterial biosensor Escherichia coli DH5α (pVLCD1) was developed based on the expression of gfp under the control of the cad promoter and the cadC gene of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. DH5α (pVLCD1) mainly responded to Cd(II), Pb(II), and Sb(III), the lowest detectable concentrations being 0.1 nmol L -1 , 10 nmol L -1 , and 0.1 nmol L -1 , respectively, with 2 h exposure. The biosensor was field-tested to measure the relative bioavailability of the heavy metals in contaminated sediments and soil samples. The results showed that the majority of heavy metals remained adsorbed to soil particles: Cd(II)/Pb(II) was only partially available to the biosensor in soil-water extracts. Our results demonstrate that the GFP-based bacterial biosensor is useful and applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals with high sensitivity in contaminated sediment and soil samples and suggests a potential for its inexpensive application in environmentally relevant sample tests. - Nonpathogenic GFP-based bacterial biosensor is applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental samples

  12. Carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor for detection of a cancer biomarker in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Marion; Ahmad, Lama; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa; Salmon, Laurent

    2017-10-15

    Autocrine motility factor (AMF) is a tumor-secreted cytokine that stimulates tumor cell motility in vitro and metastasis in vivo. AMF could be detected in serum or urine of cancer patients with worse prognosis. Reported as a cancer biomarker, AMF secretion into body fluids might be closely related to metastases formation. In this study, a sensitive and specific carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor was designed for the detection and quantification of a protein model of AMF, namely phosphoglucose isomerase from rabbit muscle (RmPGI). Indeed, RmPGI displays high homology with AMF and has been shown to have AMF activity. The biosensor was constructed by covalent binding of the enzyme substrate d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). Immobilization was achieved on a gold surface electrode following a bottom-up approach through an aminated surface obtained by electrochemical patterning of ethylene diamine and terminal amine polyethylene glycol chain to prevent non-specific interactions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions were quantified in a range of 10 fM to 100nM. Complex formation was analyzed through monitoring of the redox couple Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and square wave voltammetry. The F6P-biosensor demonstrates a detection limit of 6.6 fM and high selectivity when compared to other non-specific glycolytic proteins such as d-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Detection of protein in spiked plasma was demonstrated and accuracy of 95% is obtained compared to result obtained in PBS (phosphate buffered saline). F6P-biosensor is a very promising proof of concept required for the design of a carbohydrate-based electrochemical biosensor using the enzyme substrate as bioreceptor. Such biosensor could be generalized to detect other protein biomarkers of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impedimetric Dengue Biosensor based on Functionalized Graphene Oxide Wrapped Silica Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seon-Ah; Poudyal, Shishir; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D graphene oxide based material design. • Fabrication of a label-free dengue DNA and RNA impedimetric biosensor. • Design of a surface-based dengue sensor with good selectivity and detection limit. - Abstract: A composite of 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) functionalized graphene oxide (APTES-GO) wrapped on SiO 2 particles (SiO 2 @APTES-GO) was prepared via self-assembly. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) confirmed wrapping of the SiO 2 particles by the APTES-GO sheets. An impedimetric biosensor was constructed and used to sensitively detect dengue DNA and dengue RNA via primer hybridization using different oligonucleotide sequences. The results demonstrated that the SiO 2 @APTES-GO electrode material led to enhanced dengue RNA detection sensitivity with selectivity and detection limit (1 femto-Molar), compared to both APTES-GO and APTES-SiO 2 . The three-dimensional structure, higher contact area, electrical properties and the ability for rapid hybridization offered by the SiO 2 @APTES-GO led to the successful design of a dengue biosensor with the lowest detection limit reported to date.

  14. Novel biosensor system model based on fluorescence quenching by a fluorescent streptavidin and carbazole-labeled biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianwei; Shinohara, Hiroaki; Miyatake, Ryuta; Hohsaka, Takahiro

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a novel molecular biosensor system model was designed by using a couple of the fluorescent unnatural mutant streptavidin and the carbazole-labeled biotin. BODIPY-FL-aminophenylalanine (BFLAF), a fluorescent unnatural amino acid was position-specifically incorporated into Trp120 position of streptavidin by four-base codon method. On the other hand, carbazole-labeled biotin was synthesized as a quencher for the fluorescent Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin. The fluorescence of fluorescent Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin was decreased as we expected when carbazole-labeled biotin was added into the mutant streptavidin solution. Furthermore, the fluorescence decrease of Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin with carbazole-labeled biotin (100 nM) was recovered by the competitive addition of natural biotin. This result demonstrated that by measuring the fluorescence quenching and recovery, a couple of the fluorescent Trp120BFLAF mutant streptavidin and the carbazole-labeled biotin were successfully applicable for quantification of free biotin as a molecular biosensor system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Integrated multienzyme electrochemical biosensors for the determination of glycerol in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2008-02-25

    The construction and performance of integrated amperometric biosensors for the determination of glycerol are reported. Two different biosensor configurations have been evaluated: one based on the glycerol dehydrogenase/diaphorase (GDH/DP) bienzyme system, and another using glycerol kinase/glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase/peroxidase (GK/GPOx/HRP). Both enzyme systems were immobilized together with the mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) on a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-modified gold electrode by using a dialysis membrane. The electrochemical oxidation of TTF at +150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl), and the reduction of TTF(+) at 0mV were used for the monitoring of the enzyme reactions for the bienzyme and trienzyme configurations, respectively. Experimental variables concerning both the biosensors composition and the working conditions were optimized for each configuration. A good repeatability of the measurements with no need of cleaning or pretreatment of the biosensors was obtained in both cases. After 51 days of use, the GDH/DP biosensor still exhibited 87% of the original sensitivity, while the GK/GPOx/HRP biosensor yielded a 46% of the original response after 8 days. Calibration graphs for glycerol with linear ranges of 1.0x10(-6) to 2.0x10(-5) or 1.0x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-5)M glycerol and sensitivities of 1214+/-21 or 1460+/-34microAM(-1) were obtained with GDH/DP and GK/GPOx/HRP biosensors, respectively. The calculated detection limits were 4.0x10(-7) and 3.1x10(-7)M, respectively. The biosensors exhibited a great sensitivity with no significant interferences in the analysis of wines. The biosensors were applied to the determination of glycerol in 12 different wines and the results advantageously compared with those provided by a commercial enzyme kit.

  16. Stimuli-Responsive Nanodiamond-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Metastatic Tumor Site Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Gu, Mengjie; Toh, Tan Boon; Abdullah, Nurrul Lissa Binti; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Metastasis is often critical to cancer progression and linked to poor survival and drug resistance. Early detection of metastasis, as well as identification of metastatic tumor sites, can improve cancer patient survival. Thus, developing technology to improve the detection of cancer metastasis biomarkers can improve both diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we investigated the use of nanodiamonds to develop a stimuli-responsive metastasis detection complex that utilizes matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) as a metastasis biomarker, as MMP9 increased expression has been shown to be indicative of metastasis. The nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor complex consists of nanodiamonds functionalized with MMP9-specific fluorescent-labeled substrate peptides. Using this design, protease activity of MMP9 can be accurately measured and correlated to MMP9 expression. The nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor also demonstrated an enhanced ability to protect the base sensor peptide from nonspecific serum protease cleavage. This enhanced peptide stability, combined with a quantitative stimuli-responsive output function, provides strong evidence for the further development of a nanodiamond-MMP9 biosensor for metastasis site detection. More importantly, this work provides the foundation for use of nanodiamonds as a platform for stimuli-responsive biosensors and theranostic complexes that can be implemented across a wide range of biomedical applications.

  17. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  18. Electrochemical Biosensor for Nitrite Based on Polyacrylic-Graphene Composite Film with Covalently Immobilized Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Zaidatul Akhmar Raja Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new biosensor for the analysis of nitrite in food was developed based on hemoglobin (Hb covalently immobilized on the succinimide functionalized poly(n-butyl acrylate-graphene [poly(nBA-rGO] composite film deposited on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode (SPE. The immobilized Hb on the poly(nBA-rGO conducting matrix exhibited electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of nitrite with significant enhancement in the reduction peak at −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thus, direct determination of nitrite can be achieved by monitoring the cathodic peak current signal of the proposed polyacrylic-graphene hybrid film-based voltammetric nitrite biosensor. The nitrite biosensor exhibited a reproducible dynamic linear response range from 0.05–5 mg L−1 nitrite and a detection limit of 0.03 mg L−1. No significant interference was observed by potential interfering ions such as Ca2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, and NO3− ions. Analysis of nitrite in both raw and processed edible bird’s nest (EBN samples demonstrated recovery of close to 100%. The covalent immobilization of Hb on poly(nBA-rGO composite film has improved the performance of the electrochemical nitrite biosensor in terms of broader detection range, lower detection limit, and prolonged biosensor stability.

  19. Small Microbial Three-Electrode Cell Based Biosensor for Online Detection of Acute Water Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Liu, Changyu; Zhang, Xueping; Bai, Lu; Wang, Yizhe; Dong, Shaojun

    2017-11-22

    The monitoring of toxicity of water is very important to estimate the safety of drinking water and the level of water pollution. Herein, a small microbial three-electrode cell (M3C) biosensor filled with polystyrene particles was proposed for online monitoring of the acute water toxicity. The peak current of the biosensor related with the performance of the bioanode was regarded as the toxicity indicator, and thus the acute water toxicity could be determined in terms of inhibition ratio by comparing the peak current obtained with water sample to that obtained with nontoxic standard water. The incorporation of polystyrene particles in the electrochemical cell not only reduced the volume of the samples used, but also improved the sensitivity of the biosensor. Experimental conditions including washing time with PBS and the concentration of sodium acetate solution were optimized. The stability of the M3C biosensor under optimal conditions was also investigated. The M3C biosensor was further examined by formaldehyde at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.03%, and 0.05% (v/v), and the corresponding inhibition ratios were 14.6%, 21.6%, and 36.4%, respectively. This work provides a new insight into the development of an online toxicity detector based on M3C biosensor.

  20. An electrochemiluminescence-based fibre optic biosensor for choline flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Leca, B; Blum, L J

    2000-01-01

    A fibre optic biosensor based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for the detection of choline. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol was generated by a glassy carbon electrode polarised at +425 mV vs. a platinum pseudo-reference electrode. Choline oxidase (Chx) was immobilised either covalently on polyamide (ABC type) or on UltraBind preactivated membranes, or by physical entrapment in a photo-cross-linkable poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer (PVA-SbQ) alone or after absorption on a weak anion exchanger, DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose. The optimisation of the reaction conditions and physicochemical parameters influencing the FIA biosensor response demonstrated that the choline biosensor exhibited the best performances in a 30 mM veronal buffer containing 30 mM KCl and 1.5 mM MgCl2, at pH 9. The use of a 0.5 ml min-1 flow rate enabled the measurement of choline by the membrane-based ECL biosensors in 8 or 5 min, with ABC or UltraBind membranes, respectively, whereas the measurement required only 3 min with the DEAE-PVA system. For comparison, the detection of choline was performed with Chx immobilised using the four different supports. The best performances were obtained with the DEAE-PVA-Chx sensing layer, which allowed a detection limit of 10 pmol, whereas with the ABC, the UltraBind and the PVA systems, the detection limits were 300 pmol, 75 pmol and 220 pmol, respectively. The DEAE-based system also exhibited a good operational stability since 160 repeated measurements of 3 nmol of choline could be performed with an RSD of 4.5% whereas the stability under the best conditions was 45 assays with the other supports.

  1. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mason

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT. A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps.

  2. Monitoring of malolactic fermentation in wine using an electrochemical bienzymatic biosensor for L-lactate with long term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Capdevila, Fina; Puig-Pujol, Anna; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2016-01-28

    L-lactic acid is monitored during malolactic fermentation process of wine and its evolution is strongly related with the quality of the final product. The analysis of L-lactic acid is carried out off-line in a laboratory. Therefore, there is a clear demand for analytical tools that enabled real-time monitoring of this process in field and biosensors have positioned as a feasible alternative in this regard. The development of an amperometric biosensor for L-lactate determination showing long-term stability is reported in this work. The biosensor architecture includes a thin-film gold electrochemical transducer selectively modified with an enzymatic membrane, based on a three-dimensional matrix of polypyrrole (PPy) entrapping lactate oxidase (LOX) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes. The experimental conditions of the biosensor fabrication regarding the pyrrole polymerization and the enzymes entrapment are optimized. The biosensor response to L-lactate is linear in a concentration range of 1 × 10(-6)-1 × 10(-4) M, with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10(-7) M and a sensitivity of - (13500 ± 600) μA M(-1) cm(-2). The biosensor shows an excellent working stability, retaining more than 90% of its original sensitivity after 40 days. This is the determining factor that allowed for the application of this biosensor to monitor the malolactic fermentation of three red wines, showing a good agreement with the standard colorimetric method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An improved glycerol biosensor with an Au-FeS-NAD-glycerol-dehydrogenase anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Aishwarya; Fernando, Sandun

    2017-06-15

    An improved glycerol biosensor was developed via direct attachment of NAD + -glycerol dehydrogenase coenzyme-apoenzyme complex onto supporting gold electrodes, using novel inorganic iron (II) sulfide (FeS)-based single molecular wires. Sensing performance factors, i.e., sensitivity, a detection limit and response time of the FeS and conventional pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-based biosensor were evaluated by dynamic constant potential amperometry at 1.3V under non-buffered conditions. For glycerol concentrations ranging from 1 to 25mM, a 77% increase in sensitivity and a 53% decrease in detection limit were observed for the FeS-based biosensor when compared to the conventional PQQ-based counterpart. The electrochemical behavior of the FeS-based glycerol biosensor was analyzed at different concentrations of glycerol, accompanied by an investigation into the effects of applied potential and scan rate on the current response. Effects of enzyme stimulants ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O) concentrations and buffers/pH (potassium phosphate buffer pH 6-8, Tris buffer pH 8-10) on the current responses generated by the FeS-based glycerol biosensor were also studied. The optimal detection conditions were 0.03M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 0.3µm MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O in non-buffered aqueous electrolyte under stirring whereas under non-stirring, Tris buffer at pH 10 with 0.03M (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and 30µm MnCl 2 ·4H 2 O were found to be optimal detection conditions. Interference by glucose, fructose, ethanol, and acetic acid in glycerol detection was studied. The observations indicated a promising enhancement in glycerol detection using the novel FeS-based glycerol sensing electrode compared to the conventional PQQ-based one. These findings support the premise that FeS-based bioanodes are capable of biosensing glycerol successfully and may be applicable for other enzymatic biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Simulation of the Recharging Method Based on Solar Radiation for an Implantable Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Song, Yong; Kong, Xianyue; Li, Maoyuan; Zhao, Yufei; Hao, Qun; Gao, Tianxin

    2016-09-10

    A method of recharging implantable biosensors based on solar radiation is proposed. Firstly, the models of the proposed method are developed. Secondly, the recharging processes based on solar radiation are simulated using Monte Carlo (MC) method and the energy distributions of sunlight within the different layers of human skin have been achieved and discussed. Finally, the simulation results are verified experimentally, which indicates that the proposed method will contribute to achieve a low-cost, convenient and safe method for recharging implantable biosensors.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A UREA BIOSENSOR BASED ON A POLYMERIC MEMBRANE INCLUDING ZEOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L HAMLAOUI

    2008-06-01

    + -sensitive membrane is based on a zeolite-incorporated polymeric membrane biosensor (clinoptilolite. The sensitivity of ammonium  detection is sub-nernstian (32mV/pNH4 + but the ISFET presents a high selectivity, which is interesting for measurements in biological media. The grafting of urease to the NH4 +-sensitive membrane was permorfed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde .The sensitivity of the urea ENFET is 15V/purea and this remains stable over 15 days with a detection limit of 3x10-5 M. Finally, in order to test feasibility of the urea biosensor for environmental applications, the remaining activity of the urease was determined after exposure to enzyme inhibiting heavy metals ions such as Hg(II.Using these urea biosensors, a detection limit of less than 5 x 10-8 M was obtained for Hg(II.

  6. Study on a hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase/GNPs-thionine/chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xiaobin; Pang Guangchang; Liang Xinyi; Wang Meng; Liu Jing; Zhu Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glutaraldehyde was used as the bridge linking agent to covalently bonded thionine in chitosan, which is more stable and could effectively prevalent leakage of the electronic mediator. ► The effect of GNPs adsorbed HRP was first accurately characterized by bio-layer interferometry using the ForteBio Octer system. ► The application of self-assembly technology increases the biosensor stability. - Abstract: A novel hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on horseradish peroxidase/GNPs-thionine/chitosan has been developed. Gold nanoparticles fixed with horseradish peroxidase were adsorbed on glassy carbon electrode by the chitosan which cross-linked with the electron mediator of horseradish peroxidase as the bridge linking agent. The assembly procedures were monitored by UV–visible spectral scanning, bio-layer interferometry, cyclic voltammetric and alternating current impedance. The chronoamperometry was used to measure hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide biosensor linear range of detection is 1 × 10 −7 –1 × 10 −4 mol/L, detection limit up to 5.0 × 10 −8 mol/L. Moreover the stability, reproducibility and selectivity of the biosensor were also studied and the results confirmed that the biosensor exhibit fast response to hydrogen peroxide and possess high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  7. A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite for the detection of phenolic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Limin; Zhang Li; Zhang Xiaobing; Huan Shuangyan; Shen Guoli; Yu Ruqin

    2010-01-01

    A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HA)-chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for the detection of phenolic compounds. The uniform and size controlled nano-HA was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and its morphological characterization was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tyrosinase was then immobilized on a nano-HA-chitosan nanocomposite-modified gold electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the sensing film. The prepared biosensor was applied to determine phenolic compounds by monitoring the reduction signal of the biocatalytically produced quinone species at -0.2 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode). The effects of the pH, temperature and applied potential on the biosensor performance were investigated, and experimental conditions were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linear response to catechol over a wide concentration range from 10 nM to 7 μM, with a high sensitivity of 2.11 x 10 3 μA mM -1 cm -2 , and a limit of detection down to 5 nM (based on S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of the enzyme electrode were estimated to be 3.16, 1.31 and 3.52 μM for catechol, phenol and m-cresol, respectively. Moreover, the stability and reproducibility of this biosensor were evaluated with satisfactory results.

  8. [Properties of modified amperometric biosensors based on methanol dehydrogenase and Methylobacterium nodulans cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T A; Beschastnyĭ, A P; Alferov, S V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The properties of amperometric biosensors based on methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), Methylobacterium nodulans cells, and the ferrocene-modified carbon paste electrode were investigated. It was shown that the addition ofhydroxyapatite (HA) to a carbon paste increased the sensitivity and operating stability of MDH biosensors. The linear range of the electrode was 0.0135-0.5 and 0.032-1.5 mM for methanol and formaldehyde, respectively. The detection limit of methanol and formaldehyde was 4.5 and 11.0 microM, respectively. The loss of activity of the electrode within 10 days of storage in the presence of 2.0 mM KCN did not exceed 12%. Cyanide (10 mM) completely inhibited the sensor responses to formaldehyde (1.0 mM), which allowed for the selective determination of methanol in the presence of formaldehyde. The biosensor based on cells exhibited lower stability and sensitivity toward methanol and formaldehyde; the sensitivity coefficients were 980 and 21 nA/mM, respectively.

  9. Design of Microcantilever-Based Biosensor with Digital Feedback Control Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayu P. Kalambe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the design of cantilever-based biosensors with new readout, which hold promises as fast and cheap “point of care” device as well as interesting research tools. The fabrication process and related issues of the cantilever based bio-sensor are discussed. Coventorware simulation is carried out to analyze the device behavior. A fully integrated control circuit has been designed to solve manufacturing challenge which will take care of positioning of the cantilever instead of creating nanometer gap between the electrodes. The control circuit will solve the manufacturing challenge faced by the readout methods where it is essential to maintain precise gap between the electrodes. The circuit can take care of variation obtained due to fabrication process and maintain the precise gap between the electrodes by electrostatic actuation. The control circuit consist of analog and digital modules. The reliability issues of the sensor are also discussed.

  10. Layer-by-layer assemblies of chitosan/multi-wall carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose biosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Baoyan; Hou Shihua; Yu Min; Qin Xia; Li, Sha; Chen Qiang

    2009-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on multilayer films containing chitosan, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) was developed. MWCNTs were solubilized in chitosan (Chit-MWCNTs) used to interact with GOD. Poly (allylamine) (PAA) and polyvinylsulfuric acid potassium salt (PVS) were alternately deposited on the cleaned Pt electrode surface ((PVS/PAA) 3 /Pt). The (PVS/PAA) 3 /Pt electrode was alternately immersed in Chit-MWCNTs and GOD to assemble different layers of multilayer films. PBS washing was applied at the end of each assembly deposition for dissociating the weak adsorption. Micrographs of MWCNTs were obtained by scanning electron microscope, and properties of the resulting biosensors were measured by electrochemical measurements. Among the resulting biosensors, the biosensor based on eight layers of multilayer films was best. The resulting biosensor was able to efficiently monitor glucose, with the response time within 8 s, a detection limit of 21 μM estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, a linear range of 1-10 mM, the sensitivity of 0.45 μA/mM, and well stability. The study can provide a feasible simple approach on developing a new immobilization matrix for biosensors and surface functionalization

  11. 1-D grating based SPR biosensor for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Pradeep Kumar; Kaler, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Grating based surface plasmon resonance waveguide biosensor have been reported for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers using Vroman effect. The proposed grating based multilayered biosensor is designed with high detection accuracy for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and also analysed to show high detection accuracy with acceptable sensitivity for both cancer biomarkers. The introduction of periodic grating with multilayer metals generates a good resonance that make it possible for early detection of cancerous cells. Using finite difference time domain method, it is observed wavelength of biosensor get red-shifted on variations of the refractive index due to the presence of both the cancerous bio-markers. The reported detection accuracy and sensitivity of proposed biosensor is quite acceptable for both lung cancer biomarkers i.e. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which further offer us label free early detection of lung cancer using these biomarkers.

  12. Highly sensitive nano-porous lattice biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Se-Hyuk; Kim, Ok-Geun; Kang, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Kyu-Jin; Yuan, Heng; Kwon, Dae-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kang, Shin-Won

    2011-11-07

    We propose a design for a highly sensitive biosensor based on nanostructured anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates. A gold-deposited AAO substrate exhibits both optical interference and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In our sensor, application of these disparate optical properties overcomes problems of limited sensitivity, selectivity, and dynamic range seen in similar biosensors. We fabricated uniform periodic nanopore lattice AAO templates by two-step anodizing and assessed their suitability for application in biosensors by characterizing the change in optical response on addition of biomolecules to the AAO template. To determine the suitability of such structures for biosensing applications, we immobilized a layer of C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody on a gold coating atop an AAO template. We then applied a CRP antigen (Ag) atop the immobilized antibody (Ab) layer. The shift in reflectance is interpreted as being caused by the change in refractive index with membrane thickness. Our results confirm that our proposed AAO-based biosensor is highly selective toward detection of CRP antigen, and can measure a change in CRP antigen concentration of 1 fg/ml. This method can provide a simple, fast, and sensitive analysis for protein detection in real-time.

  13. Real-time determination of intracellular oxygen in bacteria using a genetically encoded FRET-based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potzkei Janko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular oxygen (O2 is one of the key metabolites of all obligate and facultative aerobic pro- and eukaryotes. It plays a fundamental role in energy homeostasis whereas oxygen deprivation, in turn, broadly affects various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Therefore, real-time monitoring of cellular oxygen levels is basically a prerequisite for the analysis of hypoxia-induced processes in living cells and tissues. Results We developed a genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET-based biosensor allowing the observation of changing molecular oxygen concentrations inside living cells. This biosensor named FluBO (fluorescent protein-based biosensor for oxygen consists of the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP that is sensitive towards oxygen depletion and the hypoxia-tolerant flavin-binding fluorescent protein (FbFP. Since O2 is essential for the formation of the YFP chromophore, efficient FRET from the FbFP donor domain to the YFP acceptor domain only occurs in the presence but not in the absence of oxygen. The oxygen biosensor was used for continuous real-time monitoring of temporal changes of O2 levels in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli cells during batch cultivation. Conclusions FluBO represents a unique FRET-based oxygen biosensor which allows the non-invasive ratiometric readout of cellular oxygen. Thus, FluBO can serve as a novel and powerful probe for investigating the occurrence of hypoxia and its effects on a variety of (pathophysiological processes in living cells.

  14. Microbial biosensors for environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David VOGRINC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biosensors are analytical devices capable of sensing substances in the environment due to the specific biological reaction of the microorganism or its parts. Construction of a microbial biosensor requires knowledge of microbial response to the specific analyte. Linking this response with the quantitative data, using a transducer, is the crucial step in the construction of a biosensor. Regarding the transducer type, biosensors are divided into electrochemical, optical biosensors and microbial fuel cells. The use of the proper configuration depends on the selection of the biosensing element. With the use of transgenic E. coli strains, bioluminescence or fluorescence based biosensors were developed. Microbial fuel cells enable the use of the heterogeneous microbial populations, isolated from wastewater. Different microorganisms are used for different pollutants – pesticides, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, organic waste, etc. Biosensing enables measurement of their concentration and their toxic or genotoxic effects on the microbes. Increasing environmental awareness has contributed to the increase of interest for biomonitoring. Although technologies, such as bioinformatics and genetic engineering, allow us to design complex and efficient microbial biosensors for environmental pollutants, the transfer of the laboratory work to the field still remains a problem to solve.

  15. Magneto-elastic biosensors: Influence of different thiols on pathogen capture efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Pozza, Márcia; Possan, André L.; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Missell, Frank P.

    2017-01-01

    Magneto-elastic biosensors have mass sensitivity to biological species, offering reliability and reproducibility in the detection of pathogens such as Escherichia coli. In this work, amorphous ribbons of Metglas 2826MB3 were coated with layers of Cr and Au by DC magnetron sputtering and cut to 5 mm × 1 mm. The influence of different thiols on captured pathogens was studied. The compounds cystamine (CYS), cysteamine (CYSTE) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were deposited on Au-covered surfaces, followed by antibodies. The roughness parameters Ra and Rq were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micrographs from scanning electron microscopy with a field emission gun (FESEM) were also utilized. Biosensors formed with MPA showed an increased efficiency for attracting E. coli compared to biosensors with CYS and CYSTE, but large standard deviations were observed, making reproducibility and reliability difficult for that biosensor. Sensors tested with CYSTE showed greater efficiency and a lower detection limit than sensors with CYS. The results indicated that the size of the carbon chain and the terminal grouping influence the effectiveness of immobilization on magneto-elastic biosensors. - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun (FESEM) were utilized. • Biosensor with cysteamine (CYSTE) gave lower detection limit for E.coli than mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or cystamine (CYS)

  16. Magneto-elastic biosensors: Influence of different thiols on pathogen capture efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Pozza, Márcia; Possan, André L. [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Roesch-Ely, Mariana [Instituto de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Missell, Frank P., E-mail: fpmissel@ucs.br [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil)

    2017-06-01

    Magneto-elastic biosensors have mass sensitivity to biological species, offering reliability and reproducibility in the detection of pathogens such as Escherichia coli. In this work, amorphous ribbons of Metglas 2826MB3 were coated with layers of Cr and Au by DC magnetron sputtering and cut to 5 mm × 1 mm. The influence of different thiols on captured pathogens was studied. The compounds cystamine (CYS), cysteamine (CYSTE) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were deposited on Au-covered surfaces, followed by antibodies. The roughness parameters Ra and Rq were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micrographs from scanning electron microscopy with a field emission gun (FESEM) were also utilized. Biosensors formed with MPA showed an increased efficiency for attracting E. coli compared to biosensors with CYS and CYSTE, but large standard deviations were observed, making reproducibility and reliability difficult for that biosensor. Sensors tested with CYSTE showed greater efficiency and a lower detection limit than sensors with CYS. The results indicated that the size of the carbon chain and the terminal grouping influence the effectiveness of immobilization on magneto-elastic biosensors. - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy with field emission gun (FESEM) were utilized. • Biosensor with cysteamine (CYSTE) gave lower detection limit for E.coli than mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) or cystamine (CYS)

  17. An Effective Amperometric Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sensitive amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoelectrode array (NEA was investigated. The gold nanoelectrode array was fabricated by template-assisted electrodeposition on general electrodes, which shows an ordered well-defined 3D structure of nanowires. The sensitivity of the gold NEA to hydrogen peroxide is 37 times higher than that of the conventional electrode. The linear range of the platinum NEA toward H2O2is from 1 × 10−6to 1 × 10−2 M, covering four orders of magnitudes with detection limit of 1 × 10−7 M and a single noise ratio (S/N of four. The enzyme electrode exhibits an excellent response performance to glucose with linear range from 1 × 10−5to 1 × 10−2 M and a fast response time within 8 s. The Michaelis–Menten constantkm and the maximum current densityi maxof the enzyme electrode were 4.97 mM and 84.60 μA cm−2, respectively. This special nanoelectrode may find potential application in other biosensors based on amperometric signals.

  18. A novel nano-photonics biosensor concept for rapid molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder, Dion J. W.; van Herpen, Maarten M. J. W.; Kolesnychenko, Aleksey; Hornix, Eefje; Kahya, Nicoletta; de Boer, Ruth; Stapert, Henk

    2008-04-01

    We present a novel nano-photonics biosensor concept that offers an ultra-high surface specificity and excellent suppression of background signals due to the sample fluid on top of the biosensor. In our contribution, we will briefly discuss the operation principle and fabrication of the biosensor, followed by a more detailed discussion on the experimentally determined performance parameters. Recent results on detection of fluorescently labeled molecules in a highly fluorescent background will be shown, and we will give an outlook on real-time detection of bio-molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

  19. Nucleic Acid-based Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Using Integrated Microfluidic Platform Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A. Batt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The advent of nucleic acid-based pathogen detection methods offers increased sensitivity and specificity over traditional microbiological techniques, driving the development of portable, integrated biosensors. The miniaturization and automation of integrated detection systems presents a significant advantage for rapid, portable field-based testing. In this review, we highlight current developments and directions in nucleic acid-based micro total analysis systems for the detection of bacterial pathogens. Recent progress in the miniaturization of microfluidic processing steps for cell capture, DNA extraction and purification, polymerase chain reaction, and product detection are detailed. Discussions include strategies and challenges for implementation of an integrated portable platform.

  20. A Novel Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors with Special Boronic Acid Derivative to Detect Glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We proposed and demonstrated a novel tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR label-free biosensor via a special boronic acid derivative to detect glycoprotein with high sensitivity and selectivity. TFBG, as an effective sensing element for optical sensing in near-infrared wavelengths, possess the unique capability of easily exciting the SPR effect on fiber surface which coated with a nano-scale metal layer. SPR properties can be accurately detected by measuring the variation of transmitted spectra at optical communication wavelengths. In our experiment, a 10° TFBG coated with a 50 nm gold film was manufactured to stimulate SPR on a sensor surface. To detect glycoprotein selectively, the sensor was immobilized using designed phenylboronic acid as the recognition molecule, which can covalently bond with 1,2- or 1,3-diols to form five- or six-membered cyclic complexes for attaching diol-containing biomolecules and proteins. The phenylboronic acid was synthetized with long alkyl groups offering more flexible space, which was able to improve the capability of binding glycoprotein. The proposed TFBG-SPR sensors exhibit good selectivity and repeatability with a protein concentration sensitivity up to 2.867 dB/ (mg/mL and a limit of detection (LOD of 15.56 nM.

  1. Fluorescence-based biosensors from concepts to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, May C

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of modern biology and medicine consists in finding means to visualize biomolecules in their natural environment with the greatest level of accuracy, so as to gain insight into their properties and behaviour in a physiological and pathological setting. This has been achieved thanks to the design of novel imaging agents, in particular to fluorescent biosensors. Fluorescence Biosensors comprise a large set of tools which are useful for fundamental purposes as well as for applications in biomedicine, drug discovery and biotechnology. These tools have been designed a

  2. Disposable L-lactate biosensor based on a screen-printed carbon electrode enhanced by graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Dandan; He, Yu; Rong, Yuanzhen; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on a graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was constructed. First, the electrocatalytic performance of the SPCE modified with graphene by a one-step electrodeposition process (OerGO/SPCE) was investigated. The cyclic voltammogram of OerGO/SPCE, which showed a well-defined redox peak, had a smaller peak potential separation than that of SPCE, revealing the improvement in electron transfer speed brought about by modifying with graphene. Next, lactate oxidase and potassium ferricyanide were dropped on the OerGO/SPCE to construct a graphene-modified L-lactate biosensor (LOD/K3[Fe(CN)6]/OerGO/SPCE). The proposed biosensor, with a detection limit of 60 μM, had a high sensitivity (42.42 μA mM-1 cm-2) when working at a low working potential (0.15 V). The linear range was 0.5 mM-15 mM, covering the detecting range of L-lactate in clinical applications. The L-lactate biosensor had a short response time (10 s) and required only 10 μl of the sample. This L-lactate sensor modified with electrodeposited graphene had a larger sensitivity than that based on the bare SPCE. Thus, our low-cost and disposable L-lactate biosensor enhanced by graphene can perform as an attractive electrochemical device that can be manufactured for point-of-care testing (POCT) devices and be employed in POCT applications.

  3. Disposable L-lactate biosensor based on a screen-printed carbon electrode enhanced by graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Dandan; He, Yu; Rong, Yuanzhen; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on a graphene-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was constructed. First, the electrocatalytic performance of the SPCE modified with graphene by a one-step electrodeposition process (OerGO/SPCE) was investigated. The cyclic voltammogram of OerGO/SPCE, which showed a well-defined redox peak, had a smaller peak potential separation than that of SPCE, revealing the improvement in electron transfer speed brought about by modifying with graphene. Next, lactate oxidase and potassium ferricyanide were dropped on the OerGO/SPCE to construct a graphene-modified L-lactate biosensor (LOD/K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/OerGO/SPCE). The proposed biosensor, with a detection limit of 60 μM, had a high sensitivity (42.42 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) when working at a low working potential (0.15 V). The linear range was 0.5 mM–15 mM, covering the detecting range of L-lactate in clinical applications. The L-lactate biosensor had a short response time (10 s) and required only 10 μl of the sample. This L-lactate sensor modified with electrodeposited graphene had a larger sensitivity than that based on the bare SPCE. Thus, our low-cost and disposable L-lactate biosensor enhanced by graphene can perform as an attractive electrochemical device that can be manufactured for point-of-care testing (POCT) devices and be employed in POCT applications. (paper)

  4. Lateral flow devices for nucleic acid analysis exploiting quantum dots as reporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapountzi, Eleni A.; Tragoulias, Sotirios S.; Kalogianni, Despina P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Ioannou, Penelope C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Christopoulos, Theodore K., E-mail: tchrist@upatras.gr [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Processes, Foundation of Research and Technology Hellas, GR-26504 Patras (Greece)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Dipstick tests for DNA hybridization assays and genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. • Use of quantum dots as reporters. • Visual detection without the need for expensive instrumentation. • Simplicity and low-cost of the assays. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in the development of biosensors in the form of simple lateral flow devices that enable visual detection of nucleic acid sequences while eliminating several steps required for pipetting, incubation and washing out the excess of reactants. In this work, we present the first dipstick-type nucleic acid biosensors based on quantum dots (QDs) as reporters. The biosensors enable sequence confirmation of the target DNA by hybridization and simple visual detection of the emitted fluorescence under a UV lamp. The ‘diagnostic’ membrane of the biosensor contains a test zone (TZ) and a control zone (CZ). The CZ always fluoresces in order to confirm the proper function of the biosensor. Fluorescence is emitted from the TZ, only when the specific nucleic acid sequence is present. We have developed two general types of QD-based nucleic acid biosensors, namely, Type I and Type II, in which the TZ consists of either immobilized streptavidin (Type I) or immobilized oligodeoxynucleotides (Type II). The control zone consists of immobilized biotinylated albumin. No purification steps are required prior to the application of the DNA sample on the strip. The QD-based nucleic acid biosensors performed accurately and reproducibly when applied to (a) the visual detection of PCR amplification products and (b) visual genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human genomic DNA from clinical samples. As low as 1.5 fmol of double-stranded DNA were clearly detected by naked eye and the dynamic range extended to 200 fmol. The %CV were estimated to be 4.3–8.2.

  5. Developing a high performance superoxide dismutase based electrochemical biosensor for radiation dosimetry of thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Hassan; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Riazi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    To develop a new biosensor for measurement of superoxide free radical generated in radiolysis reaction, three combinations of SOD-based biosensors including Au/Cys/SOD, Au/GNP/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit were fabricated. In these biosensors Au, GNP, Cys, SOD and Chit represent gold electrode, gold nano-particles, cysteine, superoxide dismutase and chitosan, respectively. For biosensors fabrication, SOD, GNP, Cys and Chit were immobilized at the surface of gold electrode. Cyclic voltametry and chronoamperometry were utilized for evaluation of biosensors performances. The results showed that Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit has significantly better responses compared to Au/Cys/SOD and Au/GNP/Cys/SOD. As a result, this biosensor was selected for dosimetry of ionizing radiation. For this purpose, thallium 201 at different volumes was added to buffer phosphate solution in electrochemical cell. To obtain analytical parameters of Au/GNP/Cys/SOD/Chit, calibration curve was sketched. The results showed that this biosensor has a linear response in the range from 0.5 to 4 Gy, detection limit 0.03 μM. It also has a proper sensitivity (0.6038 nA/Gy), suitable long term stability and cost effective as well as high function for radiation dosimetry. - highlights: • Our biosensor is able to measure produced superoxide radical during water radiolysis. • It has suitable linearity range, good detection limit and long term stability. • It also has proper sensitivity and high performance for low LET ionizing radiation. • The electrochemical method is as good as traditional methods for radiation dosimetry

  6. RNA Detection Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications due to its unique properties. In this paper, the monolayer graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Using the graphene as the electric channel, we have fabricated a graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET biosensor that can be used for label-free detection of RNA. Compared with conventional method, the G-FET RNA biosensor can be run in low cost, be time-saving, and be miniaturized for RNA measurement. The sensors show high performance and achieve the RNA detection sensitivity as low as 0.1 fM, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the previously reports. Moreover, the G-FET biosensor can readily distinguish target RNA from noncomplementary RNA, showing high selectivity for RNA detection. The developed G-FET RNA biosensor with high sensitivity, fast analysis speed, and simple operation may provide a new feasible direction for RNA research and biosensing.

  7. Fluorescence-based biosensor for monitoring of environmental pollutants: From concept to field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Kotlanova, Marketa; Rataj, Tomas; Damborsky, Jiri; Trtilek, Martin; Prokop, Zbynek

    2016-10-15

    An advanced optical biosensor was developed based on the enzymatic reaction with halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons that is accompanied by the fluorescence change of pH indicator. The device is applicable for the detection of halogenated contaminants in water samples with pH ranging from 4 to 10 and temperature ranging from 5 to 60°C. Main advantages of the developed biosensor are small size (60×30×190mm(3)) and portability, which together with short measurement time of 1min belong to crucial attributes of analytical technique useful for routine environmental monitoring. The biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of several important halogenated pollutants under laboratory conditions, e.g., 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2,3-trichloropropane and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, with the limits of detection of 2.7, 1.4 and 12.1mgL(-1), respectively. The continuous monitoring was demonstrated by repetitive injection of halogenated compound into measurement solution. Consequently, field trials under environmental settings were performed. The presence of 1,2-dichloroethane (10mgL(-1)) was proved unambiguously on one of three potentially contaminated sites in Czech Republic, and the same contaminant was monitored on contaminated locality in Serbia. Equipped by Global Positioning System, the biosensor was used for creation of a precise map of contamination. Concentrations determined by biosensor and by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer exhibited the correlation coefficient of 0.92, providing a good confidence for the routine use of the biosensor system in both field screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospects of conducting polymers in biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Bansi D.; Chaubey, Asha; Singh, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Applications of conducting polymers to biosensors have recently aroused much interest. This is because these molecular electronic materials offer control of different parameters such as polymer layer thickness, electrical properties and bio-reagent loading, etc. Moreover, conducting polymer based biosensors are likely to cater to the pressing requirements such as biocompatibility, possibility of in vivo sensing, continuous monitoring of drugs or metabolites, multi-parametric assays, miniaturization and high information density. This paper deals with the emerging trends in conducting polymer based biosensors during the last about 5 years

  9. Biosensors Based on Urease Adsorbed on Nickel, Platinum, and Gold Conductometric Transducers Modified with Silicalite and Nanozeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherenko, Ivan S.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Melnyk, Volodymir G.; Semenycheva, Lyudmila M.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.; Soldatkin, Alexei P.

    This work describes urease-based conductometric biosensors that were created using nontypical method of urease immobilization via adsorption on micro- and nanoporous particles: silicalite and nanocrystalline zeolites Beta (BEA) and L. Conductometric transducers with nickel, gold, and platinum interdigitated electrodes were used. Active regions of the nickel transducers were modified with microparticles using two procedures—spin coating and drop coating. Gold and platinum transducers were modified with silicalite using drop coating since it was more effective. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate effectiveness of these procedures. The procedure of spin coating produced more uniform layers of particles (and biosensors had good reproducibility of preparation), but it was more complicated, drop coating was easier and led to formation of a bulk of particles; thus, biosensors had bigger sensitivity but worse reproducibility of preparation. Urease was immobilized onto transducers modified with particles by physical adsorption. Analytical characteristics of the obtained biosensors for determination of urea (calibration curves, sensitivity, limit of detection, linear concentration range, noise of responses, reproducibility of signal during a day, and operational stability during 3 days) were compared. Biosensors with all three particles deposited by spin coating showed similar characteristics; however, silicalite was a bit more effective. Biosensors based on nickel transducers modified by drop coating had better characteristics in comparison with modification by spin coating (except reproducibility of preparation). Transducers with gold electrodes showed best characteristics while creating biosensors, platinum electrodes were slightly inferior to them, and nickel electrodes were the worst.

  10. A yeast co-culture-based biosensor for determination of waste water contamination levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, N Yu; Arlyapov, V A; Chepurnova, M A; Alferov, S V; Reshetilov, A N

    2015-10-01

    Artificial microbial co-cultures were formed to develop the receptor element of a biosensor for assessment of biological oxygen demand (BOD). The co-cultures possessed broad substrate specificities and enabled assays of water and fermentation products within a broad BOD range (2.4-80 mg/dm(3)) with a high correlation to the standard method (R = 0.9988). The use of the co-cultures of the yeasts Pichia angusta, Arxula adeninivorans and Debaryomyces hansenii immobilized in N-vinylpyrrolidone-modified poly(vinyl alcohol) enabled developing a BOD biosensor possessing the characteristics not inferior to those in the known biosensors. The results are indicative of a potential of using these co-cultures as the receptor element base in prototype models of instruments for broad application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Denaturation strategies for detection of double stranded PCR products on GMR magnetic biosensor array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Guldberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    Microarrays and other surface-based nucleic acid detection schemes rely on the hybridization of the target to surface-bound detection probes. We present the first comparison of two strategies to detect DNA using a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor platform starting from an initially double...

  12. Urea potentiometric enzymatic biosensor based on charged biopolymers and electrodeposited polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakard, Boris; Magnin, Delphine; Deschaume, Olivier; Vanlancker, Guilhem; Glinel, Karine; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard; Jonas, Alain M; Bertrand, Patrick; Yunus, Sami

    2011-06-15

    A potentiometric biosensor based on urease was developed for the quantitative determination of urea concentration in aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. The urease was either physisorbed onto an electrodeposited polyaniline film (PANI), or immobilized on a layer-by-layer film (LbL) assembled over the PANI film, that was obtained by the alternate deposition of charged polysaccharides (carboxymethylpullulan (CMP) and chitosan (CHI)). In the latter case, the urease (Urs) enzyme was either physically adsorbed or covalently grafted to the LbL film using carbodiimide coupling reaction. Potentiometric responses of the enzymatic biosensors were measured as a function of the urea concentration in aqueous solutions (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol L(-1) urea). Very high sensitivity and short response time were observed for the present biosensor. Moreover, a stability study showed a higher stability over time for the potentiometric response of the sensor with the enzyme-grafted LbL film, testifying for the protective nature of the polysaccharide coating and the interest of covalent grafting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A luminescent hybridoma-based biosensor for rapid detection of V. cholerae upon induction of calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Parichehr; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Zeinoddini, Mehdi; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a hybridoma based biosensor was developed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 which converts the antibody-antigen binding to bioluminescence light. After investigation on hybridoma performance, the biosensor was constructed by transfecting specific hybridoma cells with aequorin reporter gene and the bioluminescence activities of stable biosensor were measured. The sensitivity of biosensor was as few as 50 CFU/ml and it showed no responses to other entric bacteria. Moreover, the response time of biosensor was estimated in 7th second which means this method is considerably faster than many available detection assays. In addition, this biosensor was successfully applied to V. cholerae detection in environmental samples with no significant loss in sensitivity, demonstrating our proposed biosensor provides a sensitive and reliable method for detection of V. cholerae in natural samples. The application of whole hybridoma cell directly as a sensing element in biosensor construction which mentioned for the first time in present study suggests that hybridoma cells could provide a valuable tool for future studies in both basic and diagnostic sciences and could be considered as a fast and specific sensing element for detection of other pathogens in different applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensor for Monitoring Microcystin-LR in Sources of Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a toxic cyanobacterial toxin, in sources of drinking water supplies. The biosensor electrodes are fabricated using dense, mm-long multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) arrays gro...

  15. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Nguyen Thanh Thuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy and Nafion® modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA and dopamine (DA, respectively. The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2 (N = 10, respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C. The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L and reasonable recoveries (70%~107% were obtained.

  16. Protein-Based Graphene Biosensors: Optimizing Artificial Chemoreception in Bilayer Lipid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina G. Siontorou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteinaceous moieties are critical elements in most detection systems, including biosensing platforms. Their potential is undoubtedly vast, yet many issues regarding their full exploitation remain unsolved. On the other hand, the biosensor formats with the higher marketability probabilities are enzyme in nature and electrochemical in concept. To no surprise, alternative materials for hosting catalysis within an electrode casing have received much attention lately to demonstrate a catalysis-coated device. Graphene and ZnO are presented as ideal materials to modify electrodes and biosensor platforms, especially in protein-based detection. Our group developed electrochemical sensors based on these nanomaterials for the sensitive detection of cholesterol using cholesterol oxidase incorporated in stabilized lipid films. A comparison between the two platforms is provided and discussed. In a broader sense, the not-so-remote prospect of quickly assembling a protein-based flexible biosensing detector to fulfill site-specific requirements is appealing to both university researchers and industry developers.

  17. In vitro evaluation of fluorescence glucose biosensor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Sapsford, Kim E

    2014-07-08

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  18. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Aloraefy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensors, and characterized biosensor performance using these test methods. The biosensors were based on competitive binding between dextran and glucose to concanavalin A and incorporated long-wavelength fluorescence dye pairs. Testing characteristics included spectral response, linearity, sensitivity, limit of detection, kinetic response, reversibility, stability, precision, and accuracy. The biosensor demonstrated a fluorescence change of 45% in the presence of 400 mg/dL glucose, a mean absolute relative difference of less than 11%, a limit of detection of 25 mg/dL, a response time of 15 min, and a decay in fluorescence intensity of 72% over 30 days. The battery of tests presented here for objective, quantitative in vitro evaluation of FRET glucose biosensors performance have the potential to form the basis of future consensus standards. By implementing these test methods for a long-visible-wavelength biosensor, we were able to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses with a new level of thoroughness and rigor.

  19. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on an immobilised fullerene-urease bio-conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedfar, Kasra; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling; Rezayi, Majid

    2013-12-06

    A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease) bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10-3 M to 8.28 × 10-5 M. The biosensor's sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor's response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  20. Nano technologies for Biosensor and Bio chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.M.; Park, T.J.; Paskaleva, E.E.; Sun, F.; Seo, J.W.; Mehta, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    The bio sensing devices are characterized by their biological receptors, which have specificity to their corresponding analytes. These analytes are a vast and diverse group of biological molecules, DNAs, proteins (such as antibodies), fatty acids, or entire biological systems, such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, cancerous cells, or other living organisms. A main challenge in the development of biosensor applications is the efficient recognition of a biological signal in a low signal-to-noise ratio environment, and its transduction into an electrochemical, optical, or other signals. The advent of nano material technology greatly increased the potential for achieving exquisite sensitivity of such devises, due to the innate high surface-to-volume ratio and high reactivity of the nano material. The second major challenge facing the biosensor application, that of sca lability, is addressed by multiplexing and miniaturizing of the biosensor devises into a bio chip. In recent years, biosensor and bio chip technologies have made significant progress by taking advantages of diverse kinds of nano materials that are derived from nano technology

  1. Construction and characterization of novel stress-responsive Deinococcal biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Min Ho; Lim, Sang Youg

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we constructed a recombinant whole-cell biosensor to detect mutagens (H2O2, mitomycin C, MNNG, bleomycin) using Deinococcus radiodurans and evaluated its possibility for actual application. We performed DNA microarray analysis and selected 10 candidate genes for biosensor recombinant plasmid construction. The expression of ddrA, ddrB, DR 0 161, DR 0 589, and pprA was highly increased after treatment of the target mutagens. Putative promoter region of the genes were used for LacZ-based biosensor plasmid construction by replacing groESL promoter of pRADZ3. Pormoter activity and specificity of the five recombinant LacZ-based biosensor strains harboring the recombinant plasmids was measured. The result indicated that the promoter region of ddrA is the most suitable promoter for the biosensor development. Red pigment-based biosensor plasmid was constructed by displacing lacZ with crtI. The sensor strain was constructed by transforming the sensor plasmid into crtI deleted mutant D. radiodurans strain. Finally, macroscopic detection of the target mutagens by the biosensor strain was evaluated. The strength of red pigment biosynthesis by this recombinant strain in response to the target mutagens was weaker than our expectation. Continuous damage to the sensor strain by the mutagens in the medium might be the main reason for this low red-pigment biosynthesis. Therefore, we propose that the LacZ-based biosensor is more effective than the biosensor using red pigment as indicator for the mutagen detection

  2. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  3. Rapid detection of urinary polyomavirus BK by heterodyne-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Chen; Tian, Ya-Chung; Chang, Ying-Feng; Chou, Chien; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2014-01-01

    In renal transplant patients, immunosuppressive therapy may result in the reactivation of polyomavirus BK (BKV), leading to polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN), which inevitably causes allograft failure. Since the treatment outcomes of PVAN remain unsatisfactory, early identification and continuous monitoring of BKV reactivation and reduction of immunosuppressants are essential to prevent PVAN development. The present study demonstrated that the developed dual-channel heterodyne-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is applicable for the rapid detection of urinary BKV. The use of a symmetrical reference channel integrated with the poly(ethylene glycol)-based low-fouling self-assembled monolayer to reduce the environmental variations and the nonspecific noise was proven to enhance the sensitivity in urinary BKV detection. Experimentally, the detection limit of the biosensor for BKV detection was estimated to be around 8500 copies/mL. In addition, urine samples from five renal transplant patients were tested to rapidly distinguish PVAN-positive and PVAN-negative renal transplant patients. By virtue of its simplicity, rapidity, and applicability, the SPR biosensor is a remarkable potential to be used for continuous clinical monitoring of BKV reactivation.

  4. Synthetic biology for microbial heavy metal biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-02-01

    Using recombinant DNA technology, various whole-cell biosensors have been developed for detection of environmental pollutants, including heavy metal ions. Whole-cell biosensors have several advantages: easy and inexpensive cultivation, multiple assays, and no requirement of any special techniques for analysis. In the era of synthetic biology, cutting-edge DNA sequencing and gene synthesis technologies have accelerated the development of cell-based biosensors. Here, we summarize current technological advances in whole-cell heavy metal biosensors, including the synthetic biological components (bioparts), sensing and reporter modules, genetic circuits, and chassis cells. We discuss several opportunities for improvement of synthetic cell-based biosensors. First, new functional modules must be discovered in genome databases, and this knowledge must be used to upgrade specific bioparts through molecular engineering. Second, modules must be assembled into functional biosystems in chassis cells. Third, heterogeneity of individual cells in the microbial population must be eliminated. In the perspectives, the development of whole-cell biosensors is also discussed in the aspects of cultivation methods and synthetic cells.

  5. Electronically type-sorted carbon nanotube-based electrochemical biosensors with glucose oxidase and dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Hitoshi; Hoshino, Tatsuya; Nowaki, Kohei

    2015-01-14

    An electrochemical enzyme biosensor with electronically type-sorted (metallic and semiconducting) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for use in aqueous media is presented. This research investigates how the electronic types of SWNTs influence the amperometric response of enzyme biosensors. To conduct a clear evaluation, a simple layer-by-layer process based on a plasma-polymerized nano thin film (PPF) was adopted because a PPF is an inactive matrix that can form a well-defined nanostructure composed of SWNTs and enzyme. For a biosensor with the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme in the presence of oxygen, the response of a metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was 2 times larger than that of a semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode. In contrast, in the absence of oxygen, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode was retained, whereas that of the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was significantly reduced. This indicates that direct electron transfer occurred with the semiconducting SWNT-GOx electrode, whereas the metallic SWNT-GOx electrode was dominated by a hydrogen peroxide pathway caused by an enzymatic reaction. For a biosensor with the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; oxygen-independent catalysis) enzyme, the response of the semiconducting SWNT-GDH electrode was 4 times larger than that of the metallic SWNT-GDH electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to show that the semiconducting SWNT network has less resistance for electron transfer than the metallic SWNT network. Therefore, it was concluded that semiconducting SWNTs are more suitable than metallic SWNTs for electrochemical enzyme biosensors in terms of direct electron transfer as a detection mechanism. This study makes a valuable contribution toward the development of electrochemical biosensors that employ sorted SWNTs and various enzymes.

  6. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on Hemoglobin/DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine modified gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Zhongqiang; Yuan Ruo; Chai Yaqin; Chen Shihong; Xie Yi

    2007-01-01

    An amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was fabricated based on immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) on DNA/Poly-2,6-pyridinediamine (PPD) modified Au electrode. PPD thin films were firstly electro-deposited on Au electrode surface which provide a template to attach negatively charged DNA molecules by electrostatic attraction. The adsorbed DNA network provides a good microenvironment for the immobilization of biomolecules and promotes electron transfer between the immobilized Hb and the electrode surface. The fabrication process of the biosensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance such as pH, potential and temperature were assessed and optimized. The proposed biosensor displayed a good electrocatalytic response to the reduction of H 2 O 2 , its linear range is 1.7 μM to 3 mM with a detection limit of 1.0 μM based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 (S/N = 3) under the optimized conditions. The Michaelis-Menten constant K m app of Hb immobilized on the electrode surface was found to be 0.8 mM. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and stability. Importantly, this deposition methodology could be further developed for the immobilization of other proteins and biocompounds

  7. Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor Based on Smart Phone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Shimeng; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Hanqi; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on smart phone platforms. The light-weight optical components and sensing element are connected by optical fibers on a phone case. This SPR adaptor can be conveniently installed or removed from smart phones. The measurement, control and reference channels are illuminated by the light entering the lead-in fibers from the phone's LED flash, while the light from the end faces of the lead-out fibers is detected by the phone's camera. The SPR-sensing element is fabricated by a light-guiding silica capillary that is stripped off its cladding and coated with 50-nm gold film. Utilizing a smart application to extract the light intensity information from the camera images, the light intensities of each channel are recorded every 0.5 s with refractive index (RI) changes. The performance of the smart phone-based SPR platform for accurate and repeatable measurements was evaluated by detecting different concentrations of antibody binding to a functionalized sensing element, and the experiment results were validated through contrast experiments with a commercial SPR instrument. This cost-effective and portable SPR biosensor based on smart phones has many applications, such as medicine, health and environmental monitoring.

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of Fluorescence Glucose Biosensor Response

    OpenAIRE

    Aloraefy, Mamdouh; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Sapsford, Kim E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, accurate, and minimally-invasive glucose biosensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) for glucose measurement have the potential to enhance diabetes control. However, a standard set of in vitro approaches for evaluating optical glucose biosensor response under controlled conditions would facilitate technological innovation and clinical translation. Towards this end, we have identified key characteristics and response test methods, fabricated FRET-based glucose biosensor...

  9. Biosensors in Clinical Practice: Focus on Oncohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Cortelezzi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors are devices that are capable of detecting specific biological analytes and converting their presence or concentration into some electrical, thermal, optical or other signal that can be easily analysed. The first biosensor was designed by Clark and Lyons in 1962 as a means of measuring glucose. Since then, much progress has been made and the applications of biosensors are today potentially boundless. This review is limited to their clinical applications, particularly in the field of oncohematology. Biosensors have recently been developed in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients affected by hematological malignancies, such as the biosensor for assessing the in vitro pre-treatment efficacy of cytarabine in acute myeloid leukemia, and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor for assessing the efficacy of imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia. The review also considers the challenges and future perspectives of biosensors in clinical practice.

  10. Flexible electrochemical biosensors based on graphene nanowalls for the real-time measurement of lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianwei; Sun, Tai; Song, Xuefen; Ran, Qincui; Yu, Chongsheng; Yang, Jun; Feng, Hua; Yu, Leyong; Wei, Dapeng

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate a flexible biosensor for lactate detection based on l-lactate oxidase immobilized by chitosan film cross-linked with glutaraldehyde on the surface of a graphene nanowall (GNW) electrode. The oxygen-plasma technique was developed to enhance the wettability of the GNWs, and the strength of the sensor’s oxidation response depended on the concentration of lactate. First, in order to eliminate interference from other substances, biosensors were primarily tested in deionized water and displayed good electrochemical reversibility at different scan rates (20-100 mV s-1), a large index range (1.0 μM to 10.0 mM) and a low detection limit (1.0 μM) for lactate. Next, these sensors were further examined in phosphate buffer solution (to mimick human body fluids), and still exhibited high sensitivity, stability and flexibility. These results show that the GNW-based lactate biosensors possess important potential for application in clinical analysis, sports medicine and the food industry.

  11. Monitoring of nutrient limitation in growing E. coli: a mathematical model of a ppGpp-based biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhilko, Alexandra

    2017-11-21

    E. coli can be used as bacterial cell factories for production of biofuels and other useful compounds. The efficient production of the desired products requires careful monitoring of growth conditions and the optimization of metabolic fluxes. To avoid nutrient depletion and maximize product yields we suggest using a natural mechanism for sensing nutrient limitation, related to biosynthesis of an intracellular messenger - guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp). We propose a design for a biosensor, which monitors changes in the intracellular concentration of ppGpp by coupling it to a fluorescent output. We used mathematical modelling to analyse the intracellular dynamics of ppGpp, its fluorescent reporter, and cell growth in normal and fatty acid-producing E. coli lines. The model integrates existing mechanisms of ppGpp regulation and predicts the biosensor response to changes in nutrient state. In particular, the model predicts that excessive stimulation of fatty acid production depletes fatty acid intermediates, downregulates growth and increases the levels of ppGpp-related fluorescence. Our analysis demonstrates that the ppGpp sensor can be used for early detection of nutrient limitation during cell growth and for testing productivity of engineered lines.

  12. Poly(neutral red) based hydrogen peroxide biosensor for chromium determination by inhibition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aisha; Emilia Ghica, M; Amine, Aziz; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-08-30

    Amperometric hydrogen peroxide enzyme inhibition biosensors based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilised on electropolymerised neutral red (NR) or directly on the surface of carbon film electrodes (CFE) have been successfully applied to the determination of toxic Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Parameters influencing the performance of the biosensor including the enzyme immobilisation method, the amount of hydrogen peroxide, applied potential and electrolyte pH were optimised. The inhibition of horseradish peroxidase by the chromium species was studied under the optimised conditions. Results from the quantitative analysis of chromium ions are discussed in terms of detection limit, linear range and sensitivity. The HRP kinetic interactions reveal mixed binding of Cr(III) with I50=3.8μM and inhibition binding constant Ki=11.3μM at HRP/PNR/CFE biosensors and uncompetitive binding of Cr(VI) with I50=3.9μM and Ki=0.78μM at HRP/CFE biosensors in the presence of H2O2 substrate. Interferences from other heavy metal ions were studied and the inhibition show very good selectivity towards Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Introduction to biosensors from electric circuits to immunosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    This book equips students with a thorough understanding of various types of sensors and biosensors that can be used for chemical, biological, and biomedical applications, including but not limited to temperature sensors, strain sensor, light sensors, spectrophotometric sensors, pulse oximeter, optical fiber probes, fluorescence sensors, pH sensor, ion-selective electrodes, piezoelectric sensors, glucose sensors, DNA and immunosensors, lab-on-a-chip biosensors, paper-based lab-on-a-chip biosensors, and microcontroller-based sensors. The author treats the study of biosensors with an applications-based approach, including over 15 extensive, hands-on labs given at the end of each chapter. The material is presented using a building-block approach, beginning with the fundamentals of sensor design and temperature sensors, and ending with more complicated biosensors. New to this second edition are sections on op-amp filters, pulse oximetry, meat quality monitoring, advanced fluorescent dyes, autofluorescence, various...

  14. Angle-resolved diffraction grating biosensor based on porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Changwu; Li, Peng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Jia, Zhenhong, E-mail: jzhh@xju.edu.cn; Liu, Yajun; Mo, Jiaqing; Lv, Xiaoyi [College of Information Science and Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China)

    2016-03-07

    In this study, an optical biosensor based on a porous silicon composite structure was fabricated using a simple method. This structure consists of a thin, porous silicon surface diffraction grating and a one-dimensional porous silicon photonic crystal. An angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum was obtained by measuring the diffraction efficiency at a range of incident angles. The angle-resolved diffraction efficiency of the 2nd and 3rd orders was studied experimentally and theoretically. The device was sensitive to the change of refractive index in the presence of a biomolecule indicated by the shift of the diffraction efficiency spectrum. The sensitivity of this sensor was investigated through use of an 8 base pair antifreeze protein DNA hybridization. The shifts of the angle-resolved diffraction efficiency spectrum showed a relationship with the change of the refractive index, and the detection limit of the biosensor reached 41.7 nM. This optical device is highly sensitive, inexpensive, and simple to fabricate. Using shifts in diffraction efficiency spectrum to detect biological molecules has not yet been explored, so this study establishes a foundation for future work.

  15. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhigang; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Song, Wenhui; Li Yali; Zhong Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 μm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 deg. C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 μM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  16. Nano-yarn carbon nanotube fiber based enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigang; Song, Wenhui; Burugapalli, Krishna; Moussy, Francis; Li, Ya-Li; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2010-04-01

    A novel brush-like electrode based on carbon nanotube (CNT) nano-yarn fiber has been designed for electrochemical biosensor applications and its efficacy as an enzymatic glucose biosensor demonstrated. The CNT nano-yarn fiber was spun directly from a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) gas flow reaction using a mixture of ethanol and acetone as the carbon source and an iron nano-catalyst. The fiber, 28 µm in diameter, was made of bundles of double walled CNTs (DWNTs) concentrically compacted into multiple layers forming a nano-porous network structure. Cyclic voltammetry study revealed a superior electrocatalytic activity for CNT fiber compared to the traditional Pt-Ir coil electrode. The electrode end tip of the CNT fiber was freeze-fractured to obtain a unique brush-like nano-structure resembling a scale-down electrical 'flex', where glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized using glutaraldehyde crosslinking in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). An outer epoxy-polyurethane (EPU) layer was used as semi-permeable membrane. The sensor function was tested against a standard reference electrode. The sensitivities, linear detection range and linearity for detecting glucose for the miniature CNT fiber electrode were better than that reported for a Pt-Ir coil electrode. Thermal annealing of the CNT fiber at 250 °C for 30 min prior to fabrication of the sensor resulted in a 7.5 fold increase in glucose sensitivity. The as-spun CNT fiber based glucose biosensor was shown to be stable for up to 70 days. In addition, gold coating of the electrode connecting end of the CNT fiber resulted in extending the glucose detection limit to 25 µM. To conclude, superior efficiency of CNT fiber for glucose biosensing was demonstrated compared to a traditional Pt-Ir sensor.

  17. Construction and characterization of novel stress-responsive Deinococcal biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Min Ho; Lim, Sang Youg

    2012-01-15

    In this research, we constructed a recombinant whole-cell biosensor to detect mutagens (H2O2, mitomycin C, MNNG, bleomycin) using Deinococcus radiodurans and evaluated its possibility for actual application. We performed DNA microarray analysis and selected 10 candidate genes for biosensor recombinant plasmid construction. The expression of ddrA, ddrB, DR{sub 0}161, DR{sub 0}589, and pprA was highly increased after treatment of the target mutagens. Putative promoter region of the genes were used for LacZ-based biosensor plasmid construction by replacing groESL promoter of pRADZ3. Pormoter activity and specificity of the five recombinant LacZ-based biosensor strains harboring the recombinant plasmids was measured. The result indicated that the promoter region of ddrA is the most suitable promoter for the biosensor development. Red pigment-based biosensor plasmid was constructed by displacing lacZ with crtI. The sensor strain was constructed by transforming the sensor plasmid into crtI deleted mutant D. radiodurans strain. Finally, macroscopic detection of the target mutagens by the biosensor strain was evaluated. The strength of red pigment biosynthesis by this recombinant strain in response to the target mutagens was weaker than our expectation. Continuous damage to the sensor strain by the mutagens in the medium might be the main reason for this low red-pigment biosynthesis. Therefore, we propose that the LacZ-based biosensor is more effective than the biosensor using red pigment as indicator for the mutagen detection.

  18. A cell-based biosensor for nanomaterials cytotoxicity assessment in three dimensional cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Winckler, Thomas; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in consumer and medicinal products. The high prevalence of nanoparticles in the environment raises concerns regarding their effects on human health, but there is limited knowledge about how NPs interact with cells or tissues. Because the European Union has called for a substantial reduction of animal experiments for scientific purposes (Directive 2010/63), increased efforts are required to develop in vitro models to evaluate potentially hazardous agents. Here, we describe a new cell-based biosensor for the evaluation of NPs cytotoxicity. The new biosensor is based on transgenic human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2) that express a secreted form of alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) as a reporter protein whose expression is induced upon activation of a stress response pathway controlled by the transcription regulator nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The NF-κB-HepG2 sensor cells were cultured in a Matrigel-based three dimensional environment to simulate the in vivo situation. The new biosensor cells offer the advantage of generating fast and reproducible readout at lower concentrations and shorter incubation time than conventional viability assays, avoid possible interaction between nanomaterials and assay compounds, therefore, minimize generation of false positive or negative results and indicate mechanism of toxicity through NF-κB signaling.

  19. A heparin-functionalized carbon nanotube-based affinity biosensor for dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Daniel; Mulchandani, Ashok; Yates, Marylynn V

    2017-05-15

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitos and is major cause of disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Colloquially known as Dengue Fever, infection can cause hemorrhagic disorders and death in humans and non-human primates. We report a novel electronic biosensor based on a single-walled carbon nanotube network chemiresistive transducer that is functionalized with heparin for low-cost, label-free, ultra-sensitive, and rapid detection of whole dengue virus (DENV). Heparin, an analog of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans that are receptors for dengue virus during infection of Vero cells and hepatocytes, was used for the first time in a biosensor as a biorecognition element instead of traditional antibody. Detection of DENV in viral culture supernatant has similar sensitivity as the corresponding viral titer in phosphate buffer despite the presence of growth media and Vero cell lysate. The biosensor demonstrated sensitivity within the clinically relevant range for humans and infected Aedes aegypti. It has potential application in clinical diagnosis and can improve point-of-care diagnostics of dengue infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nano/biosensors based on large-area graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Pedro Jose

    Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk. Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device. The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an easily scalable fabrication process. A large-area graphene growth, transfer and photolithography process was developed that allowed the scaling of production of devices from a few devices per single transfer in a chip, to over a thousand devices per transfer in a full wafer of fabrication. Two approaches to biomolecules sensing were then investigated, through nanoparticles and through chemical linkers. Gold and platinum Nanoparticles were used as intermediary agents to immobilize a biomolecule. First, gold nanoparticles were monodispersed and functionalized with thiolated probe DNA to yield DNA biosensors with a detection limit of 1 nM and high specificity against noncomplementary DNA. Second, devices are modified with platinum nanoparticles and functionalized with thiolated genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies to realize a HER3 biosensor. Sensors retain the high affinity from the scFv fragment and show a detection limit of 300 pM. We then show covalent and non-covalent chemical linkers between graphene and antibodies. The chemical linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (pyrene) stacks to the graphene by Van der Waals interaction, being a completely non-covalent interaction. The linker 4-Azide-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, succinimidyl ester (azide

  1. The detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yating; Li, Suiqiong; Horikawa, Shin; Shen, Wen; Park, Mi-Kyung; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents the direct detection of Salmonella typhimurium on shell eggs using a phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor. The ME biosensor consists of a ME resonator as the sensor platform and E2 phage as the biorecognition element that is genetically engineered to specifically bind with Salmonella typhimurium. The ME biosensor, which is a wireless sensor, vibrates with a characteristic resonant frequency under an externally applied magnetic field. Multiple sensors can easily be remotely monitored. Multiple measurement and control sensors were placed on the shell eggs contaminated by Salmonella typhimurium solutions with different known concentrations. The resonant frequency of sensors before and after the exposure to the spiked shell eggs was measured. The frequency shift of the measurement sensors was significantly different than the control sensors indicating Salmonella contamination. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm binding of Salmonella to the sensor surface and the resulting frequency shift results.

  2. In situ microbial fuel cell-based biosensor for organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus dos Santos Peixoto, Luciana; Min, Booki; Martins, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring of biodegra......The biological oxygen demand (BOD) may be the most used test to assess the amount of pollutant organic matter in water; however, it is time and labor consuming, and is done ex-situ. A BOD biosensor based on the microbial fuel cell principle was tested for online and in situ monitoring...... of biodegradable organic content of domestic wastewater. A stable current density of 282±23mA/m2 was obtained with domestic wastewater containing a BOD5 of 317±15mg O2/L at 22±2°C, 1.53±0.04mS/cm and pH 6.9±0.1. The current density showed a linear relationship with BOD5 concentration ranging from 17±0.5mg O2/L...

  3. In vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of brain energy substrates with a multiplex amperometric enzyme-based biosensor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Braga Lopes Cordeiro, Carlos; de Vries, M.G.; Ngabi, W; Oomen, P.E.; Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Westerink, B.H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will

  4. Porous Silicon-Based Biosensors: Towards Real-Time Optical Detection of Target Bacteria in the Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad-Ivanir, Naama; Shtenberg, Giorgi; Raz, Nitzan; Gazenbeek, Christel; Budding, Dries; Bos, Martine P; Segal, Ester

    2016-11-30

    Rapid detection of target bacteria is crucial to provide a safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. Herein, we present an optical biosensor for identification and quantification of Escherichia coli (E. coli, used as a model indicator bacteria species) in complex food industry process water. The biosensor is based on a nanostructured, oxidized porous silicon (PSi) thin film which is functionalized with specific antibodies against E. coli. The biosensors were exposed to water samples collected directly from process lines of fresh-cut produce and their reflectivity spectra were collected in real time. Process water were characterized by complex natural micro-flora (microbial load of >10 7  cell/mL), in addition to soil particles and plant cell debris. We show that process water spiked with culture-grown E. coli, induces robust and predictable changes in the thin-film optical interference spectrum of the biosensor. The latter is ascribed to highly specific capture of the target cells onto the biosensor surface, as confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The biosensors were capable of selectively identifying and quantifying the target cells, while the target cell concentration is orders of magnitude lower than that of other bacterial species, without any pre-enrichment or prior processing steps.

  5. Biosensor Architectures for High-Fidelity Reporting of Cellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushek, Omer; Lellouch, Annemarie C.; Vaux, David J.; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of information processing in cellular signaling networks requires quantitative measurements of protein activities in living cells. Biosensors are molecular probes that have been developed to directly track the activity of specific signaling proteins and their use is revolutionizing our understanding of signal transduction. The use of biosensors relies on the assumption that their activity is linearly proportional to the activity of the signaling protein they have been engineered to track. We use mechanistic mathematical models of common biosensor architectures (single-chain FRET-based biosensors), which include both intramolecular and intermolecular reactions, to study the validity of the linearity assumption. As a result of the classic mechanism of zero-order ultrasensitivity, we find that biosensor activity can be highly nonlinear so that small changes in signaling protein activity can give rise to large changes in biosensor activity and vice versa. This nonlinearity is abolished in architectures that favor the formation of biosensor oligomers, but oligomeric biosensors produce complicated FRET states. Based on this finding, we show that high-fidelity reporting is possible when a single-chain intermolecular biosensor is used that cannot undergo intramolecular reactions and is restricted to forming dimers. We provide phase diagrams that compare various trade-offs, including observer effects, which further highlight the utility of biosensor architectures that favor intermolecular over intramolecular binding. We discuss challenges in calibrating and constructing biosensors and highlight the utility of mathematical models in designing novel probes for cellular signaling. PMID:25099816

  6. Impedimetric biosensors for medical applications current progress and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Rushworth, Jo V; Goode, Jack A; Pike, Douglas J; Ahmed, Asif; Millner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors discuss the current progress in the medical application of impedimetric biosensors, along with the key challenges in the field. First, a general overview of biosensor development, structure and function is presented, followed by a detailed discussion of impedimetric biosensors and the principles of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Next, the current state-of-the art in terms of the science and technology underpinning impedance-based biosensors is reviewed in detail. The layer-by-layer construction of impedimetric sensors is described, including the design of electrodes, their nano-modification, transducer surface functionalization and the attachment of different bioreceptors. The current challenges of translating lab-based biosensor platforms into commercially-available devices that function with real patient samples at the POC are presented; this includes a consideration of systems integration, microfluidics and biosensor regeneration. The final section of this monograph ...

  7. Biosensor-based diagnostics of contaminated groundwater: assessment and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Jessica; Read, David; Amos, Sean; Dooley, Stephen; Killham, Kenneth; Paton, Graeme I.

    2005-01-01

    Shallow groundwater beneath a former airfield site in southern England has been heavily contaminated with a wide range of chlorinated solvents. The feasibility of using bacterial biosensors to complement chemical analysis and enable cost-effective, and focussed sampling has been assessed as part of a site evaluation programme. Five different biosensors, three metabolic (Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas fluorescens 10568 and Escherichia coli HB101) and two catabolic (Pseudomonas putida TVA8 and E. coli DH5α), were employed to identify areas where the availability and toxicity of pollutants is of most immediate environmental concern. The biosensors used showed different sensitivities to each other and to the groundwater samples tested. There was generally a good agreement with chemical analyses. The potential efficacy of remediation strategies was explored by coupling sample manipulation to biosensor tests. Manipulation involved sparging and charcoal treatment procedures to simulate remediative engineering solutions. Sparging was sufficient at most locations. - Luminescent bacteria complement chemical analysis and support remediation technology

  8. Carbon coated magnesium oxide based amperometric glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, L.L.; Mello, J.M.M.; Fiori, M.A.; Duarte, G.W. [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNICHAPECO), SC (Brazil); Fernandes, S.C. [Instituto Federal Catarinense (IFC), Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Centro Universitario Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Orleans, SC (Brazil); Anzolin, C.; Figueiro, A.; Grando, M.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes is a serious disease that is harmful to human health since it is related to cardiovascular and stroke events. Since the first glucose oxidase (GOx) sensor, different approaches have been explored. Carbon was used to cover nano-magnesium oxide (MgO-C) forming a core-shell which was used to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of GOx biosensor. MgO nanostructures have been prepared by calcination of the gel formed by the reaction of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate dissolved in cetyltrimethylammonium with the addition of tartaric acid solution. MgO-C nanostructures were obtained by heating MgO nanoparticles previously prepared together with glucose and PEG dissolved in an aqueous suspension. Reaction conditions such as concentration of magnesium precursor, temperature and aging time show important roles in the size, morphology and growth process of the final products. The core-shell structure was evidenced by SEM/FEG and XRD and showed that the product appeared to have morphological forms of nanowires. GOx was spread onto the surface of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) doped with MgO-C and the effect on the biosensing properties investigated by comparing the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor with bare and modified CPEs by cyclic voltammetry. The amount of modifier in CPE (5-75 weight% with respect to graphite) influences the peak current and the influence of different experimental parameters (enzyme percentage, pH solution and amperometric methods) was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the GOx retains its biocatalytic activity and that the bioelectrode modified can be a possible use for other nanotechnological purposes including biomedical ones. (author)

  9. Carbon coated magnesium oxide based amperometric glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.L.; Mello, J.M.M.; Fiori, M.A.; Duarte, G.W.; Fernandes, S.C.; Riella, H.G.; Anzolin, C.; Figueiro, A.; Grando, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Diabetes is a serious disease that is harmful to human health since it is related to cardiovascular and stroke events. Since the first glucose oxidase (GOx) sensor, different approaches have been explored. Carbon was used to cover nano-magnesium oxide (MgO-C) forming a core-shell which was used to improve its biocompatibility and chemical stability for the preparation of GOx biosensor. MgO nanostructures have been prepared by calcination of the gel formed by the reaction of magnesium acetate tetrahydrate dissolved in cetyltrimethylammonium with the addition of tartaric acid solution. MgO-C nanostructures were obtained by heating MgO nanoparticles previously prepared together with glucose and PEG dissolved in an aqueous suspension. Reaction conditions such as concentration of magnesium precursor, temperature and aging time show important roles in the size, morphology and growth process of the final products. The core-shell structure was evidenced by SEM/FEG and XRD and showed that the product appeared to have morphological forms of nanowires. GOx was spread onto the surface of a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) doped with MgO-C and the effect on the biosensing properties investigated by comparing the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor with bare and modified CPEs by cyclic voltammetry. The amount of modifier in CPE (5-75 weight% with respect to graphite) influences the peak current and the influence of different experimental parameters (enzyme percentage, pH solution and amperometric methods) was also investigated. The results demonstrate that the GOx retains its biocatalytic activity and that the bioelectrode modified can be a possible use for other nanotechnological purposes including biomedical ones. (author)

  10. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzyme Inhibition for Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrad, Loubna; Bourais, Ilhame; Mohammadi, Hasna; Amine, Aziz

    2018-01-09

    A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples. This review will spotlight the research conducted in the past 10 years (2007-2017) on inhibition based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors for the analysis of different drugs. New assays based on novel bio-devices will be debated. Moreover, the exploration of the recent graphical approach in diagnosis of reversible and irreversible inhibition mechanism will be discussed. The accurate and the fast diagnosis of inhibition type will help researchers in further drug design improvements and the identification of new molecules that will serve as new enzyme targets.

  11. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzyme Inhibition for Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna El Harrad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples. This review will spotlight the research conducted in the past 10 years (2007–2017 on inhibition based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors for the analysis of different drugs. New assays based on novel bio-devices will be debated. Moreover, the exploration of the recent graphical approach in diagnosis of reversible and irreversible inhibition mechanism will be discussed. The accurate and the fast diagnosis of inhibition type will help researchers in further drug design improvements and the identification of new molecules that will serve as new enzyme targets.

  12. Electrochemical estimation of the polyphenol index in wines using a laccase biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamella, M; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2006-10-18

    The use of a laccase biosensor, under both batch and flow injection (FI) conditions, for a rapid and reliable amperometric estimation of the total content of polyphenolic compounds in wines is reported. The enzyme was immobilized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde onto a glassy carbon electrode. Caffeic acid and gallic acid were selected as standard compounds to carry out such estimation. Experimental variables such as the enzyme loading, the applied potential, and the pH value were optimized, and different aspects regarding the operational stability of the laccase biosensor were evaluated. Using batch amperometry at -200 mV, the detection limits obtained were 2.6 x 10(-3) and 7.2 x 10(-4) mg L(-1) gallic acid and caffeic acid, respectively, which compares advantageously with previous biosensor designs. An extremely simple sample treatment consisting only of an appropriate dilution of wine sample with the supporting electrolyte solution (0.1 mol L(-1) citrate buffer of pH 5.0) was needed for the amperometric analysis of red, rosé, and white wines. Good correlations were found when the polyphenol indices obtained with the biosensor (in both the batch and FI modes) for different wine samples were plotted versus the results achieved with the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method. Application of the calibration transfer chemometric model (multiplicative fitting) allowed that the confidence intervals (for a significance level of 0.05) for the slope and intercept values of the amperometric index versus Folin-Ciocalteu index plots (r = 0.997) included the unit and zero values, respectively. This indicates that the laccase biosensor can be successfully used for the estimation of the polyphenol index in wines when compared with the Folin-Ciocalteu reference method.

  13. All Inkjet-Printed Amperometric Multiplexed Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Conductive Hydrogel Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanlan; Pan, Lijia; Ma, Zhong; Yan, Ke; Cheng, Wen; Shi, Yi; Yu, Guihua

    2018-02-12

    Multiplexing, one of the main trends in biosensors, aims to detect several analytes simultaneously by integrating miniature sensors on a chip. However, precisely depositing electrode materials and selective enzymes on distinct microelectrode arrays remains an obstacle to massively produced multiplexed sensors. Here, we report on a "drop-on-demand" inkjet printing process to fabricate multiplexed biosensors based on nanostructured conductive hydrogels in which the electrode material and several kinds of enzymes were printed on the electrode arrays one by one by employing a multinozzle inkjet system. The whole inkjet printing process can be finished within three rounds of printing and only one round of alignment. For a page of sensor arrays containing 96 working electrodes, the printing process took merely ∼5 min. The multiplexed assays can detect glucose, lactate, and triglycerides in real time with good selectivity and high sensitivity, and the results in phosphate buffer solutions and calibration serum samples are comparable. The inkjet printing process exhibited advantages of high efficiency and accuracy, which opens substantial possibilities for massive fabrication of integrated multiplexed biosensors for human health monitoring.

  14. BIOSENSORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosensors show the potential to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for environmental applications. Although biosensors for potential environmental-monitoring applications have been reported for a wide range of environmental pollutants, from a regulatory perspective, ...

  15. Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes theory and principles behind biosensors that incorporate biological components as part of a sensor or probe. Projects major applications in medicine and veterinary medicine, biotechnology, food and agriculture, environmental studies, and the military. Surveys current use of biosensors. (ML)

  16. Detection of Waterborne and Airborne Formaldehyde: From Amperometric Chemosensing to a Visual Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasi Sigawi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory prototype of a microcomputer-based analyzer was developed for quantitative determination of formaldehyde in liquid samples, based on catalytic chemosensing elements. It was shown that selectivity for the target analyte could be increased by modulating the working electrode potential. Analytical parameters of three variants of the amperometric analyzer that differed in the chemical structure/configuration of the working electrode were studied. The constructed analyzer was tested on wastewater solutions that contained formaldehyde. A simple low-cost biosensor was developed for semi-quantitative detection of airborne formaldehyde in concentrations exceeding the threshold level. This biosensor is based on a change in the color of a solution that contains a mixture of alcohol oxidase from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, horseradish peroxidase and a chromogen, following exposure to airborne formaldehyde. The solution is enclosed within a membrane device, which is permeable to formaldehyde vapors. The most efficient and sensitive biosensor for detecting formaldehyde was the one that contained alcohol oxidase with an activity of 1.2 U·mL−1. The biosensor requires no special instrumentation and enables rapid visual detection of airborne formaldehyde at concentrations, which are hazardous to human health.

  17. Green Chemistry Glucose Biosensor Development using Etlingera elatior Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoni, A.; Anggraeni, M. D.; Zusfahair; Iqlima, H.

    2018-01-01

    Glucose biosensor development is one of the important strategies for early detection of diabetes mellitus disease. This study was aimed to explore the flower extract of Etlingera elatior for a green-analysis method of glucose biosensor. Flowers were extracted using ethanol: HCl and tested its performances as an indicator of glucose biosensor using glucose oxidase enzyme. The glucose oxidase react with glucose resulted hydrogen peroxide that would change the color of the flower extract. Furthermore, the extract was also studied including their stability to pH, oxidizing and reducing, temperature, and storage. The results showed that the Etlingera elatior extract had high correlation between color change and glucose concentration with regression equation of y = -0.0005x + 0.4724 and R2 of 0.9965. The studied biosensor showed a wide linear range to detect glucose sample of 0 to 500 mM. The extract characterization showed a more stable in low pH (acid), reducing agent addition, heating treatment and storage.

  18. Biosensor based on laccase immobilized on plasma polymerized allylamine/carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardhaoui, Malika, E-mail: malika.ardhaoui@ucd.ie [Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Plasma et Traitements de Surface, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Laboratoire Charles Friedel, CNRS UMR 7223, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Surface Engineering Research Group, School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bhatt, Sudhir [Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Plasma et Traitements de Surface, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Zheng, Meihui [Laboratoire Charles Friedel, CNRS UMR 7223, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Dowling, Denis [Surface Engineering Research Group, School of Electrical, Electronic and Mechanical Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jolivalt, Claude [Laboratoire Charles Friedel, CNRS UMR 7223, Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Khonsari, Farzaneh Arefi [Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Plasma et Traitements de Surface, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France)

    2013-08-01

    In this work, a simple and rapid method was used to functionalize carbon electrode in order to efficiently immobilize laccase for biosensor application. A stable allylamine coating was deposited using a low pressure inductively excited RF tubular plasma reactor under mild plasma conditions (low plasma power (10 W), few minutes) to generate high density amine groups (N/C ratio up to 0.18) on rough carbon surface electrodes. The longer was the allylamine plasma deposition time; the better was the surface coverage. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was physisorbed and covalently bound to these allylamine modified carbon surfaces. The laccase activities and current outputs measured in the presence of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) showed that the best efficiency was obtained for electrode plasma coated during 30 min. They showed also that for all the tested electrodes, the activities and current outputs of the covalently immobilized laccases were twice higher than the physically adsorbed ones. The sensitivity of these biocompatible bioelectrodes was evaluated by measuring their catalytic efficiency for oxygen reduction in the presence of ABTS as non-phenolic redox substrate and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) as phenolic one. Sensitivities of around 4.8 μA mg{sup −1} L and 2.7 μA mg{sup −1} L were attained for ABTS and DMP respectively. An excellent stability of this laccase biosensor was observed for over 6 months. - Highlights: • Low pressure plasma was used to generate stable allylamine coating. • Laccase from Trametes versicolor was physisorbed and covalently immobilized. • Best biosensor efficiency obtained for the covalently immobilized laccases • Sensitivities of 4.8 μA mg{sup −1} L and 2.7 μA mg{sup −1} L for ABTS and DMP respectively.

  19. Impedimetric microbial biosensor based on single wall carbon nanotube modified microelectrodes for trichloroethylene detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnaien, M.; Bourigua, S.; Bessueille, F.; Bausells, J.; Errachid, A.; Lagarde, F.; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose an impedimetric microbial biosensor for trichloroethylene detection. ► A new transducer modified with carbon nanotubes and Pseudomonas putida is evaluated. ► Functionalization steps are controlled by impedance spectroscopy and AFM. ► The biosensor offers good sensitivity, selectivity, linear range and stability. ► The biosensor is successfully applied to spiked natural water samples. - Abstract: Contamination of soils and groundwaters with persistent organic pollutants is a matter of increasing concern. The most common organic pollutants are chlorinated hydrocarbons such as perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene (TCE). In this study, we developed a bacterial impedimetric biosensor for TCE detection, based on the immobilization of Pseudomonas putida F1 strain on gold microelectrodes functionalized with single wall carbon nanotubes covalently linked to anti-Pseudomonas antibodies. The different steps of microelectrodes functionalization were characterized by electrochemical impedance and atomic force spectroscopies, and analytical performances of the developed microbial biosensor were determined. The impedimetric biosensor response was linear with TCE concentration up to 150 μg L −1 and a low limit of detection (20 μg L −1 ) was achieved. No significant loss of signal was observed after 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C in phosphate buffer saline pH 7 (three to four measurements a week). After 5 weeks, 90% of the initial value still remained. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene and vinylchloride, the main TCE degradation products, did not significantly interfere with TCE. The microbial sensor was finally applied to the determination of TCE in natural water samples spiked at the 30, 50 and 75 μg L −1 levels. Recoveries were very good, ranging from 100 to 103%.

  20. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanostructured silicon-based biosensors for the selective identification of analytes of social interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Sabato; Champdore, Marcella de; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Parracino, Antonietta; Staiano, Maria; Vitale, Annalisa; Rossi, Mose; Rea, Ilaria; Rotiroti, Lucia; Rossi, Andrea M; Borini, Stefano; Rendina, Ivo; Stefano, Luca De

    2006-01-01

    Small analytes such as glucose, L-glutamine (Gln), and ammonium nitrate are detected by means of optical biosensors based on a very common nanostructured material, porous silicon (PSi). Specific recognition elements, such as protein receptors and enzymes, were immobilized on hydrogenated PSi wafers and used as probes in optical sensing systems. The binding events were optically transduced as wavelength shifts of the porous silicon reflectivity spectrum or were monitored via changes of the fluorescence emission. The biosensors described in this article suggest a general approach for the development of new sensing systems for a wide range of analytes of high social interest

  2. Graphene oxide-based optical biosensor functionalized with peptides for explosive detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Diming; Lu, Yanli; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Liu, Qingjun

    2015-06-15

    A label-free optical biosensor was constructed with biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) for specific detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). By chemically binding TNT-specific peptides with GO, the biosensor gained unique optoelectronic properties and high biological sensitivity, with transducing bimolecular bonding into optical signals. Through UV absorption detection, increasing absorbance responses could be observed in presence of TNT at different concentrations, as low as 4.40×10(-9) mM, and showed dose-dependence and stable behavior. Specific responses of the biosensor were verified with the corporation of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), which had similar molecular structure to TNT. Thus, with high sensitivity and selectivity, the biosensor provided a convenient approach for detection of explosives as miniaturizing and integrating devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An ultrasensitive hollow-silica-based biosensor for pathogenic Escherichia coli DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Eda Yuhana; Lee, Yook Heng; Futra, Dedi; Tan, Ling Ling; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd; Ibrahim, Nik Nuraznida Nik; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-03-01

    A novel electrochemical DNA biosensor for ultrasensitive and selective quantitation of Escherichia coli DNA based on aminated hollow silica spheres (HSiSs) has been successfully developed. The HSiSs were synthesized with facile sonication and heating techniques. The HSiSs have an inner and an outer surface for DNA immobilization sites after they have been functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. From field emission scanning electron microscopy images, the presence of pores was confirmed in the functionalized HSiSs. Furthermore, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis indicated that the HSiSs have four times more surface area than silica spheres that have no pores. These aminated HSiSs were deposited onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode containing a layer of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to form a AuNP/HSiS hybrid sensor membrane matrix. Aminated DNA probes were grafted onto the AuNP/HSiS-modified screen-printed electrode via imine covalent bonds with use of glutaraldehyde cross-linker. The DNA hybridization reaction was studied by differential pulse voltammetry using an anthraquinone redox intercalator as the electroactive DNA hybridization label. The DNA biosensor demonstrated a linear response over a wide target sequence concentration range of 1.0×10 -12 -1.0×10 -2 μM, with a low detection limit of 8.17×10 -14 μM (R 2 = 0.99). The improved performance of the DNA biosensor appeared to be due to the hollow structure and rough surface morphology of the hollow silica particles, which greatly increased the total binding surface area for high DNA loading capacity. The HSiSs also facilitated molecule diffusion through the silica hollow structure, and substantially improved the overall DNA hybridization assay. Graphical abstract Step-by-step DNA biosensor fabrication based on aminated hollow silica spheres.

  4. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  5. Bi-enzyme L-arginine-selective amperometric biosensor based on ammonium-sensing polyaniline-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Smutok, Oleh; Gayda, Galina; Vus, Bohdan; Koval'chuk, Yevgen; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2012-01-01

    A novel L-arginine-selective amperometric bi-enzyme biosensor based on recombinant human arginase I isolated from the gene-engineered strain of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha and commercial urease is described. The biosensing layer was placed onto a polyaniline-Nafion composite platinum electrode and covered with a calcium alginate gel. The developed sensor revealed a good selectivity to L-arginine. The sensitivity of the biosensor was 110 ± 1.3 nA/(mM mm(2)) with the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K(M)(app)) derived from an L-arginine (L-Arg) calibration curve of 1.27 ± 0.29 mM. A linear concentration range was observed from 0.07 to 0.6mM, a limit of detection being 0.038 mM and a response time - 10s. The developed biosensor demonstrated good storage stability. A laboratory prototype of the proposed amperometric biosensor was applied to the samples of three commercial pharmaceuticals ("Tivortin", "Cytrarginine", "Aminoplazmal 10% E") for L-Arg testing. The obtained L-Arg-content values correlated well with those declared by producers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biosensors for detection of mercury in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontidean, Ibolya; Mortari, Alessia; Leth, Suzanne; Brown, Nigel L.; Karlson, Ulrich; Larsen, Martin M.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Corbisier, Philippe; Csoeregi, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Biosensors based on whole bacterial cells and on bacterial heavy metal binding protein were used to determine the mercury concentration in soil. The soil samples were collected in a vegetable garden accidentally contaminated with elemental mercury 25 years earlier. Bioavailable mercury was measured using different sensors: a protein-based biosensor, a whole bacterial cell based biosensor, and a plant sensor, i.e. morphological and biochemical responses in primary leaves and roots of bean seedlings grown in the mercury-contaminated soil. For comparison the total mercury concentration of the soil samples was determined by AAS. Whole bacterial cell and protein-based biosensors gave accurate responses proportional to the total amount of mercury in the soil samples. On the contrary, plant sensors were found to be less useful indicators of soil mercury contamination, as determined by plant biomass, mercury content of primary leaves and enzyme activities

  7. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A [Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Ramirez Silva, M T [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Palomar Pardave, M E, E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-06-18

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10{sup -6} M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  8. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A; Ramirez Silva, M T; Palomar Pardave, M E

    2010-01-01

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10 -6 M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  9. Sensitive detection of maltose and glucose based on dual enzyme-displayed bacteria electrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aihua; Lang, Qiaolin; Liang, Bo; Shi, Jianguo

    2017-01-15

    Glucoamylase-displayed bacteria (GA-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase-displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were co-immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to construct GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor. The biosensor was developed by optimizing the loading amount and the ratio of GA-bacteria to GDH-bacteria. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited a wide dynamic range of 0.2-10mM and a low detection limit of 0.1mM maltose (S/N=3). The biosensor also had a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.1-2.0mM and a low detection limit of 0.04mM glucose (S/N=3). Interestingly, at the same concentration, glucose was 3.75-fold sensitive than that of maltose at the proposed biosensor. No interferences were observed for other possible mono- and disaccharides. The biosensor also demonstrated good long-term storage stability and repeatability. Further, using both GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor and GA-bacteria/GDH-bacteria/MWNTs/GCE biosensor, glucose and maltose in real samples can be detected. Therefore, the proposed biosensor is capable of monitoring the food manufacturing and fermentation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Martin H.F.; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Hartmann, Markus; Miethe, Peter; Oster, Juergen; Keusgen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10 4 -10 6 cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum

  11. Performance Improvement by Layout Designs of Conductive Polymer Microelectrode Based Impedimetric Biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Giulio; Daprà, Johannes; Cherré, Solène

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a theoretical, computational, and experimental evaluation of the performance of an impedimetric biosensor based on interdigitated conductive polymer (PEDOT:TsO) microelectrodes in a microfluidic system. The influence of the geometry of the electrodes and microchannels on t...

  12. Design & fabrication of cantilever array biosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anja; Thundat, T

    2009-01-01

    Surface immobilization of functional receptors on microfabricated cantilever arrays offers a new paradigm for the development of biosensors based on nanomechanics. Microcantilever-based systems are capable of real-time, multiplexed detection of unlabeled disease markers in extremely small volumes......, electronic processing, and even local telemetry on a single chip have the potential of satisfying the need for highly sensitive and selective multiple-target detection in very small samples. Here we will review the design and fabrication process of cantilever-based biosensors....

  13. Amperometric biosensors based on conducting nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a multidisciplinary study towards the development of a glucose biosensor that in the future can be used for in vivo implantations. The research focuses on three major topics, viz. the construction of the glucose sensor, the development of a biocompatible coating and a study of

  14. Enzymatic biosensor based on entrapment of d-amino acid oxidase on gold nanofilm/MWCNTs nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode by sol-gel network: Analytical applications for d-alanine in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghodsi, Javad

    2017-05-01

    Sensing and determination of d-alanine is studied by using an enzymatic biosensor which was constructed on the basis of d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) immobilization by sol-gel film onto glassy carbon electrode surface modified with nanocomposite of gold nanofilm (Au-NF) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The Au-NF/MWCNT nanocomposite was prepared by applying the potentiostatic technique for electrodeposition of Au-NF on the MWCNT immobilized on glassy carbon electrode surface. The modified electrode is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry(CV) techniques. The linear sweep voltammetry was used for determination of d-alanine and the results showed an excellent linear relationship between biosensor response and d-alanine concentration ranging from 0.25μM to 4.5μM with correction coefficient of 0.999 (n=20). Detection limit for the fabricated sensor was calculated about 20nM (for S/N=3) and sensitivity was about 56.1μAμM -1 cm -2 . The developed biosensor exhibited rapid and accurate response to d-alanine, a good stability (4 weeks) and an average recovery of 98.9% in human serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Designed graphene-peptide nanocomposites for biosensor applications: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Yujie; Wu, Aiguo; Wei, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The modification of graphene with biomacromolecules like DNA, protein, peptide, and others extends the potential applications of graphene materials in various fields. The bound biomacromolecules could improve the biocompatibility and bio-recognition ability of graphene-based nanocomposites, therefore could greatly enhance their biosensing performances on both selectivity and sensitivity. In this review, we presented a comprehensive introduction and discussion on recent advance in the synthesis and biosensor applications of graphene-peptide nanocomposites. The biofunctionalization of graphene with specifically designed peptides, and the synthesis strategies of graphene-peptide (monomer, nanofibrils, and nanotubes) nanocomposites were demonstrated. On the other hand, the fabrication of graphene-peptide nanocomposite based biosensor architectures for electrochemical, fluorescent, electronic, and spectroscopic biosensing were further presented. This review includes nearly all the studies on the fabrication and applications of graphene-peptide based biosensors recently, which will promote the future developments of graphene-based biosensors in biomedical detection and environmental analysis. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review on the fabrication and application of graphene-peptide nanocomposites was presented. • The design of peptide sequences for biofunctionalization of various graphene materials was presented. • Multi-strategies on the fabrication of biosensors with graphene-peptide nanocomposites were discussed. • Designed graphene-peptide nanocomposites showed wide biosensor applications.

  16. Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization of Vinyl Monomers with Anion Groups onto MWNT Supports and Their Application as Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence (ECL Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hye Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT supports with anion groups were prepared for use as biosensor supports by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP of the vinyl monomers acryloyl diphosphoric acid (ADPA, acrylic acid (AA, sodium styrenesulfonate (NaSS, and methacrylic acid (MA onto the surface of MWNTs. The electrogenerated chemiluminescence sensors based on a glass carbon electrode (ECL-GCE and a screen printed electrode (ECL-SPE were fabricated by immobilization of Ru(bpy3 2+ complex after coating of vinyl polymer-grafted MWNT inks on the surface of the GCE and SPE without any polymer binders in order to obtain high electrogenerated chemiluminescence intensity. For detection of alcohol concentration, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH was immobilized onto an ECL-GCE sensor prepared by poly(NaSS-g-MWNT supports. The prepared biosensor based on ADH is suitable for the detection of ethanol concentration in commercial drinks.

  17. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  18. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huali; Wei, Min; Wang, Jinshui

    2013-04-10

    The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability.

  19. A Potentiometric Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Immobilization of Alcohol Oxidase on Acryloxysuccinimide-modified Acrylic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yook Heng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A new alcohol oxidase (AOX enzyme-based formaldehyde biosensor based on acrylic microspheres has been developed. Hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxy-succinimide [poly(nBA-NAS] microspheres, an enzyme immobilization matrix, was synthesized using photopolymerization in an emulsion form. AOX-poly(nBA-NAS microspheres were deposited on a pH transducer made from a layer of photocured and self-plasticized polyacrylate membrane with an entrapped pH ionophore coated on a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE. Oxidation of formaldehyde by the immobilized AOX resulted in the production of protons, which can be determined via the pH transducer. Effects of buffer concentrations, pH and different amount of immobilization matrix towards the biosensor’s analytical performance were investigated. The formaldehyde biosensor exhibited a dynamic linear response range to formaldehyde from 0.3–316.2 mM and a sensitivity of 59.41 ± 0.66 mV/decade (R2 = 0.9776, n = 3. The lower detection limit of the biosensor was 0.3 mM, while reproducibility and repeatability were 3.16% RSD (relative standard deviation and 1.11% RSD, respectively (n = 3. The use of acrylic microspheres in the potentiometric formaldehyde biosensor improved the biosensor’s performance in terms of response time, linear response range and long term stability when compared with thick film immobilization methods.

  20. Immobilization techniques in the fabrication of nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzbach, William; Ronkainen, Niina J

    2013-04-11

    The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

  1. Immobilization Techniques in the Fabrication of Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina J. Ronkainen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of 1st to 3rd generation electrochemical biosensors reflects a simplification and enhancement of the transduction pathway. However, in recent years, modification of the transducer with nanomaterials has become increasingly studied and imparts many advantages. The sensitivity and overall performance of enzymatic biosensors has improved tremendously as a result of incorporating nanomaterials in their fabrication. Given the unique and favorable qualities of gold nanoparticles, graphene and carbon nanotubes as applied to electrochemical biosensors, a consolidated survey of the different methods of nanomaterial immobilization on transducer surfaces and enzyme immobilization on these species is beneficial and timely. This review encompasses modification of enzymatic biosensors with gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

  2. Comparison of impedimetric detection of DNA hybridization on the various biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes with PANHS and nanomaterials of RGO and MWCNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvidi, Ali; Tezerjani, Marzieh Dehghan; Jahanbani, Shahriar; Mazloum Ardakani, Mohammad; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    In this research, we have developed lable free DNA biosensors based on modified glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for detection of DNA sequences. This paper compares the detection of BRCA1 5382insC mutation using independent glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with RGO and MWCNTs. A probe (BRCA1 5382insC mutation detection (ssDNA)) was then immobilized on the modified electrodes for a specific time. The immobilization of the probe and its hybridization with the target DNA (Complementary DNA) were performed under optimum conditions using different electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed biosensors were used for determination of complementary DNA sequences. The non-modified DNA biosensor (1-pyrenebutyric acid-N- hydroxysuccinimide ester (PANHS)/GCE), revealed a linear relationship between ∆Rct and logarithm of the complementary target DNA concentration ranging from 1.0×10(-16)molL(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.992, for DNA biosensors modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wider linear range and lower detection limit were obtained. For ssDNA/PANHS/MWCNTs/GCE a linear range 1.0×10(-17)mol L(-1)-1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 and for ssDNA/PANHS/RGO/GCE a linear range from 1.0×10(-18)mol L(-1) to 1.0×10(-10)mol L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.985 were obtained. In addition, the mentioned biosensors were satisfactorily applied for discriminating of complementary sequences from noncomplementary sequences, so the mentioned biosensors can be used for the detection of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Development and Electrochemical Investigations of an EIS- (Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor based Biosensor for Cyanide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Schöning

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A cyanide biosensor based on a pH-sensitive p-doped electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS structure with an immobilised enzyme (cyanidase is realised at thelaboratory scale. The immobilisation of the cyanidase is performed in two distinct steps:first, the covalent coupling of cyanidase to an N-hydroxysuccinimide- (NHS activatedSepharoseTM gel and then, the physical entrapment of NHS-activated SepharoseTM with theimmobilised cyanidase in a dialysis membrane onto the EIS structure. The immobilisationof the cyanidase to the NHS-activated SepharoseTM is studied by means of gelelectrophoresis measurements and investigations using an ammonia- (NH3 selectiveelectrode. For the electrochemical characterisation of the cyanide biosensor,capacitance/voltage and constant capacitance measurements, respectively, have beencarried out. A differential measurement procedure is presented to evaluate the cyanideconcentration-dependent biosensor signals.

  4. Flexible Ag-C60 nano-biosensors based on surface plasmon coupled emission for clinical and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulpur, Pradyumna; Yadavilli, Sairam; Mulpur, Praharsha; Kondiparthi, Neeharika; Sengupta, Bishwambhar; Rao, Apparao M; Podila, Ramakrishna; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah

    2015-10-14

    The relatively low sensitivity of fluorescence detection schemes, which are mainly limited by the isotropic nature of fluorophore emission, can be overcome by utilizing surface plasmon coupled emission (SPCE). In this study, we demonstrate directional emission from fluorophores on flexible Ag-C60 SPCE sensor platforms for point-of-care sensing, in healthcare and forensic sensing scenarios, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than traditional fluorescence sensing schemes. Adopting the highly sensitive Ag-C60 SPCE platform based on glass and novel low-cost flexible substrates, we report the unambiguous detection of acid-fast Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) bacteria at densities as low as 20 Mtb mm(-2); from non-acid-fast bacteria (e.g., E. coli and S. aureus), and the specific on-site detection of acid-fast sperm cells in human semen samples. In combination with the directional emission and high-sensitivity of SPCE platforms, we also demonstrate the utility of smartphones that can replace expensive and cumbersome detectors to enable rapid hand-held detection of analytes in resource-limited settings; a much needed critical advance to biosensors, for developing countries.

  5. Amperometric cholesterol biosensor based on the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and catalase on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Khodadadian, Mehdi

    2014-03-15

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and catalase (CAT) were co-immobilized on a graphene/ionic liquid-modified glassy carbon electrode (GR-IL/GCE) to develop a highly sensitive amperometric cholesterol biosensor. The H2O2 generated during the enzymatic reaction of ChOx with cholesterol could be reduced electrocatalytically by immobilized CAT to obtain a sensitive amperometric response to cholesterol. The direct electron transfer between enzymes and electrode surface was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both enzymes showed well-defined redox peaks with quasi-reversible behaviors. An excellent sensitivity of 4.163 mA mM(-1)cm(-2), a response time less than 6s, and a linear range of 0.25-215 μM (R(2)>0.99) have been observed for cholesterol determination using the proposed biosensor. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KM(app)) was calculated to be 2.32 mM. The bienzymatic cholesterol biosensor showed good reproducibility (RSDsascorbic acid and uric acid. The CAT/ChOx/GR-IL/GCE showed excellent analytical performance for the determination of free cholesterol in human serum samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  7. A High-Content Assay for Biosensor Validation and for Examining Stimuli that Affect Biosensor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Scott D; Hahn, Klaus M

    2014-12-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the difference between the biosensor's maximally activated and inactivated state, and examine response to specific proteins. We describe here a method for biosensor validation in a 96-well plate format using an automated microscope. This protocol produces dose-response curves, enables efficient examination of many parameters, and unlike cell suspension assays, allows visual inspection (e.g., for cell health and biosensor or regulator localization). Optimization of single-chain and dual-chain Rho GTPase biosensors is addressed, but the assay is applicable to any biosensor that can be expressed or otherwise loaded in adherent cells. The assay can also be used for purposes other than biosensor validation, using a well-characterized biosensor as a readout for effects of upstream molecules. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. The effect of pH and DNA concentration on organic thin-film transistor biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Roberts, Mark E.; Johnson, Olasupo B.; Knoll, Wolfgang; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-01-01

    Organic electronics are beginning to attract more interest for biosensor technology as they provide an amenable interface between biology and electronics. Stable biosensor based on electronic detection platform would represent a significant advancement in technology as costs and analysis time would decrease immensely. Organic materials provide a route toward that goal due to their compatibility with electronic applications and biological molecules. In this report, we detail the effects of experimental parameters, such as pH and concentration, toward the selective detection of DNA via surface-bound peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequences on organic transistor biosensors. The OTFT biosensors are fabricated with thin-films of the organic semiconductor, 5,5′-bis-(7-dodecyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-2,2′-bithiophene (DDFTTF), in which they exhibit a stable mobility of 0.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in buffer solutions (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4 or sodium acetate, pH 7). Device performance were optimized to minimize the deleterious effects of pH on gate-bias stress such that the sensitivity toward DNA detection can be improved. In titration experiments, the surface-bound PNA probes were saturated with 50 nM of complementary target DNA, which required a 10-fold increase in concentration of single-base mismatched target DNA to achieve a similar surface saturation. The binding constant of DNA on the surface-bound PNA probes was determined from the concentration-dependent response (titration measurements) of our organic transistor biosensors. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of pH and DNA concentration on organic thin-film transistor biosensors

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Hadayat Ullah

    2012-03-01

    Organic electronics are beginning to attract more interest for biosensor technology as they provide an amenable interface between biology and electronics. Stable biosensor based on electronic detection platform would represent a significant advancement in technology as costs and analysis time would decrease immensely. Organic materials provide a route toward that goal due to their compatibility with electronic applications and biological molecules. In this report, we detail the effects of experimental parameters, such as pH and concentration, toward the selective detection of DNA via surface-bound peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequences on organic transistor biosensors. The OTFT biosensors are fabricated with thin-films of the organic semiconductor, 5,5′-bis-(7-dodecyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-2,2′-bithiophene (DDFTTF), in which they exhibit a stable mobility of 0.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in buffer solutions (phosphate-buffer saline, pH 7.4 or sodium acetate, pH 7). Device performance were optimized to minimize the deleterious effects of pH on gate-bias stress such that the sensitivity toward DNA detection can be improved. In titration experiments, the surface-bound PNA probes were saturated with 50 nM of complementary target DNA, which required a 10-fold increase in concentration of single-base mismatched target DNA to achieve a similar surface saturation. The binding constant of DNA on the surface-bound PNA probes was determined from the concentration-dependent response (titration measurements) of our organic transistor biosensors. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. From electrochemical biosensors to biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers in environmental determination of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malitesta, Cosimino; Di Masi, Sabrina; Mazzotta, Elisabetta

    2017-07-01

    Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to toxicity of the samples.

  11. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    Hybrid Biosensor Jieun Lee1,2, Jaeman Jang1, Bongsik Choi1, Jinsu Yoon1, Jee-Yeon Kim3, Yang-Kyu Choi3, Dong Myong Kim1, Dae Hwan Kim1 & Sung-Jin Choi1...This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response...of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors . The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential

  12. Development of electrochemical biosensors with various types of zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatkina, O. V.; Kucherenko, I. S.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Pyeshkova, V. M.; Dudchenko, O. Y.; Akata Kurç, B.; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    In the work, different types of zeolites were used for the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors. Zeolites were added to the biorecognition elements of the biosensors and served as additional components of the biomembranes or adsorbents for enzymes. Three types of biosensors (conductometric, amperometric and potentiometric) were studied. The developed biosensors were compared with the similar biosensors without zeolites. The biosensors contained the following enzymes: urease, glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase and were intended for the detection of urea, glucose, glutamate, and acetylcholine, respectively. Construction of the biosensors using the adsorption of enzymes on zeolites has several advantages: simplicity, good reproducibility, quickness, absence of toxic compounds. These benefits are particularly important for the standardization and further mass production of the biosensors. Furthermore, a biosensor for the sucrose determination contained a three-enzyme system (invertase/mutatorase/glucose oxidase), immobilized by a combination of adsorption on silicalite and cross-linking via glutaraldehyde; such combined immobilization demonstrated better results as compared with adsorption or cross-linking separately. The analysis of urea and sucrose concentrations in the real samples was carried out. The results, obtained with biosensors, had high correlation with the results of traditional analytical methods, thus the developed biosensors are promising for practical applications.

  13. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Biosensor for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Ho; Bae, Myunghan; Jo, Sung-Hyun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Son, Dong Hyeok; Won, Chul-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kang, Shin-Won

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, we propose an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-based biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using a null-balancing circuit. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly. The output voltage of the proposed biosensor was varied by antigen-antibody interactions on the gate surface due to CRP charges. The AlGaN/GaN HFET-based biosensor with null-balancing circuit applied shows that CRP can be detected in a wide range of concentrations, varying from 10 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out to verify the immobilization of self-assembled monolayer with Au on the gated region.

  14. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Bowen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  15. Functional Conducting Polymers in the Application of SPR Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapiphun Janmanee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymers have emerged as one of the most promising transducers for both chemical, sensors and biosensors owing to their unique electrical, electrochemical and optical properties that can be used to convert chemical information or biointeractions into electrical or optical signals, which can easily be detected by modern techniques. Different approaches to the application of conducting polymers in chemo- or biosensing applications have been extensively studied. In order to enhance the application of conducting polymers into the area of biosensors, one approach is to introduce functional groups, including carboxylic acid, amine, sulfonate, or thiol groups, into the conducting polymer chain and to form a so-called “self-doped” or by doping with negatively charged polyelectrolytes. The functional conducting polymers have been successfully utilized to immobilize enzymes for construction of biosensors. Recently, the combination of SPR and electrochemical, known as electrochemical-surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR, spectroscopy, has been used for in situ investigation of optical and electrical properties of conducting polymer films. Moreover, EC-SPR spectroscopy has been applied for monitoring the interaction between biomolecules and electropolymerized conjugated polymer films in biosensor and immunosensor applications. In this paper, recent development and applications on EC-SPR in biosensors will be reviewed.

  16. Facile and controllable preparation of glucose biosensor based on Prussian blue nanoparticles hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Hongfang

    2008-11-01

    A glucose biosensor based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs)-polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes hybrid composites was fabricated by electrochemical method. A novel route for PBNPs preparation was applied in the fabrication with the help of PVP, and from scanning electron microscope images, Prussian blue particles on the electrode were found nanoscaled. The biosensor exhibits fast current response (<6 s) and a linearity in the range from 6.7x10(-6) to 1.9x10(-3) M with a high sensitivity of 6.28 microA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 6x10(-7) M (S/N=3) for the detection of glucose. The apparent activation energy of enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant are 23.9 kJ mol(-1) and 1.9 mM respectively, which suggests a high affinity of the enzyme-substrate. This easy and controllable construction method of glucose biosensor combines the characteristics of the components of the hybrid composites, which favors the fast and sensitive detection of glucose with improved analytical capabilities. In addition, the biosensor was examined in human serum samples for glucose determination with a recovery between 95.0 and 104.5%.

  17. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G; Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A; Mun, J H; Om, A S

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 μm, 5 μm, 10 μm) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10 3 CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens

  18. Interdigitated microelectrode based impedance biosensor for detection of salmonella enteritidis in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G [National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, 249 Seodun-dong, Suwon, Republic of Korea, 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Morgan, M; Hahm, B K; Bhunia, A [Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Mun, J H; Om, A S [Department of Food and Nutrient, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: giyoungkim@rda.go.kr

    2008-03-15

    Salmonella enteritidis outbreaks continue to occur, and S. enteritidis-related outbreaks from various food sources have increased public awareness of this pathogen. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Some immunological rapid assays are developed, but these assays still require prolonged enrichment steps. Recently developed biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. To develop the biosensor, an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) was fabricated by using semiconductor fabrication process. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized based on avidin-biotin binding on the surface of the IME to form an active sensing layer. To increase the sensitivity of the sensor, three types of sensors that have different electrode gap sizes (2 {mu}m, 5 {mu}m, 10 {mu}m) were fabricated and tested. The impedimetric biosensor could detect 10{sup 3} CFU/mL of Salmonella in pork meat extract with an incubation time of 5 minutes. This method may provide a simple, rapid and sensitive method to detect foodborne pathogens.

  19. An improved amperometric creatinine biosensor based on nanoparticles of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Pundir, C S

    2017-11-15

    An improved amperometric biosensor for detection of creatinine was developed based on immobilization of nanoparticles (NPs) of creatininase (CA), creatinase (CI), and sarcosine oxidase (SOx) onto glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed for characterization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The GC electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) at different stages of its amendment. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2s at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer and 25 °C, when operated at 1.0 V against Ag/AgCl. Biosensor exhibited wider linear range from 0.01 μM to 12 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μM. The analytical recoveries of added creatinine in sera were 97.97 ± 0.1% for 0.1 mM and 98.76 ± 0.2% for 0.15 mM, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 2.06% and 3.09% respectively. A good correlation (R 2  = 0.99) was observed between sera creatinine values obtained by standard enzymic colorimetric method and the present biosensor. This biosensor measured creatinine level in sera of apparently healthy subjects and persons suffering from renal and muscular dysfunction. The ENPs electrode lost 10% of its initial activity within 240 days of its regular uses, when stored at 4 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of ammonium ion using a reagentless amperometric biosensor based on immobilized alanine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ling Ling; Musa, Ahmad; Lee, Yook Heng

    2011-01-01

    The use of the enzyme alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) for the determination of ammonium ion (NH(4)(+)) usually requires the addition of pyruvate substrate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) simultaneously to effect the reaction. This addition of reagents is inconvenient when an enzyme biosensor based on AlaDH is used. To resolve the problem, a novel reagentless amperometric biosensor using a stacked methacrylic membrane system coated onto a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE) for NH(4)(+) ion determination is described. A mixture of pyruvate and NADH was immobilized in low molecular weight poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) membrane, which was then deposited over a photocured pHEMA membrane (photoHEMA) containing alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) enzyme. Due to the enzymatic reaction of AlaDH and the pyruvate substrate, NH(4)(+) was consumed in the process and thus the signal from the electrocatalytic oxidation of NADH at an applied potential of +0.55 V was proportional to the NH(4)(+) ion concentration under optimal conditions. The stacked methacrylate membranes responded rapidly and linearly to changes in NH(4)(+) ion concentrations between 10-100 mM, with a detection limit of 0.18 mM NH(4)(+) ion. The reproducibility of the amperometrical NH(4)(+) biosensor yielded low relative standard deviations between 1.4-4.9%. The stacked membrane biosensor has been successfully applied to the determination of NH(4)(+) ion in spiked river water samples without pretreatment. A good correlation was found between the analytical results for NH(4)(+) obtained from the biosensor and the Nessler spectrophotometric method.

  1. Disease-Related Detection with Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Xu, Jin; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Xiangyang; Chen, Bin

    2017-10-17

    Rapid diagnosis of diseases at their initial stage is critical for effective clinical outcomes and promotes general public health. Classical in vitro diagnostics require centralized laboratories, tedious work and large, expensive devices. In recent years, numerous electrochemical biosensors have been developed and proposed for detection of various diseases based on specific biomarkers taking advantage of their features, including sensitivity, selectivity, low cost and rapid response. This article reviews research trends in disease-related detection with electrochemical biosensors. Focus has been placed on the immobilization mechanism of electrochemical biosensors, and the techniques and materials used for the fabrication of biosensors are introduced in details. Various biomolecules used for different diseases have been listed. Besides, the advances and challenges of using electrochemical biosensors for disease-related applications are discussed.

  2. Influences of Mg Doping on the Electrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanodots Based Biosensor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Al-Furjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical biosensors are essential for health monitors to help in diagnosis and detection of diseases. Enzyme adsorptions on biosensor electrodes and direct electron transfer between them have been recognized as key factors to affect biosensor performance. TiO2 has a good protein adsorption ability and facilitates having more enzyme adsorption and better electron transfer. In this work, Mg ions are introduced into TiO2 nanodots in order to further improve electrode performance because Mg ions are considered to have good affinity with proteins or enzymes. Mg doped TiO2 nanodots on Ti substrates were prepared by spin-coating and calcining. The effects of Mg doping on the nanodots morphology and performance of the electrodes were investigated. The density and size of TiO2 nanodots were obviously changed with Mg doping. The sensitivity of 2% Mg doped TiO2 nanodots based biosensor electrode increased to 1377.64 from 897.8 µA mM−1 cm−2 and its KMapp decreases to 0.83 from 1.27 mM, implying that the enzyme achieves higher catalytic efficiency due to better affinity of the enzyme with the Mg doped TiO2. The present work could provide an alternative to improve biosensor performances.

  3. The application of neoglycopeptides in the development of sensitive surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, C.E.P.; de Souza, A.C.; Halkes, K.M.; Upton, P.J.; Reeman, S.M.; André, S.; Gabius, H.-J.; McDonnell, M.B.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a biosensor based on surface plasmon resonance is described for the detection of carbohydrate-binding proteins in solution on a Biacore 2000 instrument, using immobilized glycopeptides as ligands. Their selection was based on previous screenings of solid-phase glycopeptide

  4. Francisella tularensis detection using magnetic labels and a magnetic biosensor based on frequency mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Martin H.F. [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Krause, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Bio-and Nanosystems (IBN-2), Research Center Juelich (Germany); Hartmann, Markus [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Miethe, Peter [SENOVA GmbH, Jena (Germany); Oster, Juergen [chemagen GmbH, Baesweiler (Germany); Keusgen, Michael [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany)]. E-mail: Keusgen@staff.uni-marburg.de

    2007-04-15

    A biosensor that uses resonant coils with a special frequency-mixing technique and magnetic beads as detectable labels has been established for the detection of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent for tularemia. The detection principle is based on a sandwich immunoassay using an anti-Ft antibody for immunofiltration immobilized to ABICAP[reg] polyethylene filters, and biotinylated with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads as labels. The linear detection range of this biosensor was found to be 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} cfu F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) per ml. Tested sample matrices were physiological PBS buffer and rabbit serum.

  5. From Electrochemical Biosensors to Biomimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers in Environmental Determination of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimino Malitesta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent work relevant to heavy metal determination by inhibition-enzyme electrochemical biosensors and by selected biomimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers has been reviewed. General features and peculiar aspects have been evidenced. The replace of biological component by artificial receptors promises higher selectivity and stability, while biosensors keep their capability of producing an integrated response directly related to biological toxicity of the samples.

  6. Nano-Calorimetry based point of care biosensor for metabolic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, Evan; Lubbers, Brad R; Dawson, Elliott; Phillips, John A; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2017-09-01

    Point of care (POC) diagnostics represents one of the fastest growing health care technology segments. Developments in microfabrication have led to the development of highly-sensitive nanocalorimeters ideal for directly measuring heat generated in POC biosensors. Here we present a novel nano-calorimeter-based biosensor design with differential sensing to eliminate common mode noise and capillary microfluidic channels for sample delivery to the thermoelectric sensor. The calorimeter has a resolution of 1.4 ± 0.2 nJ/(Hz) 1/2 utilizing a 27 junction bismuth/titanium thermopile, with a total Seebeck coefficient of 2160 μV/K. Sample is wicked to the calorimeter through a capillary channel making it suitable for monitoring blood obtained through a finger prick (performance in a model assay using catalase, achieving a threshold for hydrogen peroxide quantification of 50 μM. The potential for our device as a POC blood test for metabolic diseases is shown through the quantification of phenylalanine (Phe) in serum, an unmet necessary service in the management of Phenylketonuria (PKU). Pegylated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PEG-PAL) was utilized to react with Phe, but reliable detection was limited to <5 mM due to low enzymatic activity. The POC biosensor concept can be multiplexed and adapted to a large number of metabolic diseases utilizing different immobilized enzymes.

  7. Modifications of Poly(o-phenylenediamine Permselective Layer on Pt-Ir for Biosensor Application in Neurochemical Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. O’Neill

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports that globular proteins could enhance the interference blocking ability ofthe PPD (poly(o-phenylenediamine layer used as a permselective barrier in biosensordesign, prompted this study where a variety of modifying agents were incorporated into PPDduring its electrosynthesis on Pt-Ir electrodes. Trapped molecules, including fibrous proteinsand β-cyclodextrin, altered the polymer/modifier composite selectivity by affecting thesensitivity to both H2O2 (signal molecule in many enzyme-based biosensors and thearchetypal interference species, ascorbic acid. A comparison of electrochemical properties ofPt and a Pt-Ir alloy suggests that the benefits of the latter, more rigid, metal can be exploitedin PPD-based biosensor design without significant loss of backward compatibility withstudies involving pure Pt.

  8. Functionalized polypyrrole nanotube arrays as electrochemical biosensor for the determination of copper ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Meng; Hu Xiaoke; Ma Zhaohu; Chen Lingxin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PPy nanotube arrays were electropolymerized using ZnO nanowire arrays as templates. ► PPy nanotube arrays were anchored onto ITO glass without any chemical linker. ► Using SWV, the biosensor was found to be highly sensitive and selective to Cu 2+ . ► The biosensor was successfully applied for the determination of Cu 2+ in drinking water. - Abstract: A novel electrochemical biosensor based on functionalized polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube arrays modified with a tripeptide (Gly-Gly-His) proved to be highly effective for electrochemical analysis of copper ions (Cu 2+ ). The vertically oriented PPy nanotube arrays were electropolymerized by using modified zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays as templates which were electrodeposited on indium–tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The electrodes were functionalized by appending pyrrole-α-carboxylic acid onto the surface of polypyrrole nanotube arrays by electrochemical polymerization. The carboxylic groups of the polymer were covalently coupled with the amine groups of the tripeptide, and its structural features were confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The tripeptide modified PPy nanotube arrays electrode was used for the electrochemical analysis of various trace copper ions by square wave voltammetry. The electrode was found to be highly sensitive and selective to Cu 2+ in the range of 0.1–30 μM. Furthermore, the developed biosensor exhibited a high stability and reproducibility, despite the repeated use of the biosensor electrode.

  9. Biosensors of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlage, Robert S; Tillmann, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Biosensors are devices which utilize both an electrical component (transducer) and a biological component to study an environment. They are typically used to examine biological structures, organisms and processes. The field of biosensors has now become so large and varied that the technology can often seem impenetrable. Yet the principles which underlie the technology are uncomplicated, even if the details of the mechanisms are elusive. In this review we confine our analysis to relatively current advancements in biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells. This includes biosensors which rely on an added labeled component and biosensors which do not have a labeled component and instead detect the binding event or bound structure on the transducer. Methods to concentrate the bacteria prior to biosensor analysis are also described. The variety of biosensor types and their actual and potential uses are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and Applications of Portable Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Tung, Steve

    2015-08-01

    The significance of microfluidics-based and microelectromechanical systems-based biosensors has been widely acknowledged, and many reviews have explored their potential applications in clinical diagnostics, personalized medicine, global health, drug discovery, food safety, and forensics. Because health care costs are increasing, there is an increasing need to remotely monitor the health condition of patients by point-of-care-testing. The demand for biosensors for detection of biological warfare agents has increased, and research is focused on ways of producing small portable devices that would allow fast, accurate, and on-site detection. In the past decade, the demand for rapid and accurate on-site detection of plant disease diagnosis has increased due to emerging pathogens with resistance to pesticides, increased human mobility, and regulations limiting the application of toxic chemicals to prevent spread of diseases. The portability of biosensors for on-site diagnosis is limited due to various issues, including sample preparation techniques, fluid-handling techniques, the limited lifetime of biological reagents, device packaging, integrating electronics for data collection/analysis, and the requirement of external accessories and power. Many microfluidic, electronic, and biological design strategies, such as handling liquids in biosensors without pumps/valves, the application of droplet-based microfluidics, paper-based microfluidic devices, and wireless networking capabilities for data transmission, are being explored. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  11. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO 2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL −1 with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL −1 . - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability

  12. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad, E-mail: mozaffari@irost.ir; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO{sub 2} conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL{sup −1} with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and

  13. Glucose biosensor based on disposable electrochemical paper-based transducers fully fabricated by screen-printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas-Ardisana, P J; Martínez-Paredes, G; Añorga, L; Grande, H J

    2018-06-30

    This paper describes a new approach for the massive production of electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs). These devices are fully fabricated by screen-printing technology and consist of a lineal microfluidic channel delimited by hydrophobic walls (patterned with diluted ultraviolet screen-printing ink in chromatographic paper grade 4) and a three-electrode system (printed with carbon and/or Ag/AgCl conductive inks). The printing process was characterised and optimized for pattern each layer with only one squeeze sweep. These ePADs were used as transducers to develop a glucose biosensor. Ionic strength/pH buffering salts, electrochemical mediator (ferricyanide) and enzyme (glucose dehydrogenase FAD-dependent) were separately stored along the microfluidic channel in order to be successively dissolved and mixed after the sample dropping at the entrance. The analyses required only 10 µl and the biosensors showed good reproducibility (RSD = 6.2%, n = 10) and sensitivity (0.426 C/M cm 2 ), wide linear range (0.5-50 mM; r 2 = 0.999) and low limit of detection (0.33 mM). Furthermore, the new biosensor was applied for glucose determination in five commercial soft-drinks without any sample treatment before the analysis. These samples were also analysed with a commercial enzymatic-kit assay. The results indicated that both methods provide accurate results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial host and reporter gene optimization for genetically encoded whole cell biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutesco, Catherine; Prévéral, Sandra; Escoffier, Camille; Descamps, Elodie C T; Prudent, Elsa; Cayron, Julien; Dumas, Louis; Ricquebourg, Manon; Adryanczyk-Perrier, Géraldine; de Groot, Arjan; Garcia, Daniel; Rodrigue, Agnès; Pignol, David; Ginet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Whole-cell biosensors based on reporter genes allow detection of toxic metals in water with high selectivity and sensitivity under laboratory conditions; nevertheless, their transfer to a commercial inline water analyzer requires specific adaptation and optimization to field conditions as well as economical considerations. We focused here on both the influence of the bacterial host and the choice of the reporter gene by following the responses of global toxicity biosensors based on constitutive bacterial promoters as well as arsenite biosensors based on the arsenite-inducible P ars promoter. We observed important variations of the bioluminescence emission levels in five different Escherichia coli strains harboring two different lux-based biosensors, suggesting that the best host strain has to be empirically selected for each new biosensor under construction. We also investigated the bioluminescence reporter gene system transferred into Deinococcus deserti, an environmental, desiccation- and radiation-tolerant bacterium that would reduce the manufacturing costs of bacterial biosensors for commercial water analyzers and open the field of biodetection in radioactive environments. We thus successfully obtained a cell survival biosensor and a metal biosensor able to detect a concentration as low as 100 nM of arsenite in D. deserti. We demonstrated that the arsenite biosensor resisted desiccation and remained functional after 7 days stored in air-dried D. deserti cells. We also report here the use of a new near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent reporter candidate, a bacteriophytochrome from the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, which showed a NIR fluorescent signal that remained optimal despite increasing sample turbidity, while in similar conditions, a drastic loss of the lux-based biosensors signal was observed.

  15. A Stable Glutamate Biosensor Based on MnO2 Bulk-modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An amperometric glutamate biosensor was developed using screen-printed carbon electrodes bulk-modified with MnO2 (5%, m:m) onto which glutamate oxidase was immobilized via Nafion(R) film entrapment. The analytical performance of the biosensor was assessed in a flow injection mode and peak heights of the ...

  16. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Diamine Oxidase/Platinum Nanoparticles/Graphene/Chitosan Modified Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode for Histamine Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetrei, Irina Mirela; Apetrei, Constantin

    2016-03-24

    This work describes the development and optimization studies of a novel biosensor employed in the detection and quantification of histamine in freshwater fish samples. The proposed biosensor is based on a modified carbon screen-printed electrode with diamineoxidase, graphene and platinum nanoparticles, which detects the hydrogen peroxide formed by the chemical process biocatalysed by the enzyme diamine oxidase and immobilized onto the nanostructurated surface of the receptor element. The amperometric measurements with the biosensor have been implemented in buffer solution of pH 7.4, applying an optimal low potential of +0.4 V. The novel biosensor shows high sensitivity (0.0631 μA·μM), low detection limit (2.54 × 10(-8) M) and a broad linear domain from 0.1 to 300 μM. The applicability in natural complex samples and the analytical parameters of this enzyme sensor have been performed in the quantification of histamine in freshwater fish. An excellent correlation among results achieved with the developed biosensor and results found with the standard method for all freshwater fish samples has been achieved.

  17. A New Genetically Encoded Single-Chain Biosensor for Cdc42 Based on FRET, Useful for Live-Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dianne; Hodgson, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Cdc42 is critical in a myriad of cellular morphogenic processes, requiring precisely regulated activation dynamics to affect specific cellular events. To facilitate direct observations of Cdc42 activation in live cells, we developed and validated a new biosensor of Cdc42 activation. The biosensor is genetically encoded, of single-chain design and capable of correctly localizing to membrane compartments as well as interacting with its upstream regulators including the guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. We characterized this new biosensor in motile mouse embryonic fibroblasts and observed robust activation dynamics at leading edge protrusions, similar to those previously observed for endogenous Cdc42 using the organic dye-based biosensor system. We then extended our validations and observations of Cdc42 activity to macrophages, and show that this new biosensor is able to detect differential activation patterns during phagocytosis and cytokine stimulation. Furthermore, we observe for the first time, a highly transient and localized activation of Cdc42 during podosome formation in macrophages, which was previously hypothesized but never directly visualized. PMID:24798463

  18. A novel amperometric biosensor for superoxide anion based on superoxide dismutase immobilized on gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid biocomposite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Wen Wei; Xiong Huayu; Zhang Xiuhua; Gu Haoshuang; Wang Shengfu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the assembly process of SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE. Highlights: ► SOD was immobilized in gold nanoparticles-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) film. ► The biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNPs-CS-IL onto GCE. ► The biosensor showed excellent analytical performance for O 2 · − real-time analysis. - Abstract: A novel superoxide anion (O 2 · − ) biosensor is proposed based on the immobilization of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a gold nanoparticle-chitosan-ionic liquid (GNPs-CS-IL) biocomposite film. The SOD-based biosensor was constructed by one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition of GNP-CS-IL composite onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by immobilization of SOD on the modified electrode. Surface morphologies of a set of representative films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the biosensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of SOD with a formal potential of 0.257 V was observed at SOD/GNPs-CS-IL/GCE in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, 0.1 M, pH 7.0). The effects of varying test conditions on the electrochemical behavior of the biosensor were investigated. Furthermore, several electrochemical parameters were calculated in detail. Based on the biomolecule recognition of the specific reactivity of SOD toward O 2 · − , the developed biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response ( 3 nM), low detection limit (1.7 nM), and excellent selectivity for the real-time measurement of O 2 · − . The proposed method is promising for estimating quantitatively the dynamic changes of O 2 · − in biological systems.

  19. AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor-Based Biosensor for the Detection of C-Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Ho Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT-based biosensor for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP using a null-balancing circuit. A null-balancing circuit was used to measure the output voltage of the sensor directly. The output voltage of the proposed biosensor was varied by antigen-antibody interactions on the gate surface due to CRP charges. The AlGaN/GaN HFET-based biosensor with null-balancing circuit applied shows that CRP can be detected in a wide range of concentrations, varying from 10 ng/mL to 1000 ng/mL. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out to verify the immobilization of self-assembled monolayer with Au on the gated region.

  20. Biosensor Based on Tyrosinase Immobilized on Graphene-Decorated Gold Nanoparticle/Chitosan for Phenolic Detection in Aqueous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzi Mohamed Fartas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, electrochemical biosensor was fabricated based on immobilization of tyrosinase onto graphene-decorated gold nanoparticle/chitosan (Gr-Au-Chit/Tyr nanocomposite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE for the detection of phenolic compounds. The nanocomposite film was constructed via solution casting method. The electrocatalytic activity of the proposed biosensor for phenol detection was studied using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and cyclic voltammetry (CV. Experimental parameters such as pH buffer, enzyme concentration, ratio of Gr-Au-Chit, accumulation time and potential were optimized. The biosensor shows linearity towards phenol in the concentration range from 0.05 to 15 μM with sensitivity of 0.624 μA/μM and the limit of detection (LOD of 0.016 μM (S/N = 3. The proposed sensor also depicts good reproducibility, selectivity and stability for at least one month. The biosensor was compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for the detection of phenol spiked in real water samples and the result is in good agreement and comparable.

  1. A Label-Free Microfluidic Biosensor for Activity Detection of Single Microalgae Cells Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis.

  2. A Label-Free Microfluidic Biosensor for Activity Detection of Single Microalgae Cells Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Sun, Jinyang; Song, Yongxin; Xu, Yongyi; Pan, Xinxiang; Sun, Yeqing; Li, Dongqing

    2013-01-01

    Detection of living microalgae cells is very important for ballast water treatment and analysis. Chlorophyll fluorescence is an indicator of photosynthetic activity and hence the living status of plant cells. In this paper, we developed a novel microfluidic biosensor system that can quickly and accurately detect the viability of single microalgae cells based on chlorophyll fluorescence. The system is composed of a laser diode as an excitation light source, a photodiode detector, a signal analysis circuit, and a microfluidic chip as a microalgae cell transportation platform. To demonstrate the utility of this system, six different living and dead algae samples (Karenia mikimotoi Hansen, Chlorella vulgaris, Nitzschia closterium, Platymonas subcordiformis, Pyramidomonas delicatula and Dunaliella salina) were tested. The developed biosensor can distinguish clearly between the living microalgae cells and the dead microalgae cells. The smallest microalgae cells that can be detected by using this biosensor are 3 μm ones. Even smaller microalgae cells could be detected by increasing the excitation light power. The developed microfluidic biosensor has great potential for in situ ballast water analysis. PMID:24287532

  3. Disease-Related Detection with Electrochemical Biosensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis of diseases at their initial stage is critical for effective clinical outcomes and promotes general public health. Classical in vitro diagnostics require centralized laboratories, tedious work and large, expensive devices. In recent years, numerous electrochemical biosensors have been developed and proposed for detection of various diseases based on specific biomarkers taking advantage of their features, including sensitivity, selectivity, low cost and rapid response. This article reviews research trends in disease-related detection with electrochemical biosensors. Focus has been placed on the immobilization mechanism of electrochemical biosensors, and the techniques and materials used for the fabrication of biosensors are introduced in details. Various biomolecules used for different diseases have been listed. Besides, the advances and challenges of using electrochemical biosensors for disease-related applications are discussed.

  4. Magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structures for reusable nano-biosensor chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Haneul; Cho, Dong-guk; Park, Juhun; Nam, Ki Wan; Cho, Young Tak; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Dong Jun; Park, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We developed a magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structure which can be integrated with quite versatile nano-biosensor structures to build reusable nano-biosensor chips. This structure allows one to easily remove used receptor molecules from a biosensor surface and reuse the biosensor for repeated sensing operations. Using this structure, we demonstrated reusable immunofluorescence biosensors. Significantly, since our method allows one to place receptor molecules very close to a nano-biosensor surface, it can be utilized to build reusable carbon nanotube transistor-based biosensors which require receptor molecules within a Debye length from the sensor surface. Furthermore, we also show that a single sensor chip can be utilized to detect two different target molecules simply by replacing receptor molecules using our method. Since this method does not rely on any chemical reaction to refresh sensor chips, it can be utilized for versatile biosensor structures and virtually-general receptor molecular species. (paper)

  5. Sense and sensitivity in bioprocessing-detecting cellular metabolites with biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda; Polizzi, Karen M

    2017-10-01

    Biosensors use biological elements to detect or quantify an analyte of interest. In bioprocessing, biosensors are employed to monitor key metabolites. There are two main types: fully biological systems or biological recognition coupled with physical/chemical detection. New developments in chemical biosensors include multiplexed detection using microfluidics. Synthetic biology can be used to engineer new biological biosensors with improved characteristics. Although there have been few biosensors developed for bioprocessing thus far, emerging trends can be applied in the future. A range of new platform technologies will enable rapid engineering of new biosensors based on transcriptional activation, riboswitches, and Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. However, translation to industry remains a challenge and more research into the robustness biosensors at scale is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Jang, Jaeman; Choi, Bongsik; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Dong Myong; Kim, Dae Hwan; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-07-21

    This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors. The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential advantage of high density and low noise performance. The biosensor shows a current response of 5.74 decades per pH for pH detection, which is 2.5 × 10(5) times larger than that of a single SiNW sensor. In addition, we demonstrate charged polymer detection using the biosensor, with a high current change of 4.5 × 10(5) with a 500 nM concentration of poly(allylamine hydrochloride). In addition, we demonstrate a wide dynamic range can be obtained by adjusting the liquid gate voltage. We expect that this biosensor will be advantageous and practical for biosensor applications which requires lower noise, high speed, and high density.

  7. Glutaminase enzyme biosensor for determination of glutamine in cerebrospinal fluid, human serum and l-glutamine capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagriyanik, D.B.; Karakus, E

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium-selective glutamine biosensor was prepared by immobilizing glutaminase on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode containing palmitic acid prepared by using nonactine. The response of glutamine biosensor was linear over the concentration range of 1.0x10-11.0x10-4M and slope was Nernstian. We determined optimum working conditions of the biosensor such as buffer concentration, buffer pH, lifetime, response time, linear working range and other response characteristics. The optimum buffer concentration and pH of proposed glutamine biosensor were determined as 20mM and pH 7.5, respectively. The interference effects of some ions and amino acids that may be present in body fluids were also investigated. The Km and Vmax values of glutaminase were determined. Additionally, glutamine assay in several biological samples such as healthy human serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and commercial glutamine capsule were also successfully carried out by using the standard addition method. The results were good agreement with previously reported values. (author)

  8. Highly sensitive amperometric biosensor based on electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide-chitosan/hemoglobin nanocomposite for nitromethane determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yunping; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-05-15

    Nitromethane (CH3NO2) is an important organic chemical raw material with a wide variety of applications as well as one of the most common pollutants. Therefore it is pretty important to establish a simple and sensitive detection method for CH3NO2. In our study, a novel amperometric biosensor for nitromethane (CH3NO2) based on immobilization of electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide (rGO), chitosan (CS) and hemoglobin (Hb) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the Hb-CS/rGO-CS composite film. The effects of scan rate and pH of phosphate buffer on the biosensor have been studied in detail and optimized. Due to the graphene and chitosan nanocomposite, the developed biosensor demonstrating direct electrochemistry with faster electron-transfer rate (6.48s(-1)) and excellent catalytic activity towards CH3NO2. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibited fast amperometric response (<5s) to CH3NO2 with a wide linear range of 5 μM~1.46 mM (R=0.999) and a low detection limit of 1.5 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the biosensor had high selectivity, reproducibility and stability, providing the possibility for monitoring CH3NO2 in complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Based on Disposable Screen-Printed Electrodes for Detection of Food Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, Alina; Nunes, Gilvanda; Hayat, Akhtar; Latif, Usman; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Food allergens are proteins from nuts and tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy, eggs or milk which trigger severe adverse reactions in the human body, involving IgE-type antibodies. Sensitive detection of allergens in a large variety of food matrices has become increasingly important considering the emergence of functional foods and new food manufacturing technologies. For example, proteins such as casein from milk or lysozyme and ovalbumin from eggs are sometimes used as fining agents in the wine industry. Nonetheless, allergen detection in processed foods is a challenging endeavor, as allergen proteins are degraded during food processing steps involving heating or fermentation. Detection of food allergens was primarily achieved via Enzyme-Linked Immuno Assay (ELISA) or by chromatographic methods. With the advent of biosensors, electrochemical affinity-based biosensors such as those incorporating antibodies and aptamers as biorecognition elements were also reported in the literature. In this review paper, we highlight the success achieved in the design of electrochemical affinity biosensors based on disposable screen-printed electrodes towards detection of protein allergens. We will discuss the analytical figures of merit for various disposable screen-printed affinity sensors in relation to methodologies employed for immobilization of bioreceptors on transducer surface. PMID:27827963

  10. A Non-invasive and Real-time Monitoring of the Regulation of Photosynthetic Metabolism Biosensor Based on Measurement of Delayed Fluorescence in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new principle biosensor for non-invasive monitoring of theregulation of photosynthetic metabolism based on quantitative measurement of delayedfluorescence (DF is developed. The biosensor, which uses light-emitting diode lattice asexcitation light source and a compact Single Photon Counting Module to collect DF signal,is portable and can evaluate plant photosynthesis capacity in vivo. Compared with itsprimary version in our previous report, the biosensor can better control environmentalfactors. Moreover, the improved biosensor can automatically complete the measurements oflight and CO2 response curves of DF intensity. In the experimental study, the testing of theimproved biosensor has been made in soybean (Glycine max Zaoshu No. 18 seedlingstreated with NaHSO3 to induce changes in seedlings growth and photosynthetic metabolism.Contrast evaluations of seedlings photosynthesis were made from measurements of netphotosynthesis rate (Pn based on consumption of CO2 in tested plants. Current testingresults have demonstrated that the improved biosensor can accurately determine theregulatory effects of NaHSO3 on photosynthetic metabolism. Therefore, the biosensorpresented here could be potential useful for real-time monitoring the regulatory effects ofplant growth regulators (PGRs and other exogenous chemical factors on plant growth andphotosynthetic metabolism.

  11. A novel electrochemiluminescent biosensor based on resonance energy transfer between poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracar-boxylic acid for insulin detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zuo, Fumei; Tan, Xingrong; Xu, Shenghao; Yuan, Ruo; Chen, Shihong

    2018-05-01

    An electrochemiluminescencent (ECL) biosensor was designed for the determination of insulin using a novel ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) strategy. In this strategy, carboxyl poly(9,9-dioctyfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) dots (PFO dots) were worked as ECL donor and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracar-boxylic acid (PTCA) exploited as ECL acceptor, and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) employed as the coreactant. The ECL donor and ECL acceptor were separately labeled with primary antibody (Ab 1 ) and secondary antibody (Ab 2 ), forming a sensing interface to the analyte target, insulin. In this expected sandwich-type ECL biosensor, PFO dots acted as sensing platform and PTCA employed as labels to quench the ECL emission of PFO dots. During the determination process, ECL signal of PFO dots was decreased in a gradual way by the increase of insulin concentration, and the quenching mechanism was also investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the constructed biosensor exhibited an excellent performance, including a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10 -5 ng/mL to 1.0 × 10 2 ng/mL, low detection limit of 3.0 × 10 -6 ng/mL, good stability and selectivity for the detection of insulin. This pair of PFO-PTCA, as a new donor-acceptor pair in ECL-RET system, would provide a promising platform for bioanalysis in ECL field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enzyme Biosensors for Biomedical Applications: Strategies for Safeguarding Analytical Performances in Biological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchitta, Gaia; Spanu, Angela; Babudieri, Sergio; Latte, Gavinella; Madeddu, Giordano; Galleri, Grazia; Nuvoli, Susanna; Bagella, Paola; Demartis, Maria Ilaria; Fiore, Vito; Manetti, Roberto; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-based chemical biosensors are based on biological recognition. In order to operate, the enzymes must be available to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction and be stable under the normal operating conditions of the biosensor. Design of biosensors is based on knowledge about the target analyte, as well as the complexity of the matrix in which the analyte has to be quantified. This article reviews the problems resulting from the interaction of enzyme-based amperometric biosensors with complex biological matrices containing the target analyte(s). One of the most challenging disadvantages of amperometric enzyme-based biosensor detection is signal reduction from fouling agents and interference from chemicals present in the sample matrix. This article, therefore, investigates the principles of functioning of enzymatic biosensors, their analytical performance over time and the strategies used to optimize their performance. Moreover, the composition of biological fluids as a function of their interaction with biosensing will be presented. PMID:27249001

  13. Biosensors : basic features and application for fatty acid-binding protein, an early plasma marker of myocardial injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, D; McNeil, CA; Renneberg, R; Korf, J; Hermens, WT; Glatz, JFC

    2005-01-01

    Biosensors, especially immunosensors, are of great value for use in a clinical setting, since these are based on antigen-antibody reactions which are highly sensitive and specific. Furthermore, it becomes more and more important to measure specific compounds in biological matrices, such as blood or

  14. Novel charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET as a biosensor for label-free detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Manash; Dey, Prithu; De, Swapnadip; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a charge plasma based dielectric modulated impact ionization MOSFET (CP-DIMOSFET) has been proposed for the first time to ease the label free detection of biomolecules. The concept of CP-DIMOSFET is proposed and analyzed on basis of simulated data using SILVACO ATLAS. Low thermal budgeting and thin silicon layer without any dopant implantations make the proposed structure advantageous compared to the existing MOSFET based biosensors. The results show that the proposed device is capable to detect the presence of biomolecules. Simple fabrication schemes, miniaturization, high sensitivity, dominance of dielectric modulation make the proposed biosensor a promising one that could one day revolutionize the healthcare industry.

  15. Introduction to Biosensors From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors discusses underlying circuitry of sensors for biomedical and biological engineers as well as biomedical sensing modalities for electrical engineers while providing an applications-based approach to the study of biosensors with over 13 extensive, hands-on labs. The material is presented using a building-block approach, beginning with the fundamentals of sensor design and temperature sensors and ending with more complicated biosensors. This book also: Provides electrical engineers with the specific knowledge they need to understand biological sensing modalities Provides biomedical engineers with a solid background in circuits and systems Includes complete coverage of temperature sensors, electrochemical sensors, DNA and immunosensors, piezoelectric sensors and immunosensing in a micofluidic device Introduction to Biosensors: From Electric Circuits to Immunosensors aims to provide an interdisciplinary approach to biosensors that will be apprecia...

  16. Development of swine-specific DNA markers for biosensor-based halal authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M E; Hashim, U; Kashif, M; Mustafa, S; Che Man, Y B; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-06-29

    The pig (Sus scrofa) mitochondrial genome was targeted to design short (15-30 nucleotides) DNA markers that would be suitable for biosensor-based hybridization detection of target DNA. Short DNA markers are reported to survive harsh conditions in which longer ones are degraded into smaller fragments. The whole swine mitochondrial-genome was in silico digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Among 66 AluI fragments, five were selected as potential markers because of their convenient lengths, high degree of interspecies polymorphism and intraspecies conservatism. These were confirmed by NCBI blast analysis and ClustalW alignment analysis with 11 different meat-providing animal and fish species. Finally, we integrated a tetramethyl rhodamine-labeled 18-nucleotide AluI fragment into a 3-nm diameter citrate-tannate coated gold nanoparticle to develop a swine-specific hybrid nanobioprobe for the determination of pork adulteration in 2.5-h autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures. This hybrid probe detected as low as 1% pork in deliberately contaminated autoclaved pork-beef binary mixtures and no cross-species detection was recorded, demonstrating the feasibility of this type of probe for biosensor-based detection of pork adulteration of halal and kosher foods.

  17. Potentiometric Urea Biosensor Based on an Immobilised Fullerene-Urease Bio-Conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasra Saeedfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate (PnBA membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10−3 M to 8.28 × 10−5 M. The biosensor’s sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor’s response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  18. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Xiong; Fan, Zhiyuan; Lv, Xiaoqing; Su, Yue; Chen, Hongda

    2017-01-01

    With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT). Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms. PMID:29068375

  19. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Xiong; Fan, Zhiyuan; Lv, Xiaoqing; Su, Yue; Chen, Hongda

    2017-10-25

    With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT). Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms.

  20. Diffusion kinetics of the glucose/glucose oxidase system in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Dietmar, E-mail: fink@xanum.uam.mx [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Vacik, Jiri; Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Muñoz Hernandez, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, PO Box 55-534, 09340 México, DF (Mexico); Garcia Arrelano, H. [Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales, División de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Lerma, Av. de las Garzas No. 10, Col. El Panteón, Lerma de Villada, Municipio de Lerma, Estado de México CP 52005 (Mexico); Alfonta, Lital [Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kiv, Arik [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Application of swift heavy ion tracks in biosensing. • Obtaining yet unknown diffusion coefficients of organic matter across etched ion tracks. • Obtaining diffusion coefficients of organics in etched ion tracks of biosensors. • Comparison with Renkin’s equation to predict the effective etched track diameter in the given experiments. - Abstract: For understanding of the diffusion kinetics and their optimization in swift heavy ion track-based biosensors, recently a diffusion simulation was performed. This simulation aimed at yielding the degree of enrichment of the enzymatic reaction products in the highly confined space of the etched ion tracks. A bunch of curves was obtained for the description of such sensors that depend only on the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the products to that of the analyte within the tracks. As hitherto none of these two diffusion coefficients is accurately known, the present work was undertaken. The results of this paper allow one to quantify the previous simulation and hence yield realistic predictions of glucose-based biosensors. At this occasion, also the influence of the etched track radius on the diffusion coefficients was measured and compared with earlier prediction.

  1. Glucose biosensors based on a gold nanodendrite modified screen-printed electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hsi-Chien; Tsai, Chung-Che; Wang, Gou-Jen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an enzymatic glucose biosensor based on a three-dimensional gold nanodendrite (GND) modified screen-printed electrode was developed. The GNDs were electrochemically synthesized on the working electrode component of a commercially available screen-printed electrode using a solution acquired by dissolving bulk gold in aqua regia as the precursor. The 3D GND electrode greatly enhanced the effective sensing area of the biosensor, which improved the sensitivity of glucose detection. Actual glucose detections demonstrated that the fabricated devices could perform at a sensitivity of 46.76 μA mM −1 cm −2 with a linear detection range from 28 μM–8.4 mM and detection limit of 7 μM. A fast response time (∼3 s) was also observed. Moreover, only a 20 μl glucose oxidase is required for detection owing to the incorporation of the commercially available screen-printed electrode. (paper)

  2. Aptamer Based Microsphere Biosensor for Thrombin Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Fan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an optical microsphere resonator biosensor using aptamer asreceptor for the measurement of the important biomolecule thrombin. The sphere surface ismodified with anti-thrombin aptamer, which has excellent binding affinity and selectivityfor thrombin. Binding of the thrombin at the sphere surface is monitored by the spectralposition of the microsphere’s whispering gallery mode resonances. A detection limit on theorder of 1 NIH Unit/mL is demonstrated. Control experiments with non-aptameroligonucleotide and BSA are also carried out to confirm the specific binding betweenaptamer and thrombin. We expect that this demonstration will lead to the development ofhighly sensitive biomarker sensors based on aptamer with lower cost and higher throughputthan current technology.

  3. A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody based biosensor for quantifying 3–5 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in aqueous environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunoassays based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are highly sensitive for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and can be employed to determine concentrations in near real-time. A sensitive generic mAb against PAHs, named as 2G8, was developed by a three-step screening procedure. It exhibited nearly uniformly high sensitivity against 3-ring to 5-ring unsubstituted PAHs and their common environmental methylated PAHs, with IC50 values between 1.68 and 31 μg/L (ppb. 2G8 has been successfully applied on the KinExA Inline Biosensor system for quantifying 3–5 ring PAHs in aqueous environmental samples. PAHs were detected at a concentration as low as 0.2 μg/L. Furthermore, the analyses only required 10 min for each sample. To evaluate the accuracy of the 2G8-based biosensor, the total PAH concentrations in a series of environmental samples analyzed by biosensor and GC–MS were compared. In most cases, the results yielded a good correlation between methods. This indicates that generic antibody 2G8 based biosensor possesses significant promise for a low cost, rapid method for PAH determination in aqueous samples. Keywords: Monoclonal antibody, PAH, Pore water, Biosensor, Pyrene

  4. Lactate Biosensor Based on Cellulose Acetate Membrane Bound Lactate Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing lactate oxidase in cellulose acetate membrane and by mounting over the sensing part of Pt electrode (working and connected to Ag/AgCl electrode (reference along with auxillary electrode through potentiostat. The enzyme electrode was anodically polarized at +400 mV to generate electrons from H2O2, which was formed from oxidation of serum lactate by immobilized lactate oxidase. The minimum detection limit of the electrode was 0.1mmoles/L and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.008 mA/mM/L lactate. Assay coefficients of variation were < 2% .A good correlation (r=0.99 was found between lactate values obtained by colorimetric method and lactate biosensor. The self-life of the biosensor was 18 days at 4ºC and enzyme electrode can be re-used 150 times without any significant loss in enzyme activity.

  5. Reagent-Less and Robust Biosensor for Direct Determination of Lactate in Food Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Iria; Revenga-Parra, M?nica; Pariente, F?lix; Lorenzo, Encarnaci?n

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid is a relevant analyte in the food industry, since it affects the flavor, freshness, and storage quality of several products, such as milk and dairy products, juices, or wines. It is the product of lactose or malo-lactic fermentation. In this work, we developed a lactate biosensor based on the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) onto N,N′-Bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene) -1,2-diaminobenzene Schiff base tetradentate ligand-modified gold nanoparticles (3,4DHS–AuNPs) deposited onto s...

  6. Post hoc support vector machine learning for impedimetric biosensors based on weak protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y; Padron, A V; Hagerty, K J; Nelson, N; Chi, S; Keyhani, N O; Katz, J; Datta, S P A; Gomes, C; McLamore, E S

    2018-04-30

    Impedimetric biosensors for measuring small molecules based on weak/transient interactions between bioreceptors and target analytes are a challenge for detection electronics, particularly in field studies or in the analysis of complex matrices. Protein-ligand binding sensors have enormous potential for biosensing, but achieving accuracy in complex solutions is a major challenge. There is a need for simple post hoc analytical tools that are not computationally expensive, yet provide near real time feedback on data derived from impedance spectra. Here, we show the use of a simple, open source support vector machine learning algorithm for analyzing impedimetric data in lieu of using equivalent circuit analysis. We demonstrate two different protein-based biosensors to show that the tool can be used for various applications. We conclude with a mobile phone-based demonstration focused on the measurement of acetone, an important biomarker related to the onset of diabetic ketoacidosis. In all conditions tested, the open source classifier was capable of performing as well as, or better, than the equivalent circuit analysis for characterizing weak/transient interactions between a model ligand (acetone) and a small chemosensory protein derived from the tsetse fly. In addition, the tool has a low computational requirement, facilitating use for mobile acquisition systems such as mobile phones. The protocol is deployed through Jupyter notebook (an open source computing environment available for mobile phone, tablet or computer use) and the code was written in Python. For each of the applications, we provide step-by-step instructions in English, Spanish, Mandarin and Portuguese to facilitate widespread use. All codes were based on scikit-learn, an open source software machine learning library in the Python language, and were processed in Jupyter notebook, an open-source web application for Python. The tool can easily be integrated with the mobile biosensor equipment for rapid

  7. Smartphone-based enzymatic biosensor for oral fluid L-lactate detection in one minute using confined multilayer paper reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Donato; Caliceti, Cristiana; Zangheri, Martina; Mirasoli, Mara; Simoni, Patrizia; Roda, Aldo

    2017-08-15

    The development of smartphone-based biosensors for point-of-care testing (POCT) applications allows realizing "all in one" instruments, with large potential distribution among the general population. With this respect, paper color-based detection performed by reflectance measurement is the most popular, simple, inexpensive and straightforward method. Despite the large number of scientific publications related to these biosensors, they still suffer from a poor detectability and reproducibility related to inhomogeneity of color development, which leads to low assay reproducibility. To overcome these problems, we propose a smartphone paper-based biosensor, in which all the reagents necessary to complete the analysis are co-entrapped on paper in a "wafer"-like bilayer film of polyelectrolytes (Poly (allyl amine hydrochloride/poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate)). Using a 3D printing low-cost technology we fabricated the smartphone-based device that consists in a cover accessory attached to the smartphone and incorporating a light diffuser over the flash to improve the image quality, a mini dark box and a disposable analytical cartridge containing all the reagents necessary for the complete analysis. The biosensor was developed exploiting coupled enzyme reactions for quantifying L-lactate in oral fluid, which is considered a biomarker of poor tissue perfusion, a key element in the management of severe sepsis, septic shock and in sports performance evaluation. The developed method is sensitive, rapid, and it allows detecting L-lactate in oral fluid in the relevant physiological range, with a limit of detection of 0.1mmolL -1 . The extreme simplicity of assay execution (no reagents need to be added) and flexibility of fabrication of the device, together with the high assay versatility (any oxidase can be coupled with HRP-based color change reaction) make our approach suitable for the realization of smartphone-based biosensors able to non-invasively detect a large variety of

  8. Emerging synergy between nanotechnology and implantable biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Tomazos, Ioannis; Burgess, Diane J; Jain, Faquir C; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2010-03-15

    The development of implantable biosensors for continuous monitoring of metabolites is an area of sustained scientific and technological interests. On the other hand, nanotechnology, a discipline which deals with the properties of materials at the nanoscale, is developing as a potent tool to enhance the performance of these biosensors. This article reviews the current state of implantable biosensors, highlighting the synergy between nanotechnology and sensor performance. Emphasis is placed on the electrochemical method of detection in light of its widespread usage and substantial nanotechnology based improvements in various aspects of electrochemical biosensor performance. Finally, issues regarding toxicity and biocompatibility of nanomaterials, along with future prospects for the application of nanotechnology in implantable biosensors, are discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tracing the pH dependent activation of autophagy in cancer cells by silicon nanowire-based impedance biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Alireza; Gharooni, Milad; Abiri, Hamed; Farokhmanesh, Fatemeh; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2018-05-30

    Monitoring the pH dependent behavior of normal and cancer cells by impedimetric biosensor based on Silicon Nanowires (SiNWs) was introduced to diagnose the invasive cancer cells. Autophagy as a biologically activated process in invasive cancer cells during acidosis, protect them from apoptosis in lower pH which presented in our work. As the autophagy is the only activated pathways which can maintain cellular proliferation in acidic media, responses of SiNW-ECIS in acidified cells could be correlated to the probability of autophagy activation in normal or cancer cells. In contrast, cell survival pathway wasn't activated in low-grade cancer cells which resulted in their acidosis. The measured electrical resistance of MCF10, MCF7, and MDA-MB468 cell lines, by SiNW sensor, in normal and acidic media were matched by the biological analyses of their vital functions. Invasive cancer cells exhibited increased electrical resistance in pH 6.5 meanwhile the two other types of the breast cells exhibited sharp (MCF10) and moderate (MCF7) decrease in their resistance. This procedure would be a new trend in microenvironment based cancer investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan (Kevin Lai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A potentiometric enzyme biosensor is a convenient detector for quantification of urea concentrations in industrial processes, or for monitoring patients with diabetes, kidney damage or liver malfunction. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-thiopheneacetic acid (P(3HT-co-3TAA was chemically synthesized, characterized and spin-coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO glass electrodes. Urease (Urs was covalently attached to the smooth surface of this copolymer via carbodiimide coupling. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified Urs/P(3HT-co-3TAA/ITO glass electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the bound enzyme activity was confirmed by spectrophotometry. Potentiometric response studies indicated that this electrode could determine the concentration of urea in aqueous solutions, with a quasi-Nernstian response up to about 5 mM. No attempt was made to optimize the response speed; full equilibration occurred after 10 min, but the half-time for response was typically <1 min.

  11. Photonic Crystal Biosensor Based on Optical Surface Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dietler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A label-free biosensor device based on registration of photonic crystal surface waves is described. Angular interrogation of the optical surface wave resonance is used to detect changes in the thickness of an adsorbed layer, while an additional simultaneous detection of the critical angle of total internal reflection provides independent data of the liquid refractive index. The abilities of the device are demonstrated by measuring of biotin molecule binding to a streptavidin monolayer, and by measuring association and dissociation kinetics of immunoglobulin G proteins. Additionally, deposition of PSS / PAH polyelectrolytes is recorded in situ resulting calculation of PSS and PAH monolayer thicknesses separately.

  12. Biosensor-based analyser. Measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate and alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, F.T. Jr. (YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This paper describes an instrument, the YSI 2700, for the measurement of glucose, sucrose, lactose, L-lactate, and alcohol by means of biosensors. Each biosensor consists of an amperometric, hydrogen peroxide sensitive electrode combined with an immobilized oxidase enzyme trapped between two membranes. Each biosensor differs from the others only in its enzyme layer. The instrument can be used to measure these analytes in complex sample matrices; often directly, e.g. in whole blood and fermentations, after dilution with water, e.g. in molasses and corn syrup, or after extraction into water, e.g. in cheese and cereal products. (orig.).

  13. Protein Biosensors Based on Polymer Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeksoo Ji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of biosensors using electrochemical methods is a promising application in the field of biotechnology. High sensitivity sensors for the bio-detection of proteins have been developed using several kinds of nanomaterials. The performance of the sensors depends on the type of nanostructures with which the biomaterials interact. One dimensional (1-D structures such as nanowires, nanotubes and nanorods are proven to have high potential for bio-applications. In this paper we review these three different kinds of nanostructures that have attracted much attention at recent times with their great performance as biosensors. Materials such as polymers, carbon and zinc oxide have been widely used for the fabrication of nanostructures because of their enhanced performance in terms of sensitivity, biocompatibility, and ease of preparation. Thus we consider polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes and zinc oxide nanorods for discussion in this paper. We consider three stages in the development of biosensors: (a fabrication of biomaterials into nanostructures, (b alignment of the nanostructures and (c immobilization of proteins. Two different methods by which the biosensors can be developed at each stage for all the three nanostructures are examined. Finally, we conclude by mentioning some of the major challenges faced by many researchers who seek to fabricate biosensors for real time applications.

  14. Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Fullerene-C60 Nano-Structured Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilehvar, Sanaz; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-11-23

    Nanotechnology is becoming increasingly important in the field of (bio)sensors. The performance and sensitivity of biosensors is greatly improved with the integration of nanomaterials into their construction. Since its first discovery, fullerene-C60 has been the object of extensive research. Its unique and favorable characteristics of easy chemical modification, conductivity, and electrochemical properties has led to its tremendous use in (bio)sensor applications. This paper provides a concise review of advances in fullerene-C60 research and its use as a nanomaterial for the development of biosensors. We examine the research work reported in the literature on the synthesis, functionalization, approaches to nanostructuring electrodes with fullerene, and outline some of the exciting applications in the field of (bio)sensing.

  15. A 3D graphene-based biosensor as an early microcystin-LR screening tool in sources of drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Changseok; Jia, Baoping; Saint, Christopher; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Falaras, Polycarpos; Sygellou, Labrini; Vogiazi, Vasileia; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D graphene-based biosensors can detect MC-LR with remarkable sensitivity. • Good linear correlation between electron-transfer resistance and MC-LR concentration. • A detection limit of 0.04 μg/L MC-LR was accomplished. - Abstract: Recent advances in graphene synthesis and understanding of properties have led to enormous applications in a variety of areas. Graphene and its unique electrical properties can favor electrochemical biosensor applications for aqueous toxin monitoring. Graphene-based biosensors can be used as an alternative to time-consuming, expensive and non-portable conventional methods of analysis involved in water quality monitoring and assessment. In this work, we showcased a three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based biosensor for microcystin-LR (MC-LR) detection and quantification. We report the efficient functionalization and immobilization of microcystin-LR and its antibodies on the facile synthesized CVD 3D graphene. The modified graphene electrodes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to electrochemically characterize the biochemical events on the electrodes. Specifically, as-prepared 3D graphene-based biosensors can detect MC-LR with remarkable sensitivity due to its macro-porous structure and large surface area, and high conductivity. A very good linear correlation of the electron-transfer resistance (R"2 = 0.93) was achieved over 0.05 and 20 μg/L MC-LR concentration range. Also, a detection limit of 0.05 μg/L was accomplished, which is much lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional guideline limit of MC-LR concentration (i.e. 1 μg/L) in drinking water.

  16. Development of Piezoelectric DNA-Based Biosensor for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Clinical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thongchai KAEWPHINIT

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on establishment of piezoelectric biosensor for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB in clinical specimens. The quartz crystal immobilized via 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA/avidin/DNA biotinylated probe on gold surface and hybridization of the DNA target to DNA biotinylated probe. The optimal concentration of MPA, avidin and 5’-biotinylated DNA probe for immobilization of specific DNA probe on gold surface were 15 mM, 0.1 mg/ml and 1.5 μM, respectively. The detection of genomic DNA digestion in the range from 0.5 to 30 μg/ml. The fabricated biosensor was evaluated through an examination of 200 samples. No cross hybridization were observed against M. avium complex (MAC and other microorganism. This target DNA preparation without amplification will reduce time consuming, costs, and the tedious step of amplification. This study can be extended to develop the new method which is high sensitivity, specificity, cheap, easy to use, and rapid for detection of MTB in many fields.

  17. Facile screening of potential xenoestrogens by an estrogen receptor-based reusable optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanhua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lu, Yun; Shan, Didi; Xu, Bi; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E 2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E 2 monoclonal antibody. Unbound anti-E 2 antibody then binds to the immobilized E 2 -protein conjugate on the fiber surface, and is detected by fluorescence emission induced by evanescent field. As expected, the stronger estrogenic activity of xenoestrogen would result in the weaker fluorescent signal. Three estrogen-agonist compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-n-octylphenol (OP), were chosen as a paradigm for validation of this assay. The rank order of estrogenic potency determined by this biosensor was DES>OP>NP, which were consistent with the published results in numerous studies. Moreover, the E 2 -protein conjugate modified optical fiber was robust enough for over 300 sensing cycles with the signal recoveries ranging from 90% to 100%. In conclusion, the biosensor is reusable, reliable, portable and amenable to on-line operation, providing a facile, efficient and economical alternative to screen potential xenoestrogens in environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An electrospun nanofiber matrix based on organo-clay for biosensors: PVA/PAMAM-Montmorillonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Betul; Yalcinkaya, Esra Evrim; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci; Timur, Suna

    2018-06-01

    Diagnostic techniques based on biomolecules have huge a potential to be applied in the application in various areas such as food/beverage industries, diseases diagnostics, monitoring of bio-processes and environmental pollutants. Immobilization of biomolecules on a transducer is the key parameter to being able to prepare a highly stable diagnostic tests. Electrospun nanofibers are a good alternative to immobilize biomolecules. Here, electrospun nanofibers based on an organoclay were used to design the first generation amperometric enzyme biosensor. PAMAM G2 dendrimers were used to intercalate montmorillonite clay (Mt) and then the modification of Mt by PAMAM was characterized using FTIR, XRD, TGA and zeta potential measurements. After that nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning Mt and PAMAM-Mt using poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as an auxiliary polymer and the formed PVA/PAMAM-Mt electrospun nanofibers were proved by SEM, TEM and AFM techniques. Finally, pyranose oxidases (PyOx) were immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode surface, which was modified using the PVA/PAMAM-Mt electrospun nanofibers. Amperometric measurements were carried out using buffer solution at -0.7 V under stirring conditions. The linear response for glucose was from 0.005 mM to 0.25 mM using PVA/Mt/PyOx and PVA/PAMAM-Mt/PyOx biosensors. The limit of detection was 0.7 μM glucose with PVA/PAMAM-Mt/PyOx biosensor. To detect glucose in real sample, measurements were carried out using soft drink cola as a substrate instead of glucose.

  19. A vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based impedance sensing biosensor for rapid and high sensitive detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolahad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Mohammad; Taghinejad, Hossein; Janmaleki, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Shams

    2012-03-21

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube based electrical cell impedance sensing biosensor (CNT-ECIS) was demonstrated for the first time as a more rapid, sensitive and specific device for the detection of cancer cells. This biosensor is based on the fast entrapment of cancer cells on vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and leads to mechanical and electrical interactions between CNT tips and entrapped cell membranes, changing the impedance of the biosensor. CNT-ECIS was fabricated through a photolithography process on Ni/SiO(2)/Si layers. Carbon nanotube arrays have been grown on 9 nm thick patterned Ni microelectrodes by DC-PECVD. SW48 colon cancer cells were passed over the surface of CNT covered electrodes to be specifically entrapped on elastic nanotube beams. CNT arrays act as both adhesive and conductive agents and impedance changes occurred as fast as 30 s (for whole entrapment and signaling processes). CNT-ECIS detected the cancer cells with the concentration as low as 4000 cells cm(-2) on its surface and a sensitivity of 1.7 × 10(-3)Ω cm(2). Time and cell efficiency factor (TEF and CEF) parameters were defined which describe the sensor's rapidness and resolution, respectively. TEF and CEF of CNT-ECIS were much higher than other cell based electrical biosensors which are compared in this paper.

  20. Laser Scribed Graphene Biosensor for Detection of Biogenic Amines in Food Samples Using Locally Sourced Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Vanegas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In foods, high levels of biogenic amines (BA are the result of microbial metabolism that could be affected by temperatures and storage conditions. Thus, the level of BA is commonly used as an indicator of food safety and quality. This manuscript outlines the development of laser scribed graphene electrodes, with locally sourced materials, for reagent-free food safety biosensing. To fabricate the biosensors, the graphene surface was functionalized with copper microparticles and diamine oxidase, purchased from a local supermarket; and then compared to biosensors fabricated with analytical grade materials. The amperometric biosensor exhibits good electrochemical performance, with an average histamine sensitivity of 23.3 µA/mM, a lower detection limit of 11.6 µM, and a response time of 7.3 s, showing similar performance to biosensors constructed from analytical grade materials. We demonstrated the application of the biosensor by testing total BA concentration in fish paste samples subjected to fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. Biogenic amines concentrations prior to lactic acid fermentation were below the detection limit of the biosensor, while concentration after fermentation was 19.24 ± 8.21 mg histamine/kg, confirming that the sensor was selective in a complex food matrix. The low-cost, rapid, and accurate device is a promising tool for biogenic amine estimation in food samples, particularly in situations where standard laboratory techniques are unavailable, or are cost prohibitive. This biosensor can be used for screening food samples, potentially limiting food waste, while reducing chances of foodborne outbreaks.

  1. Detection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in vitro using a hippocampal neuronal network-based biosensor with extracellular potential analysis of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Wang, Qin; Qin, Zhen; Su, Kaiqi; Huang, Liquan; Hu, Ning; Wang, Ping

    2015-04-15

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in regulating emotions and related behaviors in mammals. To detect and monitor the 5-HT, effective and convenient methods are demanded in investigation of neuronal network. In this study, hippocampal neuronal networks (HNNs) endogenously expressing 5-HT receptors were employed as sensing elements to build an in vitro neuronal network-based biosensor. The electrophysiological characteristics were analyzed in both neuron and network levels. The firing rates and amplitudes were derived from signal to determine the biosensor response characteristics. The experimental results demonstrate a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of 5-HT on hippocampal neuron activities, indicating the effectiveness of this hybrid biosensor in detecting 5-HT with a response range from 0.01μmol/L to 10μmol/L. In addition, the cross-correlation analysis of HNNs activities suggests 5-HT could weaken HNN connectivity reversibly, providing more specificity of this biosensor in detecting 5-HT. Moreover, 5-HT induced spatiotemporal firing pattern alterations could be monitored in neuron and network levels simultaneously by this hybrid biosensor in a convenient and direct way. With those merits, this neuronal network-based biosensor will be promising to be a valuable and utility platform for the study of neurotransmitter in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on SnO2 nanoparticles-carboxylic graphene-nafion modified electrode for detection of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Yang, Long; Wang, Guangcan; Yang, Yun

    2013-11-15

    A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor, based on SnO2 nanoparticles (SnO2 NPs), carboxylic graphene (CGR) and nafion (NF) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection of methyl parathion and carbofuran has been developed. The nanocomposites of SnO2 NPs and CGR was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. Chitosan (CS) was used to immobilize AChE on SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF/GCE and to improve electronic transmission between AChE and SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF/GCE. NF was used as the protective membrane for the AChE biosensor. The SnO2 NPs-CGR-NF nanocomposites with excellent conductivity, catalysis and biocompatibility offered an extremely hydrophilic surface for AChE adhesion. The AChE biosensor showed favorable affinity to acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) and could catalyze the hydrolysis of ATCl with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value of 131 μM. The biosensor detected methyl parathion in the linear range from 10(-13) to 10(-10)M and from 10(-10) to 10(-8)M. The biosensor detected carbofuran in the linear range from 10(-12) to 10(-10)M and from 10(-10) to 10(-8)M. The detection limits of methyl parathion and carbofuran were 5 × 10(-14)M and 5 × 10(-13)M, respectively. The biosensor exhibited low applied potential, high sensitivity and acceptable stability, thus providing a promising tool for analysis of pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosensors for Whole-Cell Bacterial Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Jo V.; Hirst, Natalie A.; Millner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial pathogens are important targets for detection and identification in medicine, food safety, public health, and security. Bacterial infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of the availability of antibiotics, these infections are often misdiagnosed or there is an unacceptable delay in diagnosis. Current methods of bacterial detection rely upon laboratory-based techniques such as cell culture, microscopic analysis, and biochemical assays. These procedures are time-consuming and costly and require specialist equipment and trained users. Portable stand-alone biosensors can facilitate rapid detection and diagnosis at the point of care. Biosensors will be particularly useful where a clear diagnosis informs treatment, in critical illness (e.g., meningitis) or to prevent further disease spread (e.g., in case of food-borne pathogens or sexually transmitted diseases). Detection of bacteria is also becoming increasingly important in antibioterrorism measures (e.g., anthrax detection). In this review, we discuss recent progress in the use of biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells for sensitive and earlier identification of bacteria without the need for sample processing. There is a particular focus on electrochemical biosensors, especially impedance-based systems, as these present key advantages in terms of ease of miniaturization, lack of reagents, sensitivity, and low cost. PMID:24982325

  4. Recent Progress in Optical Biosensors Based on Smartphone Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxin Geng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With a rapid improvement of smartphone hardware and software, especially complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS cameras, many optical biosensors based on smartphone platforms have been presented, which have pushed the development of the point-of-care testing (POCT. Imaging-based and spectrometry-based detection techniques have been widely explored via different approaches. Combined with the smartphone, imaging-based and spectrometry-based methods are currently used to investigate a wide range of molecular properties in chemical and biological science for biosensing and diagnostics. Imaging techniques based on smartphone-based microscopes are utilized to capture microscale analysts, while spectrometry-based techniques are used to probe reactions or changes of molecules. Here, we critically review the most recent progress in imaging-based and spectrometry-based smartphone-integrated platforms that have been developed for chemical experiments and biological diagnosis. We focus on the analytical performance and the complexity for implementation of the platforms.

  5. Conducting polymer based DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus group species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Biosensor designs are emerging at a significant rate and play an increasingly important role in foodborne pathogen detection. Conducting polymers are excellent tools for the fabrication of biosensors and polypyrrole has been used in the detection of biomolecules due to its unique properties. The prime intention of this paper was to pioneer the design and fabrication of a single-strand (ss) DNA biosensor for the detection of the Bacillus cereus (B.cereus) group species. Growth of B. cereus, results in production of several highly active toxins. Therefore, consumption of food containing >106 bacteria/gm may results in emetic and diarrhoeal syndromes. The most common source of this bacterium is found in liquid food products, milk powder, mixed food products and is of particular concern in the baby formula industry. The electrochemical deposition technique, such as cyclic voltammetry, was used to develop and test a model DNA-based biosensor on a gold electrode electropolymerized with polypyrrole. The electrically conducting polymer, polypyrrole is used as a platform for immobilizing DNA (1μg) on the gold electrode surface, since it can be more easily deposited from neutral pH aqueous solutions of pyrrolemonomers. The average current peak during the electrodeposition event is 288μA. There is a clear change in the current after hybridization of the complementary oligonucleotide (6.35μA) and for the noncomplementary oligonucleotide (5.77μA). The drop in current after each event was clearly noticeable and it proved to be effective.

  6. A plastic total internal reflection-based photoluminescence device for enzymatic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Ishan G.

    Growing concerns for quality of water, food and beverages in developing and developed countries drive sizeable markets for mass-producible, low cost devices that can measure the concentration of contaminant chemicals in water, food, and beverages rapidly and accurately. Several fiber-optic enzymatic biosensors have been reported for these applications, but they exhibit very strong presence of scattered excitation light in the signal for sensing, requiring expensive thin-film filters, and their non-planar structure makes them challenging to mass-produce. Several other planar optical waveguide-based biosensors prove to be relatively costly and more fragile due to constituent materials and the techniques involved in their fabrication. So, a plastic total internal reflection (TIR)-based low cost, low scatter, field-portable device for enzymatic biosensors is fabricated and demonstrated. The design concept of the TIR-based photoluminescent enzymatic biosensor device is explained. An analysis of economical materials with appropriate optical and chemical properties is presented. PMMA and PDMS are found to be appropriate due to their high chemical resistance, low cost, high optical transmittance and low auto-fluorescence. The techniques and procedures used for device fabrication are discussed. The device incorporated a PMMA-based optical waveguide core and PDMS-based fluid cell with simple multi-mode fiber-optics using cost-effective fabrication techniques like molding and surface modification. Several techniques of robustly depositing photoluminescent dyes on PMMA core surface are discussed. A pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, fluoresceinamine, and an O2-sensitive phosphorescent dye, Ru(dpp) both are successfully deposited using Si-adhesive gel-based as well as HydroThane-based deposition methods. Two different types of pH-sensors using two different techniques of depositing fluoresceinamine are demonstrated. Also, the effect of concentration of fluoresceinamine-dye molecules

  7. Biosensors and preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A low-temp. prepn. method for a biosensor device with a layer of reagent on the sensor surface is disclosed. During manufg. biol. interaction between the biosensor substrate and the reagent layer material is reduced, e.g. by cooling the biosensor substrate and depositing the reagent layer on the

  8. Highly stable porous silicon-carbon composites as label-free optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Chun Kwan; Kelly, Timothy L; Sailor, Michael J; Li, Yang Yang

    2012-12-21

    A stable, label-free optical biosensor based on a porous silicon-carbon (pSi-C) composite is demonstrated. The material is prepared by electrochemical anodization of crystalline Si in an HF-containing electrolyte to generate a porous Si template, followed by infiltration of poly(furfuryl) alcohol (PFA) and subsequent carbonization to generate the pSi-C composite as an optically smooth thin film. The pSi-C sensor is significantly more stable toward aqueous buffer solutions (pH 7.4 or 12) compared to thermally oxidized (in air, 800 °C), hydrosilylated (with undecylenic acid), or hydrocarbonized (with acetylene, 700 °C) porous Si samples prepared and tested under similar conditions. Aqueous stability of the pSi-C sensor is comparable to related optical biosensors based on porous TiO(2) or porous Al(2)O(3). Label-free optical interferometric biosensing with the pSi-C composite is demonstrated by detection of rabbit IgG on a protein-A-modified chip and confirmed with control experiments using chicken IgG (which shows no affinity for protein A). The pSi-C sensor binds significantly more of the protein A capture probe than porous TiO(2) or porous Al(2)O(3), and the sensitivity of the protein-A-modified pSi-C sensor to rabbit IgG is found to be ~2× greater than label-free optical biosensors constructed from these other two materials.

  9. Recent Progress in Electrochemical Biosensors for Glycoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uichi Akiba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of recent progress in the development of electrochemical biosensors for glycoproteins. Electrochemical glycoprotein sensors are constructed by combining metal and carbon electrodes with glycoprotein-selective binding elements including antibodies, lectin, phenylboronic acid and molecularly imprinted polymers. A recent trend in the preparation of glycoprotein sensors is the successful use of nanomaterials such as graphene, carbon nanotube, and metal nanoparticles. These nanomaterials are extremely useful for improving the sensitivity of glycoprotein sensors. This review focuses mainly on the protocols for the preparation of glycoprotein sensors and the materials used. Recent improvements in glycoprotein sensors are discussed by grouping the sensors into several categories based on the materials used as recognition elements.

  10. Novel trends in affinity biosensors: current challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arugula, Mary A; Simonian, Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection, extreme selectivity, strong biological base, calibration, in vivo measurements, regeneration, satisfactory performance and ease of production. Nevertheless, recent efforts through this line have produced novel high-tech nanosensing systems such as ‘aptamers’ and ‘phages’ which exhibit high-throughput sensing. Aptamers and phages are powerful tools that excel over antibodies in sensibility, stability, multi-detection, in vivo measurements and regeneration. Phages are superior in stability, screening for affinity-based target molecules ranging from small to proteins and even cells, and easy production. In this review, we focus mainly on recent developments in affinity-based biosensors such as immunosensors, DNA sensors, emphasizing aptasensors and phage-based biosensors basing on novel electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive detection techniques. We also address enzyme inhibition-based biosensors and the current problems associated with the above sensors and their future perspectives. (topical review)

  11. A glucose-responsive pH-switchable bioelectrocatalytic sensor based on phenylboronic acid-diol specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peiyi; Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Lele; Ma, Tengfei; Yang, Ling; Guo, Qianqiong; Huang, Shasheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A pH-switchable bioelectrocatayltic sensor was developed, which exhibited an obvious anodic current in acidic conditions as “ON” state, yet a prohibited signal in alkaline conditions as “OFF” state. With the change of pH and/or the presence of glucose, our proposed biosensor produced the corresponding amplified signal, providing a better sensitivity. - Abstract: Aminophenylboronic acid moieties were covalently grafted onto mercaptobenzoic acid moieties, and glucose oxidase was then immobilized through boronic acid-diol specific recognition to form a pH-sensitive electrosensor switching between pH 5.8 and pH 8.0 base solution. Using potassium ferricyanide as electroactive probe, the response was intensified in acidic condition while hindered in alkaline condition. The sharp and stable contrast in current was performed alternately upon the change of pH like a “pH switch”. In the presence of glucose, the response to glucose was further amplified catalytically by glucose oxidase on “ON” state, while electron transfer was inhibited on “OFF” state. Furthermore, when our sensor was on “ON” state, it showed a good linearity ranging from 0 to 30 μmol L −1 of glucose, with a detection limit of 348 nmol L −1 (S/B = 3) and a dynamic range extending to 50 μmol L −1 . Glucose-responsive, pH-switchable and catalytically-amplified, our biosensor provided a new method for the detection of glucose in the form of pH switch in human serum sample, and was promising to more complicated environment

  12. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C; Leduc, A; Barbeau, J; Saoudi, B; Yahia, L'H; Crescenzo, G De

    2006-01-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty

  13. Validation of cold plasma treatment for protein inactivation: a surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Leduc, A.; Barbeau, J.; Saoudi, B.; Yahia, L'H.; DeCrescenzo, G.

    2006-08-01

    Gas plasma is being proposed as an interesting and promising tool to achieve sterilization. The efficacy of gas plasma to destroy bacterial spores (the most resistant living microorganisms) has been demonstrated and documented over the last ten years. In addition to causing damage to deoxyribonucleic acid by UV radiation emitted by excited species originating from the plasma, gas plasma has been shown to promote erosion of the microorganism in addition to possible oxidation reactions within the microorganism. In this work, we used lysozyme as a protein model to assess the effect of gas plasma on protein inactivation. Lysozyme samples have been subjected to the flowing afterglow of a gas discharge achieved in a nitrogen-oxygen mixture. The efficiency of this plasma treatment on lysozyme has been tested by two different assays. These are an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor assay. The two methods showed that exposure to gas plasma can abrogate lysozyme interactions with lysozyme-specific antibodies, more likely by destroying the epitopes responsible for the interaction. More specifically, two SPR-based assays were developed since our ELISA approach did not allow us to discriminate between background and low, but still intact, quantities of lysozyme epitope after plasma treatment. Our SPR results clearly demonstrated that significant protein destruction or desorption was achieved when amounts of lysozyme less than 12.5 ng had been deposited in polystyrene 96-well ELISA plates. At higher lysozyme amounts, traces of available lysozyme epitopes were detected by SPR through indirect measurements. Finally, we demonstrated that a direct SPR approach in which biosensor-immobilized lysozyme activity is directly measured prior and after plasma treatment is more sensitive, and thus, more appropriate to define plasma treatment efficacy with more certainty.

  14. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  15. A portable bioluminescence engineered cell-based biosensor for on-site applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; Branchini, Bruce R

    2011-04-15

    We have developed a portable biosensing device based on genetically engineered bioluminescent (BL) cells. Cells were immobilized on a 4 × 3 multiwell cartridge using a new biocompatible matrix that preserved their vitality. Using a fiber optic taper, the cartridge was placed in direct contact with a cooled CCD sensor to image and quantify the BL signals. Yeast and bacterial cells were engineered to express recognition elements, whose interaction with the analyte led to luciferase expression, via reporter gene technology. Three different biosensors were developed. The first detects androgenic compounds using yeast cells carrying a green-emitting P. pyralis luciferase regulated by the human androgen receptor and a red mutant of the same species as internal vitality control. The second biosensor detects two classes of compounds (androgens and estrogens) using yeast strains engineered to express green-or red-emitting mutant firefly luciferases in response to androgens or estrogens, respectively. The third biosensor detects lactose analogue isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside using two E. coli strains. One strain exploits the lac operon as recognition element for the expression of P. pyralis luciferase. The other strain serves as a vitality control expressing Gaussia princeps luciferase, which requires a different luciferin substrate. The immobilized cells were stable for up to 1 month. The analytes could be detected at nanomolar levels with good precision and accuracy when the specific signal was corrected using the internal vitality control. This portable device can be used for on-site multiplexed bioassays for different compound classes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A DNA biosensor based on gold nanoparticle decorated on carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for gender determination of Arowana fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedfar, Kasra; Heng, Lee Yook; Chiang, Chew Poh

    2017-12-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified to design a new DNA biosensor. Functionalized MWCNTs were equipped with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) (~15nm) (GNP-MWCNTCOOH) to construct DNA biosensors based on carbon-paste screen-printed (SPE) electrodes. GNP attachment onto functionalized MWCNTs was carried out by microwave irradiation and was confirmed by spectroscopic studies and surface analysis. DNA biosensors based on differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were constructed by immobilizing thiolated single-stranded DNA probes onto GNP-MWCNTCOOH. Ruthenium (III) chloride hexaammoniate [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ,2Cl - ] (RuHex) was used as hybridization redox indicator. RuHex and MWCNT interaction was low in compared to other organic redox hybridization indicators. The linear response range for DNA determination was 1×10 -21 to 1×10 -9 M with a lower detection limit of 1.55×10 -21 M. Thus, the attachment of GNPs onto functionalized MWCNTs yielded sensitive DNA biosensor with low detection limit and stability more than 30days. Constructed electrode was used to determine gender of arowana fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Screen-printed electrode modified with carbon black and chitosan: a novel platform for acetylcholinesterase biosensor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarico, Daria; Arduini, Fabiana; Amine, Aziz; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    We report a screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with a dispersion of carbon black (CB) and chitosan by drop casting. A cyclic voltammetry technique towards ferricyanide, caffeic