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Sample records for achillea lewisii

  1. Testing the utility of fluorescent proteins in Mimulus lewisii by an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Baoqing; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-04-01

    The Agrobacterium -mediated transient expression assay by leaf infiltration in Mimulus lewisii is robust. Fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed give bright fluorescence signals in the infiltrated tissue. Mimulus lewisii is an emerging developmental genetic model system. Recently developed genomic and genetic resources and a stable transformation protocol have greatly facilitated the identification and functional characterization of genes controlling the development of ecologically important floral traits using this species. To further expedite gene and protein function analyses in M. lewisii, we adopted and simplified the Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression method routinely used in tobacco plants. With the validated transient assay, we examined the performance of fluorescent proteins EGFP, EYFP and DsRed in M. lewisii. All three proteins gave bright fluorescence signals when transiently expressed in agroinfiltrated leaves. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of fluorescent proteins in M. lewisii by showing the nuclear localization of Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), a recently discovered R2R3-MYB transcription factor that regulates carotenoid pigmentation during flower development. Both the transient assay and the fluorescent proteins are valuable additions to the M. lewisii toolbox, making this emerging genetic and developmental model system even more powerful.

  2. Achillea filipendulina Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Из этанольного экстракта надземных частей Achillea filipendulina Lam., собранных в период массового цветения, методом колоночной хроматографии выделено кристаллическое вещество (I) состава C30H50O2 с температурой плавления 210-212 °С (из водного этанола). При омылении вещество образует соединение (II) состава C28H48O с температурой плавления 179-180 °С (из водного этанола). На основании химических и спектральных (ИК-1, 1Н, 13С, Dept. 135 ЯМР спектров) данных I и II установлено строение исслед...

  3. An R2R3-MYB transcription factor regulates carotenoid pigmentation in Mimulus lewisii flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Janelle M; Stanley, Lauren E; LaFountain, Amy M; Frank, Harry A; Liu, Chang; Yuan, Yao-Wu

    2016-02-01

    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that contribute to the beautiful colors and nutritive value of many flowers and fruits. The structural genes in the highly conserved carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been well characterized in multiple plant systems, but little is known about the transcription factors that control the expression of these structural genes. By analyzing a chemically induced mutant of Mimulus lewisii through bulk segregant analysis and transgenic experiments, we have identified an R2R3-MYB, Reduced Carotenoid Pigmentation 1 (RCP1), as the first transcription factor that positively regulates carotenoid biosynthesis during flower development. Loss-of-function mutations in RCP1 lead to down-regulation of all carotenoid biosynthetic genes and reduced carotenoid content in M. lewisii flowers, a phenotype recapitulated by RNA interference in the wild-type background. Overexpression of this gene in the rcp1 mutant background restores carotenoid production and, unexpectedly, results in simultaneous decrease of anthocyanin production in some transgenic lines by down-regulating the expression of an activator of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Identification of transcriptional regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis provides the 'toolbox' genes for understanding the molecular basis of flower color diversification in nature and for potential enhancement of carotenoid production in crop plants via genetic engineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. N-alkylamide profiling of Achillea ptarmica and Achillea millefolium extracts by liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lieselotte Veryser; Lien Taevernier; Evelien Wynendaele; Yannick Verheust; Ann Dumoulin; Bart De Spiegeleer

    2017-01-01

    Achillea millefolium and Achillea ptarmica are both plants belonging to the Asteracea family and are traditionally used for their medicinal properties. It has already been shown that some N-alkylamides (NAAs) are responsible for these pharmacological actions. Therefore, in the present study, the NAA content of the two plants was analytically characterised. Different extracts were prepared from the roots, the leaves, the stems and the flowers. The structures of NAAs have been assigned in ethanolic extracts of Achillea millefolium and Achillea ptarmica using high performance liquid chromatography – electrospray ionisation – mass spectro-metry (HPLC–ESI–MS) and gas chromatography–electron impact–mass spectrometry (GC–EI–MS). Using both analytical techniques, the structures of 14 and 15 NAAs have been assigned in Achillea ptarmica and Achillea millefolium, respectively. Structures of two new NAAs, previously never observed in Achillea ptarmica, were assigned: deca-2E,6Z,8E-trienoic acid 2-methylbutylamide (homospilanthol) or a related isomeric compound and deca-2E,4E-dienoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide. The structure of homospilanthol or a related isomeric compound was also assigned in Achillea millefolium for the first time.

  5. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and DNA protective properties of Achillea eriophora DC. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. extracts: A comparative study

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    Maryam Varasteh-kojourian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Achillea is a traditional medicinal herb which contains different phenol and flavonoid compounds that are responsible for Achillea pharmacological effects. We aimed to determine phenol and flavonoid contents, besides antioxidant activities of different extracts from Achillea eriophoraa (A. eriophora DC. and Achillea biebersteinii (A. biebersteinii Afan. (endemic species in Iran and to investigate their effects on human cells.Materials and Methods: Achillea extracts, were prepared by maceration and shaking methods, from different parts (aerial parts, stem, leaves and inflorescence of two species using methanol and ethanol as solvents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were measured by spectrophotometry, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by DPPH radical scavenging, BCB and TBARS assays. Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the extracts were investigated in Human Foreskin Fibroblast (HFF3 cells using MTT, comet and H2O2 assays.Results: Methanol extracts of A. biebersteinii prepared from leaves and inflorescence by maceration method exhibited maximum phenol (1657.58 ± 36.45 mg GAE/100 g DW and flavonoid (264.00 ± 62.16 mg QUE/100 g DW contents. Leaf methanol extract showed significantly higher antioxidant activity (0.0276 ± 0.003, 0.16 ± 0.016 and 13.96 ± 0.26 mg/ml for DPPH, BCB and TBARS IC50s, respectively than those of the other extracts. Leaf extract of A. biebersteinii was not cytotoxic even at the highest examined dose (512 µg/ml and inhibited cell toxicity induced by H2O2 (98% viability for the cells pretreated with plant extract in the presence of H2O2. Comet assay also confirmed high DNA protective activity of leaf extracts.Conclusion: Achillea extracts possess remarkable antioxidant activity, and could be good natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  6. Effect of temperature and salinity on germination of Achillea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achillea fragrantissima and Moringa peregrina are dominant plants in the mountainous desert of Saudi Arabia. The two species suffer from intensive anthropogenic pressures as they have important medicinal uses. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and salinity on germination of A. fragrantissima and M.

  7. Growth promotion and elicitor activity of salicylic acid in Achillea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... in the literature on the exogenous application of SA in. Achillea milefolium so far. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of SA in. A. millefolium in order to promote growth and simultaneously increase the synthesis of secondary compounds in this medicinal species.

  8. Achillea millefolium Aqueous Extract does not Impair Recognition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on recognition memory in mice. Methods: Male mice (35) were used. The aqueous extract of A. millefolium was prepared using a Soxhlet apparatus and injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 50, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg daily for 20 days.

  9. Number of nucleoli in diploids and polyploids of the genus Achillea L.

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    Janina Dąbrowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleoli were counted in 9228 interphase nuclei of the apical root meristem of 40 Achillea L. taxa (di-, tetra-. hexa- and octoploids. It was established that the distribution of nucleoli number in an interphase nucleus can be used as a rough practical indicator to distinguish between diploids and polyploids. The highest number of nucleoli (12 was found in an octoploid Achillea pannonica, but only in a small percentage of the nuclei (0.3% out of 283 nuclei.

  10. The Allelopathic Effects of Sinapis alba L., Achillea millefolium L.,

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    R Jafarpoor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years application of allelopathic effects in weeds managment have attracted the attention of many researchers. To study the effects of water extracts and various amount of plants powder of Sinapis, achillea, salvia, artemisia and wanut leaf on seed germination and seedling growth of bean, two separate factorial experiments were carried out in completely randomized design, with 3 and 5 replications, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions in the Agricultural Research Center Western Azerbayjan. In the first experiment, five concentrations of weeds water extracts including 0 (control, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 percents was applied on bean seeds. With increasing in concentration of Sinapis, Achillea and Salvia germination percentage of bean was decreased but Artemisia and Salvia hadn’t any effects on the germination. The most preventing effect on radicle and plumule lengths of bean were observed respectively in 90.5 and 83.2 percents with 10% Sinapis concentration. In second experiment soil of the pots was extended with plants powder in rates of 0, 0.33, 0.67, 1 and 1.33 percent. Decrease in plant height and leaf area were in Salvia, with 35.6% and 57.1%, respectively. Salvia concentration of 40 gr in soil, decreased total dry matter with 54% control, but Walnut leaf with amounts of 10, 20, 30 gr in soil increased than total dry matter. Existence of more than 30 gr Salvia and 40 gr Artemisia in the soil decreased 33.7% root dry weight compared to control. 40gr Salvia in soil decreased the dry weight of the seed from 452.6mg (control to 257.6mg.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of Achillea aucheri essential oil

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    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The majority of the Achillea spp. are used as medicinal plants with therapeutic applications worldwide. Achillea aucheri was selected in our study to assess its essential oil chemical composition along with antimicrobial evaluation. Methods: The essential oil of A. aucheri achieved through hydrodistillation, was analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Afterwards, the microbial growth inhibitory property of the A. aucheri essential oil was determined using the agar disk-diffusion method against five Gram-positive strains (Staphylococus aureus, Staphylococus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, three Gram-negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Psedumonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and a fungus (Candida albicans. Besides, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the sensitive strains were determined by broth dilution method to evaluate the inhibitory properties.Results: The GC-MS analysis, allowed us to identify 28 compounds, representing 98.1% of the total essential oil. The main components of the oil were identified as α-thujone (45.6%, artemisia alcohol (26.5% and yomogi alcohol (8.8%. The findings of the antimicrobial assay indicated that S. aureus was the most sensitive strain with the strongest inhibition zone of 31.5 ± 0.5 and MIC of 2.5 % v/v, followed by S. epidermidis and M. luteus, respectively.Conclusion: Overall, A. aucheri essential oil possessed potential antibacterial and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to the high content of oxygenated monoterpenes present in the oil which requisite for further exploration of the compounds in charge, considering the growing statistics of bacterial resistance worldwide.

  12. Acute toxicity and antispasmodic activities of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch.

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    Ali, Niaz; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Ahmed, Ghayour; Shah, Ismail; Shoaib, Mohammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ali, Waqar

    2014-03-01

    Since Achillea wilhelmsii is used as antispasmodic in traditional medicine, we conducted our current work to investigate its rationale on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity studies of crude methanol extract of Achillea wilhelmsii (Aw. CMeOH) is also performed. Effect of Aw. CMeOH and its fractions were tested on isolated sections of rabbits' jejunum at test concentrations 0.01, 0.03, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10mg/ml. The test extracts, in similar concentrations, were also tested on KCl-induced contractions. Calcium chloride curves were constructed for those fractions which relaxed KCl induced contractions in the absence and presence of the test samples to investigate its possible mode of action through calcium channels. Aw. CMeOH tested positive for flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, sterols, phenols, carbohydrates and proteins. LD(50) for acute toxicity studies is 2707±12.6 mg/kg. Mean EC(50) values for Aw. CMeOH on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions are 3.41±0.18 (2.56-3.8, n=6) and 0.68±0.05 (0.6-0.85, n=6) mg/ml, respectively. Respective EC(50) values for n-hexane fraction on spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions are 3.06±0.08 (2.8-3.3, n=6) and 1.68±0.8 (1.4-1.9, n=6) mg/ml, respectively. Corresponding EC(50) (mg/ml) values for chloroformic, ethylacetate and aqueous fractions of Achillea wilhelmsii on spontaneous rabbits' jejunum preparations are 4.8±0.2 (4.41-5.63, n=6), 5.07±0.15 (4.7-5.58, n=6) and 5.2±0.13 (4.91-5.64, n=4), respectively. Constructing calcium chloride curves, in the presence of 0.1 mg/ml of Aw. CMeOH, mean EC(50) value (log molar [Ca(++)]) is-1.98±0.03 (-1.89-2.05, n=6) vs. control EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)])-2.41±0.02 (-2.32-2.44, n=6). Mean EC(50) value (log molar [Ca(++)]) for 0.3 mg/ml n-hexane fraction is-1.76±0.05 (-1.70 -1.93, n=6) vs. control EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)]) value-2.18±0.07 (-2.0-2.46, n=6). While in the presence of chloroformic fraction (3 mg/ml), mean EC(50) (log molar [Ca(++)]) value

  13. Pharmacologic and toxicologic properties of lyophilic extract Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit.

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    G. P. Smoylovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infusions based on Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. are traditionally used as antiinflammatory, hepatic, appetizing, spasmolytic agents, they are used as well in hemorrhages of different etiology, thrombophlebitis and varicose ulcers. Diverse pharmacologic properties are due to the presence of essential oils, proazulene, sesquiterpenic lactones, hydroxycinnamomic acids, flavonoids, vitamin K1 in medicinal raw materials. In using infusion phylloquinone, ascorbinic acid, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamomic acids, Calcium salts, tannins, achileine contribute to regulation of blood coagulation. It is very timely to assess hemostatic activity for lyophilic plant extracts which are perfectly soluble in water and have high biologic availability. The aim of research is to assess the degree of acute toxicity and hemostatic activity for lyophilic extract of herb Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. Materials and methods. Lyophilic extracts based on infusion of herb Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. obtained by dry sublimation have been used for the research. Lyophilic extracts obtained have been standardized for available vitamin K1 and have been studied for acute toxicity and hemostatic activity. Studying blood coagulation system has been carried out in animals with experimental toxic hepatitis for the following indices: blood coagulation time, prothrombin time, fibrin concentration in the blood. Results. Lyophilic extract based on Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. is friable amorphous light yellow mass with bitter taste, containing phylloquinone in concentration 5.79 ± 0.05 %. When studying acute toxicity median lethal dose for lyophilic extracts of Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. was above 2000 mg/ml (practically nontoxic ones. Course therapy of extract Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. and solution of “Vikasol” for animals with toxic hepatitis led to decreasing hypocoagulation: decreasing prothrombin time and clotting time, increasing fibrin concentration in

  14. Comparative Study of Three Achillea Essential Oils from Eastern Part of Turkey and their Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents found in Achillea oil were as follows: A. filipendulina Lam.: 43.8% santolina alcohol, 14.5% 1,8-cineole and 12.5% cis-chrysanthenyl acet...

  15. Bio-effectiveness of the main flavonoids of Achillea millefolium in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders- a review

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    Fatemeh Ayoobi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Achillea millefolium L. (Yarrow is a common herb which is widely being used, worldwide. Achillea is being used for treatment of many disorders since centuries. It is considered safe for supplemental use and flavonoids such as kaempferol, luteolin and apigenin are of main constituents present in Achillea. Most of both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this herb have been attributed to its flavonoid content. Oxidative and inflammatory processes play important roles in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Present review was aimed to review the latest literature evidences regarding application of Achillea and/or its three main flavonoid constituents on epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke.

  16. The Evaluation of the Sensory and Microbiological Properties of the Yogurt Supplemented with Achillea melifolium and Solanum muricatum

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen R. POP; Cătălina TOPAN; Ancuţa M. ROTAR; Liana SALANŢÃ; Mirela JIMBOREAN; Melinda NAGY

    2018-01-01

    This research explored the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of novel yogurt. The study aimed to develop a new type of yogurt through addition of microcapsules with Achillea melifolium infusion and jelly from the pepino fruit. The effect of yogurt supplementation with four different levels (0%,1%,3%,5%) of microcapsules with Achillea melifolium infusion (MI) and four levels (0%,3%,7%,11%) of pepino juice jelly (PJ) on sensory properties and the viability of lactic acid bacter...

  17. The bacteriostatic activity of essential oils for some specimen Millefolium Koch. genus Achillea L.

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    G. P. Smoilovskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacologic effect of herbal drugs is associated with the availability in its composition the complex of biologically active substances, particularly, the essential oils, which are capable to suppress the multiplication of many microorganisms, fungi, viruses. Aim. To determine the bacteriostatic activity of essential oils of Millefolium subvulgare and Millefolium setaceum have been studied physic – chemical characters, identification and quantitative content of constituents of the essential oils obtained has been carried out by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry. Methods and results. It has been identified in the composition of the essential oil from Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit 63 substances, 57 substances for Achillea submillefolium Klok. et Krytzka, azulene derivatives were predominant. The subsequent bacteriostatic studies for essential oils revealed their pronounced bacteriostatic activity for Staphylococcus aureus, mixt- flore1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli. Conclusion. The essential oil from Millefolium subvulgare demonstrated the more intensive activity associated with the predominance of azulene derivatives.

  18. Composition of the volatile oil of Achillea conferta DC. from Iran

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    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Top flowered aerial parts of Achillea conferta DC. (Compositae, which is found in the central and western regions of Iran were collected from Taleghan area and the volatile oil was isolateds by hydrodistillation. The oil (0.2 % V/W was analyzed by GC and GC/MS using DB-5 column. Forty-eight components, representing 91.4% of the oil were identified. The main components were camphor (22.1% and 1,8-cineole (10.0%. The percentage of oxygenated compounds was 79.0% of the total oil. The oil o was rich in monoterpenes with two typical major components of Achillea species, camphor (22.1% and 1, 8- cineole (10.0%.

  19. Hypoglycemic Effects of Achillea Wilhelmsii in Normal and Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

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    H Sadeghi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome, initially characterized by a loss of glucose homeostasis resulting from defects in Insulin secretion, insulin action both is resulting in impaired metabolism of glucose and other energy yielding fuels as lipids and protein. Several medicinal herbs have been described with hypoglycemic effects. These include: Allium Sativum, Trigonella Foenum, Marus nigra, Ocimum Sanctum, and Astragalus Ovinus. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats induced by stereptozotocine (STZ. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research, forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-diabetic (normal and STZ-induced diabetic mice. Each group was further divided into four groups: control (induced by normal saline and treatment received 100, 200.and 300 mg/kg aqueous- alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch daily for one month. The blood glucose level was measured and Data were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: At the end of first month, significant decrease was observed in blood glucose level in diabetic rats which received 100 mg/kg (p<0/001, 200mg/kg(p<0/01, 300mg/kg (p<0/001 of aqueous alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch in comparison with control groups. The extract had not have any significant effects on the blood glucose level of normal groups except in those which received 300mg/kg of the extract. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that aqueous- alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch have a significant effect on reducing the blood glucose level of diabetic rats.

  20. Antispasmodic Effects of Yarrow (Achillea Millefolium L.) Extract in the Isolated Ileum of Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically i...

  1. The Antioxidant Activities and Total Phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica

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    A Mirzaei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Consumption of plant derived antioxidant contributes to reducing risks of certain chronic and degenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to study the antioxidant activities and total phenolic of Artemisia Martima, Achillea Millefolium and Matricaria Recutica Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The Stem and flower sample of plants were air-dried, and then grinded and were finally extracted by ethanol: water (70: 30 for 48 h in room temperature. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum system. The antioxidant activity of three ethanol extract of the medicinal plants, Artemisia martima, Achillea millefolium and Matricaria recutica, were analyzed by five different methods (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2, 20azinobis- (3-ethylbenzthiazoline -6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation,Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power ( RP. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components, the total phenolic content was also analyzed. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: For all antioxidant activity assays, Artemisia martima had the highest antioxidant activity value and also total phenol content. Antioxidant capacity analyses revealed that the FRAP and DPPH had comparable results. Antioxidant activity at 1 mg/mL, in ABTS were in the order Artemisia martima> Achillea millefolium> Matricaria recutica. Similar trend was observed for PMB content. RP, FRAP and DPPH were in the order Artemisia martima> Matricaria recutica > Achillea millefolium . Conclusion: The extracts showed a variety of antioxidant activities in all antioxidant assay system. This study demonstrated that Artemisia martima crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  2. Cytotoxicity of Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium and Artemisia aucheri by Artemia

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    M Ghavamizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Nowadays, toxic compounds derived from plants used against microbes and cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity of Dorema aucheri, Achillea millefollium and Artemisia aucheri using brine shrimp, Artemia urmiana, lethality test. Methods: In this experimental study, the plants were collected from the Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, then identified by a botanist. Clean and air-dried aerial parts of plants were extracted with suitable solvents. Cytotoxicity evaluation was performed using larvae hatched cysts were purchased from Urmia. Live larvae were exposed to different concentrations of extract and the numbers of live and dead larvae were counted after 24 hours. Mean of LC 50 of any extracts from control and exposed live larvae were examined. The data were analyzed using the Finney’s Probit analysis. Results: Hydro ethanol and chloroform extracts of Achillea millefolium, Dorema aucheri and Artemisia aucheri exhibited potent brine shrimp lethality with LC50 67.8±0.53μg.ml-1, 76.50±0.60μg.ml-1, 92.70±6.05μg.ml-1 respectively. The degree of lethality was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of extracts. Conclusion: According to BSLT, LC50 of D. aucheri, A. millefolium and A. aucheri, they were considered as toxic. So these plants could be a source of new compounds with biological activity. Key words: Artemia urmiana, Dorema auchri, Achillea millefolium, Artemisia aucheri, Cytotoxicity

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus topical gel on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

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    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Semreen, Mohammad H; Naddaf, Ahmad R

    2006-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea and Ruscus extracts was studied in comparison with diclofenac sodium topical gel (diclosal Emulgel), using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in Albino rats. Gel formulation was prepared containing 6% of each extract in gel base, namely sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). The kinetics of drug release from the prepared formulation was studied separately in each case. Results showed that the release follows the Higuchi square root equation. The pharmacological screening revealed that the percent reduction of edema for Achillea extract and Ruscus extract were 48.1% and 18.8%, respectively, while diclosal Emulgel produced 47% reduction of edema.

  4. Comparative Study of Three Achillea Essential Oils from Eastern Part of Turkey and their Biological Activities

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    Betül Demirci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.The main constituents found in Achillea oil were as follows: A. filipendulina Lam.: 43.8% santolina alcohol, 14.5% 1,8-cineole and 12.5% cis-chrysanthenyl acetate; A. magnifica Hiemerl ex Hub.-Mor.: 27.5% linalool, 5.8% spathulenol, 5.5% terpinen-4-ol, 4.7% α-terpineol and 4.7% β-eudesmol; A. tenuifolia Lam.: 12.4% artemisia ketone, 9.9% p-cymene, 7.1% camphor, 5.9% terpinen-4-ol, 4.7% caryophyllene oxide and 4.5% α-pinene. Furthermore, the Achillea essential oils were evaluated for antimalarial and antimicrobial activities. A. magnifica and A. filipendulina oils showed strong antimalarial activity against both chloroquine sensitive D6 (IC 50= 1.2 and 0.68 m g/mL and chloroquine resistant W2 (IC 50= 1.1 and 0.9 m g/mL strains of Plasmodium falciparum without any cytotoxicity to mammalian cells up to IC 50=47.6 m g/mL against Vero cells. whereas A. tenuifolia oil showed no antimalarial activity up to a concentration of 20 mg/mL. All three Achillea oils showed no antibacterial activity against human pathogenic bacteria up to a concentration of 200 m g/mL. A. tenuifolia and A. magnifica oils demonstrated mild antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans (IC 50= 45, 20 and 15 m g/mL, respectively.

  5. Radioprotective Effect of Achillea millefolium L Against Genotoxicity Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Human Normal Lymphocytes

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    Somayeh Shahani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The radioprotective effect of Achillea millefolium L (ACM extract was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR in human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers and incubated with the methanolic extract of ACM at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 2 hours. At each dose point, the whole blood was exposed in vitro to 2.5 Gy of X-ray and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cell. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was determined using free radical-scavenging method. The treatment of lymphocytes with the extract showed a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei binucleated cells, as compared with similarly irradiated lymphocytes without any extract treatment. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei were observed at 200 μg/mL of ACM extract which completely protected genotoxicity induced by IR in human lymphocytes. Achillea millefolium extract exhibited concentration-dependent radical-scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. These data suggest that the methanolic extract of ACM may play an important role in the protection of normal tissues against genetic damage induced by IR.

  6. Investigation of the biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker using radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzarne Petri, G.; Shalaby El-Sayed, A.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis in Achillea millefolium ssp. collina Becker was studied using CH 3 - 14 COONa and 14 CH 3 - COONa precursors. It has been found that CH 3 - 14 COONa incorporates more slowly and in lower rate into the biosynthetic pathway of essential oil than 14 CH 3 - COONa. The incorporation of both demonstrates the oil forming ability of herb and flowers. The process is more emphasized in the flower out of the organs of the plants. Further on it was stated that the biosynthesis leads to bicyclic α-pinene and borneol through some aliphatic and cyclic monoterpenes, while eucalyptole (cineol) as an oxydation product appears in an early stage. Of sesquiterpenes the caryophyllene procedes the formation of camazulene. (author)

  7. Comparison of Microwave-Assisted and Hydrodistillation Methods for Extraction of Essential Oil from Achillea millefolium

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    S. Mollasalehi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD method has been compared with hydrodistillation (HD conventional technique for extraction of essential oil from Achillea millefolium. Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation were examined at three levels of microwave powers (300, 500, and 700 W. Obtained results show that MAHD offers important advantages over HD in terms of energy savings and extraction time (20 min against 2.5 h. Also, the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The amount of oxygenated compounds and monoterpene, such as 1,8 -Cineole, Lavandulyl acetate,Caryophylla-dien, Aromadendrene were increased in the microwave method. All these results suggest that MAHD represents an excellent alternative method for extraction of essential oils from plant materials.

  8. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss

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    Ali Niaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saponins isolated from plant sources have a number of traditional and industrial applications. Saponins have pharmacological effects like anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticonvulsant, anthelmintic, antitussive and cytotoxic activities. The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins. Methods Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity of crude saponins was determined by Meyer et al. (1982 at test concentrations of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 7.5 μg/ml, 5.0 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml. Percentage mortality of test concentrations was determined. Similarly, in vitro anthelmintic activity was determined against roundworms, tapeworms and earthworms. Albendazole and piperazine citrate at concentration 10 mg/ml were used as standard anthelmintic drugs. Results Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii (CSA and Teucrium stocksianum (CST had, respectively, cytotoxic activity with LC50 values 2.3 ± 0.16 and 5.23 ± 0. 34 μg/ml. For in vitro anthelmintic activity, time for paralysis and death of parasites (parasiticidal activity was noted. At concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii are 1.96 and 2.12 times more potent than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma and Raillietina spiralis, respectively. Similarly, at concentration 40 mg/ml, crude saponins of Teucrium stocksianum (CST has 1.89, 1.96 and 1.37 times more parasiticidal activity than albendazole against Pheretima posthuma, Raillietina spiralis and Ascardia galli, respectively. Conclusion Crude saponins of Achillea wilhelmsii and Teucrium stocksianum have cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity. The crude saponins may be excellent sources of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development.

  9. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  10. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  11. In vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of phenolic components of Algerian Achillea odorata leaves

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    Hanane Boutennoun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanol extract from Achillea odorata was evaluated for its phenolic contents using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, and antioxidant activity using: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing activity of H2O2 and ferric reducing power assay. The total phenolic content was determined as gallic acid (GAE equivalent. Flavonoids and flavonols contents were determined as quercetin (QE equivalents. The cytotoxicity of the plant extract was tested against three tumor cell lines: MCF-7, Hep2 and WEHI using 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphynyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Preliminary screening was concluded in the presence of substances with large therapeutic values. The total phenolic content confirmed the presence of total phenolics in the extract and showed strong association with antioxidant activity. An important content of flavonoids and flavonols was also detected. The results of the antioxidant activities obtained indicate that A. odorata recorded a good capacity. For the cytotoxic activity, the results showed the plant extract significantly inhibited tumor cell growth and colony formation at various concentrations.

  12. Antibacterial activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. extract against standard bacteria and isolated strains

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    Sahar Omidpanah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have been trying to develop new broad-spectrum antibiotics against the infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites for many decades. Prolonged usage of the antibiotics has led to the emergence of drug resistance among bacteria; therefore, there is a tremendous need for novel antimicrobial agents from different sources such as plants which are used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial effect of Achillea tenuifolia. The plant material was extracted by maceration method using methanol three times at room temperature. The extract was concentrated after removing the solvent by rotary evaporator and then lyophilized using freeze dryer. Inhibitory effect of the extract was examined against four standard bacteria strains and two isolated strains from diseased hen using disk diffusion method and microdilution method to evaluate their inhibition zone diameter (IZD and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, respectively. The results showed that the extract of the plant was active against standard strains including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with IZDs of 10.3±0.5, 14±0.0, 12±0.0 and 11.6±0.5, respectively. However, growths of isolated strains were not inhibited in the presence of the extract. Although, the growths of isolated strains were not inhibited by the plant extract, the standard strains were moderately susceptible to the extract; among those P. aeroginosa was more sensible than other tested strains

  13. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Achillea millefolium L.: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sofi Imtiyaz; Gopalakrishnan, B; Venkatesalu, V

    2017-08-01

    Achillea millefoilum L. (Yarrow) is an important species of Asteraceae family with common utilization in traditional medicine of several cultures from Europe to Asia for the treatment of spasmodic gastrointestinal disorders, hepatobiliary, gynecological disorders, against inflammation and for wound healing. An extensive review of literature was made on A. millefoilum L. using ethno botanical text books, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, unpublished materials and scientific databases. The Plant List, International Plant Name Index and Kew Botanical Garden databases were used to authenticate the scientific names. Monoterpenes are the most representative metabolites constituting 90% of the essential oils in relation to the sesquiterpenes, and a wide range of chemical compounds have also been reported. Different pharmacological experiments in many in-vitro and in-vivo models have proved the potential of A. millefoilum with antiinflammatory, antiulcer, anticancer activities etc. lending support to the rationale behind numerous of its traditional uses. Due to the noteworthy pharmacological activities, A. millefoilum will be a better option for new drug discovery. The present review will comprehensively summarize the pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and ethnopharmacology of A. millefoilum reported to date, with emphasis on more in vitro, clinical and pathological studies needed to investigate the unexploited potential of this plant. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chemical Composition and Repellent Activity of Achillea vermiculata and Satureja hortensis against Anopheles stephensi

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    Masoumeh Pirmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the best ways to control the malaria disease and to be protected human against Anopheles mos­quito biting is the use of repellents. Throughout repellents, herbal ones may be an appropriate and safe source for protection.Methods: Chemical constituents of Achillea vermiculata and Satoreja hortensis were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Efficacy and the protection time of these plants were assessed on Anopheles stephensi under the laboratory condition.Results: The mean assessed protection time and efficacy for A. vermiculata was 2.16 and 3.16 hours respectively and the obtained ED50 and ED90 for this plant was 5.67 and 63 µl/cm2 respectively. The figured for S. hortensis was 4.16 and 5 hours respectively.  ED50 and ED90 for this plant were 5.63 and 45.75µl/cm2 respectively.Conclusion: Results of investigation showed that S. hortensis plant has an acceptable protection time, therefore, this plant could be considered as a good herbal repellent against anopheles mosquitoes.

  15. The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanolic Extracts of Achillea wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Mehdi Rostami Rad

    2017-12-01

      In this study, the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum extracts, was investigated on 4 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the effect of each extract, was studied using agar dilution method.   Among these three extracts, the Allium sativum  extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Also, observations were indicative of difference in the susceptibility of the studied strains to different extracts, which showed different reactions to each of the extracts based on the origin and antibiotic resistance level.   According to the results of this study, extracts are a natural and valuable sources to produce antimicrobial drugs against pseudomonas strains and other resistant pathogenic bacteria.    

  16. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract in the isolated ileum of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Rafieian-Koupaei, Mahmoud; Imani-Rastabi, Reza; Nasiri, Jafar; Shahrani, Mehrdad; Rabiei, Zahra; Alibabaei, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Achillea millefolium L. is cultivated in Iran and widely used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. millefolium on the contraction and relaxation of isolated ileum in rat. In this experimental study, aerial parts of A. millefolium were extracted by maceration in ethanol 70% for 72 h. Terminal portion of ileum in 100 male Wistar rats was dissected and its contractions were recorded isotonically in an organ bath containing Tyrode solution (37 °C, pH 7.4) under one gram tension. Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.. The results showed that the ileum contraction was induced by KCl and acetylcholine induced contraction was significantly reduced by A. millefolium extract. The cumulative concentrations of A. millefolium relaxed the KCl and acetylcholine induced contractions (n=14, pacetylcholine was not significantly affected neither by propranolol (1µM) nor by L-NAME (100 µM). There was no significant difference in the rate of relaxation by propranolol and L-NAME between the two groups. In conclusion, A. millefolium can inhibit contraction of smooth muscle of ileum in rat, and it can be used for eliminating intestinal spasms. These results suggest that the relaxatory effect of A. millefolium on ileum contractions can be due to the blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels. In addition, the β-adrenoceptors, cholinergic receptors and nitric oxide production are not powerful actors in inhibitory effect of A. millefolium. So, the nitric oxide and adrenergic systems may also be involved in the antispasmodic effect of A. millefolium.

  17. Chemical Compositions of Achillea sivasica: Different Plant Part Volatiles, Enantiomers and Fatty Acids

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    Gülmira Özek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Microsteam distillation - Solid phase microextraction (MSD-SPME and hydrodistillation (HD techniques were applied to obtain volatiles from Achillea sivasica, an endemic species from Turkey. GC-FID and GC/MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole (22.1% and a -pinene (9.3% were the main constituents of the hydrodistilled flower volatiles. (Z- b -Farnesene (23.9%, decanoic acid (10.1%, b- eudesmol (8.0%, tricosane (7.3% and hexadecanoic acid (7.2% were the main volatiles obtained from flowers by MSD-SPME. The leaf volatiles obtained by HD contained camphor (9.0%, b -pinene (6.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, a -pinene (6.7% and a -bisabolol (6.6% as the main constituents while the leaf volatiles obtained by MSD-SPME technique were rich in (E-geranyl acetone (10.5%, (E- b -ionone (10.3%, camphor (10.2%, 1,8-cineole (9.6%, longiverbenone (7.9%, b -eudesmol (7.5%, isopropyl myristate (6.7% and epi- a -bisabolol (6.4%. The root volatiles were rich in longiverbenone (14.1%, (E-geranyl acetone (9.3%, nonanol (12.1% and decanol (12.5%. The enantiomeric distribution of the major volatile constituents was analyzed by using different b -cyclodextrin chiral columns. (1R-(+- a -Pinene, (1S-(-- b -pinene, (4R-(+-limonene, (1R,3S,5R-(--trans-pinocarveol, (1S,2R,4S-(--borneol, (2S-(-- a -bisabolol were detected as dominant enantiomers. The lipids extracted from the flower and leaf with Folch method and methylated with BF 3 reagent contained common acids: linolenic, linoleic, hexadecanoic acids. Oleic and stearic acids were detected particularly in high amount in the flower lipids

  18. The potential anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia in rats

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    Gamal A. Soliman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Currently available antiepileptic drugs have debilitating adverse effects. Natural products and plants already used in traditional medicine can be a good place to start in the search for safer and more effective options. Aims: To investigate the anticonvulsant potential of Achillea nobilis and Momordica charantia extracts in maximal electroshock (MES, as well as pentylenetetrazole (PTZ- and strychnine nitrate (STN- induced seizure models in rats. Methods: For each model, eight groups of 21-day-old male Albino rats were used. The 1st group was kept as control, 2nd as standard (diazepam, 7.5 mg/kg; 3rd – 5th treated with A. nobilis (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg; and 6th – 8th administered M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. After 30 min, rats were exposed to a shock of 150 mA by a convulsiometer, via ear electrodes for 2 s (in MES test or sc injection of PTZ (85 mg/kg or STN (2.5 mg/kg. Results: A. nobilis and M. charantia extracts (200 and 300 mg/kg demonstrated dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect against MES-induced seizures. In the PTZ induced convulsion, A. nobilis and M. charantia (200 and 300 mg/kg significantly slowed the commencement of convulsions and minimized the duration of seizures. A. nobilis (300 mg/kg showed 60% protection in rats against STN induced seizures. In contrast, A. nobilis (100 and 200 mg/kg and M. charantia (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg showed no significant protection against STN-induced seizures in rats. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that both extracts exhibited marked anticonvulsant activities.

  19. The Evaluation of the Sensory and Microbiological Properties of the Yogurt Supplemented with Achillea melifolium and Solanum muricatum

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    Carmen R. POP

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to develop a new type of yogurt through addition of microcapsules with Achillea melifolium infusion and jelly from the pepino fruit. The effect of yogurt supplementation with four different levels (0%,1%,3%,5% of microcapsules with Achillea melifolium infusion (MI and four levels (0%,3%,7%,11% of pepino juice jelly (PJ on sensory properties and the viability of lactic acid bacteria in yogurts during storage (21 days at 4°C was evaluated. The yogurt supplementation with 3% microcapsules and 7% jelly significantly improves the stability of the lactic acid bacteria, that contained the recommended levels of 108 cfu/g lactic acid bacteria at the end of 21-days shelf life. All the yogurt samples, however, contained the recommended levels of (106–107 cfu/g lactic acid bacteria at the end of 21-day shelf life.The yogurt with 3% microcapsules and 7% jelly was the most appreciated (6.78 points, followed by the classic yogurt (5.98 points. Total phenols content was 251 mg GAE/g for A. millefolium infusion and 117 mg GAE/g for pepino juice. The radical scavenging activity of A. millefolium infusion was 78% and for pepino extract 56.30%.

  20. Achillea mellifolium ethanolic extract Protective effects on ventral horn of the spinal cord alpha motoneurons degeneration after sciatic nerve compression in rats

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    Ali Shahraki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There are several reports regarding anti-inflammatory and tissue repair properties of the plant Achillea, but neuroprotective role of ethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium has not been studied after peripheral nerve injury. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess neuroprotective effects .of Achillea millefolium ethanolic extract on the spinal cord alpha motor neuons after sciatic nerve compression in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 30 male Wistar rats each weighing 200-250g were chosen and were randomly divided into 5 equal groups including control, compressed, and three compressed groups plus intraperitoneal injection of Achillea millefolium ethanolic extract with the concentration of 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg; once a week for three weeks. . Sciatic nerve compression in these four groups . was done using hematostatic forceps for 60 seconds. After 28 days, L4, L5,S1, and S3 of the spinal cord were sampled using perfusion method. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was done by means of one-way Anova  and Tukey post- hoc test using SPSS( version 19 at the significant level of P<0.05. Results: It was found that α-motor neurons density in the compression group (666.6±39.17 significantly decreased compared to the control group (1754±34.22 ;P <0.001. Neural density in the groups treated with ethanolic extract, i.e. 50 mg/kg .,75 mg/kg, .and.100 mg/kg was 1236±69.72.,.1444.3±39.17,.and 1546.3±57.39  respectively ;which showed a significant increase compared to the compression group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium had a neuroprotective effect after sciatic nerve compression. Presumably, this is due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds in the plant.

  1. Effect of Achillea millefolium-loaded nanophytosome in the post-thawing sperm quality and oxidative status of rooster semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Davood; Taheri, Ramezan Ali; Najafi, Abouzar; Rouhollahi, Abbas Abbas; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel

    2018-04-17

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of antioxidants including Achillea millefolium extract (AmE) (n0t1.5: 1.5, n0t3: 3 and n0t4.5: 4.5 mg/L) and AmE loaded in nano phytosome (n1t1.5: 1.5, n1t3: 3 and n1t4.5: 4.5 mg/L) in the freezing of Ross 308 rooster semen. Sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (HOS test), viability, total abnormality and enzymatic parameters (SOD, CAT and GPx) were assessed after thawing. AmE-loaded nano phytosome at a concentration of 3 mg/l resulted in significantly (P rooster sperm motility, viability and oxidative stress values during the freezing procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On the taxonomy and the nomenclature of Achillea ceretanica (Asteraceae, and its relationship with another microtaxon from the A. millefolium complex

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    I. Soriano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the species and a subsequent nomenclatural combination are proposed for Achillea ceretanica, a diploid taxon endemic of eastern Pyrenees included in the A. millefolium complex. Synonymisation of A. monticola Martrin-Donos with A. ceretanica is refuted, given that the first is a clearly distinct octoploid lineage of the complex. Some comments on distribution, ecology and frequency of both are added.

  3. Intercropping Between Achillea millefolium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. and its effects on essential oil yield, biomass and anti-microbial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arashiro, Munique Polito; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Ziroldo, Débora Fernanda; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Sartor, Claudenice Francisca Providelo; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Patroni, Sandra Sanches; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR; Oliveira, Pérsio Sandir D'; EMBRAPA; Cortez, Lúcia Elaine Elaine Ranieri; Centro Universitário de Maringá - CESUMAR

    2011-01-01

    The rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and the yarrow (Achillea millefolium) are medicinal aromatic herbs and produce essential oil. Current experiment evaluated the effect of intercropping between two species in biomass and essential oil yield and the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of rosemary. After the plants’ culture and harvest, the biomass and the essential oil yields of the dry leaves and flowers were obtained by steam water distillation. Data of biomass and essential oil y...

  4. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  6. Alternative control of early blight of tomato using plant extracts from Acacia nilotica, Achillea fragrantissima and Calotropis procera

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    Zakaria A.M. BAKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo antifungal potential of extracts of three wild medicinal plants, (Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk. Sch.Bip. and Calotropis procera (Aiton W. T. Aiton was examined against Alternaria solani, the causal agent of the early blight of tomato. Aqueous or ethanol extracts of all tested plants reduced the mycelial growth and conidium germination of A. solani in vitro. Ethanol extracts were more effective against the pathogen than the aqueous extracts. Extract of C. procera exhibited more antifungal potential against the pathogen than other plant extracts. Observations by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of A. solani when treated with the ethanol extract of C. procera at a concentration of 20%. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of many bioactive constituents in the extracts which were in greater amounts in C. procera than the other two plants. In a plot experiment, both types of extracts from C. procera reduced disease severity. Tomato fruit yield was increased after the treatment with the plant extracts.

  7. Achillea millefolium L. hydroethanolic extract inhibits growth of human tumor cell lines by interfering with cell cycle and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana M; Peixoto, Vanessa; Teixeira, Alexandra; Sousa, Diana; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Vasconcelos, M Helena

    2018-06-05

    The cell growth inhibitory activity of the hydroethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium was studied in human tumor cell lines (NCI-H460 and HCT-15) and its mechanism of action was investigated. The GI 50 concentration was determined with the sulforhodamine B assay and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry following incubation with PI or Annexin V FITC/PI, respectively. The expression levels of proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by Western blot. The extracts were characterized regarding their phenolic composition by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. 3,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, followed by 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, were the main phenolic acids, while, luteolin-O-acetylhexoside and apigenin-O-acetylhexoside were the main flavonoids. This extract decreased the growth of the tested cell lines, being more potent in HCT-15 and then in NCI-H460 cells. Two different concentrations of the extract (75 and 100 μg/mL) caused alterations in cell cycle profile and increased apoptosis levels in HCT-15 and NCI-H460 cells. Moreover, the extract caused an increase in p53 and p21 expression in NCI-H460 cells (which have wt p53), and reduced XIAP levels in HCT-15 cells (with mutant p53). This work enhances the importance of A. millefolium as source of bioactive phenolic compounds, particularly of XIAP inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiolabeling of methanol extracts of yarrow (Achillea millefolium l in rats Radiomarcação do extrato metanólico de yarrow (Achillea millefolium l em ratos

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    Betul Cekic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Current study is focused on extraction with methanol, purification, labeling with 131I using iodogen method of the yarrow plant and investigating in vivo biological activity using biodistribution and imaging studies on healthy animal models. The aim of the study is to contribute plant extracts to discover new drugs in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. METHODS: Nine female and nine male healthy Wistar albino rats, which were approximately 100-150 g in weight, were used for biodistribution studies. For imaging studies four healthy male Balb-C mice were used. Quality control studies were done utilizing thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods. For biodistribution studies, 131I radiolabeled Peak 7 (131I-Peak 7 was sterilized and injected into the tail veil of rats and imaging studies were obtained using Kodak FX PRO in vivo Imaging System. RESULTS: The radiolabeling yield of each purified the bioactive extracts of the yarrow plant, seven peaks was between 79 and 92%. The highest radiolabeling yield was calculated for 131I radiolabeled seventh peak (131I-Peak 7 (92.78±5.04, n=5. For this reason the biodistribution and imaging studies were done for 131I-Peak 7. That's why; these studies with Peak 7 were carried out. CONCLUSION: Peak 7 was radiolabeled with 131I in high yield for using imaging and therapeutic studies in nuclear medical applications.OBJETIVO: O atual estudo tem por objetivo a extração com metanol, purificação, marcação com I131 usando o método direto de marcação da planta Achillea, para investigar in vivo a atividade biológica usando biodistribuição e estudos de imagem em modelos animais saudáveis. O objetivo do estudo é contribuir com extratos de plantas para descobrir novas drogas para o diagnóstico e tratamento de várias doenças. MÉTODOS: Nove fêmeas e nove machos ratos Wistar albino saudáveis, com aproximadamente 100 a 150g de peso

  9. Nuclear and plastid haplotypes suggest rapid diploid and polyploid speciation in the N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium complex (Asteraceae

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    Guo Yan-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species complexes or aggregates consist of a set of closely related species often of different ploidy levels, whose relationships are difficult to reconstruct. The N Hemisphere Achillea millefolium aggregate exhibits complex morphological and genetic variation and a broad ecological amplitude. To understand its evolutionary history, we study sequence variation at two nuclear genes and three plastid loci across the natural distribution of this species complex and compare the patterns of such variations to the species tree inferred earlier from AFLP data. Results Among the diploid species of A. millefolium agg., gene trees of the two nuclear loci, ncpGS and SBP, and the combined plastid fragments are incongruent with each other and with the AFLP tree likely due to incomplete lineage sorting or secondary introgression. In spite of the large distributional range, no isolation by distance is found. Furthermore, there is evidence for intragenic recombination in the ncpGS gene. An analysis using a probabilistic model for population demographic history indicates large ancestral effective population sizes and short intervals between speciation events. Such a scenario explains the incongruence of the gene trees and species tree we observe. The relationships are particularly complex in the polyploid members of A. millefolium agg. Conclusions The present study indicates that the diploid members of A. millefolium agg. share a large part of their molecular genetic variation. The findings of little lineage sorting and lack of isolation by distance is likely due to short intervals between speciation events and close proximity of ancestral populations. While previous AFLP data provide species trees congruent with earlier morphological classification and phylogeographic considerations, the present sequence data are not suited to recover the relationships of diploid species in A. millefolium agg. For the polyploid taxa many hybrid links and

  10. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract and Its Anti-Angiogenic Properties in the Rat Aortic Ring Model

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    Javad Baharara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles display unique physical and biological properties which have attracted intensive research interest because of their important medical applications. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ab.Ag-NPs were synthesized for biomedical applications using a completely green biosynthetic method using Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract. The structure and properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, zeta potential and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (EDS. The UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed the absorbance peak at 460 nm, which indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The average particle diameter as determined by TEM was found to be 12 ± 2 nm. The zeta potential analysis indicated that Ab.Ag-NPs have good stability EDX analysis also exhibits presentation of silver element. As angiogenesis is an important phenomenon and as growth factors imbalance in this process causes the acceleration of several diseases including cancer, the anti-angiogenic properties of Ab.Ag-NPs were evaluated using the rat aortic ring model. The results showed that Ab.Ag-NPs (200 μg/mL lead to a 50% reduction in the length and number of vessel-like structures. The synthesized silver nanoparticles from the Achillea biebersteinii flowers extract, which do not involve any harmful chemicals were well-dispersed and stabilized through this green method and showed potential therapeutic benefits against angiogenesis.

  11. Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays

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    Teixeira Rosangela de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants by the general population is an old and still widespread practice, which makes studies of their genotoxicity essential. Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L. are examples of plants commonly used in popular medicine. P. guajava L. is indicated for diarrhea and also as an antiseptic, while A. millefolium L. is indicated as an analgesic, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, antiseptic, astringent, emollient, wound healer and hemorrhoid medication. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the infusions of these two plant species on chromosomes and the cell cycle. Leaves from the plants were used to prepare infusions, in the same manner as teas, but at two different concentrations. Allium cepa L. root-tip cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/mL, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/mL and Wistar rat bone marrow cells (P. guajava L. - 2.62 and 26.2 mg/100g body weight, and A. millefolium L. - 3.5 and 35.0 mg/100g body weight were used as in vivo plant and animal test systems, respectively. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (P. guajava L. - 0.262 and 2.62 mg/mL culture medium, and A. millefolium L. - 0.35 and 3.5 mg/mL culture medium were used as in vitro test system. The P. guajava L. infusion at the higher concentration caused a statistically significant inhibition of cellular division in the onion root-tip cells, not observed in onion root-tip cells treated with A. millefolium L. No statistically significant alterations were found, as compared to untreated controls, in either the cell cycle or the number of chromosome alterations, after treatments with either plant, in rat cells or in cultured human lymphocytes. These results regarding the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of these plants provide valuable information about the safety of using them as therapeutic agents.

  12. Determination of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Teucrium polium and Achillea millefolium grown under North Anatolian ecological conditions

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    Emre Sevindik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial effect of essential oils derived from Teucrium polium L. and Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium Afan. in in vitro conditions were investigated in the present study. The results from the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed that the obtained (Z-β-farnesene from T. polium was with the highest percentage (15.49%, whereas β-pinene from the same plant was with the lowest percentage (0.74%. The 1,8-cineole in A. millefolium subsp. millefolium was with the highest percentage (22.83%, whereas p-cymene in the same plant was with the lowest percentage (0.93%. In the antimicrobial studies, the essential oils’ effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, S. aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli Q157:H7 and Bacillus cereus CCM 99 were investigated using the agar well method. P. aeruginosa and MRSA showed the biggest inhibition zones (15 mm, whereas E. coli Q157:H7 showed the smallest inhibition zone (11 mm, each generated by using T. polium essential oils. MRSA showed the biggest inhibition zone (21 mm, whereas P. aeruginosa showed the smallest inhibition zone (10 mm, both obtained by using A. millefolium subsp. millefolium essential oils. Therefore, it was concluded that the essential oils obtained from the two plant species had an inhibition effect on resistant micro-organisms.

  13. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed M; Rafatullah, Syed; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed O; Khaled, Jamal M; Alatar, Abdulrahman; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kurkcuoglu, Mine; Baser, Husnu C

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays.

  14. The Chemical Composition of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch and Its Desirable Effects on Hyperglycemia, Inflammatory Mediators and Hypercholesterolemia as Risk Factors for Cardiometabolic Disease

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    Elian Khazneh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to identify the content compounds of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii and to evaluate its hypoglycemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic activity and effect on inflammatory mediators. The extracts and fractions of A. wilhelmsii were thoroughly analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the total content of phenols and flavonoids was determined. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in vivo using alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The effect upon inflammatory mediators was evaluated in vitro using the human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1. The anti-hypercholesterolemic activity was evaluated in vitro using the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase assay kit. The water extract (WE-treated group showed the highest reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL. The chloroform fraction (CF and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF both showed a significant ability to reduce the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α. The EAF, however, also attenuated the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. The CF showed the most significant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR inhibition activity. The five main compounds in the CF were isolated and identified. Out of the five compounds in the CF, 1β,10β-epoxydesacetoxymatricarin (CP1 and leucodin (CP2 showed the highest anti-hypercholesterolemic potential. A molecular docking study provided corresponding results.

  15. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia

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    Mansour S. Al-Said

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO (0.2 mL/kg in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH, and total protein (TP contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0% of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and p-cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays.

  16. A study of biodiversity using DSS method and seed storage protein comparison of populations in two species of Achillea L. in the west of Iran

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    Hajar Salehi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intarspecific and interspecific variations are the main reserves of biodiversity and both are important sources of speciation. On this basis, identifing and recognizing the intra and interspecific variations is important in order to recognition of biodiversity. This research was done to study biodiversity and electrophoresis comparison of seed storage proteins in the populations of the two species of the genus Achillea in Hamadan and Kurdistan provinces using of the method of determination of special station (DSS. For this purpose, 12 and 9 special stations were selected for the species A. tenuifolia and A. biebresteinii using the data published in the related flora. Seed storage proteins were extracted and then studied using electrophoresis techniques (SDS-PAGE. In survey of all special stations, 120 plant species were distinguished as associated species. The results of the floristic data for the both species determined six distinctive groups that indicated the existence of intraspecific diversity in this species. The result of analysis of ecological data and seed storage proteins for the two species was in accordance with the floristic data and showed six distinctive groups. The existence of the bands of no. 4, 5, 8, 12 and 13 in the special stations of A. tenuifolia and the bands of 14, 15 and 16 in the special stations of A. biebresteinii o separated the populations of the species in two quite different and distinctive groups.

  17. Germacrene A Synthase in Yarrow (Achillea millefolium Is an Enzyme with Mixed Substrate Specificity: Gene Cloning, Functional Characterization and Expression Analysis

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    Leila ePazouki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoid synthases constitute a highly diverse gene family producing a wide range of cyclic and acyclic molecules consisting of isoprene (C5 residues. Often a single terpene synthase produces a spectrum of molecules of given chain length, but some terpene synthases can use multiple substrates, producing products of different chain length. Only a few such enzymes has been characterized, but the capacity for multiple-substrate use can be more widespread than previously thought. Here we focused on germacrene A synthase (GAS that is a key cytosolic enzyme in the sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis pathway in the important medicinal plant Achillea millefolium (AmGAS. The full length encoding gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, functionally characterized, and its in vivo expression was analyzed. The recombinant protein catalyzed formation of germacrene A with the C15 substrate farnesyl diphosphate (FDP, while acyclic monoterpenes were formed with the C10 substrate geranyl diphosphate (GDP and cyclic monoterpenes with the C10 substrate neryl diphosphate (NDP. Although monoterpene synthesis has been assumed to be confined exclusively to plastids, AmGAS can potentially synthesize monoterpenes in cytosol when GDP or NDP become available. AmGAS enzyme had high homology with GAS sequences from other Asteraceae species, suggesting that multi-substrate use can be more widespread among germacrene A synthases than previously thought. Expression studies indicated that AmGAS was expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic plant compartments with the highest expression levels in leaves and flowers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cloning and characterization of germacrene A synthase coding gene in A. millefolium, and multi-substrate use of GAS enzymes.

  18. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Afarin; Toghiani, Ali; Shafiei, Katayoun; Afshar, Hamid; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Memari, Mahnaz; Adibi, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii , Zingiber officinale , and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms) divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms) with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men ( P = 0.01) although it was not significant in women. A mixture of B. Carterii , Z. officinale , and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  19. Evaluating the efficacy of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in irritable bowel syndrome patients

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    Afarin Kazemian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs that affects in different aspects of life and patients experienced depression and anxiety more than others. There are several herbal medicines with positive effects in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mixture of Boswellia carterii, Zingiber officinale, and Achillea Millefolium on severity of symptoms, anxiety, and depression in IBS patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was done in sixty IBS patients (with mild-to-moderate symptoms divided into two case and control groups. Patients were assessed at the beginning, 1 month, and 3 months after by IBS-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. IBS-SSS is used for quality of life evaluation too. Results: Sixty IBS patients (with mild to moderate symptoms with a mean age of 38.75 ± 11.74 participated that 55.4% of cases and 72.8% of controls were men. The most prevalent type of IBS was the mixed type of IBS. The mean score of abdominal pain severity and frequency, bloating score, and depression and anxiety score were decreased in patients administered herbal medication, but changes in these variables in controls were not statistically significant. The changes in quality of life score between cases and controls were significant in men (P = 0.01 although it was not significant in women. Conclusion: A mixture of B. Carterii, Z. officinale, and A. millefolium is effective in eliminating IBS symptoms and its related depression and anxiety and using herbal medicine in IBS treatment is suggested.

  20. Anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Achillea santolina and Stachys athorecalyx extracts on complete Freund's adjuvant–induced short- term inflammation in male wistar rats

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    Elaheh Tekieh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Immune system is involved in the etiology and path physiologic mechanisms of inflammation. Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce non-specific immune modulator effects. Given the above information and the role of IL-6 in inflammation and pain induction, this study investigated the effects of Achillea santolina and Stachys athorecalyx methanolic and defatted extracts on cmplete Freund's adjuvant (CFA -induced short term inflammation in male Wistar rats Materials and Methods: Inflammation was induced on day zero by CFA injection in hind paw of rats. Methanolic and defatted extractions were prepared form aerial parts of both plants. 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of extracts were selected for IP treatment during 6 days after CFA injection. Results: Results indicated dose related effects of A. santolina and S. athorecalyx extracts on edema, hyperalgesia and serum IL-6 level during inflammation. Although, both methanolic and defatted extracts of S. athorecalyx showed a significant reduction in the inflammatory symptoms, no significant differences was observed between these two kinds of extracts of S.athorecalyx with respect to their anti inflammatory effects. Only methanolic extract of A. santolina was effective during CFA-induced inflammation. Conclusion: These results could suggest that short-term administration of A. santolina and S. athorecalyx extracts possess potent anti-inflammatory effects and modulate paw edema, hyperalgesia and serum IL-6 level during CFA–induced inflammation. In addition, these dose-dependent effects may mediate via different extract supplements which need more investigations.

  1. Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract: Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells via Caspase Activation and Regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 Gene Expression

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    Javad Baharara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, the most popular nanoparticles, possess unique properties. Achillea biebersteinii is a plant of the Asteraceae family rich in active antitumor components. The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. The Ag-NPs were synthesized after approximately 180 min of reaction at 40 °C, then they were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. The transcriptional expression of bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. The DLS indicated that the average hydrodynamic diameter of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs was around 12 nm. By UV-visible spectroscopy the strongest absorbance peak was observed at 460 nm. The FTIR results also showed interaction between the plant extract and Ag-NPs due to the similarity in the peak patterns. The EDS results showed that Ag-NPs display an absorption peak at 3 keV, indicating the presence of the element silver. The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further investigation is required to establish the potential of this novel and promising approach in cancer therapy.

  2. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

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    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  3. Fitodefensivos em plantas medicinais: macromoléculas hidrofílicas de folhas de mil folhas (Achillea millefolium L. inibem o crescimento in vitro de bactérias fitopatogênicas Agrochemicals in medicinal plants: hydrophilic macromolecules from leaves of "mil folhas" (Achillea millefolium L. inhibit in vitro growth of phytopathogenic bacteria

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    N.G. Tessarollo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos da planta medicinal Achillea millefolium contêm macromoléculas de interesse para desenvolver fitodefensivos para a agricultura. Duas frações de mil folhas foram obtidas por ultrafiltração, E1 (contendo moléculas maiores que 30 kDa, e E3 (peptídeos entre 1 e 10 kDa que inibiram o crescimento das bactérias fitopatogênicas Ralstonia solanacearum, gram-negativa, e Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, gram-positiva, com dependência de concentração. Os valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM para ambos os extratos e bactérias foram baixos, entre 20 e 80µM. A CIM relativa à proteína total evidenciou a presença de macromoléculas muito ativas em E3, embora com baixa concentração proteica. E3 se aplica à prospecção de peptídeos antimicrobianos. Estimar a CIM relativa à quantidade de amostra vegetal valorizou o potencial antimicrobiano natural de E1, que contém alta concentração proteica. E1e E3 se aplicam ao desenvolvimento de fitodefensivos para uso biotecnológico. A ultrafiltração fracionou as amostras de forma nativa, rápida, e com baixo custo; além de dessalinizar, clarificar, purificar, e concentrar E1 e E3. Esse estudo inédito sobre a separômica e a ação antimicrobiana de extratos macromoleculares aquosos de mil folhas sugere que plantas cicatrizantes podem apresentar grande potencial para desenvolver fitodefensivos agrícolas naturais não danosos, à semelhança de medicamentos fitoterápicos.Aqueous extracts from the medicinal plant Achillea millefolium contain macromolecules of interest to develop agrochemicals for agriculture. Two fractions of "mil folhas" were obtained by ultrafiltration, E1 (containing molecules larger than 30 kDa and E3 (peptides between 1 and 10 kDa, which inhibited the growth of phytopathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum, gram-negative, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, gram-positive, concentration-dependent. The values of

  4. Antispasmodic effects of yarrow ( Achillea millefolium l .) extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetylcholine (1mM) and KCl (60mM) were used to create isotonic contractions. Propranolol and NƒÖ-Nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) were used to investigate the mechanisms of action prior to giving the extract to the relevant groups. Data were compared by ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc test.

  5. Growth promotion and elicitor activity of salicylic acid in Achillea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of SA on the metabolism of yarrow plants was evaluated through biometric parameters of growth and biochemical parameters. The SA at 0.50 mM resulted in linear increases in biomass accumulation of roots, total dry mass, ratio root/shoot and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a+b content in yarrow plants.

  6. In vitro antioxidant analysis of Achillea tenuifolia | Asgarirad | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folin Ciocalteu reagent in terms of gallic acid equivalent achieved the total phenol's content. AlCl3 was used as a reagent for flavonoid determination. Flavonoid content of the plant extracts obtained in terms of quercetin equivalent. DPPH radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined by UV spectroscopy. Also in ...

  7. Achillea millefolium Aqueous Extract does not Impair Recognition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide. (LPS)-activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. Therefore, they concluded that A. millefolium could be beneficial in preventing/ treating neurodegenerative diseases like. Alzheimer and Parkinson [3]. In another study,. Molina- Hernandez et al reported anticonflict-like.

  8. Essential Oil Composition of Five Collections of Achillea biebersteinii from Central Turkey and their Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Suvra Mandal, Avijit Banerji, Manoj Kar, Kalyan Hazra and Julie Banerji 625 The Thai Medicinal Plant Gynura pseudochina var. hispida: Chemical...Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Green and Toasted Mate Tea Patrícia de Abreu Marques Coentrão, Valéria Laneuville Teixeira and Annibal Duarte

  9. Effect of Achillea millefolium L.extract on spermatogenesis and H-G axis in adult Balb/C mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Results: In this investigation no difference significant in body weight or in testis weight, volume and diameter was seen. Microscopic studies of testis showed a significant reduction in primary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa but no changes in seminiferous tubules diameter, Sertoli and Leydig cells were seen (P< 0.05. Histological examination of seminiferous tubules revealed a general dearrangement and severe reducation in the number of germinal cells. Apoptosis was seen in seminiferous tubules. Many immature spermatids were visualized in the lumem of the ductus epididymides of treated animals. This was accompained by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the LH and testosterone. Conclusion: The results of this work suggest that the extract of this plant may have a temporary antifertile activity in adult male animals.

  10. Intraspecific variability of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. s.l. in respect of developmental and chemical traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bączek Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the variability of 20 yarrow populations introduced into ex situ conditions, in respect of selected developmental traits as well as content and composition of biologically active compounds (essential oil, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids. Field experiment was established at the Experimental Station, Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants. Morphological observations and harvest of raw material were carried out in the second year of plant vegetation, at the beginning of blooming. Investigated populations differed significantly in respect of developmental features as well as content and composition of identified compounds. The highest differences among the populations concerned fresh mass of herb (0.46–1.79 kg per plant, number of shoots per m2 (64–243 and length of the longest internode (42–158 mm. Total content of essential oil ranged from 0.10 to 1.00%. Among 24 identified compounds β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, terpinene-4-ol, nerolidol and chamazulene were the dominants. According to content of these compounds, three chemotypes were distinguished within investigated populations, i.e.: β-pinene, β-pinene + chamazulene and 1,8-cineole type. Content of tannins ranged from 0.38 to 0.90%. Four flavonoids were identified and apigenin 7-glucoside was present in the highest amount (from 9.87 to 475.21 mg × 100 g−1, while the highest differences between populations concerned the content of luteolin-3',7-diglucoside. Within phenolic acids, three compounds (caffeic acid derivatives were identified. Rosmarinic acid was the dominant one (75.64–660.54 mg × 100 g−1, while cichoric acid differentiated investigated populations the most.

  11. Micropropagation of Achillea millefolium L. on half-strength ms medium and direct rooting and acclimatization of microshoots in hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of micropropagation of the medicinal plant A. millefolium on half-strength MS medium and ex vitro rooting and acclimatization of the obtained microshoots in hydroculture in order to establish an efficient production method. Two explant types were used: basal and terminal cuttings, and better results were achieved when terminal cuttings were used. The development of shoots in the multiplication phase was successful with a regeneration percentage of 100%. Ex vitro rooting in a modified Hoagland nutrient solution was successful (83%, but the percentage of in vitro rooting on half-strength MS medium without hormones was higher (95%. However, bearing in mind that mass production of A. millefolium is more efficient when the phase of in vitro rooting is excluded, this method could be recommended for commercial propagation of this medicinal plant. It is necessary to conduct additional research in order to optimize the composition, EC and pH value of the hydroponic nutrient solution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  12. Recommended Species for Vegetative Stabilization of Training Lands in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    bitterbrush Purshia glandulosa Apache plume Fallugia paradoxa Arizona fesce Festuca arizonica Ashe juniper Juniperus ashei Australian saltbush Atriplex...elm Ulmus crassifolia *Cheatgrass Bromus tectorum -Chinkapin oak Quercus muhlenbergii Cholla Opuntia, spp. * Cicer milkvetch Astragalus cicer Clovers...Linum lewisii Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium *Littleleaf palo verde Cercidium microphyllum *Live oak Quercus virginiana Lovegrasses Eragrostis

  13. Novedades corológicas para la flora valenciana [New records for the flora of the Valencian Community (E of Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito; Martínez Azorín, Mario; Camuñas, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Se discuten algunos aspectos corológicos o taxonómicos sobre plantas novedosas para alguna de las tres provincias de la Comunidad Valenciana, en concreto: Achillea filipendulina, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Gaura lindheimeri, Ornithogalum divergens y Panicum maximum. Some chorological and taxonomical features are commented on Achillea filipendulina, Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis, Gaura lindheimeri, Ornithogalum divergens y Panicum maximum. They are new or little known for the re...

  14. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  15. Uptake of 2,4-D in higher plants from artificial rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokke, H.

    1984-01-01

    Sinapis alba L., Lapsana communis L., Achillea millefolium L., Brassica napus L., Lactuca sativa L., and Lycopersicum esculentum L. were exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxy [2- 14 C]acetic acid (2,4-D) at 10 micrograms liter-1 in artificial rain, pH 6.5 and 3.3. The 2,4-D was absorbed in all species tested. Concentrations of parent 2,4-D appeared at the highest level in Achillea (0.1 mg kg-1 dry wt), and at zero level in Lycopersicum. Twenty-one daily treatments at pH 6.5 for 30-min periods increased dry-matter concentrations in the leaves of Achillea and decreased those in Brassica. No change in dry-matter concentration was observed in the leaves of Brassica by seven daily treatments for 30-min periods at pH 3.3

  16. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 10, No 17 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of temperature and salinity on germination of Achillea fragrantissima ... Efficiency and safety of percuSurge distal protection device in acute ... Effects of different doses of melamine in the diet on melamine concentrations in milk, plasma, ... Schwann cells promote neuronal differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells ...

  17. Mining the essential oils of the Anthemideae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    herbal forms of medicine and relaxation (such as aromatherapy), and .... (Flower bud, aerial part, cell suspension) α-farnesene 0-91, 3-OH .... (Leaf, stem); camphor 32, pulegone 15, 1,8-cineole 13. n.s. ..... Volatile oil-containing drugs and essential oils have ...... Achillea asplenifolia Vent. through multiple shoot regeneration.

  18. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman AFB, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    tailed Rattlesnake Crotalus molossus Western Rattlesnake Crotalus viridis CAUTION Most snake bites occur to people who are trying to kill or catch snakes...Strawberry Fragaria bracteata Yarrow Achillea lanulosa Yellow Sweetclover Melilotus indicus IX L-2 List of Preparers Jim Battis; AFGL/LWH, Ha’-com

  19. Pollinator preferences and flower constancy: is it adaptive for plants to manipulate them?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janovský, Zdeněk; Smyčka, J.; Smyčková, M.; Herben, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 3 (2017), s. 475-483 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Achillea millefolium * Angelica sylvestris * floral evolution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  20. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species....

  1. Seasonal Dynamics of Stress Proteins in Leaves of Medicinal Plants in a Natural Environment of Irkutsk and on the Shores of the Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivetiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study leafs of five plant species, growing in Irkutsk city and on the southeastern shore of Lake Baikal. These species are Achillea asiatica Serg., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Plantago major L., Veronica chamaedrys L. and Alchemilla subcrenata Buser. In its leafs we identify some types of stress-induced proteins. In autumn, the accumulation of stress proteins in leafs of plants both from shores of Lake Baikal and from Irkutsk have been registered.

  2. Microfungi on compositae in the Ruhr Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Dachowski, M

    2002-01-01

    Forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the Compositae occurring in several locations in the Ruhr Basin in North Rhine-Westphalia. Many fungi belong to the Ascomycetes (Erysiphales, Diaporthales, Dothideales, Leotiales and Pleosporales) and to the Deuteromycetes (Melanconiales, Moniliales and Sphaeropsidales). Other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the Basidiomycetes (Uredinales) and to the Oomycetes (Peronosporales). Some recorded microfungi have been discovered on new hosts in North Rhine-Westphalia and also in Germany for the first time. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Ascochyta spec. Libert on Matricaria recutita L., Phoma exigua var. linicola (Naumov & Vassilevski) Maas on Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Phomopsis achillea (Sacc.) Höhn. on Achillea ageratum L., Diaporthe aff. arctii (Lasch) Nitschke on Solidago canadensis L. and on Achillea ageratum L., Lophiostoma caulium (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on Anthemis tinctoria L. and Ophiobolus fructicum (Rob. ex Desm.) on Serratula tinctoria L. New for Germany are Ophiobolus cirsii (P. Karst.) Sacc. on Cichorium intybus L., Phomopsis cirsii Grove on Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Pleospora kansensis J. P. Ellis & M. B. Ellis and Pleospora phaeocomoides cf. var. infectoria on Centaurea jacea L.

  3. PCR-RFLP diagnostic method for identifying Globodera species in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa ŠIRCA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification within the genus Globodera is based on the morphological and morphometrical characters of the cysts and second stage juveniles, and these are included in the majority of identification keys. Morphometrical methods are fast and can be applied to most of samples but they demand a trained and experienced specialist. Furthermore, some morphometrical characters may overlap between populations and beetwen species, leading to inaccurate identification. To confirm and complement the morphometrical identification of Globodera species molecular methods have been developed. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the rDNA gene cluster proved to be useful for identifying nematode species identification. A PCR-RFLP molecular method was used to identify Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae. Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae can be distinguished with PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA ITS fragment using five restriction enzymes. The RFLP patterns of G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum and G. achilleae were species-specific, while those of G. pallida varied. South American populations of G. pallida differed from other populations as their RFLP patterns were demonstrated to be distinct by in silico restriction of the ITS sequences deposited at NCBI.

  4. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scebba, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Canaccini, Francesca [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Castagna, Antonella [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Bender, Juergen [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Weigel, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Agroecology, FAL, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ranieri, Annamaria [Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: aranieri@agr.unipi.it

    2006-08-15

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3} (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l{sup -1} O{sub 3}. Significant O{sub 3} effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O{sub 3} induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O{sub 3}-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O{sub 3} depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O{sub 3} when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term.

  5. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Juergen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-01-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l -1 O 3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l -1 O 3 . Significant O 3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O 3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O 3 -induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O 3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O 3 when in mixture with Achillea. - The competition between species modulates the ozone effect in a short-term

  6. Physiological and biochemical stress responses in grassland species are influenced by both early-season ozone exposure and interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scebba, Francesca; Canaccini, Francesca; Castagna, Antonella; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Ranieri, Annamaria

    2006-08-01

    The effects of two-year early season ozone exposure on physiological and biochemical stress response were investigated in model plant communities. Achillea millefolium and Veronica chamaedrys target plants were grown in monocultures and in mixed cultures with Poa pratensis (phytometer) and exposed in open-top chambers over two years for five weeks to charcoal-filtered (CF) air plus 25 nl l(-1) O3 (control) and non-filtered (NF) air plus 50 nl l(-1) O3. Significant O3 effects were detected in different physiological and biochemical parameters, evidencing interspecific differences in metabolic stress responses and a strong influence of the competition factor. O3 induced strong oxidative effects in Achillea irrespective to the different growth modality. Veronica showed less O3-induced effects in monoculture than when grown in competition with the phytometer. Poa exhibited a different behaviour against O3 depending on the species in competition, showing an overall higher sensitivity to O3 when in mixture with Achillea.

  7. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  8. De plantis vascularibus praesertim ibericis (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDROL, J., YERA, J., ASCASO, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aportan algunas novedades florísticas y comentarios corológicos relativos a la zona central del Valle del Ebro (Huesca, Lérida y Zaragoza en España. Destacamos : Achillea filipendulina, Aegilops neglecta, Bbidens aurea, B. fondosa, Centaurea depressa, Chamaemelum nobile, Crypsis aculeata, Cyperus michelianus subsp. michelianus, C. serotinus, Heteranthera reniformis, Mantisalca duriaei, Pulicaria paludosa, Ranunculus sardous, Reichardia intermedia, Scirpus lacustris subsp. lacustris, S. mucronatus, S. supinus, seneciio lagascanus, Sonchus x novocastellanus y Valerianella eriocarpa.

  9. Cantharellus violaceovinosus, a new species from tropical Quercus forests in eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mariana; Bandala, Victor M.; Montoya, Leticia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract During explorations of tropical oak forests in central Veracruz (eastern Mexico), the authors discovered a Cantharellus species that produces basidiomes with strikingly violet pileus and a hymenium with yellow, raised gill-like folds. It is harvested locally and valued as a prized edible wild mushroom. Systematic multiyear sampling of basidiomes allowed the recording of the morphological variation exhibited by fresh fruit bodies in different growth stages, which supports the recognition of this Cantharellus species from others in the genus. Two molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a set of sequences of species of all major clades in Cantharellus, one including sequences of the transcription elongation factor 1-alpha (tef-1α) and a combined tef-1α and nLSU region (the large subunit of the ribosome), confirm the isolated position of the new species in a clade close to C. lewisii from USA, in the subgenus Cantharellus. Detailed macroscopic and microscopic descriptions, accompanied by illustrations and a taxonomic discussion are presented. PMID:29681739

  10. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  11. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  12. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  13. Soil modification by invasive plants: Effects on native and invasive species of mixed-grass prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, N.R.; Larson, D.L.; Huerd, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive plants are capable of modifying attributes of soil to facilitate further invasion by conspecifics and other invasive species. We assessed this capability in three important plant invaders of grasslands in the Great Plains region of North America: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula), smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). In a glasshouse, these three invasives or a group of native species were grown separately through three cycles of growth and soil conditioning in both steam-pasteurized and non-pasteurized soils, after which we assessed seedling growth in these soils. Two of the three invasive species, Bromus and Agropyron, exhibited significant self-facilitation via soil modification. Bromus and Agropyron also had significant facilitative effects on other invasives via soil modification, while Euphorbia had significant antagonistic effects on the other invasives. Both Agropyron and Euphorbia consistently suppressed growth of two of three native forbs, while three native grasses were generally less affected. Almost all intra- and interspecific effects of invasive soil conditioning were dependent upon presence of soil biota from field sites where these species were successful invaders. Overall, these results suggest that that invasive modification of soil microbiota can facilitate plant invasion directly or via 'cross-facilitation' of other invasive species, and moreover has potential to impede restoration of native communities after removal of an invasive species. However, certain native species that are relatively insensitive to altered soil biota (as we observed in the case of the forb Linum lewisii and the native grasses), may be valuable as 'nurse'species in restoration efforts. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  14. Rare, threatened and relict species in flora of SNR Zasavica

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    Stanković, M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In group of biodiversity important plant species there are 23 taxa. 20 taxa are mentioned in „Preliminary Red List of flora of Serbia and Montenegro with IUCN 2001 Conservation Statuses“ in following categories: two as critically endangered (Aldrovanda vesiculosa L. and Hottonia palustris L., four as endangered (Hippuris vulgaris L., Lindernia palustris Hartm., Ranunculus lingua L. and Urtica kioviensis Rogow., five as vulnerable (Achillea aspleniifolia Vent., Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill. H. P. Fuchs, Leucojum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, Stratiotes aloides L. and Thelypteris palustris (Schott subsp.palustris, while 9 are with indefinite categories (CR-VU, due to data deficient (DD. Special Nature Reserve „Zasavica“ is the only habitat in Serbia for Aldrovanda vesiculosa L., which was until 2005. considered as extinct from Serbia.

  15. Forage Quality Determined by Botanic Species’ Contribution on Permanent Pastures

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    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the forage obtained from permanent pastures is determined, in its turn, by the floristic structure consisted of species belonging to various botanic families. Each botanic species presents a specific chemical content and a certain contribution to the balancing of forage’s nutritional value. The chemical analyses performed, at species level, revealed the importance of the “diverse” species, which, with their content in mineral elements, may influence animals’ capacity of production and reproduction. Some of the species, considered to be weeds within the permanent pastures’ floristic composition, presented high crude protein content values: Achillea millefolium with 24.22%, Taraxacum officinale 24.06%, Urtica dioica with 32.46%, Plantago major with 17.04%, etc.

  16. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

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    Hina Fazal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf, Origanum vulgare (aerial parts, Paeonia emodi (tubers, and Peganum harmala (seeds was also carried out for the first time.

  17. Inhibitory effects of medical plants on the Candida albicans and bacterial growth in the oral cavity

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    Tambur Zoran Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this mini-review, the authors discuss the effects of ethanol extracts, essential oils and cytotoxicity of some medicinal plants and their compounds used in ethno-medicine in different geographic regions worldwide, including Serbia, on the growth, mul­tiplication and pathogenicity of Candida albicans and bacteria that play the main role in the balance of the oral ecosystem. Various medicinal plants, such as Rosmarinus officinalis (Fam. Lamiaceae, Artemisia dracunculus, Artemisia absinthium (Fam. Asteraceae, exist in different geographic regions and continents, as well as in the Balkan region, and among them there are some indigenous species like Hypericum perforatum L. (Fam. Hypericaceae, Urtica dioica L. (U. dioica (Fam. Urticaceae, Achillea millefolium L. (Fam. Asteraceae, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Fam. Asteraceae, Sambucus nigra L. (Fam. Caprifoliaceae, and Thymus serpyllum L. (Fam. Lamiaceae with impressive antimicrobial activity against microorganisms originating from the oral cavity. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 34021

  18. Anglo-Saxon pharmacopoeia revisited: a potential treasure in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Frances; Pendry, Barbara; Corcoran, Olivia; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Three of the four major Anglo-Saxon collections reporting medicinal formulations in England from the 10th century, the Old English Herbarium, Bald's Leechbook and the Lacnunga, could contain leads and insights into new medicinal uses. Previous pharmacological studies of medicinal plants mentioned in Anglo-Saxon medical texts suggested that some were effective and led to the identification and isolation of natural compounds. For example, matricin from yarrow Achillea millefolium L., is a proprionic acid analogue that yields chamazulene carboxylic acid with cyclooxygenase-2 activity similar to that of ibuprofen. As we discuss here, multidisciplinary projects could further explore historical texts to discover additional plant metabolites with potential pharmacological applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

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    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  20. THE ROLE OF PHYTOTHERAPY IN OPTIMIZATION OF REHABILITATION AT A HEALTH RESORT IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

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    E.I. Kondrat’eva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors present results of a treatment with complex of physical methods and phyto drug Tonsilgon N (Althaeae officinalis L., Chamomilla recutita, Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L., Achillea millefolium L., Quercus robur, Taraxacum officinale of 35 children with chronic tonsillitis at a health resort. Clinical, immunological effectiveness and safety was estimated. Inclusion of the drug in treatment scheme resulted in decrease of morbidity with acute respiratory infections and rate of exacerbations of tonsillitis. Phyto drug has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activity manifested in increase of level of humoral factors in nasal secretion and cytoprotective effect related to positive changes in functional state of epithelium of nasal mucous membrane in children with chronic tonsillitis.Key words: children, chronic tonsillitis, rehabilitation, phytotherapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:58-63

  1. A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models

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    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of standardized essential oils (such as Lavender officinalis, in treating anxiety disorders strongly suggests that these natural products are an important candidate source for new anxiolytic drugs. A systematic review of essential oils, their bioactive constituents, and anxiolytic-like activity is conducted. The essential oil with the best profile is Lavendula angustifolia, which has already been tested in controlled clinical trials with positive results. Citrus aurantium using different routes of administration also showed significant effects in several animal models, and was corroborated by different research groups. Other promising essential oils are Citrus sinensis and bergamot oil, which showed certain clinical anxiolytic actions; along with Achillea wilhemsii, Alpinia zerumbet, Citrus aurantium, and Spiranthera odoratissima, which, like Lavendula angustifolia, appear to exert anxiolytic-like effects without GABA/benzodiazepine activity, thus differing in their mechanisms of action from the benzodiazepines. The anxiolytic activity of 25 compounds commonly found in essential oils is also discussed.

  2. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  3. Selection of active plant extracts against the coffee leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae

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    D.S. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to the development of alternative control methods of the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella (Guérin-Mèneville & Perrottet, 1842 (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae, a search for plants able to produce active substances against this insect was carried out, with species collected during different periods of time in the Alto Rio Grande region, (Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Coffee leaves containing L. coffeella mines were joined with 106 extracts from 77 plant species and, after 48 hours, the dead and alive caterpillars were counted. The extracts from Achillea millefolium, Citrus limon, Glechoma hederacea, Malva sylvestris, Mangifera indica, Mentha spicata, Mirabilis jalapa, Musa sapientum, Ocimum basiculum, Petiveria alliaceae, Porophyllum ruderale, Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Roupala montana, Sambucus nigra and Tropaeolum majus showed the highest mortality rates.

  4. Enantiomeric Distribution of Some Linalool Containing Essential Oils and Their Biological Activities

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    K. Hüsnü Can Başer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The enantiomeric composition of linalool was determined in 42 essential oils using chiral columns. Essential oils were analyzed by multidimentional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a non-chiral and chiral FSC columns combination with modified g -cyclodextrine (Lipodex E as the chiral stationary phase without previous isolation of the compound from the mixture. The essential oils of Achillea, Ballota, Calamintha, Micromeria, Hedychium, Tanacetum, Coriandrum, Xanthoxylum, Ocimum, Thymus, Lavandula, Elettaria, Cinnamomum, Salvia, Origanum, Satureja, Nepeta, Stachys were used as source material for enantiomeric separation of linalool. Enantiomeric distribution of linalool showed (--linalool was much more common than the (+-linalool in the essential oils in this study. (-- and (+-linalool enantiomers were evaluated for antimicrobial, antifungal and antimalarial activities. Both enantiomers demonstrated approximately 50% growth inhibition of Botrytis cinerea at 48 hrs.

  5. Effect of aqueous extracts of selected medicinal plants on germination of windgrass [Apera spica-venti (L. P. Beauv.] and lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. seeds

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    Agnieszka Synowiec

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum, Achillea millefolium, and Urtica dioica containing allelopathic compounds on seed germination in lambsquarters (Chenopodium album and herbicide-resistant windgrass (Apera spica-venti. A Petri-dish experiment was carried out, in which the effects of five concentrations of aqueous extracts on the germination of weeds were assessed for 10 consecutive days. It was found that the dynamics of seed germination are closely related to the type and concentration of aqueous extract of medicinal plants. The 8% U. dioica aqueous extract posed the strongest inhibitory effect, limiting the germination of both lambsquarters and windgrass. Additionally, weed germination was delayed by 12–72 h in the presence of extracts, compared with the control. Summing up, the aqueous extracts of medicinal plants, especially their higher concentrations, pose a desirable inhibiting effect against the germination of lambsquarters and herbicide-resistant windgrass seeds.

  6. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Genaveh Port

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    Leila Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinatary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Genaveh port in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 30 local informants by face to face interview. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 93 medicinal plants belonging to 55 families were identified. Plantago psyllium, Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala, Descuraninia sophia, Cichorium intybus, Achillea erophora DC, Matricarria charmomilla and Citrolus colocynthis had the highest cultural importance indices. Plantago psyllium, Descuraninia sophia and Zataria multiflora had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynocological diseases, respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. In addition to the use of these plants to treat diseases as in Iran’s traditional medicine, people in the Genaveh port particularly use Plantago psyllium for drainage of infective boils and abscesses, cough, skin diseases, Teucrium polium for diabetes mellitus, wound washing and sterilizing, Peganum harmala for uterus infections and abdominal cramps, Descuraninia sophia for heart diseases and heatstroke, Cichorium intybus for heatstroke and liver diseases, Achillea eriophora DC for reflex, diabetes mellitus and wound healing, Matricarria charmomilla for seizure and dysmenorrhea, Citrolus colocynthis for hemorrhoid, diabetes mellitus and rheumatism and Zataria multiflora for sedation, abdominal pain and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Genaveh port. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Genaveh port are the

  7. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

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    S.L. MACIEL

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 eggs, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

  8. Fungitoxidade in vitro de extratos vegetais sobre Exserohilum turcicum (Pass Leonard & Suggs In vitro fungitoxicity of plant extracts on Exserohilum turcicum (Pass Leonard & Suggs

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    C.R Scapin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A helmintosporiose, causada pelo fungo Exserohilum turcicum, é uma das principais doenças do milho-pipoca cultivado no Brasil. Devido às características da cultura, como porte da planta, extensão da área de plantio e rentabilidade econômica, o emprego de resistência genética e controle químico têm sido as principais formas de controle da doença. O emprego de agrotóxicos na agricultura tem levado riscos à saúde humana e freqüentes danos ao meio ambiente. Assim, na busca de métodos alternativos para o controle da helmintosporiose foi avaliado o efeito fungitóxico dos extratos vegetais das plantas Achillea milefollium (mil-folhas, Cymbopogon citratus (capim-limão, Artemisia camphorata (cânfora e Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim no crescimento micelial de E. turcicum, em dois meios de cultura (BDA - batata-dextrose-ágar; e LCH - lactose caseína hidrolisada. Os extratos de alecrim e cânfora foram os que apresentaram maior inibição do crescimento micelial nos dois meios de cultura, enquanto que os extratos de mil-folhas e capim limão estimularam o crescimento micelial em meio LCH.Helminthosporiose is caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum and represents one of the main diseases in popcorn grown in Brazil. Due to its characteristics, such as plant size, planting area extension and economic profitability, the use of genetic resistance and chemical control has constituted the main procedure against such disease. The use of pesticides in agriculture has resulted in risks to the human health and frequent damages to the environment. Thus, the fungitoxic effect of plant extracts of Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass, Artemisia camphorata (camphor and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary on the mycelial growth of E. turcicum was evaluated by using two culture media (PDA - potato dextrose agar, and LCH - lactose-casein hydrolysate in order to set alternative methods for controlling helminthosporiose. Rosemary

  9. Efeito de extratos de plantas utilizadas na medicina popular no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivada em meio definido Effect of plant extracts used in folk medicine on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae cultivated in defined medium

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    Fabiola Barbieri Holetz

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, verificou-se o efeito de 15 plantas medicinais no crescimento e diferenciação celular de Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, um tripanosomatídeo não patogênico utilizado como modelo biológico, que apresenta antígenos semelhantes aos do Trypanosoma cruzi. Extratos brutos (1.000 g/ml ou óleo essencial (250 µg/ml foram adicionados ao meio definido. O crescimento celular foi determinado pela contagem em câmara de Newbauer e a diferenciação celular examinada por microscopia ótica. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, e Tanacetum vulgare mostraram atividade antiprotozoário, Psidium guajava e Punica granatum menor atividade e Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, e Spilanthes acmella não apresentaram atividade. Por outro lado, Arctium lappa, Erythrina speciosa, e Sambucus canadensis estimularam o crescimento de H. samuelpessoai e L. alba e S. acmella a diferenciação celular deste flagelado. Estes resultados indicam que plantas medicinais possuem princípios ativos contra H. samuelpessoai, o qual parece ser útil como modelo para seleção de plantas que contém drogas tripanomicidasThis work reports the effect of 15 medicinal plants on cell growth and differentiation of Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, a non-pathogenic trypanosomatid, used as biological model for its similar antigens to Trypanosoma cruzi. Crude extracts (1,000 g/ml or essential oil (250 g/ml were added in a defined medium. Cell growth was estimated by counting in Neubauer’s chamber and cell differentiation was examined by light microscope. Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia alba, Piper regnellii, Stryphnodendron adstringens, and Tanacetum vulgare showed antiprotozoan activity, Psidium guajava and Punica granatum a lower activity and Achillea millefolium, Eugenia uniflora, Mikania glomerata, Plantago major, and Spilanthes acmella had no activity. In contrast, Arctium lappa, Erythrina

  10. Ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in the North-Western Ligurian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; La Rocca, Arianna; Terrizzano, Luca; Dente, Fulvio; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio

    2014-08-08

    The ethnobotany of European alpine regions is much diversified and scarcely investigated. These regions retain a well-developed heritage culture and botanical traditional knowledge, favored by the isolated montane location. We carried out a study of therapeutic and traditional uses of native plants of a poorly explored area of the Western Italian Alps in the Ligurian region (NW Italy). The area has been the object of human activities since prehistoric ages, and an obliged crossroad for people moving across Provence, Liguria and Piemonte. The investigation was conducted in the upper Tanarello and Arroscia Valleys by using semi-structured, open interviews. Data were summarized by different indices--Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Value Index (CV), Ethnobotanicity Index (EI) and Informant Consensus Factor (Fic). A group of 65 informants were interviewed, yielding an inventory of 199 botanical taxa from 64 families, and a total of 2661 citations. A total of 13 categories of use were found, of which the most frequent ones were medicinal and food. In addition, 12 main medicinal subcategories were recorded. Botanicals were mainly used to treat digestive system, respiratory system, and the skin. A relevant role was played by plants with digestive and remineralizing properties. On the basis of quantitative analysis (RFC and CV indices) among the 30 most relevant plants are included rare and/or protected species, such as Achillea ligustica, Arnica montana, Gentiana ligustica, Gentiana lutea, and Achillea erba-rotta. An exhaustive prospect of the ethnobotanical knowledge in North-Western Ligurian Alps has been achieved through the recording of a large number of data. About 50% of the recorded uses have survived in the area. A great traditional importance is retained by species such as Artemisia absinthium, Lavandula angustifolia and Arnica montana which were formerly cultivated and marketed for their therapeutic virtues. A substantial role is also attributable

  11. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous plants in Kel village, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Khawaja Shafique; Hamid, Abdul; Nawaz, Fahim; Hameed, Mansoor; Ahmad, Farooq; Deng, Jiabin; Akhtar, Noreen; Wazarat, Ambreen; Mahroof, Sehrish

    2017-12-01

    This explorative study was undertaken for the first time in Kel village located in the Upper Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The purpose was to document the indigenous knowledge of the native people used in the preparation of herbal medicines. To get the data on traditional uses of medicinal plants, 20 informants were interviewed. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices, i.e., use value (UV), relative frequencies of citation (RFC), informant consensus factor (Fic), fidelity level (FL), data matrix ranking (DMR), preference ranking (PR), and jaccard index (JI), were calculated for the recorded medicinal plants. A total of 50 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families used in 13 disease categories were documented. Leaves were the frequently used plant parts, and decoction was the commonly used method for herbal medicine. Plants with high use value were Berberis lycium (2.05), Impatiens glandulifera (1.95), Artemisia scoparia (1.75), Ageratum conozoides (1.75), and Achillea millefolium (1.7). The highest RFC value was calculated for Berberis lycium (0.75), Cynoglossum lanceolatum (0.65), and Impatiens glandulifera and Achillea millefolium (0.60 each). The maximum informant consensus factor was for urinary system, cardiac diseases, baldness, and abortion and miscarriage (1.00). Berberis lyceum (95%) used in jaundice, hepatitis, typhoid, fever, and tuberculosis disorders. Plants with maximum fidelity level (FL) were Berberis lycium (95%) followed by Dioscorea bulbifera, Impatiens glandulifera, and Artemisia vulgaris (90%). Olea ferruginea was the most multipurpose plant and exports (21.2%) was the leading threat in the area. The pearson correlation coefficient (0.500) showed a positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The present study provides useful information about traditional uses of medicinal plants used by local communities in different ailments. The plants with the highest use values could be employed in pharmacological

  12. Study of growth and development features of ten ground cover plants in Kish Island green space in warm season

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    S. Shooshtarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Having special ecological condition, Kish Island has a restricted range of native species of ornamental plants. Expansion of urban green space in this Island is great of importance due to its outstanding touristy position in the South of Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the growth and development of groundcover plants planted in four different regions of Kish Island and to recommend the most suitable and adaptable species for each region. Ten groundcover species included Festuca ovina L., Glaucium flavum Crantz., Frankenia thymifolia Desf., Sedum spurium Bieb., Sedum acre L., .Potentilla verna L., Carpobrotus acinaciformis (L. L. Bolus., Achillea millefolium L., Alternanthera dentata Moench. and Lampranthus spectabilis Haw. Evaluation of growth and development had been made by measurement of morphological characteristics such as height, covering area, leaf number and area, dry and fresh total weights and visual scoring. Physiological traits included proline and chlorophyll contents evaluated. This study was designed in factorial layout based on completely randomized blocks design with six replicates. Results showed that in terms of indices such as covering area, visual quality, height, total weight, and chlorophyll content, Pavioon and Sadaf plants had the most and the worst performances, respectively in comparison to other regions’ plants. Based on evaluated characteristics, C. acinaciformis, L. spectabilis and F. thymifolia had the most expansion and growth in all quadruplet regions and are recommend for planting in Kish Island and similar climates.

  13. Bacterial Endophytes Isolated from Plants in Natural Oil Seep Soils with Chronic Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumactud, Rhea; Shen, Shu Yi; Lau, Mimas; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum, and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except S. canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene, or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  14. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHILLED CHICKEN MEAT AFTER FEEDING OF SELECTED PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Martonová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available  The effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L and combination of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L and hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L on oxidative stability and sensory properties of produced poultry meat was investigated. Sixty one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were used in our experiment, divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (K was fed with standard diet without supplementation of plants; second group (M was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded lemon balm in concentration 2 % per 1 kg; and third group was fed with standard diet supplemented with grounded yarrow (2 % and hawthorn (1 %. Results showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of yarrow and hawthorn in the diet significantly caused reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh meat during chilling storage of samples. In addition, supplementation of plants in the diet had positive effect on sensory quality of meat of broiler chickens.    doi:10.5219/38 

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irlan Almeida Freires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries remains the most prevalent and costly oral infectious disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to prevent this biofilm-dependent disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs. In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a potential applicability in novel dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the effects of EOs on caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial potential against cariogenic bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial potential. Only L. sidoides mouthwash (1% has shown clinical antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.

  16. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  17. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, J.; Muntifering, R.B.; Lin, J.C.; Weigel, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O 3 ) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O 3 effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O 3 (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O 3 (elevated O 3 ). Biomass production was not affected by O 3 , but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O 3 exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O 3 was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O 3 exposure. - Early-season O 3 exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O 3 was not altered by interspecific competition

  18. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  19. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  20. The estimation of some wild flowers seed material from the natural-valuable meadow habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicka Maria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of the species composition of the meadow habitats is often linked to the introduction of the typical species’ seeds. The effectiveness of that treatment requires getting the acquired detailed knowledge of the germination biology of peculiar species. Eight typical plant species of four non-forest habitats of the river valleys, representing the following types: Cnidion dubii (6440, Molinion (6410, Arrhenatherion (6510 and Festuco-Brometea (6210 were investigated. The diasporas were collected in the years 2014–2015 on the meadows of PLH 140016 protection area near Mniszew (Kozienice county, Mazovian voivodeship. The ability of seeds’ germination in the laboratory conditions was studied. It was stated that Cnidion and Molinion meadows’ species require pre-chilling to break the seeds’ dormancy, while the Arrhenatherion meadows and xerotermophilous swards do not require such treatment. The Allium angulosum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium and Eryngium planum were characterized by high vigour and germination capability as well as the low share of dead seeds. The extremely drought in 2015 caused the decreasing in germination capability and increasing in the dead seeds’ share. The preliminary studies, presented in this paper, show that Cnidion and Molinion meadows may be most difficult to restore because of the necessity of breaking the seeds’ dormancy and higher sensitiveness for the unfavourable weather conditions during the seed ripening stage. The studies have practical significance for the works connected with the floristic diversity’ increasing of threatened communities and the restoration of the destroyed meadow habitats.

  1. Antifungal effect of some plant extracts against factors wheat root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sevim; Şimşek, Şeyda; Denek, Yunus Emre

    2017-04-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of Humulus lupulus L. and Achillea millefolium L. were evaluated for antifungal activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Smith) Sacc. The final concentrations of the methanol extracts obtained from the plants were added to the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% doses. Mycelial disks of pathogens (6 mm in diameter) removed from the margins of a 7 days old culture were transferred to PDA media containing the plant extracts at tested concentrations. Four replicates were used per treatment. For each plant extract and concentration, inhibition of radial growth compared with the untreated control was calculated after 7 days of incubation at 24±1°C, in the dark. Extracts H. lupulus and A. millefolium inhibited the mycelial growth of F. culmorum of mycelial growth of 8% dose of the pathogens by 92.77% and 69.83%, respectively. It has been observed that the antifungal effect of the extracts increases with dose increase. As a result, at least micelle growth and the highest percent inhibition rate were obtained at 8% dose of the extract H. lupulus. H. lupulus extract can be used as a biological preparation.

  2. Standardization of phytopharmaceuticals: qualitative evaluation and quantification of carbohydrates in medicinal plants using tlc, matrix free meldi-tof-ms and gc-ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.N.; Bonn, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry requires reliable and less time consuming procedures for the quality control analysis of raw materials and finished products. The study was focused on thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC) and matrix free material enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS). Standards and microwave assisted water extracts from Achillea milleffolium (herb), Althaea officinalis (roots), Equisetum arvense (herb), Juglans regia (leaves), Matricaria chamomella (flowers) and Taraxacum officinale (herb) were the samples used for this study. The presence of mono- (fructose and glucose) and disaccharide (sucrose) in all the plants under study was proved through the TLC analysis. These results were confirmed by the Mf-MELDI-MS experiments. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the data obtained via TLC and mf-MELDI-MS, delivering additionally quantified values, but needed a long time. A carbohydrate of higher oligomerization degree could not be found. Among the six plants, glucose was found in highest concentration in Taraxacum officinale. Fructose is present in appreciable quantity in Matricaria chamomella while Althaea officinalis has the highest amount of sucrose among the plants under study. (author)

  3. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  4. Theoretical principles of phyto remedial soil technologies development of Semipalatinsk test site with a use of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdarkhanova, G.S.; Ajdasova, S.S.; Zhubanova, A.A.; Mukhitdinov, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Radioecological investigations of soils and vegetation at different area of Semipalatinsk test site allowed discovering an uneven contamination of eco environment by radionuclides, impact of this factor on anatomomorphological parameters and plants growing - local floral forms. The investigations showed that some cultures accumulated radionuclides in significant concentrations. Radionuclide contamination of particular cultures with 137 Cs features a wide range: Juiperus sabina [8 Bq/kg]- Leonurus quinquelobatus [13 Bq/kg]- Gallium aparine [55-916 Bq/kg]- Achillea millefolium [398 Bq/kg]- Sanquisorba officinalis [75 000 Bq/kg]- Rumex confertus [ 74-160 000 Bq/kg].This feature allows developing a new technology of areas decontamination, which is phyto remediation. The main first step in this technology implies searching for plants - hyper accumulators of radionuclides, and the basic condition is a possibility for selected species of a chosen area to grow.The experience of foreign researchers (USA, Ukraine) allows to hope that it is possible, within 5-10 years and using the phyto remedial measures, to restore large areas of farmland in Kazakstan, contaminated with radionuclides

  5. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naïve to a grass invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Anna; Muir, Adrianna; Strauss, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    Invasive species may undergo rapid change as they invade. Native species persisting in invaded areas may also experience rapid change over this short timescale relative to native populations in uninvaded areas. We investigated the response of the native Achillea millefolium to soil from Holcus lanatus-invaded and uninvaded areas, and we sought to determine whether differential responses between A. millefolium from invaded (invader experienced) and uninvaded (invader naïve) areas were mediated by soil community changes. Plants grown from seed from experienced and naïve areas responded differently to invaded and uninvaded soil with respect to germination time, biomass, and height. Overall, experienced plants grew faster and taller than their naïve counterparts. Naïve native plants showed negative feedbacks with their home soil and positive feedbacks with invaded soil; experienced plants were less responsive to soil differences. Our results suggest that native plants naïve to invasion may be more sensitive to soil communities than experienced plants, consistent with recent studies. While differences between naïve and experienced plants are transgenerational, our design cannot differentiate between differences that are genetically based, plastic, or both. Regardless, our results highlight the importance of seed source and population history in restoration, emphasizing the restoration potential of experienced seed sources.

  6. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  7. Bacterial endophytes isolated from plants in natural oil seep soils with chronic hydrocarbon contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea eLumactud

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial endophytic communities of four plants growing abundantly in soils highly contaminated by hydrocarbons were analyzed through culturable and and culture-independent means. Given their tolerance to the high levels of petroleum contamination at our study site, we sought evidence that Achillea millefolium, Solidago canadensis, Trifolium aureum and Dactylis glomerata support high levels of hydrocarbon degrading endophytes. A total of 190 isolates were isolated from four plant species. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with class Actinobacteria as the dominant group in all species except Solidago canadensis, which was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. Microbacterium foliorum and Plantibacter flavus were present in all the plants, with M. foliorum showing predominance in D. glomerata and both endophytic bacterial species dominated T. aureum. More than 50% of the isolates demonstrated degradative capabilities for octanol, toluene, naphthalene, kerosene or motor oil based on sole carbon source growth screens involving the reduction of tetrazolium dye. P. flavus isolates from all the sampled plants showed growth on all the petroleum hydrocarbons substrates tested. Mineralization of toluene and naphthalene was confirmed using gas-chromatography. 16S based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed significant differences between the endophytic bacterial communities showing them to be plant host specific at this site. To our knowledge, this is the first account of the degradation potential of bacterial endophytes in these commonly occurring pioneer plants that were not previously known as phytoremediating plants.

  8. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  9. Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis as influenced by ozone and competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: juergen.bender@fal.de; Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Weigel, H.J. [Institute of Agroecology, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Interspecific plant competition has been hypothesized to alter effects of early-season ozone (O{sub 3}) stress. A phytometer-based approach was utilized to investigate O{sub 3} effects on growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis grown in monoculture and in mixed cultures with four competitor-plant species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Achillea millefolium, Rumex acetosa and Veronica chamaedrys). Mesocosms were exposed during April/May 2000-2002 to charcoal-filtered air + 25 ppb O{sub 3} (control) or non-filtered air + 50 ppb O{sub 3} (elevated O{sub 3}). Biomass production was not affected by O{sub 3}, but foliar injury symptoms were observed in May 2002. Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased relative food value of P. pratensis by an average of 8%, which is sufficient to have nutritional implications for its utilization by herbivores. However, forage quality response to O{sub 3} was not changed by interspecific competition. Lack of injury and nutritive quality response in P. pratensis harvested in September may reflect recovery from early-season O{sub 3} exposure. - Early-season O{sub 3} exposure decreased nutritive quality of Poa pratensis, and nutritive quality response to O{sub 3} was not altered by interspecific competition.

  10. Selected medicinal plants used in herbal industries; their toxicity against pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, H.; Ahmad, M.; Abbasi, B.H.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant strains of fungi and bacteria are imposing the need for new drugs. Reliable natural sources with minor side effects are needed to control anti-human pathogenic invaders specially bacteria. Given the demands for natural products that are inherently safe and environmentally compatible, the advancement in antimicrobial potential has provided a better alternative to synthetic resistance antibiotics. In the present investigation such types of medicinal plants were selected for analyses that are used by local herbal practioners for multiple diseases. Thirty three extracts of Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina and Vetiveria zizanioides in chloroform, ethanol and hexane were investigated for their antimicrobial potential. These extracts were tested against eight microorganisms including four gram negative bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, three gram positive bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus and a fungal strain viz., Candida albicans. Majority of the extracts showed marked antimicrobial potential against the tested microorganisms. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the antioxidants activities of four Slovene medicinal plant species by traditional and novel biosensory assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzios, Spiridon; Papageorgiou, Katerina; Yiakoumettis, Iakovos; Baricevic, Dea; Kusar, Anita

    2010-11-02

    We investigated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea). Their free radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH. free radical was studied with a spectrophotometric assay, while their biological activity with the help of a laboratory-made biosensor based on immobilized fibroblast cells (assay duration: 3 min). The observed antioxidant activity of the extracts from the four investigated medicinal plant species was dependent on both the solvent used for extraction and the assay method (conventional or biosensor-based). Independently from the assay method and the solvent used for extraction, the lowest scavenging activity was observed in root extracts of G. lutea. Treatment of the immobilized cells with the plant extracts resulted in an increase of the cell membrane potential (membrane hyperpolarization), possibly due to the reduction of membrane damage due to oxidation. The novel cell biosensor could be utilized as a rapid, high throughput tool for screening the antioxidant properties of plant-derived compounds. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of soil composition on the major, minor and trace metal content of Velebit biomedical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Požgaj, Martina; Pirkl, Raimund; Šilić, Tea; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2015-03-15

    The use of medical herbs for the treatment of many human diseases is increasing nowadays due to their mild features and low side effects. Not only for their healing properties, but also for their nutritive value supplementation of diet with various herbs is recommended. Thus also their analysis is of rising importance. While total elemental compositions are published for many common herbs, the origin of toxic as well as beneficial elements is not yet well investigated. Thus different indigenous medicinal plants, namely Croatian spruce (Picea abies), savory (Satureja montana L.), mountain yarrow (Achillea clavennae), showy calamint (Calamintha grandiflora), micromeria (Micromeria croatica), yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) and fir (Abies alba) together with soil samples were collected in the National Park Northern Velebit. The macro- and trace elements content, after microwave digestion, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The study focuses on the one hand on essential elements and on the other hand on non-essential elements which are considered as toxic for humans, covering in total Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  14. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

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    Obratov-Petković Dragica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  15. Prognoses of plant community changes in the territories not used for agriculture after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, S.F.; Podolyak, A.G.; Avseenko, S.V.; Sapegin, L.M.; Dayneko, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Science-research in the zones of eviction in the Bragin district of the Gomel region confirms interdependence between development of plants' communities and such factors as type of soil, kind of agricultural field, the term of nonuse. The study of vegetation change on the former fields, represented by turf-podsol soil, indicates that plant community has by now been formed on it, in which out of 100% projection cover prevail Artemisia absinthium L., - 40%, Artemisia campestris L. -20%, Artemisia vulgaris L. -5%, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski - 30%. On lower lots, represented by turf-podsol swampy soil, prevail Elytrigia repens - 60%, Artemisia absinthium -20%, Erigeron canadensis - 10%. So, on the unused arable land the tendency to form communities of Elytrigia repens is observed. In 10-15 years there may be a community here, consisting of bunch-grasses an densely turfed grasses. On the haymaking and pasture meadows, sowing plants are replaced by rhizome bunch-grasses (Poa pratensis L.) rhizome (Elytrigia repens) and diverse grasses (Artemisia absinthium, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron canadensis and others). On sowing meadows, situated on peat-swamp soil, Urtica dioica L. took root. It formed powerful herbage with 80-90% projection cover, which prevents the renewing of grasses. Only after gradual decrease of Urtica dioica there will appear different grasses, as well as rhisome grasses. In future this land can be used for haymaking. It is impossible to use this kind of soil without herbicides in large quantity, which may create additional problems of ecological character

  16. The Role of Endophytic Microorganisms of Medicinal Plants in the Adaptation of Host Plant

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    Zhivetev M.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultures of microorganisms were isolated from endosphere of Lake Baikal littoral zone plants: Veronica chamaedrys L., Alchemilla subscrenata Buser, Achillea asiatica Serg., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Plantago major L. Morphology and biochemical properties of isolated bacteria were studied. For the majority of the endophytic bacterial cultures cellulolitic and proteolytic activity has been shown, which necessary for the effective colonization of plant tissue. For many cultures revealed ability in varying degrees to form a biofilm to improve survival in a vegetative organism. Their potencial role in adaptation of plant-hosts under conditions of climat Baikal region was shown. In particular, 9 of cultures demonstrated ability to act as nitrogen retainer. The vast majority of bacterial cultures did not have phytotoxicity or demonstrated its low level, reflecting and minimum negative effects of them on plant. Moreover, culture with encryption P3, isolated from Plantago major in August, showed a stimulatory effect in experiments on phytotoxicity. This same culture possessed the highest ability to secrete sugars as at +26°С and at +4°С.

  17. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  18. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  19. Synthesis of modified gum tragacanth/graphene oxide composite hydrogel for heavy metal ions removal and preparation of silver nanocomposite for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Razieh; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2017-02-10

    New composite hydrogels were synthesized based on gum tragacanth (GT) carbohydrate and graphene oxide (GO). GT was sulfonic acid-functionalized and cross-linked by using 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) monomers and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Adsorption process for removal of heavy metal ions has followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q m ) was 142.50, 112.50 and 132.12mgg -1 for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ag(I), respectively. The removal percentage decreased slightly after several adsorption/desorption cycles. The adsorbed Ag(I) ions in hydrogel were transformed to Ag 0 nanoparticles (with a narrow distribution and mean size of 13.0nm) by using Achillea millefolium flower extract. The antibacterial performance of the Ag 0 nanocomposite hydrogel was also investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungi colonizing the soil and roots of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. plants treated with biological control agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato plants, cv. Rumba Ożarowska, grown in the greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury, were protected in the form of alternate spraying (twice and watering (twice with 5% aqueous extracts of the following plant species: Aloe vulgaris Lam., Achillea millefolium L., Mentha piperita L., Polygonum aviculare L., Equisetum arvense L., Juglans regia L. and Urtica dioica L. Plants not treated with the extracts served as control. After fruit harvest, samples of roots and soil were collected. The roots were disinfected and next placed on PDA medium. Soil-colonizing fungi were cultured on Martin medium. Fungi were identified microscopically after incubation. Pathogenic fungal species, Colletotrichum coccodes, Fusarium equiseti, F. oxysporum and F. poae, accounted for over 60% of all isolates obtained from the roots of tomato plants. The soil fungal community was dominated by yeast-like fungi (75.4%, whereas pathogenic fungi were present in low numbers. The applied 5% aqueous plant extracts effectively reduced the abundance of fungi, including pathogenic species, colonizing tomato plants and soil. The extract from P. aviculare showed the highest efficacy, while the extract from J. regia was least effective. Fungi showing antagonistic activity against pathogens (Paecilomyces roseum and species of the genus Trichoderma were isolated in greatest abundance from the soil and the roots of tomato plants treated with A. millefolium, M. piperita and U. dioica extracts.

  1. Ethnobotany of food plants in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): non-crop food vascular plants and crop food plants with medicinal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Àngels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The present study reports a part of the findings of an ethnobotanical research project conducted in the Catalan region of the high river Ter valley (Iberian Peninsula), concerning the use of wild vascular plants as food and the medicinal uses of both wild and cultivated food plants. We have detected 100 species which are or have been consumed in this region, 83 of which are treated here (the remaining are the cultivated food plants without additional medicinal uses). Some of them, such as Achillea ptarmica subsp. pyrenaica, Convolvulus arvensis, Leontodon hispidus, Molopospermum peloponnesiacum and Taraxacum dissectum, have not been previously reported, or have only very rarely been cited or indicated as plant foods in very restricted geographical areas. Several of these edible wild plants have a therapeutic use attributed to them by local people, making them a kind of functional food. They are usually eaten raw, dressed in salads or cooked; the elaboration of products from these species such as liquors or marmalades is a common practice in the region. The consumption of these resources is still fairly alive in popular practice, as is the existence of homegardens, where many of these plants are cultivated for private consumption.

  2. Northward invading non-native vascular plant species in and adjacent to Wood Buffalo National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, R.W.; Wein, G.; Bahret, S.; Cody, W.J. (Alberta University, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Canadian Circumpolar Institute)

    A survey of the non-native vascular plant species in Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada's largest forested National Park, documented their presence and abundance in key locations. Most of the fifty-four species (nine new records) were found in disturbed sites including roadsides, settlements, farms, areas of altered hydrological regimes, recent bums, and intensive bison grazing. Species that have increased most in geographic area and abundance in recent years include [ital Agropyron repens], [ital Bromus inermis], [ital Chenopodium album], [ital Melilotus spp.], [ital Trifolium spp.], [ital Plantago major], [ital Achillea millefolium], [ital Crepis tectorum] and [ital Sonchus arvensis]. An additional 20 species, now common in the Peace River and Fort Vermilion areas, have the potential to invade the Park if plant communities are subjected to additional stress as northern climates are modified by the greenhouse effect and as other human-caused activities disturb the vegetation. It is recommended that permanent plots be located in key locations and monitored for species invasion and changing abundances as input to management plans.

  3. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  4. The Assessment of Toxic Metals in Plants Used in Cosmetics and Cosmetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fischer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals polluting the natural environment are absorbed by plants. The use of herbs as components of cosmetics may pose a health risk for humans. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in selected species of herbs (horsetail Equisetum arvense, nettle Urtica dioica, St. John’s wort Hypericum perforatum, wormwood Artemisia absinthium, yarrow Achillea millefolium, cottonwood Solidago virgaurea self-collected from the natural environment in two different locations, and purchased in stores on the territory of Poland. The concentration of the metals studied was: 4.67–23.8 mg/kg Pb, 0.01–1.51 mg/kg Cd, 0.005–0.028 mg/kg Hg. Different concentrations of metals, depending on species and origin of plants, were found. The mean concentration of all studied metals was the lowest in St. John’s wort, and the highest in nettle. In herbs purchased in Polish stores, the concentration of Pb was higher than in plants self-collected in the natural environment.

  5. Hangman Restoration Project : Annual Report, August 1, 2001 - July 31, 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Gerald I.; Coeur D' Alene Tribe.

    2002-06-01

    The construction of hydroelectric facilities in the Columbia Basin resulted in the extirpation of anadromous fish stocks in Hangman Creek and its tributaries within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Thus, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss garideini), westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) as well as local wildlife populations. Additionally, the Tribe was forced to convert prime riparian habitat into agricultural lands to supply sustenance for their changed needs. Wildlife habitats within the portion of the Hangman Creek Watershed that lies within the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation have been degraded from a century of land management practices that include widespread conversion of native habitats to agricultural production and intensive silvicultural practices. Currently, wildlife and fish populations have been marginalized and water quality is significantly impaired. In the fall of 2000 the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Wildlife Program, in coordination with the Tribal Fisheries Program, submitted a proposal to begin addressing the degradations to functioning habitats within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in the Hangman Watershed. That proposal led to the implementation of this project during BPA's FY2001 through FY2003 funding cycle. The project is intended to protect, restore and/or enhance priority riparian, wetland and upland areas within the headwaters of Hangman Creek and its tributaries in order to promote healthy self-sustaining fish and wildlife populations. A key goal of this project is the implementation of wildlife habitat protection efforts in a manner that also secures areas with the potential to provide stream and wetland habitats essential to native salmonid populations. This goal is critical in our efforts to address both resident fish and wildlife habitat needs in the Hangman Watershed. All

  6. Alimentazione di Marmota marmota in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of Marmota marmota in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (Poa, Phleum, Compositae (Achillea, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (Anthyllis, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (Prunella, Stachys formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  7. Análise farmacognóstica e atividade antibacteriana de extratos vegetais empregados em formulação para a higiene bucal Herbal extracts in an experimental mouthwash: pharmacognostics analysis and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Helena Gontijo Cordeiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de extratos vegetais vem se tornando uma alternativa importante para a prevenção de doenças periodontais. Este trabalho objetivou desenvolver uma formulação de enxagüatório bucal, contendo, em associação, extratos hidroalcoólicos de Rosmarinus officinalis, Plantago major, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Achillea millefollium e Nasturtium officinale; avaliar sua composição farmacognóstica e sua atividade antibacteriana, como também da fórmula proposta. Foram realizados estudos de pré-formulação e análises farmacognósticas para as espécies vegetais. A atividade antibacteriana in vitro foi observada por meio dos métodos de difusão em disco de papel, por hole- plate e por template, frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia colik, Enterococcus faecalis e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada por meio do método de macrodiluições sucessivas em caldo. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram-se de acordo com o histórico farmacognóstico das drogas estudadas. Todas as bactérias foram inibidas pelos extratos, observando-se que as espécies S. aureus e B. subtilis mostraram, aparentemente, maior sensibilidade. A CIM variou, em relação a sensibilidade de cada espécie bacteriana estudada, de 312,5 µL/mL a 1250 µL/mL para os extratos vegetais e de 625 µL/mL a 2500 µL/mL para o enxaguatório bucal. São necessários estudos complementares para a confirmação da eficácia deste produto e sua utilização na prevenção de doenças periodontais.In this study, herbs and hidroalcoholic extracts of Nasturtium officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Plantago major and Achillea millefollium, were investigated for pharmacognostics analysis (flavonoids, alkaloids, tanins, saponins and antraquinones and antibacterial activity (against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro

  8. Efeito de extratos aquosos de plantas na oviposição da traça-das-crucíferas, em couve Effect of plants aqueous extracts on oviposition of the diamondback, in kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Manfré Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de Achillea millefolium L. (folhas, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (folhas, Bidens pilosa L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (folhas, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (folhas, frutos e ramos, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (folhas, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (frutos, Mentha crispa L. (folhas e ramos, Nicotiana tabacum L. (folhas, Piper nigrum L. (folhas, Plumbago capensis Thunb. (folhas e ramos, Pothomorphe umbellata L. (folhas, Sapindus saponaria L. (folhas, S. saponaria (frutos, Solanum cernuum Vell. (folhas, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart Coville (casca, Symphytum officinale L. (folhas, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. (folhas, T. catigua (ramos, Trichilia pallida Sw. (folhas e T. pallida (ramos, em relação à preferência para oviposição de Plutella xylostella. Discos de folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala cultivar Georgia foram imersos em cada extrato à concentração de 10% (massa/volume por um minuto. Em seguida, foram divididos em quatro partes iguais e duas partes foram colocadas alternadamente com outras duas partes tratadas com água destilada, em uma gaiola. A contagem dos ovos foi feita após 24 horas. Os extratos apresentaram efeito deterrente na oviposição da praga, com exceção do extrato de S. adstringens, que não diferiu da testemunha, tratada apenas com água destilada. Os extratos de E. contortisilliquum, S. saponaria (frutos e T. pallida (folhas foram os mais eficientes, apresentando 100% de deterrência.The effect of aqueous extracts from Achillea millefolium L. (leaves, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (leaves, Bidens pilosa L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Bougainvillea glabra Choisy (leaves, Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (leaves, fruits e branches, Datura suaveolens Humb & Bonpl. ex. Willd (leaves, Enterolobium contortisilliquum (Vell. Morong (fruits, Mentha crispa L. (leaves e branches, Nicotiana tabacum L. (leaves, Piper nigrum

  9. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis, with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa

  10. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  11. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State.

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    Frey, Frank M; Meyers, Ryan

    2010-11-06

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Our data

  12. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

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    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption.

  13. Neural correlates of behavioural olfactory sensitivity changes seasonally in European starlings.

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    Geert De Groof

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season.This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls.By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.

  14. Where does the border lie: locally grown plants used for making tea for recreation and/or healing, 1970s-1990s Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo

    2013-10-28

    Traditional use of local wild and cultivated plants for making recreational tea in Estonia often borders with the medicinal use of the same plants. The aim of this paper is to map the perceptions of plants used for making tea and to define the domains of recreational and medicinal teas in specific cultural settings. Between November 2011 and March 2012 the authors distributed electronic questionnaires on the use of wild food plants in childhood. The questionnaire was answered by 250 respondents. 178 of them reported the use of plants for making recreational teas. The responses were analysed according to the taxonomy of the used plants, the most frequently used taxa and families were detected, the influence of respondents' demographic data on the number of use reports was assessed and the overlapping of medicinal and recreational uses was discussed. The study detected 69 vascular plant species, ten vascular taxa identified on the genera level only, and one lichen. The most popular families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiacea, and 12 taxa were used by at least 10% of the respondents, while only one of them (Tilia) was used by more than 50% and one (Rubus idaeus) by over 33% of the respondents. The next ten most used taxa were: Rosa, Mentha, Primula veris, Matricaria, Achillea millefolium, Hypericum, Carum carvi, Urtica dioica, Thymus serpyllum and Fragaria. Of the 30 most used consolidated taxa mentioned in five or more use records, only four were used exclusively in one domain. The majority of the used plants were situated on the recreational-medicinal continuum, which could be divided into two domains: recreational, medicinal and the "grey" area that lies around the borderline. The predominance of the cold and cold-related diseases on the spectrum treated by plants used for making recreational tea reflects the climatic conditions of the region and suggests that they are the most commonly self-treated diseases in the region, seen from the child's perspective.

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxic effect of methanolic extracts isolated from endemic plants of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province on PC-3, MCF-7, Hep G2, CHO and B16-F10 cell lines

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    Z. Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To date, thousands of secondary metabolites have been isolated from plants and microorganisms and there is an unprecedented attention towards potential biomedical applications of natural compounds. In this study, cytotoxic properties of methanol extracts of Stachys obtusicrena, Aristolochia olivieri, Linum album, Dionysia sawyeri, Ajuga chamaecistus, Achillea kellalensis, Nepeta glomerulosa, Phlomis aucheria, Tanacetum dumosum, Dianthus orientalis, Scutellaria multicaulis, Cicer oxyodon and Picris oligocephalum which are widely grown in Iran, were investigated on PC-3 (prostat cancer, MCF-7 (breast cancer, Hep-G2 (liver cancer, CHO (ovarian cancer and B16-F10 (melanoma cell lines. Methods: The cancer cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 and incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantitated by Alamar blue® assay. The apoptotic cells were determined by PI coloring and Flow Cytometry (Sub-G1 peak. Results: The methanol extracts of D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon significantly decreased the viability of CHO cells. The Methanol extract of D. sawyer and L. album had cytotoxic effects on B16-F10 cells, whereas no toxicity was observed in MCF-7, Hep-G2 and PC-3 cell lines after incubation of the cancer cells with the plant extracts. The PI staining results showed that D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon in CHO cancer cells could induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: Screening plants to find the most cytotoxic extract showed D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, C. oxyodon and L. album had the potential for further analysis toward finding active phytochemicals with cytotoxic activity.

  16. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of CNS disorders in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, T A F; Palomino, O M; Carretero, M E; Gómez-Serranillos, M P

    2014-01-01

    To provide ethnopharmacological information on the use of medicinal plants for central nervous system (CNS) disorders in the Sinai Peninsula region (Egypt). To collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about these medicinal plants in the Sinai Peninsula region with 61,000 km (2) and 379,000 inhabitants. Field work was concluded between March 2006 and May 2011, using semi-structured questionnaire with 700 informants (mean age: 59; 100% men) from 117 settlements of 17 Bedouin tribes. Transects walks in wild herbal plant collection areas and bibliographical review on the collected plants were also conducted. The Interview/ Inhabitant index (I/P), relative importance value of the species and informant consensus factor (FIC) were calculated. More than 300 species were traditionally used in folk medicine in the Sinai Peninsula; 101 of these species belonging to 40 families were reported as useful in different CNS disorders. Only 5 species are endemic of the studied area. All different part plants were used, leaves and aerial parts being the most frequent. Most of the remedies were prepared as infusion or decoction, while oral administration was the most common way to be used. Gastrointestinal (67.3%) and respiratory disorders (42.57%) were also reported as frequently treated by Bedouins with herbal remedies. Only a few species were found where the traditional use is supported by pharmacological studies (Acacia nilotica, Achillea fragrantissima, Ajuga iva or Mentha longifolia). No bibliographical references in the scientific literature were found for 22 species (21.78%); finally, several studies were published with different pharmacological activities than those provided by Bedouins. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature Effects on the Seed Germination of Some Perennial and Annual Species of Asteraceae Family

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    Zarghani Hadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the most critical factor determining success or failure of plant establishment. Seed germination response of five medicinal species include three seed-propagated perennial species, Cichorium intybus, cynara scolymus and Echinacea purpurea and vegetative-reproduction perennial species, Achillea millefolium and annual species, Matricaria aurea were assessed at constant temperatures. The seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C under total darkness. Germination percentage of all the species were significantly affected by various temperatures (p ≤ 0.001. A. millefolium did not germinate at 5-10 and 35-45°C, but showed noticeable germination percentage (73.3-100% at temperatures ranged from 15-30° C. The highest total germination percentage was observed within the range of 15-35 °C for other species. Also, we calculated cardinal temperatures (the minimum, optimum and maximum temperature for seed germination of species. The highest value for minimum temperature was 10.07ºC in A. millefolium followed by C. scolymus and M. aurea (5ºC while the lowest was for E. purpurea and C. intybus (2.68 and 2.90ºC respectively. The lowest value for optimum temperature was detected in A. millefolium (22.72ºC and M. aurea (23.88°C while the maximum values were observed in E. purpurea and C. intybus (30.40ºC and 29.90ºC respectively. Based on results of present study we concluded that species with both vegetative and seed-propagated reproduction forms like A. millefolium had smaller temperature range rather those with just one way of reproduction (seed production.

  18. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from medicinal plants of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego A; Gomez, Analía de Los A; Jimenez, Cristina M; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A

    2017-06-01

    The composition of essential oils from leaves of Kazakhstan medicinal plants was analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were 1,8-cineole (34.2%), myrcene (19.1%) and α-pinene (9.4%) in Ajania fruticulosa; 1,8-cineole (21.0%), β-thujone (11.0%), camphor (8.5%), borneol (7.3%) and α-thujone (6.5%), in Achillea nobilis; camphor (47.3%), 1,8-cineole (23.9%), camphene (9.8%) and β-thujone (6.0%) in Artemisia terrae-albae; 1,8-cineole(55.8%) and β-pinene (6.2%) in Hyssopus ambiguus; α-thuyene(46.3%) and δ-cadinene(6.3%) in Juniperus sibirica; sabinene (64%) in Juniperus sabina; and α-pinene (51.5%), β-phellandrene (11.2%) and δ-cadinene (6.3%) in Pinus sibirica. The essential oils did not show antifungal effect (MIC > 1.20 mg/mL) on Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger, while the oils from A. nobilis, A. terrae-albae, H. ambiguus and J. sabina exhibited moderate and moderate to weak antimicrobial activities on Fusarium verticillioides (MIC = 0.60 mg/mL) and Fusarium graminearum (MIC = 0.60-1.20 mg/mL), respectively. A principal component analysis associated the antifungal activity (r 2  > 0.80, p = 0.05) with the presence of borneol, camphor, camphene, 1,8-cineole,α- and β-thujone, and of the oxygenated monoterpenes.

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in herbal drinks among the traditional communities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Mukhtar, Anam; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Jahan, Sarwat

    2016-05-26

    There is very limited information regarding medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Pakistan, for treating wide-ranging diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in Pakistan and the pharmacological importance of herbal drinks, especially in the discovery of new drugs. The current ethnomedicinal field study was conducted from various traditional communities of Pakistan to document usage of medicinal plants as herbal drinks. Data was collected through field interviews from local people and using semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using quantitative indices such as UV (use value), RFC (Relative frequency of citation), and FL (Fidelity level). The present study recorded 217 plant species belonging to 174 genera and 69 families used in herbal drinks preparations. Major herbal preparations include decoctions, infusions and juice. According to use reports, significant species were Aloe vera, Artemisia fragrans, Allium cepa, Senegalia catechu, Alternanthera sessilis, Malva ludwigii, Arnebia benthamii, Cichorium intybus, Coccinia grandis, Dalbergia sissoo. Major ailment treated with herbal drinks include heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, and others. Use value (UV) varies from 0.23 to 0.02, with Mentha arvensis (0.23) having the highest value of UV followed by Mentha longifolia (0.22), Plantago lanceolate (0.19), Achillea millefolium (0.18), Coriandrum sativum (0.18), Justicia adhatoda and Malva sylvestris (0.17). Values of RFC varies from 0.28 to 0.09 while Fidelity level (FL) among plants varies from 37.5 to 100. Alternanthera sessilis, Oxytropis lapponica, Millettia pinnata and Salvia bucharica had the highest FL value (100). The use of medicinal plants is prevalent in traditional communities of Pakistan. Different herbal preparations are in common practice including various herbal drinks a common tradition and much favoured herbal preparation in terms

  20. Investigation of weed species diversity and community structure in saffron fields of Khorasan

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    Surur Khorramdel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Weedy flora of agroecosystems is composed of many species that have evolved in response to cropping system practices by occupying the niches left available in agroecosystems. In order to study weed species diversity and community structure in the saffron fields of Khorasan province, a survey trial was carried out in seven counties (including Mashhad, Neyshabur, Birjandn, Ghaen, Gonabad, Torbat-e Jam and Torbat-e Heydari during 2014 and 2015 from vegetative growth, dormant to flowering stages of saffron randomly dropped 1×1 m2 quadrates in 50 fields based on a systematic method as W pattern. The counties were clustered by the hierarchical complete linkage method based on Euclidean. Biodiversity indices such as stability coefficient, Simpson, Shannon–Wiener, Margalef and Menhinick were computed. The results indicated that the dominant weeds in saffron fields belong to 19 families and 50 species. Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were dominant families with 11, 9, 8 and 6 species, respectively. The majority of weed species were dicotyledonous, C3, noxious and annual plants. The highest stability coefficients in the stages of growth of saffron were calculated in Alhagi camelorum, Avena fatua and Achillea millefolium to be 30.81, 24.11 and 12.14, respectively. All weed species except for Alhagi camelorum (sustainable species and Avena fatua (temporary species were recognized as causal species. The maximum diversity indices for weed species were recorded at the vegetative phase of saffron. Correlation coefficient between weed density and yield loss of saffron was computed as R2=0.98. Based on diversity indices for weed species, different counties were clustered in three groups at 75% similarity level.

  1. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic ( Allium sativum L.), gentian ( Gentiana lutea L.), lovage ( Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle ( Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose ( Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica ( Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle ( Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  2. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

    2005-11-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.

  3. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

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    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  4. Surveying the Effect of the Phenol Compounds on Antibacterial Activity of Herbal Extracts: In vitro Assessment of Herbal Extracts in Fasa-Fars Province

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    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Due to increase in  bacterial drug resistance, discovering new antibacterial compounds is really important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the phenol compounds effect on antibacterial activity of herbal extracts of Fasa-Fars province in vitro. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial activity of 26 plants was studied by disk diffusion, well, and MIC methods in compare with 13 standard antibiotics against S. aureus and E. coli as control bacteria. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods using Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: Inhibition zone of bacterial growth  against S. aureus in well and disk methods were 32 and 22 mm in using Zataria multiflora, respectively .And there were 23 and 16 mm against E. coli in Zataria multiflora, respectively. Less effects and inhibition zones, less than 15mm on both strains, were seen in using  Saturina hortensis, Cinamomum zeylanicum, ­Artemisia absinthium, ­Urtica dioica, Carum carvi L. cyminum Cuminum, Achillea fragrantissimia, Marticaria chamomilla, Zingiber officinale, Origanum majorana, and Plantago psyllium. Most effective MIC results, 7.8 µg/ml, were related to the extracts of Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum L. Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Laurus nobilis L. Phenol compound amounts were approximately between 66.51±1.9 and 233.15±5.1 mg/gr extract in Zataria multiflora and Plantago psyllium, respectively. Conclusion: Results of antibacterial activity of extracts and relation with phenol compound amounts indicate the antibacterial effect of phenol compounds in herbal extracts.

  5. An ecological approach to the assessment of vegetation cover on inactive uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.; Caza, C.

    1982-01-01

    Vascular plants have been collected from abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in three mining areas in Canada. The collection was evaluated to determine some characteristics of vegetation development and to identify the plants which will persist on the sites. A total of 170 species were identified. Many of the species are widely distributed in North America, none has been reported as rare in any of the locations from which they were collected. Species richness was highest on Bancroft sites and lowest on Uranium City sites, though values were variable between sites. Forty-four per cent of the total number of species were found on only a single site. Only seven species occurred on more than half of the tailings sites and in all three mining areas. There was no difference between amended and unamended sites in terms of either species richness or species composition. There was no apparent relationship between species richness and either site size, site age or amendment history. The results of this survey suggest that the uranium mill tailings sites are at an early stage of colonization where the seed input from surrounding areas and the heterogeneity of the sites are factors determining species composition and species richness. The fate of an individual once it has reached the site will be determined by its ability to establish on the sites. A perennial growth habit and the ability to expand clonally are important characteristics of the species on the tailings. The species on the tailings are commonly found in a variety of habitats. Consistent with the observation that the tailings sites are at a stage of early colonization, we find that the few species widely distributed across sites are all characteristic pioneering species with wide environmental tolerances. These species included Populus tremuloides, P. balsamifera, Scirpus cyperinus, Equisetum arvense, Betula papyrifera, Achillea millefolium and Typha spp. The vegetation on the tailings is likely to be

  6. Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing predator abundance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Dean E

    2009-03-01

    As primary producers, plants are known to influence higher trophic interactions by initiating food chains. However, as architects, plants may bypass consumers to directly affect predators with important but underappreciated trophic ramifications. Invasion of western North American grasslands by the perennial forb, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use long-term monitoring, observational studies, and field experiments to document how changes in vegetation architecture have affected native web spider populations and predation rates. Native spiders that use vegetation as web substrates were collectively 38 times more abundant in C. maculosa-invaded grasslands than in uninvaded grasslands. This increase in spider abundance was accompanied by a large shift in web spider community structure, driven primarily by the strong response of Dictyna spiders to C. maculosa invasion. Dictyna densities were 46-74 times higher in C. maculosa-invaded than native grasslands, a pattern that persisted over 6 years of monitoring. C. maculosa also altered Dictyna web building behavior and foraging success. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa were 2.9-4.0 times larger and generated 2.0-2.3 times higher total prey captures than webs on Achillea millefolium, their primary native substrate. Dictyna webs on C. maculosa also captured 4.2 times more large prey items, which are crucial for reproduction. As a result, Dictyna were nearly twice as likely to reproduce on C. maculosa substrates compared to native substrates. The overall outcome of C. maculosa invasion and its transformative effects on vegetation architecture on Dictyna density and web building behavior were to increase Dictyna predation on invertebrate prey >/=89 fold. These results indicate that invasive plants that change the architecture of native vegetation can substantially impact native food webs via nontraditional plant --> predator --> consumer

  7. Influence of cnicin, a sesquiterpene lactone ofCentaurea maculosa (Asteraceae), on specialist and generalist insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, I; Müller-Schärer, H; Ward, P I

    1994-04-01

    The sesquiterpene lactone cnicin was extracted fromCentaurea maculosa andCentaurea vallesiaca. We examined its effects on the ovipositional response and larval development of generalist and specialist insect herbivores associated withC. maculosa. For the oviposition trials, three plant species (C. maculosa, Achillea millefolium, andCichorium intybus), half of which were sprayed with 3% of cnicin, were exposed to the specialist mothsStenodes straminea, Agapeta zoegana, andPterolonche inspersa in field cages. All three species significantly preferredC. maculosa to other plants andP. inspersa significantly preferred cnicin-sprayed plants to untreated plants for oviposition. Tested over all species, cnicin significantly increased the number of eggs laid on a given plant. A larval diet test examined the toxicity of cnicin for larvae of the generalist noctuid mothSpodoptera littoralis. Cnicin concentrations of 3% and 6% were lethal and 1% and 0.5% seriously inhibited growth and development. The larvae of theC. maculosa specialistStenodes straminea survived at 6% cnicin, but none of the pupae hatched.Agapeta zoegana was able to survive at 1% and 3% cnicin. Both specialists had difficulties with the artificial diet, but weight increase and survival was not further reduced when cnicin was present compared with on the control diet. In conclusion, cnicin influenced host recognition by the specialist species, and larvae of the generalist did not survive on natural levels of cnicin. Growth and survival of the specialist were not influenced by cnicin but were considerably hampered on artificial diet.

  8. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  9. Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Some Native Plants and Synthetic Repellents against Human Flea, Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae

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    Mohammad Bagher Ghavami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleas are important vectors of human and animal disease, and control measures for protection against their bites and flea-borne diseases are necessary.Methods: The essential oils (EOs of four native medicinal plants, Ziziphora tenuiore, Myrtus communis, Achillea wilhelmsii and Mentha piperita were isolated by hydrodistillation technique and analyzed by GC-MC. The repellent activity of EOs and synthetic compounds, DEET and permethrin, were assayed on human subjects against field col­lected fleas. The effective doses of 50% and 90% of EOs and synthetic compounds were estimated by probit analysis of dose and response regression line.Results: Analysis of EOs revealed about 19 major components. All oils were found to be more repellent (ED50 range= 208–955µg cm-2 than DEET and permethrin (ED50 range= 27–182 x 103 µg cm-2. Thyme and myrtle oils showed high repellent activities and among the total detected terpenes, thymol (36.26% and α- pinene (32.5% were the major components of those oils respectively.Conclusion: Low repellent potency of DEET and permethrin against fleas might be related to flea olfactory system and further molecular and electrophysiological studies are required to conceive new ideas for the discovery and de­velopment of the next generation of repellents. Based on high repellent activity of thyme and myrtle essential oils against Pulex irritans further studies should be staged to develop their appropriate effective formulations. Likewise, field trials should be carried out to evaluate the operational feasibility and dermal toxicity over a long period.

  10. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on time of flowering in four short-day and four long-day species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reekie, J.Y.C.; Hicklenton, P.R. (Agriculture Canada Research Station, Kentiville, NS (Canada)); Reekie, E.G. (Acadia Univ., Wolfville, NS (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if the effect of elevated CO[sub 2] on flowering phenology is a function of the photoperiodic response of the species involved. Four long-day plants, Achillea millefolium, Callistephus chinensis, Campanula isophylla, and Trachelium caeruleum, and four short-day plants, Dendranthema grandiflora, Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, Pharbitis nil, and Xanthium pensylvanicum, were grown under inductive photoperiods (9 h for short day and 17 h for long day) at either 350 or 1000 [mu]l/l CO[sub 2]. Time of visible flower bud formation, flower opening, and final plant biomass were assessed. Elevated CO[sub 2] advanced flower opening in all four long-day species and delayed flowering in all four short-day species. In the long-day species, the effect of CO[sub 2] was primarily on bud initiation; all four species formed buds earlier at high CO[sub 2]. Bud development, the difference in time between flower opening and bud initiation, was advanced in only one long-day species, Callistephus chinensis. Mixed results were obtained for the short-day species. Elevated CO[sub 2] exerted no effects on bud initiation but delayed bud development in Dendranthema and Kalanchoe. In Xanthium, bud initiation rather than bud development was delayed. Data on bud initiation and development were not obtained for Pharbitis. The negative effect of CO[sub 2] upon phenology in the short-day species was not associated with negative effects on growth. Elevated CO[sub 2] increased plant size in both long-day and short-day species. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

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    Weronika Kozlowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., garlic (Allium sativum L., gentian (Gentiana lutea L., lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, and lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor L.. While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose (Viburnum opulus L. and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica (Angelica archangelica L. and carline thistle (Carlina acaulis L.. The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  12. Mechanisms for success after long-term nutrient enrichment in a boreal forest understory.

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    Tess Nahanni Grainger

    Full Text Available Global levels of reactive nitrogen are predicted to rise in the coming decades as a result of increased deposition from the burning of fossil fuels and the large-scale conversion of nitrogen into a useable form for agriculture. Many plant communities respond strongly to increases in soil nitrogen, particularly in northern ecosystems where nitrogen levels are naturally very low. An experiment in northern Canada that was initiated in 1990 has been investigating the effects of long-term nutrient enrichment (fertilizer added annually on a boreal forest understory community. We used this experiment to investigate why some species increase in abundance under nutrient enrichment whereas others decline. We focused on four species that differed in their responses to fertilization: Mertensia paniculata and Epilobium angustifolium increased in abundance, Achillea millefolium remained relatively constant and Festuca altaica declined. We hypothesized that the two species that were successful in the new high-nutrient, light-limited environment would be taller, have higher specific leaf area, change phenology by growing earlier in the season and be more morphologically plastic than their less successful counterparts. We compared plant height, specific leaf area, growth spurt date and allocation to leaves in plants grown in control and fertilized plots. We demonstrated that each of the two species that came to dominate fertilized plots has a different combination of traits and responses that likely gave them a competitive advantage; M. paniculata has the highest specific leaf area of the four species whereas E. angustifolium is tallest and exhibits morphological plasticity when fertilized by increasing biomass allocation to leaves. These results indicate that rather than one strategy determining success when nutrients become available, a variety of traits and responses may contribute to a species' ability to persist in a nutrient-enriched boreal forest

  13. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  14. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province-Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Bakhsh Tareen, Rsool; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Rehman, Saeed-Ur; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2014-11-18

    The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants in district Mastung of Balochistan province, Pakistan. The ethnobotanical results contain quantitative information on medicinal plants diversity documented for the first time in the area. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews, rapid appraisal approach, open ended questionnaire and personal observations. Results were analyzed using quantitative indices of information consent factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). In total of 102 plant species belonging to 47 families were reported for the medicinal purposes. Asteraceae was found to be dominant family in terms of species in the area with 11 species. The whole plant and leaves were noted as most frequently used parts (24%). Decoction (31% with 40 species) was the most commonly used preparation method. Highest ICF value (1) was recorded for antidote category. 100% fidelity level was found for four plant species i.e. Achillea welhemsii, Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, and Seripidium quettense. The highest use value was reported for the Acroptilon repens (0.5) while highest RFC value was calculated for Berberis balochistanica and Citrullus colocynthis (0.18). Highest use report was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata, Citrullus colocynthis, Malva neglecta and Mentha longifolia with five use reports for each. The area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. However, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. This study provides basis for the conservation of the local flora, its use as food and medicine. It also provides various socio-economic dimensions associated with the common people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of dietary administration of yarrow extract on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

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    Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects and possible side effects of yarrow extract (Achillea millefolium L. as feed additive on biochemical blood parameters and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes were treated with 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% of yarrow extract for 30 days. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, peroxidase activity, total complement and lysozyme activity, glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured after 15 and 30 days of yarrow treatment. There were no significant changes in the lysozyme activity and glucose levels. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the fish fed with diets enriched with 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels was significantly decreased in the fish fed with diets containing 0.5% and 1% yarrow extract on day 30 (P<0.05. LDH, CK and peroxidase activities in the fish fed with diets having 1% yarrow extract were significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (P<0.05. In contrast, a significant increase in AST, ALP and total complement activity was observed in the fish fed with 1% yarrow extract diet, on day 15 (P<0.05. The weight gain and specific growth rate increased and food conversion ratio decreased in in the fish fed 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Condition factor in the fish fed with yarrow extract was significantly higher than control group on 30 day. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of yarrow extract up to 0.5% have not side effect on blood biochemical and clinical parameters of fishes. However, oral administration of 1% of yarrow extract caused cytotoxicity and modifications in blood biochemical parameters of fish.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION COVER ON SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO, FOLLOWING 13-YEAR-LONG RECLAMATION

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    Kazimierz Henryk Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of vegetation survey on the alkaline and saline soda waste disposal site at Janikowo Soda Plant near Toruń (central Poland. The site was subject to reclamation using diverse techniques including sewage sludge and ash, starting from the year 2000 onwards. The survey was made to evaluate the status of plant succession as well as stability and diversity of vegetation cover. The vegetation was inventoried using the cover-frequency method, on a 10 x 10 m quadrat samples randomly distributed over the reclaimed area. Communities were classified using the Central-European approach by Braun-Blanquet (1964. In 2013, the vegetation was well established and provided a dense cover of the substrate. 108 plant species were found compared to some 5–8 plants which arrived spontaneously until the year 2000. Species richness increased 15 fold since the year when reclamation started. Species of graminoid and Asteraceae families prevailed in most patches of local vegetation. The vegetation cover on sites treated with a mixt of power plant ash and sewage sludge was less stable and less diverse than that on sites where sewage sludge only was applied. Annuals and biennials dominated in the vegetation on ash grounds while more competitive perennials prevailed on sewage sludge substrates. On the latter substrates there develop plant communities classified as an association of smooth meadow grass and common yarrow Poa pratensis-Achillea millefolium, whose species combination closely resembles that of seminatural fresh meadows. On the ash grounds, a variety of associations of ruderal plants were found with dominating Loesel mustard and common mugwort Sisymbrium loeselii-Artemisia vulgaris. Phytoindicatory methods using Ellenberg values have shown that waste substrates contained increased salt concentrations, however, there was no indication of increased heavy metal contents, as no plants tolerating excessive amounts of heavy metals were

  17. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from indigenous Middle Eastern plants inhibit tumor promoter-induced transformation of JB6 cells

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    Saikali Melody

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones (SL are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Considering that several SL-derived drugs are currently in cancer clinical trials, we have tested two SL molecules, 3-β-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (β-tan isolated from Achillea falcata and salograviolide A (Sal A isolated from Centaurea ainetensis, for their anti-tumor properties. We used the mouse epidermal JB6P + cells as a model for tumor promotion and cellular transformation. Key players that are involved in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis are the AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors; therefore, we assessed how β-tan and Sal A modulate their signaling pathways in JB6P + cells. Methods The effects of β-tan and Sal A on the growth of normal and neoplastic keratinocytes and on the tumor promotion-responsive JB6P + cells were determined using the MTT assay. Anchorage-independent cell growth transformation assays were used to evaluate the anti-tumor promoting properties of these SL molecules in JB6P + cells and dual luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate their effects on tumor promoter-induced AP-1 and NF-κB activities and protein levels of key AP-1 and NF-кB target genes. Results β-tan and Sal A selectively inhibited tumor promoter-induced cell growth and transformation of JB6P + cells at concentrations that do not affect JB6P + and primary keratinocytes basal cell growth. In addition, both molecules reduced basal and tumor promoter-induced NF-κB transcriptional activities, differentially regulated basal and tumor promoter-induced AP-1 transcriptional activities, and modulated key players of the AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Conclusions These results highlight the anti-tumor promoting properties of β-tan and Sal A. These SL molecules isolated from two plant species native to

  18. Sesquiterpene lactones isolated from indigenous Middle Eastern plants inhibit tumor promoter-induced transformation of JB6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikali, Melody; Ghantous, Akram; Halawi, Racha; Talhouk, Salma N; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2012-07-09

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) are plant secondary metabolites that are known for their anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties. Considering that several SL-derived drugs are currently in cancer clinical trials, we have tested two SL molecules, 3-β-methoxy-iso-seco-tanapartholide (β-tan) isolated from Achillea falcata and salograviolide A (Sal A) isolated from Centaurea ainetensis, for their anti-tumor properties. We used the mouse epidermal JB6P + cells as a model for tumor promotion and cellular transformation. Key players that are involved in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis are the AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors; therefore, we assessed how β-tan and Sal A modulate their signaling pathways in JB6P + cells. The effects of β-tan and Sal A on the growth of normal and neoplastic keratinocytes and on the tumor promotion-responsive JB6P + cells were determined using the MTT assay. Anchorage-independent cell growth transformation assays were used to evaluate the anti-tumor promoting properties of these SL molecules in JB6P + cells and dual luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis were used to investigate their effects on tumor promoter-induced AP-1 and NF-κB activities and protein levels of key AP-1 and NF-кB target genes. β-tan and Sal A selectively inhibited tumor promoter-induced cell growth and transformation of JB6P + cells at concentrations that do not affect JB6P + and primary keratinocytes basal cell growth. In addition, both molecules reduced basal and tumor promoter-induced NF-κB transcriptional activities, differentially regulated basal and tumor promoter-induced AP-1 transcriptional activities, and modulated key players of the AP-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways. These results highlight the anti-tumor promoting properties of β-tan and Sal A. These SL molecules isolated from two plant species native to the Middle East may provide opportunities for complementary

  19. A cross-cultural comparison of folk plant uses among Albanians, Bosniaks, Gorani and Turks living in south Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Behxhet; Hajdari, Avni; Pieroni, Andrea; Pulaj, Bledar; Koro, Xhemajli; Quave, Cassandra L

    2015-05-12

    Kosovo represents a unique hotspot of biological and cultural diversity in Europe, which allows for interesting cross-cultural ethnobotanical studies. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to document the state of traditional knowledge related to local (esp. wild) plant uses for food, medicine, and handicrafts in south Kosovo; and 2) to examine how communities of different ethnic groups in the region (Albanians, Bosniaks/Gorani, and Turks) relate to and value wild botanical taxa in their ecosystem. Field research was conducted in 10 villages belonging to the Prizren municipality and 4 villages belonging to the Dragash municipality, located in the Sharr Mountains in the southern part of Kosovo. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 139 elderly informants (61 Albanians, 32 Bosniaks/Gorani and 46 Turks), for participation in semi-structured interviews regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal, food, and handicraft purposes. Overall, we recorded the local uses of 114 species were used for medicinal purposes, 29 for food (wild food plants), and 20 in handicraft activities. The most important species used for medicinal purposes were Achillea millefolium L., Sambucus nigra L., Urtica dioica L., Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Hypericum perforatum L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Thymus serpyllum L. and Vaccinium myrtillus L. Chamomilla recutita was the most highly valued of these species across the populations surveyed. Out of 114 taxa used for medicinal purposes, only 44 species are also included in the European Pharmacopoeia. The predominantly quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Comparison of the data recorded among the Albanian, Bosniak/Gorani, and Turkish communities indicated a less herbophilic attitude of the Albanian populations, while most quoted taxa were quoted by all three communities, thus suggesting a hybrid character of the Kosovar plant knowledge. Cross-cultural ethnobiological studies are crucial in

  20. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  1. Traditional wound-healing plants used in the Balkan region (Southeast Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Kostić, Olga; Mataruga, Zorana; Pavlović, Dragana; Pavlović, Marija; Mitrović, Miroslava; Pavlović, Pavle

    2018-01-30

    The geographical and ecological specificity of the Balkan Peninsula has resulted in the development of a distinct diversity of medicinal plants. In the traditional culture of the Balkan peoples, plants have medicinal, economic and anthropological/cultural importance, which is reflected in the sound knowledge of their diversity and use. This study analyses the traditional use of medicinal plants in the treatment of wounds and the pharmacological characteristics of the most frequently used species. A detailed analysis of the literature related to ethnobhe uses of medicinal plants in the Balkan region was carried out. Twenty-five studies were analysed and those plants used for the treatment of wounds were singled out. An ethnobotanical analysis showed that 128 plant species (105 wild, 22 cultivated and 1 wild/cultivated) are used in the treatment of wounds. Their application is external, in the form of infusions, decoctions, tinctures, syrups, oils, ointments, and balms, or direct to the skin. Among those plants recorded, the most commonly used are Plantago major, Hypericum perforatum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Sambucus nigra, Tussilago farfara and Prunus domestica. The study showed that the traditional use of plants in wound healing is confirmed by in vitro and/or in vivo studies for P. major and P. lanceolata (3 laboratory studies for P. major and 2 for P. lanceolata), H. perforatum (5 laboratory studies and 3 clinical trials), A. millefolium (3 laboratory studies and one clinical trial), C. officinalis (6 laboratory studies and 1 clinical trial), S. nigra (3 laboratory studies) and T. farfara (one laboratory study). The beneficial effects of using medicinal plants from the Balkan region to heal wounds according to traditional practices have been proven in many scientific studies. However, information on the quantitative benefits to human health of using herbal medicines to heal wounds is still scarce or fragmented, hindering

  2. Fischer's Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs: a previously unknown contribution to the ethnobotany of Ukraine and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Typek, Joanna

    2015-12-24

    Historical ethnobotanical studies are important, even if they are only descriptive, because they help to throw light on the missing chains needed for diachronic analysis. However, the documentation of traditional uses of plants in some countries, e.g. Ukraine, is still fragmentary. The aim of this contribution is to fill the gap and present a portion of the data set, from western Ukraine, which was collected by Adam Fischer, a Polish ethnographer from Lviv, in the 1930s. These data were originally gathered to be published in the first part of the Lexicon of Slavic beliefs and customs, dedicated to plant uses in traditional Slavonic culture. The idea of writing the Lexicon arose in 1929 during the I Congress of Slavic Philologists in Prague and was intended to be a joint international enterprise, but has never actually been fulfilled. In this article we used information from south-eastern Poland at that time - nowadays western Ukraine, collected in four provinces, 11 counties and 28 localities by Fischer's collaborators. The majority of the information was accompanied by voucher specimens, which were determined by botanists at the Jan Kazimierz University. These data are still unpublished and stored on filecards in the archives of the Polish Ethnological Society in Wrocław, Poland. In our analysis we applied two indices: one to measure general plant versatility - Use Value, and another regarding medicinal plants - Relative Importance Value. In total, 179 plant taxa used in peasant culture in the western Ukraine in the 1930s were registered. The species which achieved the highest Use Values were: Achillea millefolium, Allium sativum, Vinca minor, Hypericum sp. and Juniperus communis. Among the collected plant names, Polish names dominate (59%) over clearly Ukrainian and Ruthenian ones (31%). The remaining 10% of names were of unclear origin or could have been used by both groups. The most salient use categories were medicinal, followed by ritual - chiefly plants

  3. Effect of a Dietary Herbal Mixture Supplement on the Growth Performance, Egg Production and Health Status in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasko GERZILOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with dual-purpose fowls developed for rural backyard farming – indigenous Katunitsa chicken (line “AN”, in a free range management system from hatching to 52 weeks of age. The purpose of the investigation was to establish the influence of a blend of herbs as a dietary supplement on some serum biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and creatinine, growth performance, egg production, egg fatty acid composition, and health status. The composition of this blend of herbs included: 0.05% garlic powder (Allium sativum, 0.3% cinnamon powder (Cinnamomum verum and 0.03% of each of the following dried herbs: yarrow (Achillea millefolium, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus serpyllum, basil (Ocimum basilicum and oregano (Origanum vulgare. The birds were divided into two groups – control (n=60 without supplemental mixture to the diet and experimental (n=700 with supplemental mixture to the diet from the first day of age to the end of the experiment. The results showed that the herbal mixture supplement decreased significantly the blood serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels – at 7 (P0.05. Over the entire investigation period the chickens from the experimental group had a better feed conversion ratio (with 3.37% and a higher egg laying capacity (with 1.79%. At the end of experiment (52 weeks of age, hens from the control group exhibited generalised fatty degeneration of liver parenchyma, while these in experimental group, the major part of hepatocytes had no fat droplets in their cytoplasm. The death rate from 0 to 7, from 8 to 21 and from 22 to 52 weeks of age was 18.33%, 0% and 8.57% in the control group and 1.00%, 0.26% and 2.62% in the experimental group, respectively. Therefore in conclusion, it can be affirmed that the use of this blend of herbs had a beneficial effect in the treated fowls and

  4. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    .13). Highest RFC value were calculated for Achillea millefolium (0.19) and least RFC were calculated for Blepharis sindica (0.02). The endemic species with 100% fidelity level was calculated for two plant species i.e. Seriphidium quettense and B. baluchistanica. The Balochistan is rich in endemic and other medicinal plants, still needs more exploration and study. Thus, it is important to document and reconstitute the remainders of the ancient medical practices which exist in Balochistan and other areas of the world, and preserve this knowledge for future generations. The endemic species which are used in traditional medicine in the region lacks phototherapeutic evidence. It is necessary to perform phytochemical or pharmacological studies to explore the potential of plants used for medicinal purposes. Overgrazing, urbanization and unsustainable harvesting of such rare and endemic medicinal plants in this region is facing severe threats of extinction. It is thus recommended that cultivation techniques be formulated, especially for the most important endemic plant medicinal species of the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria Atividade de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene G. F. Nascimento

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow, Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove, Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm, Ocimun basilucum (basil, Psidium guajava (guava, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Salvia officinalis (sage, Syzygyum joabolanum (jambolan and Thymus vulgaris (thyme. The phytochemicals benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and farnesol were also utilized. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the extracts of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Syzygyum joabolanum, which inhibited 64.2 and 57.1% of the tested microorganisms, respectively, with higher activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (83.3%. Sage and yarrow extracts did not present any antimicrobial activity. Association of antibiotics and plant extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results obtained with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was particularly interesting, since it was inhibited by clove, jambolan, pomegranate and thyme extracts. This inhibition was observed with the individual extracts and when they were used in lower concentrations with ineffective antibiotics.Foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos frente a microrganismos sensíveis e resistentes a antibióticos, bem como observado o possível efeito sinérgico da associação entre antibióticos e extratos vegetais. Foram utilizados os extratos de plantas cujo nomes populares são: tomilho, alecrim, cravo-da-Índia, jambolão, erva cidreira, romã, goiaba, sálvia, manjericão e mil-folhas, e ainda os fitofármacos, ácido benzóico, ácido cinâmico, eugenol e farnesol. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana através do m

  6. Physics in the Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    initiative of the EC to raise public awareness of science and technology. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). European Commissioner Busquin to Visit Physics On Stage On Thursday, November 9, Philippe Busquin , Commissioner for Research, European Commission, Prof. Luciano Maiani , Director-General of CERN, Antonio Rodota , Director-General of ESA, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director-General of ESO, and Dr. Achilleas Mitsos , Director-General of the Research DG in the European Commission, will participate in the activities of the Physics on Stage Festival. On this occasion, Commissioner Busquin will address conference delegates and the Media on the importance of Science and of innovative science and technology education. The Festival Each of the more than 400 delegates of the festival has been selected during the course of the year by committees in each of the 22 countries for outstanding projects promoting science. For example, a group of Irish physics teachers and their students will give a concert on instruments made exclusively of plumbing material, explaining the physics of sound at the same time. A professional theatre company from Switzerland stages a play on antimatter. Or two young Germans invite spectators to their interactive physics show where they juggle, eat fire and perform stunning physics experiments on stage. The colourful centrepiece of this week is the Physics Fair. Every country has its own stands where delegates show their projects, programmes or experiments and gain inspiration from the exhibits from other countries. Physics on Stage is a unique event. Nothing like it has ever happened in terms of international exchange, international collaboration and state of the art science and technology education methods. The Nobel prizewinners of 2030 are at school today. What ideas can Europe's teachers put forward to boost their interest in science? An invitation to the media We invite

  7. MR imaging in the diagnosis of the os trigonum syndrome; Il ruolo della Risonanza Magnetica nella diagnosi della sindrome dell'os trigonum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburrini, O.; Porpiglia, H.; Barresi, D.; Bertucci, B.; Console, D. [Catanzaro Univ. Magna Grecia, Catanzaro (Italy). Radiologia, Dipt. di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica

    1999-12-01

    RM nell'ambito delle malattie dolorose del retropiede e piu' in particolare nella sindrome dell'os trigonum, in considerazione della notevole difficolta' clinica per la corretta diagnosi. Lo studio e' stato condotto su sette pazienti che lamentavano dolore al retropiede da piu' di quattro mesi (maschi/femmine=1/6), con eta' compresa tra 16 e 22 anni (eta' media 18,6 anni); 3/7 praticavano attivita' agonistica sportiva, 4/7 danza classica. In 2/7 pazienti l'os trigonum presentava margini irregolari con sclerosi subcondrale e ampliamento della sincondrosi. In 3/7 pazienti e' stata documentata tenosinovite del tendine flessore lungo dell'alluce causata verosimilmente dalla sua compressione e spostamento all'interno della propria guaina, senza ne' alterazione dell'intensita' di segnale dell'os trigonum, ne' ampliamento della sincondrosi. In 1/7 pazienti sono stati rilevati ipertrofia dell'os trigonum, modico ampliamento della sincondrosi e segni importanti di edema midollare nell'os trigonum e nel processo posteriore dell'astragalo. In 1/7 pazienti, pur in presenza di os trigonum rilevato all'esame radiologico tradizionale, l'esame RM non ha documentato alcuno dei segni da riferire a sindrome dell'os trigonum: la diagnosi definitiva e' stata tendinite achillea. La RM e' l'unica metodica che fornisce importanti informazioni sul coinvolgimento dei tessuti molli, della superficie condro-ossea e sulle reazioni sinoviali riuscendo percio' a dimostrare chiaramente l'eventuale coesistente tenosinovite del tendine flessore lungo dell'alluce ed inoltre provvedendo a fornire informazioni dettagliate per il corretto approccio terapeutico. In conclusione, nell'ambito delle malattie dolorose del retropiede da cause ossee, laddove si sospetti clinicamente la sindrome dell'os trigonum, la non invasivita' della RM