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Sample records for achieve rapid modulation

  1. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK activation, we showed that the activation of the new MAPK module is delayed and relies on the MAP3K protein synthesis. In this addendum, we discuss the role of this original and unexpected activation mechanism of MAPK cascades which suggests that MAPKs can regulate both early and longterm plant stress responses.

  2. Challenges and achievements in the therapeutic modulation of aquaporin functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Eric; Golldack, André; Rothert, Monja; von Bülow, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water and solute channels have basic physiological functions throughout the human body. AQP-facilitated water permeability across cell membranes is required for rapid reabsorption of water from pre-urine in the kidneys and for sustained near isosmolar water fluxes e.g. in the brain, eyes, inner ear, and lungs. Cellular water permeability is further connected to cell motility. AQPs of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are necessary for lipid degradation in adipocytes and glycerol uptake into the liver, as well as for skin moistening. Modulation of AQP function is desirable in several pathophysiological situations, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Sjögren's syndrome, Menière's disease, heart failure, or tumors to name a few. Attempts to design or to find effective small molecule AQP inhibitors have yielded only a few hits. Challenges reside in the high copy number of AQP proteins in the cell membranes, and spatial restrictions in the protein structure. This review gives an overview on selected physiological and pathophysiological conditions in which modulation of AQP functions appears beneficial and discusses first achievements in the search of drug-like AQP inhibitors. PMID:26277280

  3. Rapid Prototyping Modules for Remote Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes the concept and implementation for an integration of microcontroller and FPGA based Rapid Prototyping modules into a Remote Lab system. This implementation enables a Web-based access to electro-mechanical models. A student uploads a source file implementation to the Remote Lab server in order to test an implementation directly within a hardware environment. The Remote Lab server offers the interfaces to integrate specific project and hardware plug-ins. These plug-ins access a hardware specific software environment to automatically compile and program the resulting firmware. To stimulate this design, the Remote Lab server exchanges digital signals via a serial interface. To allow the student to compare architectures of different designs using the same hardware model, a specific controller (using the Remote Lab interface can be selected. For this, an IP-based multiplexer provides the control connection between the respective controller and the hardware model. In our contribution we would like to give examples of such a complex design task and how the students can use different tools during several design steps.

  4. Best Practices for Achieving High, Rapid Reading Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The percentage of students who read at the proficient level on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has not improved, and is appallingly low. In order for students to achieve high reading gains and become life-long readers, reading comprehension and reading enjoyment must be the top two goals. This article presents several…

  5. Negative emotion does not modulate rapid feature integration effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka eTruebutschek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal at encoding is known to facilitate later memory recall. In the present study, we asked whether this emotion-modulation of episodic memory is also evident at very short time scales, as measured by feature integration effects, the moment-by-moment binding of relevant stimulus and response features in episodic memory. This question was motivated by recent findings that negative emotion appears to potentiate 1st-order trial sequence effects in classic conflict tasks, which has been attributed to emotion-modulation of conflict-driven cognitive control processes. However, these effects could equally well have been carried by emotion-modulation of mnemonic feature binding processes, which were perfectly confounded with putative control processes in these studies. In the present experiments, we tried to shed light on this question by testing explicitly whether feature integration processes, assessed in isolation of conflict-control, are in fact susceptible to negative emotion-modulation. For this purpose, we adopted a standard protocol for assessing the rapid binding of stimulus and response features in episodic memory (Experiment 1 and paired it with the presentation of either neutral or fearful background face stimuli, shown either at encoding only (Experiment 2, or at both encoding and retrieval (Experiment 3. Whereas reliable feature integration effects were observed in all three experiments, no evidence for emotion-modulation of these effects was detected, in spite of significant effects of emotion on response times. These findings suggest that rapid feature integration of foreground stimulus and response features is not subject to modulation by negative emotional background stimuli and further suggest that previous reports of emotion-modulated trial-transition effects are likely attributable to the effects of emotion on cognitive control processes.

  6. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS. In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS. The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 µm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K. A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer.

  7. ESTRADIOL RAPIDLY MODULATES ODOR RESPONSES IN MOUSE VOMERONASAL SENSORY NEURONS

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, S; LAM, Y. WAI; MCDANIELS, I.; STRUZIAK, M.; DELAY, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesize...

  8. Estradiol rapidly modulates odor responses in mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, S; Wai Lam, Y; McDaniels, I; Struziak, M; Delay, R J

    2014-06-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular 17β-estradiol, would modulate activity of VSNs. In this paper, we show that the estrogen receptors, GPR30 and ERα, were present in VSNs and that estradiol may be synthesized locally in the VNO. Our results also showed that 17β-estradiol decreased responses of isolated VSNs to dilute urine, a potent natural stimulus, with respect to current amplitudes and depolarization. Further, 17β-estradiol increased the latency of the first action potential (AP) and the AP amplitude. Additionally, calcium responses to sulfated steroids (present in the low molecular weight fraction of urine) that act as ligands for apical vomeronasal receptors were decreased by 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, we show that estradiol modulates odorant responses mediated by VSNs and hence paves the way for future studies to better understand the mechanisms by which odorant mediated behavior is altered by endocrine status of the animal. PMID:24680884

  9. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  10. Volumetric intensity-modulated Arc (RapidArc therapy for primary hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and 3-D conformal radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chia-Wen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the RapidArc plan for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT plans using dosimetric analysis. Methods Nine patients with unresectable HCC were enrolled in this study. Dosimetric values for RapidArc, IMRT, and 3DCRT were calculated for total doses of 45~50.4 Gy using 1.8 Gy/day. The parameters included the conformal index (CI, homogeneity index (HI, and hot spot (V107% for the planned target volume (PTV as well as the monitor units (MUs for plan efficiency, the mean dose (Dmean for the organs at risk (OAR and the maximal dose at 1% volume (D1% for the spinal cord. The percentage of the normal liver volume receiving ≥ 40, > 30, > 20, and > 10 Gy (V40 Gy, V30 Gy, V20 Gy, and V10 Gy and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP were also evaluated to determine liver toxicity. Results All three methods achieved comparable homogeneity for the PTV. RapidArc achieved significantly better CI and V107% values than IMRT or 3DCRT (p p mean of the normal liver than did 3DCRT or RapidArc (p = 0.001. 3DCRT had higher V40 Gy and V30 Gy values for the normal liver than did RapidArc or IMRT. Although the V10 Gy to the normal liver was higher with RapidArc (75.8 ± 13.1% than with 3DCRT or IMRT (60.5 ± 10.2% and 57.2 ± 10.0%, respectively; p p = 0.02. Conclusions RapidArc provided favorable tumor coverage compared with IMRT or 3DCRT, but RapidArc is not superior to IMRT in terms of liver protection. Further studies are needed to establish treatment outcome differences between the three approaches.

  11. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Liu Feifei [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fyles, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.fyles@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  12. A method to achieve rapid localised deep heating in a laser irradiated solid density target

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Rapid heating of small buried regions by laser generated fast electrons may be useful for applications such as XUV radiation sources or as drivers for shock experiments. In non-structured targets the heating profile possesses a global maximum near the front surface. This paper presents a new target design that uses resistive guiding to concentrate the fast electron current density at a finite depth inside the target. The choice of geometry uses principles of non-imaging optics. A global temperature maximum at depths up to 50{\\mu}m into the target is achieved. Although theoretical calculations suggest that small source sizes should perform better than large ones, simulations show that a large angular spread at high intensities results in significant losses of the fast electrons to the sides. A systematic parameter scan suggests an optimal laser intensity. A ratio of 1.6 is demonstrated between the maximum ion temperature and the ion temperature at the front surface.

  13. Rapid Estradiol Modulation of Neuronal Connectivity and Its Implications for Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Deepak P.; Penzes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens have multiple actions in the brain including modulating synaptic plasticity, connectivity, and cognitive behaviors. While the classical view of estrogens are as endocrine signals, whose effects manifest via the regulation of gene transcription, mounting evidence has been presented demonstrating that estrogens have rapid effects within specific areas of the brain. The emergence that 17 β-estradiol can be produced locally in the brain which can elicit rapid (within minutes) cellular r...

  14. Rapid estradiol modulation of neuronal connectivity and its implications for disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Prakash Srivastava

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens have multiple actions in the brain including modulating synaptic plasticity, connectivity and cognitive behaviours. While the classical view of estrogens are as endocrine signals, whose effects manifest via the regulation of gene transcription, mounting evidence has been presented demonstrating that estrogens have rapid effects within specific areas of the brain. The emergence that 17 β-estradiol can be produced locally in the brain which can elicit rapid (within minutes cellular responses has led to its classification as a neurosteroid. Moreover, recent studies have also begun to detail the molecular and cellular underpinnings of how 17 β-estradiol can rapidly modulate spiny synapses (dendritic spines. Remodelling of dendritic spines is a key step in the rewiring of neuronal circuitry thought to underlie the processing and storage of information in the forebrain. Conversely, abnormal remodelling of dendritic spines is thought to contribute to a number of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we review recent molecular and cellular work that offers a potential mechanism of how 17 β-estradiol may modulate synapse structure and function of cortical neurons. This mechanism allows cortical neurons to respond to activity-dependent stimuli with greater efficacy. In turn this form of plasticity may provide an insight into how 17 β-estradiol can modulate the rewiring of neuronal circuits, underlying its ability to influencing cortically based behaviours. We will then go on to discuss the potential role of 17 β-estradiol modulation of neural circuits and its potential relevance for the treatment of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. Rapid replication and facile modulation of subwavelength antireflective polymer film using injection nanomolding and optical property of multilayer coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Peng, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Chieh-Tse

    2013-10-01

    A rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput process for nanotexturing subwavelength structures with high uniformity using the polycarbonate (PC) is realized via injection nanomolding. The process enables the precise control of nanohole array (NHA) surface topography (nanohole depth, diameter, and periodicity) over large areas thereby presenting a highly versatile platform for fabricating substrates with user-defined, functional performance. Specifically, the optical property of the PC substrates were systematically characterized and tuned through the modulation of the depths of NHA. The aspect ratio submicron holes can be easily modulated and experimentally proven by simply adjusting the molding temperature. The nanotextured depths were reliably fabricated in the range of 200 to 400 nm with a period of approximately 700 nm. The fabricated PC films can reduce the reflectivity from an original bare film of 10.2% and 8.9% to 1.4% and 2.1% with 400-nm depth of nanoholes at the wavelength of 400 and 550 nm, respectively. Compared with conventional moth-like nanostructures with nanopillar arrays with heights adjustable only by an etching process, this paper proposes a facile route with submicron holes to achieve a similar antireflective function, with a significantly reduced time and facile height modulation capability. Furthermore, the effects of multilayer coatings of dielectric and metallic layers on the nanomolded NHA have been performed and potential sensing application is explored.

  16. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  17. The Rapid Integration and Test Environment - A Process for Achieving Software Test Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Jack

    2010-01-01

    The Rapid Integration and Test Environment (RITE) initiative, implemented by the Program Executive Office, Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence, Command and Control Program Office (PMW-150), was born of necessity. Existing processes for requirements definition and management, as well as those for software development, did not consistently deliver high-quality Navy command and control (C2) systems on time and within budget. Navy C2 software programs experienced an inc...

  18. Student Achievement and Education Policy in a Period of Rapid Expansion: Assessment Data Evidence from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Nessay, Puth; Hok, Ung Ngo; Savoeun, Va; Tinon, Soeur; Veasna, Meung

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses student achievement and school quality in large samples of schools in Cambodia. Descriptive summaries of student proficiency levels in language and mathematics reveal large gaps between average performance in grades three and six. Given the near universal completion rates for grade three--and lower access to grade six--these…

  19. Spiny mice modulate eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio to achieve cryptic coloration in "evolution canyon," Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Singaravelan

    the ES than on the AS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: It appears that rodents adaptively modulate eumelanin and pheomelanin contents to achieve cryptic coloration in contrasting habitats even at a microscale.

  20. Rapid Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Adam; Alali, Sanaz; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its composition, both structural and functional. For example, the polarimetry-derived metric of linear retardance (birefringence) is dependent on tissue structural organization (anisotropy) and can be used to diagnose myocardial infarct; circular birefringence (optical rotation) can measure glucose concentrations. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. To derive this 4x4 matrix it is necessary to observe how a tissue interacts with different polarizations. A well-suited approach for tissue polarimetry is to use photoelastic modulators (PEMs), which dynamically modulate the polarization of light. Previously, we have demonstrated a rapid time-gated Stokes imaging system that is capable of characterizing the state of polarized light (the Stokes vector) over a large field, after interacting with any turbid media. This was accomplished by synchronizing CCD camera acquisition times relative to two PEMs using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Here, we extend this technology to four PEMs, yielding a polarimetry system that is capable of rapidly measuring the complete sample Mueller matrix over a large field of view, with no moving parts and no beam steering. We describe the calibration procedure and evaluate the accuracy of the measurements. Results are shown for tissue-mimicking phantoms, as well as initial biological samples.

  1. A Rapid Method to Achieve Aero-Engine Blade Form Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces.

  2. Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in anal canal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aillères Norbert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc plans with conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT plans in anal canal cancers. Methods Ten patients with anal canal carcinoma previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, three plans were generated with the planning CT scan: one using a fixed beam IMRT, and two plans using the RapidArc technique: a single (RA1 and a double (RA2 modulated arc therapy. The treatment plan was designed to deliver in one process with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB a dose of 59.4 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV2 based on the gross disease in a 1.8 Gy-daily fraction, 5 days a week. At the same time, the subclinical disease (PTV1 was planned to receive 49.5 Gy in a 1.5 Gy-daily fraction. Plans were normalized to 99% of the PTV2 that received 95% of the prescribed dose. Planning objectives were 95% of the PTV1 will receive 95% of the prescribed dose and no more than 2% of the PTV will receive more than 107%. Dose-volume histograms (DVH for the target volume and the organs at risk (bowel tract, bladder, iliac crests, femoral heads, genitalia/perineum, and healthy tissue were compared for these different techniques. Monitor units (MU and delivery treatment time were also reported. Results All plans achieved fulfilled objectives. Both IMRT and RA2 resulted in superior coverage of PTV than RA1 that was slightly inferior for conformity and homogeneity (p Conformity index (CI95% for the PTV2 was 1.15 ± 0.15 (RA2, 1.28 ± 0.22 (IMRT, and 1.79 ± 0.5 (RA1. Homogeneity (D5% - D95% for PTV2 was 3.21 ± 1.16 Gy (RA2, 2.98 ± 0.7 Gy (IMRT, and 4.3 ± 1.3 Gy (RA1. RapidArc showed to be superior to IMRT in terms of organ at risk sparing. For bowel tract, the mean dose was reduced of 4 Gy by RA2 compared to IMRT. Similar trends were observed for bladder, femoral heads, and genitalia. The DVH of iliac crests and healthy tissue resulted

  3. Plan comparison of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in anal canal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) plans with conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans in anal canal cancers. Ten patients with anal canal carcinoma previously treated with IMRT in our institution were selected for this study. For each patient, three plans were generated with the planning CT scan: one using a fixed beam IMRT, and two plans using the RapidArc technique: a single (RA1) and a double (RA2) modulated arc therapy. The treatment plan was designed to deliver in one process with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) a dose of 59.4 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV2) based on the gross disease in a 1.8 Gy-daily fraction, 5 days a week. At the same time, the subclinical disease (PTV1) was planned to receive 49.5 Gy in a 1.5 Gy-daily fraction. Plans were normalized to 99% of the PTV2 that received 95% of the prescribed dose. Planning objectives were 95% of the PTV1 will receive 95% of the prescribed dose and no more than 2% of the PTV will receive more than 107%. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) for the target volume and the organs at risk (bowel tract, bladder, iliac crests, femoral heads, genitalia/perineum, and healthy tissue) were compared for these different techniques. Monitor units (MU) and delivery treatment time were also reported. All plans achieved fulfilled objectives. Both IMRT and RA2 resulted in superior coverage of PTV than RA1 that was slightly inferior for conformity and homogeneity (p < 0.05). Conformity index (CI95%) for the PTV2 was 1.15 ± 0.15 (RA2), 1.28 ± 0.22 (IMRT), and 1.79 ± 0.5 (RA1). Homogeneity (D5% - D95%) for PTV2 was 3.21 ± 1.16 Gy (RA2), 2.98 ± 0.7 Gy (IMRT), and 4.3 ± 1.3 Gy (RA1). RapidArc showed to be superior to IMRT in terms of organ at risk sparing. For bowel tract, the mean dose was reduced of 4 Gy by RA2 compared to IMRT. Similar trends were observed for bladder, femoral heads, and genitalia. The DVH of iliac crests and healthy tissue resulted in comparable sparing for

  4. Modulation Methods for Three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter Achieving Stress Redistribution under Moderate Modulation Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This letter investigates the loss and thermal behaviors of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) inverter undergoing moderate modulation index, which is typically presented during minor voltage sags of the power grid or speed changes of the electric machines. A series of new space vector m...

  5. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm3 of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V50) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose–volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V50 (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm3), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm3 of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p 50 using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold 50. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  6. Noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging using a low-coherence interferometer with rapid detection of phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Tang, Hongchun; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    A photoacoustic tomography imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with rapid detection of phase modulation was designed, fabricated, and tested for biologic imaging. A noncontact probing technique was applied to improve the practicability of the system. The technique is experimentally verified by the image of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within a mouse ear flap (pinna) in vivo. The system's axial and lateral resolutions are evaluated at 45 and ~15 μm, respectively. The system's imaging depth is 1mm in a special phantom. The results show that the system has the feasibility to be used as a photoacoustic tomography imaging method, and it may provide a kind of possibility of noncontact real-time PAT.

  7. Modulation of CMB polarization with a warm rapidly-rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS) instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Kusaka, A; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the modulation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization using a rapidly-rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search (ABS). After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 seconds, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly-rotating HWP.

  8. Capacity Estimation and Near-Capacity Achieving Techniques for Digitally Modulated Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov

    . Several issues are tackled, both with theoretical and more practical aspects. The theoretical part is mainly concerned with estimating the constellation constrained capacity (CCC) of channels with discrete input, which is an inherent property of digital communication systems. The channels under...... investigation will include linear interference channels of high dimensionality (such as multiple-input multiple-output), and the non-linear optical fiber channel, which has been gathering more and more attention from the information theory community in recent years. In both cases novel CCC estimates and lower......, achieving close to the CCC estimate. The main contribution of the PhD project is providing engineers with limits on the data rates that current digital communication systems can achieve, and also with methods and insights for approaching those rates, thus interconnecting theory and practice....

  9. Rapid evolution of plethodontid modulating factor, a hypervariable salamander courtship pheromone, is driven by positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Catherine A; Watts, Richard A; Hastings, Amy P; Houck, Lynne D; Arnold, Stevan J

    2010-05-01

    Sexual communication in plethodontid salamanders is mediated by a proteinaceous pheromone that a male delivers to a female during courtship, boosting her receptivity. The pheromone consists of three proteins from three unrelated protein families. These proteins are among a small group of pheromones known to affect female receptivity in vertebrates. Previously, we showed that the genes of two of these proteins (PRF and SPF) are prone to incessant evolution driven by positive selection, presumably as a consequence of coevolution with female receptors. In this report, we focus on the evolution of the third pheromone protein gene family, plethodontid modulating factor (PMF), to determine whether it shows the same pattern of diversification. We used RT-PCR in mental gland cDNA to survey PMF sequences from three genera of plethodontid salamanders (27 spp.) to measure rates of evolution, level of gene diversification, modes of selection, and types of amino acid substitution. Like PRF and SPF, PMF is produced by a multigene family characterized by gene duplication and high levels of polymorphism. PMF evolution is rapid, incessant, and driven by positive selection. PMF is more extreme in these dimensions than both PRF and SPF. Nestled within this extraordinary variation, however, is a signature of purifying selection, acting to preserve important structural and biochemical features of the PMF protein (i.e., secretion signal, cysteine residues, and pI). Although a pattern of persistent diversification exists at the molecular level, the morphological and behavioral aspects of the pheromone delivery system show evolutionary stasis over millions of years.

  10. Rapid evolution of plethodontid modulating factor, a hypervariable salamander courtship pheromone, is driven by positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Catherine A; Watts, Richard A; Hastings, Amy P; Houck, Lynne D; Arnold, Stevan J

    2010-05-01

    Sexual communication in plethodontid salamanders is mediated by a proteinaceous pheromone that a male delivers to a female during courtship, boosting her receptivity. The pheromone consists of three proteins from three unrelated protein families. These proteins are among a small group of pheromones known to affect female receptivity in vertebrates. Previously, we showed that the genes of two of these proteins (PRF and SPF) are prone to incessant evolution driven by positive selection, presumably as a consequence of coevolution with female receptors. In this report, we focus on the evolution of the third pheromone protein gene family, plethodontid modulating factor (PMF), to determine whether it shows the same pattern of diversification. We used RT-PCR in mental gland cDNA to survey PMF sequences from three genera of plethodontid salamanders (27 spp.) to measure rates of evolution, level of gene diversification, modes of selection, and types of amino acid substitution. Like PRF and SPF, PMF is produced by a multigene family characterized by gene duplication and high levels of polymorphism. PMF evolution is rapid, incessant, and driven by positive selection. PMF is more extreme in these dimensions than both PRF and SPF. Nestled within this extraordinary variation, however, is a signature of purifying selection, acting to preserve important structural and biochemical features of the PMF protein (i.e., secretion signal, cysteine residues, and pI). Although a pattern of persistent diversification exists at the molecular level, the morphological and behavioral aspects of the pheromone delivery system show evolutionary stasis over millions of years. PMID:20407892

  11. Capacity achieving nonbinary LDPC coded non-uniform shaping modulation for adaptive optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changyu; Zou, Ding; Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-08-01

    A mutual information inspired nonbinary coded modulation design with non-uniform shaping is proposed. Instead of traditional power of two signal constellation sizes, we design 5-QAM, 7-QAM and 9-QAM constellations, which can be used in adaptive optical networks. The non-uniform shaping and LDPC code rate are jointly considered in the design, which results in a better performance scheme for the same SNR values. The matched nonbinary (NB) LDPC code is used for this scheme, which further improves the coding gain and the overall performance. We analyze both coding performance and system SNR performance. We show that the proposed NB LDPC-coded 9-QAM has more than 2dB gain in symbol SNR compared to traditional LDPC-coded star-8-QAM. On the other hand, the proposed NB LDPC-coded 5-QAM and 7-QAM have even better performance than LDPC-coded QPSK. PMID:27505775

  12. Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT). From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor. Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59–95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40–1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p = 0.12). Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications

  13. RapidArc volumetric modulated therapy planning for prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming; Ohlhues, Lars; Medin, Joakim;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recently, Varian Medical Systems have announced the introduction of a new treatment technique, RapidArc, in which dose is delivered over a single gantry rotation with dynamically variable MLC positions, dose rate and gantry speed. At Rigshospitalet, the RapidArc technique was brought int...

  14. A Survey of Hardware and Software Technologies for the Rapid Development of Multimedia Instructional Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nanda

    2008-01-01

    A survey of hardware and software technologies was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of instructional modules representing various instructional approaches. The approaches modeled were short PowerPoint presentations, chalk-and-talk type of lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application…

  15. The GLAaS algorithm for portal dosimetry and quality assurance of RapidArc, an intensity modulated rotational therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To expand and test the dosimetric procedure, known as GLAaS, for amorphous silicon detectors to the RapidArc intensity modulated arc delivery with Varian infrastructures and to test the RapidArc dosimetric reliability between calculation and delivery. The GLAaS algorithm was applied and tested on a set of RapidArc fields at both low (6 MV) and high (18 MV) beam energies with a PV-aS1000 detector. Pilot tests for short arcs were performed on a 6 MV beam associated to a PV-aS500. RapidArc is a novel planning and delivery method in the category of intensity modulated arc therapies aiming to deliver highly modulated plans with variable MLC shapes, dose rate and gantry speed during rotation. Tests were repeated for entire (360 degrees) gantry rotations on composite dose plans and for short partial arcs (of ~6 or 12 degrees) to assess GLAaS and RapidArc mutual relationships on global and fine delivery scales. The gamma index concept of Low and the Modulation Index concept of Webb were applied to compare quantitatively TPS dose matrices and dose converted PV images. The Gamma Agreement Index computed for a Distance to Agreement of 3 mm and a Dose Difference (ΔD) of 3% was, as mean ± 1 SD, 96.7 ± 1.2% at 6 MV and 94.9 ± 1.3% at 18 MV, over the field area. These findings deteriorated slightly is ΔD was reduced to 2% (93.4 ± 3.2% and 90.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) and improved with ΔD = 4% (98.3 ± 0.8% and 97.3 ± 0.9%, respectively). For all tests a grid of 1 mm and the AAA photon dose calculation algorithm were applied. The spatial resolution of the PV-aS1000 is 0.392 mm/pxl. The Modulation Index for calculations resulted 17.0 ± 3.2 at 6 MV and 15.3 ± 2.7 at 18 MV while the corresponding data for measurements were: 18.5 ± 3.7 and 17.5 ± 3.7. Partial arcs findings were (for ΔD = 3%): GAI = 96.7 ± 0.9% for 6° rotations and 98.0 ± 1.1% for 12° rotations. The GLAaS method can be considered as a valid Quality Assurance tool for the verification of RapidArc fields

  16. The GLAaS algorithm for portal dosimetry and quality assurance of RapidArc, an intensity modulated rotational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To expand and test the dosimetric procedure, known as GLAaS, for amorphous silicon detectors to the RapidArc intensity modulated arc delivery with Varian infrastructures and to test the RapidArc dosimetric reliability between calculation and delivery. Methods The GLAaS algorithm was applied and tested on a set of RapidArc fields at both low (6 MV and high (18 MV beam energies with a PV-aS1000 detector. Pilot tests for short arcs were performed on a 6 MV beam associated to a PV-aS500. RapidArc is a novel planning and delivery method in the category of intensity modulated arc therapies aiming to deliver highly modulated plans with variable MLC shapes, dose rate and gantry speed during rotation. Tests were repeated for entire (360 degrees gantry rotations on composite dose plans and for short partial arcs (of ~6 or 12 degrees to assess GLAaS and RapidArc mutual relationships on global and fine delivery scales. The gamma index concept of Low and the Modulation Index concept of Webb were applied to compare quantitatively TPS dose matrices and dose converted PV images. Results The Gamma Agreement Index computed for a Distance to Agreement of 3 mm and a Dose Difference (ΔD of 3% was, as mean ± 1 SD, 96.7 ± 1.2% at 6 MV and 94.9 ± 1.3% at 18 MV, over the field area. These findings deteriorated slightly is ΔD was reduced to 2% (93.4 ± 3.2% and 90.1 ± 3.1%, respectively and improved with ΔD = 4% (98.3 ± 0.8% and 97.3 ± 0.9%, respectively. For all tests a grid of 1 mm and the AAA photon dose calculation algorithm were applied. The spatial resolution of the PV-aS1000 is 0.392 mm/pxl. The Modulation Index for calculations resulted 17.0 ± 3.2 at 6 MV and 15.3 ± 2.7 at 18 MV while the corresponding data for measurements were: 18.5 ± 3.7 and 17.5 ± 3.7. Partial arcs findings were (for ΔD = 3%: GAI = 96.7 ± 0.9% for 6° rotations and 98.0 ± 1.1% for 12° rotations. Conclusion The GLAaS method can be considered as a valid

  17. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT

  18. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ˜15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  19. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun [School of Physics and Telecom Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo [School of Physics and Telecom Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); GuangDong Province Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, IMOT, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Yi [School of Control Engineering, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-04-15

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  20. A comparison of liver protection among 3-D conformal radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy and RapidArc for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis was designed to compare dosimetric parameters among 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and RapidArc (RA) to identify which can achieve the lowest risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty patients with HCC were enrolled in this study. Dosimetric values for 3DCRT, IMRT, and RA were calculated for total dose of 50 Gy/25f. The percentage of the normal liver volume receiving >40, >30, >20, >10, and >5 Gy (V40, V30, V20, V10 and V5) were evaluated to determine liver toxicity. V5, V10, V20, V30 and Dmean of liver were compared as predicting parameters for RILD. Other parameters included the conformal index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), and hot spot (V110%) for the planned target volume (PTV) as well as the monitor units (MUs) for plan efficiency, the mean dose (Dmean) for the organs at risk (OARs) and the maximal dose at 1% volume (D1%) for the spinal cord. The Dmean of IMRT was higher than 3DCRT (p = 0.045). For V5, there was a significant difference: RA > IMRT >3DCRT (p <0.05). 3DCRT had a lower V10 and higher V20, V30 values for liver than RA (p <0.05). RA and IMRT achieved significantly better CI and lower V110% values than 3DCRT (p <0.05). RA had better HI, lower MUs and shorter delivery time than 3DCRT or IMRT (p <0.05). For right lobe tumors, RapidArc may have the lowest risk of RILD with the lowest V20 and V30 compared with 3DCRT or IMRT. For diameters of tumors >8 cm in our study, the value of Dmean for 3DCRT was lower than IMRT or RapidArc. This may indicate that 3DCRT is more suitable for larger tumors

  1. Achievements of the water cooled solid breeder test blanket module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, Water Cooled Solid Breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. Six TBMs will be tested in ITER simultaneously, under the leadership of different countries. To ensure the installation of reliable TBMs, it is necessary to show feasibility on the TBM milestones for installation in ITER. This paper shows the recent achievements toward the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, that consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, it is necessary to show the consistency with ITER design on time with ITER design progress, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012. Structure design of the interfacing components between the WCSB TBM structure and the interfacing components (Common Frame and Backside Shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER has been developed. The design work also consists of procedures of fabrication and replacement of TBM, the consistency with ITER port structure and TBM interface structure, and the layouts of the auxiliary systems of TBMs including the tritium extraction system and water cooling system. As for the module qualification, it is necessary to show fabrication capability and the integrity of prototypical size mockup in corresponding operation condition before the delivery of the TBM to ITER. A real scale first wall mock-up was successfully fabricated by using Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H. High heat flux test with real cooling water condition is planned using this mock-up. Other essential R and Ds for the WCSB TBM also showed steady progress on investigation of mechanical behavior of breeder pebble beds, development of advanced breeder/multiplier pebble, neutron measurement technology for TBM and purge gas tritium recovery technology. As for safety milestones

  2. Evidence for a signaling axis by which intestinal phosphate rapidly modulates renal phosphate reabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Theresa; Thomas, Leslie F.; Craig, Theodore A.; Sommer, Stacy; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms by which phosphorus homeostasis is preserved in mammals are not completely understood. We demonstrate the presence of a mechanism by which the intestine detects the presence of increased dietary phosphate and rapidly increases renal phosphate excretion. The mechanism is of physiological relevance because it maintains plasma phosphate concentrations in the normal range after ingestion of a phosphate-containing meal. When inorganic phosphate is infused into the duodenum, there is...

  3. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Frequency and force modulation atomic force microscopy: low-impact tapping-mode imaging without bistability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2007-07-01

    Since the 1980s, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has rapidly developed into a versatile, high-resolution characterization technique, available in a variety of imaging modes. Within intermittent-contact tapping-mode, imaging bistability and sample mechanical damage continue to be two of the most important challenges faced daily by AFM users. Recently, a new double-control-loop tapping-mode imaging algorithm (frequency and amplitude modulation AFM, FAM-AFM) was proposed and evaluated within numerical simulations, demonstrating a reduction in the repulsive tip sample forces and the absence of bistability. This article presents a much simpler algorithm, frequency and force modulation AFM (FFM-AFM), which requires only a single control loop and offers the same benefits as FAM-AFM. The concept is applied to calculate the cross-sectional scan of a carbon nanotube sample resting on a silicon surface, which is then compared to a previously reported image obtained in conventional amplitude-modulation tapping-mode, shown to be in agreement with the experimental result.

  4. Holographic polymer networks formed in liquid crystal phase modulators via a He-Ne laser to achieve ultra-fast optical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chun-Yu; Hsu, Che-Ju; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao; Sheu, Chia-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The holographic polymer network formed in liquid crystal (LC) phase modulators via a He-Ne laser in this study demonstrates ultra-fast optically response and low light scattering. These advantages are mainly caused by the small LC domains and uniform polymer network when processing LC cells via holographic exposure to a He-Ne laser. The use of this method to fabricate LC cells as phase modulators results in a decay time of 49 μs under 2π phase modulation at room temperature. The predicted fast optical response can be achieved when operating devices at high temperatures. PMID:27137042

  5. From social behavior to neural circuitry: steroid hormones rapidly modulate advertisement calling via a vocal pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Bass, Andrew H

    2006-09-01

    Across vertebrates, androgens are rapidly elevated within minutes in response to aggressive or reproductive stimuli, yet it is unclear what the causal relationship is between fast androgen elevation and the ongoing (minute-by-minute) expression of behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that rapid increases in plasma steroid levels induce similarly rapid increases in both vocal behavior and the neurophysiological output of a central pattern generator that governs vocal behavior. In Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta), males call to attract females to their nesting sites, and both males and females vocalize in aggressive interactions. Previous field experiments with males showed that simulated territorial challenges produce rapid and concurrent elevations in ongoing calling behavior and circulating levels of the teleost-specific androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT), but not the glucocorticoid cortisol. The current field experiments showed that non-invasive (food) delivery of 11kT, but not cortisol, induced an elevation within 10 min in the ongoing calling behavior of males. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that intramuscular injections of either 11kT or cortisol, but neither testosterone nor 17-beta-estradiol, induced increases within 5 min in the output of the vocal pattern generator in males, whereas only cortisol had similarly fast effects in females. The field behavioral results support predictions generated by the challenge hypothesis and also parallel the 11kT-dependent modulation of the vocal pattern generator in males. The cortisol effect on the vocal pattern generator in both sexes predicts that glucocorticoids regulate vocalizations in non-advertisement contexts. Together, these experiments provide strong support for the hypothesis that surges in circulating steroid levels play a causal role in shaping rapid changes in social behavior (vocalizations) through non-genomic-like actions on neural (vocal motor) circuits that directly encode behavioral

  6. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  7. Rapid Progress of a Thermal Arrayed Waveguide Grating Module for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd ElñNaser A. Mohamed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we have proposed a thermal planar arrayed waveguide grating (AWG module for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM which is composed of one of the following material as a core such as Pure silica glass (SiO2, Lithium niobate (LiNbO3, and gallium aluminum arsenide (Ga(1 xAl(xAs/Polyhexafluoro isopropyl 2-fluoroacrylate dibutyl phathalate (PHFIP 2-FA-DBP used as over cladding material/Polyhexafluoro isopropyl 2-fluoroacrylate (PHFIP 2-FA used as under cladding material, hybrid materials on a silicon substrate has parametrically investigated over wide range of the affecting parameters. multiplexing technique is processed where multi channels in ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing in a thermal AWG module. We have theoretically investigated the temperature dependent wavelength shift of the AWG depends on the refractive indices of the materials and the size of the waveguide. A thermalization of the AWG can be realized by selecting proper values of the material and structural parameters of the device. We have taken into account the increased number of transmitted channels within DWDM technique over a thermal planar AWG of hybrid materials. The thermal effects of different hybrid materials employed in the fabrication of AWG are studied deeply and parametrically for the good performance of such AWG.

  8. RapidArc radiotherapy planning for prostate cancer: Single-arc and double-arc techniques vs. intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, Henry C.K., E-mail: szeck@ha.org.hk [Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Lee, Michael C.H.; Hung, Wai-Man; Yau, Tsz-Kok; Lee, Anne W.M. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2012-04-01

    RapidArc is a novel technique using arc radiotherapy aiming to achieve intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)-quality radiotherapy plans with shorter treatment time. This study compared the dosimetric quality and treatment efficiency of single-arc (SA) vs. double-arc (DA) and IMRT in the treatment of prostate cancer. Fourteen patients were included in the analysis. The planning target volume (PTV), which contained the prostate gland and proximal seminal vesicles, received 76 Gy in 38 fractions. Seven-field IMRT, SA, and DA plans were generated for each patient. Dosimetric quality in terms of the minimum PTV dose, PTV hotspot, inhomogeneity, and conformity index; and sparing of rectum, bladder, and femoral heads as measured by V70, V-40, and V20 (% of volume receiving >70 Gy, 40 Gy, and 20 Gy, respectively), treatment efficiency as assessed by monitor units (MU) and treatment time were compared. All plan objectives were met satisfactorily by all techniques. DA achieved the best dosimetric quality with the highest minimum PTV dose, lowest hotspot, and the best homogeneity and conformity. It was also more efficient than IMRT. SA achieved the highest treatment efficiency with the lowest MU and shortest treatment time. The mean treatment time for a 2-Gy fraction was 4.80 min, 2.78 min, and 1.30 min for IMRT, DA, and SA, respectively. However, SA also resulted in the highest rectal dose. DA could improve target volume coverage and reduce treatment time and MU while maintaining equivalent normal tissue sparing when compared with IMRT. SA achieved the greatest treatment efficiency but with the highest rectal dose, which was nonetheless within tolerable limits. For busy units with high patient throughput, SA could be an acceptable option.

  9. Urotensin II modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of brainstem cholinergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Sánchez-Alavez, Manuel;

    2005-01-01

    dorsal tegmental nuclei. This distribution suggests that the UII system is involved in functions regulated by acetylcholine, such as the sleep-wake cycle. Here, we tested the hypothesis that UII influences cholinergic PPT neuron activity and alters rapid eye movement (REM) sleep patterns in rats. Local...... administration of UII into the PPT nucleus increases REM sleep without inducing changes in the cortical blood flow. Intracerebroventricular injection of UII enhances both REM sleep and wakefulness and reduces slow-wave sleep 2. Intracerebroventricular, but not local, administration of UII increases cortical...... synaptic transmission because it persisted in the presence of TTX and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate, GABA, and glycine receptors. Collectively, these results suggest that UII plays a role in the regulation of REM sleep independently of its cerebrovascular actions by directly activating cholinergic...

  10. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spine treated with RapidArc volumetric-modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire, St Priest en Jarez (France); Chargari, Cyrus [Department of Radiation Oncology, HIA du Val de Grâce, Paris (France); Falk, Alexander Tuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Khodri, Mustapha [Department of Physics, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire, St Priest en Jarez (France); Magné, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.magne@icloire.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire, St Priest en Jarez (France)

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) using volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). A 48-year-old woman was referred for curative irradiation of a vertebral EHE after failure of surgery. A comparison between VMAT and conventional conformal tridimensional (3D) dosimetry was performed and potential advantage of VMAT for sparing critical organs from irradiation's side effects was discussed. The total delivered dose on the planning target volume was 54 Gy in 27 fractions. The patient was finally treated with VMAT. The tolerance was excellent. There was no acute toxicity, including no increase in pain. With a follow-up of 18 months, no delayed toxicity was reported. The clinical response consisted of a decrease in the dorsal pain. The D{sub max} for the spinal cord was reduced from 55 Gy (3D-radiotherapy [RT]) (which would be an unacceptable dose to the spine because of the risk of myelopathy) to 42.8 Gy (VMAT), which remains below the recommended dose threshold (45 Gy). The dose delivered to 20% of organ volume (D{sub 20}) was reduced from 47 Gy (3D-RT) to 3 Gy (VMAT) for the spinal cord. The study shows that VMAT allows the delivery of curative treatment for vertebral EHEs because of critical organ sparing.

  11. CMOS Transmitter using Pulse-Width Modulation Pre-Emphasis achieving 33dB Loss Compensation at 5-Gb/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A digital transmitter pre-emphasis technique is presented that is based on pulse-width modulation, instead of finite impulse response (FIR) filtering. The technique fits well to future high-speed low-voltage CMOS processes. A 0.13 μm CMOS transmitter achieves more than 5 Gb/s (2-PAM) over 25 m of st

  12. CMOS Transmitter using Pulse-Width Modulation Pre-Emphasis achieving 33dB Loss Compensation at 5-Gb/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, B.

    2005-01-01

    A digital transmitter pre-emphasis technique is presented that is based on pulse-width modulation, instead of finite impulse response (FIR) filtering. The technique fits well to future high-speed low-voltage CMOS processes. A 0.13 /spl mu/m CMOS transmitter achieves more than 5 Gb/s (2-PAM) over 25

  13. The Effect of Educational Modules Strategy on the Direct and Postponed Study's Achievement of Seventh Primary Grade Students in Science, in Comparison with the Conventional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed; Ghoneem, Khowla Abd Al Raheem

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at revealing the effect of educational modules strategy on the direct and postponed study's achievement of seventh primary grade students in science, in comparison with the conventional approach. The sample of the study consists of (174) male and female students randomly chosen from schools in the city of Mafraq, students are…

  14. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  15. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eLorusso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of nonverbal tone sequences.Participants were 46 children aged 8 - 14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia. Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length, and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children’s performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children’s difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs long tones and for long vs short ISIs predict nonword and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness.In conclusion, the relationship between nonverbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with

  16. Rapid adaptation of phytoplankters to geothermal waters is achieved by single mutations: were extreme environments 'Noah's Arks' for photosynthesizers during the Neoproterozoic 'snowball Earth'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Eduardo; Flores-Moya, Antonio; López-Rodas, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal waters often support remarkable communities of microalgae and cyanobacteria apparently living at the extreme limits of their tolerance. Little is known about the mechanisms allowing adaptation of mesophilic phytoplankters to such extreme conditions, but recent studies are challenging many preconceived notions about this. The aim of this study was to analyse mechanisms allowing adaptation of mesophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria to stressful geothermal waters. To distinguish between the pre-selective or post-selective origin of adaptation processes allowing the proliferation of mesophilic phytoplankters in geothermal waters, several Luria-Delbrück fluctuation analysis were performed with the microalga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, both isolated from nonextreme waters. Geothermal waters from seven places in Italy and five icebound places at Los Andes in Argentina were used as selective agents. Physiological adaptation was achieved in the least toxic waters. In contrast, rapid genetic adaptation was observed in waters ostensibly lethal for the experimental organisms. This adaptation was achieved as consequence of single mutations at one locus. It was hypothesized that a similar mechanism of rapid genetic adaptation could explain the survival of photosynthetic life during the Neoproterozoic 'snowball Earth,' where geothermal refuges such as those studied could have been 'Noah's Arks' for microalgae and cyanobacteria. PMID:18803596

  17. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2015-09-23

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  18. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for abdominal targets using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc: Feasibility and clinical preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To report early clinical experience in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc (RA) in patients with primary or metastatic tumours at abdominal sites. Material and methods. Thirty-seven consecutive patients were treated using RA. Of these, 16 had primary or metastatic liver tumours, nine had pancreatic cancer and 12 a nodal metastasis in the retro-peritoneum. Dose prescription varied from 45 to 75 Gy to the Clinical Target Volume in 3 to 6 fractions. The median follow-up was 12 months (6-22). Early local control and toxicity were investigated and reported. Results. Planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk were met in most cases. Delivery time ranged from 2.8 ± 0.3 to 9.2 ± 2.4 minutes and pre-treatment plan verification resulted in a Gamma Agreement Index from 95.3 ± 3.8 to 98.3 ± 1.7%. At the time of analysis, local control (freedom from progression) at six months, was assessable in 24 of 37 patients and was achieved in 19 patients with a crude rate of 79.2%. Seven patients experienced treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced a mild and transient G1 enteritis and two showed a transient G1 liver damage. Two had late toxicity: one developed chronic enteritis causing G1 diarrhoea and G1 abdominal pain and one suffered at three months a G3 gastric bleeding. No patients experienced G4 acute toxicity. Conclusions. SBRT for abdominal targets delivered by means of RA resulted to be feasible with good early clinical results in terms of local control rate and acute toxicity profile. RA allowed to achieve required target coverage as well as to keep within normal tissue dose/volume constraints

  19. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for abdominal targets using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc: Feasibility and clinical preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Bignardi, Mario; Alongi, Filippo; Mancosu, Pietro; Navarria, Piera; Castiglioni, Simona; Pentimalli, Sara; Tozzi, Angelo (IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano (Italy)), e-mail: pietro.mancosu@humanitas.it; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca (Oncology Inst. of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland))

    2011-05-15

    Purpose. To report early clinical experience in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivered using volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy with RapidArc (RA) in patients with primary or metastatic tumours at abdominal sites. Material and methods. Thirty-seven consecutive patients were treated using RA. Of these, 16 had primary or metastatic liver tumours, nine had pancreatic cancer and 12 a nodal metastasis in the retro-peritoneum. Dose prescription varied from 45 to 75 Gy to the Clinical Target Volume in 3 to 6 fractions. The median follow-up was 12 months (6-22). Early local control and toxicity were investigated and reported. Results. Planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk were met in most cases. Delivery time ranged from 2.8 +- 0.3 to 9.2 +- 2.4 minutes and pre-treatment plan verification resulted in a Gamma Agreement Index from 95.3 +- 3.8 to 98.3 +- 1.7%. At the time of analysis, local control (freedom from progression) at six months, was assessable in 24 of 37 patients and was achieved in 19 patients with a crude rate of 79.2%. Seven patients experienced treatment-related toxicity. Three patients experienced a mild and transient G1 enteritis and two showed a transient G1 liver damage. Two had late toxicity: one developed chronic enteritis causing G1 diarrhoea and G1 abdominal pain and one suffered at three months a G3 gastric bleeding. No patients experienced G4 acute toxicity. Conclusions. SBRT for abdominal targets delivered by means of RA resulted to be feasible with good early clinical results in terms of local control rate and acute toxicity profile. RA allowed to achieve required target coverage as well as to keep within normal tissue dose/volume constraints

  20. A role for acoustic distortion in novel rapid frequency modulation behaviour in free-flying male mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Patrício M V; Ingham, Robert A; Gibson, Gabriella; Russell, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    We describe a new stereotypical acoustic behaviour by male mosquitoes in response to the fundamental frequency of female flight tones during mating sequences. This male-specific free-flight behaviour consists of phonotactic flight beginning with a steep increase in wing-beat frequency (WBF) followed by rapid frequency modulation (RFM) of WBF in the lead up to copula formation. Male RFM behaviour involves remarkably fast changes in WBF and can be elicited without acoustic feedback or physical presence of the female. RFM features are highly consistent, even in response to artificial tones that do not carry the multi-harmonic components of natural female flight tones. Comparison between audiograms of the robust RFM behaviour and the electrical responses of the auditory Johnston's organ (JO) reveals that the male JO is tuned not to the female WBF per se but, remarkably, to the difference between the male and female WBFs. This difference is generated in the JO responses as a result of intermodulation distortion products (DPs) caused by non-linear interaction between male-female flight tones in the vibrations of the antenna. We propose that male mosquitoes rely on their own flight tones in making use of DPs to acoustically detect, locate and orientate towards flying females. We argue that the previously documented flight-tone harmonic convergence of flying male and female mosquitoes could be a consequence of WBF adjustments so that DPs generated through flight-tone interaction fall within the optimal frequency ranges for JO detection. PMID:27122548

  1. Rotationally-modulated g-modes in the rapidly-rotating delta Scuti star Rasalhague (alpha Ophiuchi)

    CERN Document Server

    Monnier, J D; Che, X; Zhao, M; Kallinger, T; Matthews, J; Moffat, A F J

    2010-01-01

    Despite a century of remarkable progress in understanding stellar interiors, we know surprisingly little about the inner workings of stars spinning near their critical limit. New interferometric imaging of these so-called ``rapid rotators'' combined with breakthroughs in asteroseismology promise to lift this veil and probe the strongly latitude-dependent photospheric characteristics and even reveal the internal angular momentum distribution of these luminous objects. Here, we report the first high precision photometry on the low-amplitude delta cuti variable star Rasalhague (alpha Oph, A5IV, 2.18 Msun, omega/omega_c~0.88) based on 30 continuous days of monitoring using the MOST satellite. We have identified 57+/-1 distinct pulsation modes above a stochastic granulation spectrum with a cutoff of ~26 cycles per day. Remarkably, we have also discovered that the fast rotation period of 14.5~hours modulates low-frequency modes (1-10 day periods) that we identify as a rich family of g-modes (|m| up to 7). The spaci...

  2. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min. (paper)

  3. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration

  4. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockslager, Max A; Samuels, Brian C; Allingham, R Rand; Klesmith, Zoe A; Schwaner, Stephen A; Forest, Craig R; Ethier, C Ross

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP) and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  5. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  6. Pulse-Density Modulation with an Ensemble of Single-Electron Circuits Employing Neuronal Heterogeneity to Achieve High Temporal Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikombo, Andrew Kilinga; Asai, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    We investigated the implications of static noises in a pulse-density modulator based on Vestibulo-ocular Reflex model. We constructed a simple neuromorphic circuit consisting of an ensemble of single-electron devices and confirmed that static noises (heterogeneity in circuit parameters) introduced into the network indeed played an important role in improving the fidelity with which neurons could encode signals whose input frequencies are higher than the intrinsic response frequencies of single neurons. Through Monte-Carlo based computer simulations, we demonstrated that the heterogeneous network could corectly encode signals with input frequencies as high as 1 GHz, twice the range for single (or a network of homogeneous) neurons.

  7. Rapid thermal annealing and modulation-doping effects on InAs/GaAs quantum dots photoluminescence dependence on excitation power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbani, W.; Melliti, A.; Maaref, M. A.; Testelin, C.; Lemaître, A.

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of p-doped and annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) was investigated by photoluminescence (PL) as a function of temperature and excitation power density (Pexc). At low-T, PL spectra of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and p-modulation doped QDs show an energy blueshift and redshift, respectively. A superlinear dependence of integrated PL intensity on Pexc at high-T was found only for undoped QD. The superlinearity was suppressed by modulation-doping and RTA effects. A linear dependence of IPL at all temperatures and a decrease of the carrier-carrier Coulomb interaction at high-T was found after RTA.

  8. Simple combination of oxidants with zero-valent-iron (ZVI) achieved very rapid and highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuejun; Yang, Zhe; Dong, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaohong; Ren, Qidong; Lv, Xiaofang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This study, for the first time, demonstrated a continuously accelerated Fe(0) corrosion driven by common oxidants (i.e., NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2) and thereby the rapid and efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under the experimental conditions of jar tests and column running. ZVI simply coupled with NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in almost complete As(V) removal within only 10 min with 1000 μg/L of initial As(V) at initial pH of 7.5(±0.1) and liquid solid ratio of 200:1. Simultaneous removal of 200 μg/L of initial Cd(II) and Hg(II) to 2.4-4.4 μg/L for Cd(II) and to 4.0-5.0 μg/L for Hg(II) were achieved within 30 min. No deterioration of HM removal was observed during the ten recycles of jar tests. The ZVI columns activated by 0.1 mM of oxidants had stably treated 40,200 (NaClO), 20,295 (KMnO4) and 40,200 (H2O2) bed volumes (BV) of HM-contaminated drinking water, but with no any indication of As breakthrough (removal from both the jar tests and column running implied a continuous and stable activation (overcoming of iron passivation) of Fe(0) surface by the oxidants. Via the proper increase in oxidant dosing, the ZVI/oxidant combination was applicable to treat highly As(V)-contaminated wastewater. During Fe(0) surface corrosion accelerated by oxidants, a large amount of fresh and reactive iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were continuously generated, which were responsible for the rapid and efficient removal of HMs through multiple mechanisms including adsorption and co-precipitation. A steady state of Fe(0) surface activation and HM removal enabled this simply coupled system to remove HMs with high speed, efficiency and perdurability.

  9. Limits on Achievable Dimensional and Photon Efficiencies with Intensity-Modulation and Photon-Counting Due to Non-Ideal Photon-Counter Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

  10. Comparison of rapidArc and fixed field intensity-modulated radiation therapies for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma%晚期鼻咽癌RapidArc与固定野调强放疗的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄名赞; 张拓丹; 彭逊; 陈志坚; 林志雄; 李德锐

    2013-01-01

      目的:近年RapidArc的临床应用已引起越来越多的关注,本研究比较RapidArc与固定野调强放射治疗(IMRT)两种放疗技术在晚期鼻咽癌治疗计划中的差异.方法:随机选取10例晚期鼻咽癌患者,采用RapidArc与IMRT两种技术进行计划设计与剂量验证,比较计划的靶区剂量、危及器官与正常组织剂量、机器跳数、治疗时间与剂量验证结果.结果:两种计划的剂量分布基本一致,均能提供足够的靶区剂量.RapidArc的PTVnx最小剂量,PTVnd、PTV60、喉、腮腺的平均剂量低于IMRT,PTV60的HI值高于 IMRT,机器跳数比 IMRT 减少约58%,治疗时间减少约70%.以3%/3mm 为界,RapidArc 验证的γ指数通过率为(98.75±0.50)%,IMRT的通过率为(98.86±0.67)%.结论:两种放疗技术均能够满足临床治疗需要,剂量验证结果能够较好的符合计划计算结果.RapidArc比IMRT有着更多的优势,不仅可以减少机器跳数,缩短治疗时间,而且可以减少喉、腮腺的受照剂量.%Objective: This study compares volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and fixed field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Ten advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were randomly selected for this study. Two treatment plans were completed for each patient, i.e., the RapidArc and IMRT schemes. Dosimetric verification was conducted for each scheme. The doses for the planning target volumes (PTVs), organs at risk (OARs), and normal tissues were compared. The technical delivery parameters, including monitor units (MUs), time of therapy, and results of dosimetric verification, were analyzed. Results: No significant differences were found in dose distribution between the two schemes. Both techniques delivered adequate doses for the PTVs. For RapidArc planning, the minimal dose of PTVnx, mean dose of PTVnd, PTV60, larynx, and parotid were lower compared with those of IMRT schemes, whereas the

  11. The use of RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy to deliver stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy to intracranial and extracranial targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, Dante E., E-mail: droa@uci.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine-Medical Center, Orange, CA (United States); Schiffner, Daniel C.; Zhang Juying; Dietrich, Salam N.; Kuo, Jeffrey V.; Wong, Jason; Ramsinghani, Nilam S.; Al-Ghazi, Muthana S.A.L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Irvine-Medical Center, Orange, CA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Twenty-three targets in 16 patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) were analyzed in terms of dosimetric homogeneity, target conformity, organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, monitor unit (MU) usage, and beam-on time per fraction using RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs. multifield sliding-window intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients underwent computed tomography simulation with site-specific immobilization. Magnetic resonance imaging fusion and optical tracking were incorporated as clinically indicated. Treatment planning was performed using Eclipse v8.6 to generate sliding-window IMRT and 1-arc and 2-arc RapidArc plans. Dosimetric parameters used for target analysis were RTOG conformity index (CI{sub RTOG}), homogeneity index (HI{sub RTOG}), inverse Paddick Conformity Index (PCI), D{sub mean} and D5-D95. OAR sparing was analyzed in terms of D{sub max} and D{sub mean}. Treatment delivery was evaluated based on measured beam-on times delivered on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator and recorded MU values. Dosimetric conformity, homogeneity, and OAR sparing were comparable between IMRT, 1-arc RapidArc and 2-arc RapidArc plans. Mean beam-on times {+-} SD for IMRT and 1-arc and 2-arc treatments were 10.5 {+-} 7.3, 2.6 {+-} 1.6, and 3.0 {+-} 1.1 minutes, respectively. Mean MUs were 3041, 1774, and 1676 for IMRT, 1-, and 2-arc plans, respectively. Although dosimetric conformity, homogeneity, and OAR sparing were similar between these techniques, SRS and SBRT fractions treated with RapidArc were delivered with substantially less beam-on time and fewer MUs than IMRT. The rapid delivery of SRS and SBRT with RapidArc improved workflow on the linac with these otherwise time-consuming treatments and limited the potential for intrafraction organ and patient motion, which can cause significant dosimetric errors. These clinically important advantages make image-guided RapidArc useful in the delivery

  12. Dosimetry Comparison between Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy with RapidArc and Fixed Field Dynamic IMRT for Local-Regionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-min Zheng; Xiao-xia Dong; Hao Wu; You-jia Duan; Shu-kui Han; Yan Sun

    2011-01-01

    Objective:A dosimetric study was performed to evaluate the performance of volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy with RapidArc on locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Methods:The CT scan data sets of 20 patients of locally advanced NPC were selected randomly.The plans were managed using volumetric modulated arc with RapidArc and fixed nine-field coplanar dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for these patients.The dosimetry of the planning target volumes (PTV),the organs at risk (OARs) and the healthy tissue were evaluated.The dose prescription was set to 70 Gy to the primary tumor and 60 Gy to the clinical target volumes (CTV) in 33 fractions.Each fraction applied daily,five fractions per week.The monitor unit (MU) values and the delivery time were scored to evaluate the expected treatment efficiency.Results:Both techniques had reached clinical treatment's requirement.The mean dose (Dmean),maximum dose (Dmax) and minimum dose (Dmin) in RapidArc and fixed field IMRT for PTV were 68.4±0.6 Gy,74.8±0.9 Gy and 56.8±1.1 Gy; and 67.6±0.6 Gy,73.8±0.4 Gy and 57.5±0.6 Gy (P<0.05),respectively.Homogeneity index was 78.85±1.29 in RapidArc and 80.34±0.54 (P<0.05) in IMRT.The conformity index (CI:95%) was 0.78±0.01 for both techniques (P>0.05).Compared to IMRT,RapidArc allowed a reduction of Dmean to the brain stem,mandible and optic nerves of 14.1% (P<0.05),5.6% (P<0.05) and 12.2% (P<0.05),respectively.For the healthy tissue and the whole absorbed dose,Dmean of RapidArc was reduced by 3.6% (P<0.05),and 3.7% (P<0.05),respectively.The Dmean to the parotids,the spinal cord and the lens had no statistical difference among them.The mean MU values of RapidArc and IMRT were 550 and 1,379.The mean treatment time of RapidArc and IMRT was 165 s and 447 s.Compared to IMRT,the delivery time and the MU values of RapidArc were reduced by 63% and 60%,respectively.Conclusion:For locally advanced NPC,both RapidArc and IMRT reached

  13. Treatment planning study comparing proton therapy, RapidArc and intensity modulated radiation therapy for a synchronous bilateral lung cancer case

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Rana; Shyam Pokharel; Yuanshui Zheng; Li Zhao; Dina Risalvato; Carlos Vargas; Nancy Cersonsky

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to perform a treatment planning study on a synchronous bilateral non-small cell lung cancer case using three treatment modalities: uniform scanning proton therapy, RapidArc, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: The maximum intensity projection (MIP) images obtained from the 4 dimensional-computed tomography (4DCT) scans were used for delineation of tumor volumes in the left and right lungs. The average 4D-CT was used for the tre...

  14. SU-E-T-212: Influence of the Modulation Index On Daily Quality Assurance in Rapid Arc Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: At our Institute some measured parameters for daily quality assurance (DQA) of dynamic arc therapy plans showed an unexpected behavior, therefore an investigation of the influence of the magnitude of modulation was conducted. Methods: In our clinical practice all DQAs of dynamic arc therapy plans are measured and analyzed prior to treatments using commercial software. For this study these plans were additionally exported to our in-house software written in MATLAB.The developed software extracted the leaf position, gantry angle, cumulative meterset weight of each control point (CP) and the total number of Monitor Units (MU) of each arc. Based on this information we calculated the leaf travel distance, irradiated segment area, number of MUs and dose rate for each CP. These data allowed us to calculate the modulation indexes (MI) of the plans, applying five different definitions of MI. The results were then correlated to the results of our DQA measurements.To validate the software, additional plans of known MIs were created and analyzed. For confirmation, the calculated parameters were compared to the segmented treatment table (STT) coming from the treatment planning system. Results: All calculated CP-parameters matched the STT by 99% or better. For linac 1, the comparison of the MI evaluation and the DQA results showed a slight tendency: 91.3% failed DQA plans had a MI lower than the average value. For this definition we consider that the lower the MI the higher the modulation. The results of the linac 2 present no significant relevance due to the low sample sizes for each DQA software. Conclusion: Available data and given definitions of the modulation index do not bring conclusive results; one cannot find a clear and distinct correlation with the failure of the DQA. The ongoing analysis with an increased sample size might lead to another conclusion

  15. Treatment planning study comparing proton therapy, RapidArc and intensity modulated radiation therapy for a synchronous bilateral lung cancer case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to perform a treatment planning study on a synchronous bilateral non-small cell lung cancer case using three treatment modalities: uniform scanning proton therapy, RapidArc, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. Methods: The maximum intensity projection (MIP images obtained from the 4 dimensional-computed tomography (4DCT scans were used for delineation of tumor volumes in the left and right lungs. The average 4D-CT was used for the treatment planning among all three modalities with identical patient contouring and treatment planning goal. A proton therapy plan was generated in XiO treatment planning system (TPS using 2 fields for each target. For a comparative purpose, IMRT and RapidArc plans were generated in Eclipse TPS. Treatment plans were generated for a total dose of 74 CGE or Gy prescribed to each planning target volume (PTV (left and right with 2 CGE or Gy per fraction. In IMRT and RapidArc plans, normalization was done based on PTV coverage values in proton plans. Results: The mean PTV dose deviation from the prescription dose was lower in proton plan (within 3.4%, but higher in IMRT (6.5% to 11.3% and RapidArc (3.8% to 11.5% plans. Proton therapy produced lower mean dose to the total lung, heart, and esophagus when compared to IMRT and RapidArc. The relative volume of the total lung receiving 20, 10, and 5 CGE or Gy (V20, V10, and V5, respectively were lower using proton therapy than using IMRT, with absolute differences of 9.71%, 22.88%, and 39.04%, respectively. The absolute differences in the V20, V10, and V5 between proton and RapidArc plans were 4.84%, 19.16%, and 36.8%, respectively, with proton therapy producing lower dosimetric values. Conclusion: Based on the results presented in this case study, uniform scanning proton therapy has a dosimetric advantage over both IMRT and RapidArc for a synchronous bi-lateral NSCLC, especially for the normal lung tissue, heart, and

  16. Simultaneous measurements of velocity, temperature, and pressure using rapid CW wavelength-modulation laser-induced fluorescence of OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A. Y.; Battles, B. E.; Hanson, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The beam from a rapid-tuning single-frequency laser was used to probe the R1(7) and R1(11) A2Sigma(+) - X2Pi(0,0) line pair of OH at a 45-deg incident angle in a combustion-driven, supersonic free jet. Absorption line shapes were recorded in spatially resolved, single-point fluorescence. The Doppler shift, intensity ratio, and collisional broadening of the measured line pair were used to determine velocity, temperature, and pressure. The repetition rate of the measurement was 3 kHz.

  17. Achievement of Preassigned Spectra in the Synthesis of Band-Pass Constant-Envelope Signals by Rapidly Hopping through Discrete Frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Spread-spectrum signals are increasingly adopted in fields including communications, testing of electronic systems, Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) enhancement, ultrasonic non-destructive testing. This paper considers the synthesis of constant-envelope band-pass wave-forms with preassigned spectra via an FM technique using only a limited number of frequencies. In particular, an optimization-based approach for the selection of appropriate modulation parameters and statistical features of the modulating waveform is proposed. By example, it is shown that the design problem generally admits multiple local optima, but can still be managed with relative ease since the local optima can typically be scanned by changing the initial setting of a single parameter.

  18. Automatic exposure control in multichannel CT with tube current modulation to achieve a constant level of image noise: Experimental assessment on pediatric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic exposure control (AEC) systems have been developed by computed tomography (CT) manufacturers to improve the consistency of image quality among patients and to control the absorbed dose. Since a multichannel helical CT scan may easily increase individual radiation doses, this technical improvement is of special interest in children who are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation, but little information is currently available regarding the precise performance of these systems on small patients. Our objective was to assess an AEC system on pediatric dose phantoms by studying the impact of phantom transmission and acquisition parameters on tube current modulation, on the resulting absorbed dose and on image quality. We used a four-channel CT scan working with a patient-size and z-axis-based AEC system designed to achieve a constant noise within the reconstructed images by automatically adjusting the tube current during acquisition. The study was performed with six cylindrical poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) phantoms of variable diameters (10-32 cm) and one 5 years of age equivalent pediatric anthropomorphic phantom. After a single scan projection radiograph (SPR), helical acquisitions were performed and images were reconstructed with a standard convolution kernel. Tube current modulation was studied with variable SPR settings (tube angle, mA, kVp) and helical parameters (6-20 HU noise indices, 80-140 kVp tube potential, 0.8-4 s. tube rotation time, 5-20 mm x-ray beam thickness, 0.75-1.5 pitch, 1.25-10 mm image thickness, variable acquisition, and reconstruction fields of view). CT dose indices (CTDIvol) were measured, and the image quality criterion used was the standard deviation of the CT number measured in reconstructed images of PMMA material. Observed tube current levels were compared to the expected values from Brooks and Di Chiro's [R.A. Brooks and G.D. Chiro, Med. Phys. 3, 237-240 (1976)] model and calculated values (product of a reference value

  19. Rapid suppression of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in two communities of the Southern Chiapas focus, Mexico, achieved by quarterly treatments with Mectizan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Lutzow-Steiner, Miguel A; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Lizarazo-Ortega, Cristian; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Richards, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Hernández-Hernández, Raymundo

    2008-08-01

    The impact of quarterly Mectizan (ivermectin) treatments on transmission, microfiladermia, and ocular lesions was evaluated in two formerly hyperendemic communities (Las Golondrinas and Las Nubes II) located in the main endemic focus for onchocerciasis in Southern Chiapas, Mexico. The data suggest that Onchocerca volvulus transmission has been suppressed after elimination of microfiladermia in these two communities. Increasing the frequency of Mectizan treatment to four times per year appears to have resulted in the rapid suppression of transmission in communities with residual transmission.

  20. Achieving high-resolution soft-tissue imaging with cone-beam CT: a two-pronged approach for modulation of x-ray fluence and detector gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, S. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Moseley, D. J.; Keller, H.; Shkumat, N. A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presents a highly promising and challenging advanced application of flat-panel detectors (FPDs). The great advantage of this adaptable technology is in the potential for sub-mm 3D spatial resolution in combination with soft-tissue detectability. While the former is achieved naturally by CBCT systems incorporating modern FPD designs (e.g., 200 - 400 um pixel pitch), the latter presents a significant challenge due to limitations in FPD dynamic range, large field of view, and elevated levels of x-ray scatter in typical CBCT configurations. We are investigating a two-pronged strategy to maximizing soft-tissue detectability in CBCT: 1) front-end solutions, including novel beam modulation designs (viz., spatially varying compensators) that alleviate detector dynamic range requirements, reduce x-ray scatter, and better distribute imaging dose in a manner suited to soft-tissue visualization throughout the field of view; and 2) back-end solutions, including implementation of an advanced FPD design (Varian PaxScan 4030CB) that features dual-gain and dynamic gain switching that effectively extends detector dynamic range to 18 bits. These strategies are explored quantitatively on CBCT imaging platforms developed in our laboratory, including a dedicated CBCT bench and a mobile isocentric C-arm (Siemens PowerMobil). Pre-clinical evaluation of improved soft-tissue visibility was carried out in phantom and patient imaging with the C-arm device. Incorporation of these strategies begin to reveal the full potential of CBCT for soft-tissue visualization, an essential step in realizing broad utility of this adaptable technology for diagnostic and image-guided procedures.

  1. Evaluation rapide du coût d'un investissement: méthode des modules fonctionnels Quick Evaluation of the Cost of an Investment: the Functional Module Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman J; Chauvel A.; Benchecroun N.; Raimbault C.

    2006-01-01

    L'application des méthodes statistiques dites d'analyse de données , à un large échantillonnage d'informations, obtenu soit directement à partir de sources de renseignements privées, soit en ayant recours à un logiciel de dimensionnement et d'estimation détaillés, a permis la mise au point d'une nouvelle méthode d'évaluation rapide du coût d'un investissement, développée sous le nom de Méthode des Modules Fonctionnels . Dans le passé, plusieurs procédures de conception dite modulaire ont déjà...

  2. Potent, transient inhibition of BCR-ABL with dasatinib 100 mg daily achieves rapid and durable cytogenetic responses and high transformation-free survival rates in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, suboptimal response or intolerance to imatinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neil P.; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kantarjian, Hagop; Rousselot, Philippe; Llacer, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac; Enrico, Alicia; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Silver, Richard T.; Khoury, Hanna Jean; Müller, Martin C.; Lambert, Alexandre; Matloub, Yousif; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background Dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves intermittent BCR-ABL kinase inhibition and is approved for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant or intolerant to imatinib. To better assess durability of response to and tolerability of dasatinib, data from a 2-year minimum follow-up for a dose-optimization study in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia are reported here. Design and Methods In a phase 3 study, 670 chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, intolerance, or suboptimal response to imatinib were randomized to dasatinib 100 mg once-daily, 50 mg twice-daily, 140 mg once-daily, or 70 mg twice-daily. Results Data from a 2-year minimum follow-up demonstrate that dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response rates comparable to those in the other treatment arms, and reduces the frequency of key side effects. Comparable 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were observed (80% and 91%, respectively, for 100 mg once daily, and 75%–76% and 88%–94%, respectively, in other arms). Complete cytogenetic responses were achieved rapidly, typically by 6 months. In patients treated with dasatinib 100 mg once daily for 6 months without complete cytogenetic response, the likelihood of achieving such a response by 2 years was 50% for patients who had achieved a partial cytogenetic response, and only 8% or less for patients with minor, minimal, or no cytogenetic response. Less than 3% of patients suffered disease transformation to accelerated or blast phase. Conclusions Intermittent kinase inhibition can achieve rapid and durable responses, indistinguishable from those achieved with more continuous inhibition. PMID:20139391

  3. Rapid continuous microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles to achieve very high productivity and full yield: from mechanistic study to optimal fabrication strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzido, Grzegorz, E-mail: gdzido@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Process Design, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Markowski, Piotr [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Inorganic, Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Małachowska-Jutsz, Anna [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering (Poland); Prusik, Krystian [University of Silesia, Institute of Materials Science (Poland); Jarzębski, Andrzej B. [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Process Design, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    Systematic studies of silver nanoparticle synthesis in a continuous-flow single-mode microwave reactor using polyol process were performed, revealing that the synthesis is exceptionally effective to give very small metal particles at full reaction yield and very high productivity. Inlet concentration of silver nitrate or silver acetate, applied as metal precursors, varied between 10 and 50 mM, and flow rates ranged from 0.635 to 2.5 dm{sup 3}/h, to give 3–24 s reaction time. Owing to its much higher reactivity, silver acetate was shown to be far superior substrate for the synthesis of small (10–20 nm) spherical silver nanoparticles within a few seconds. Its restricted solubility in ethylene glycol, applied as the solvent and reducing agent, appeared to be vital for effective separation of the stage of particle growth from its nucleation to enable rapid synthesis of small particles in a highly loaded system. This was not possible to obtain using silver nitrate. All the observations could perfectly be explained by a classical LaMer–Dinegar model of NPs’ formation, but taking into account also nonisothermal character of the continuous-flow process and acetate dissolution in the reaction system. The performed studies indicate an optimal strategy for the high-yield fabrication of metal particles using polyol method.

  4. Rapid continuous microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles to achieve very high productivity and full yield: from mechanistic study to optimal fabrication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic studies of silver nanoparticle synthesis in a continuous-flow single-mode microwave reactor using polyol process were performed, revealing that the synthesis is exceptionally effective to give very small metal particles at full reaction yield and very high productivity. Inlet concentration of silver nitrate or silver acetate, applied as metal precursors, varied between 10 and 50 mM, and flow rates ranged from 0.635 to 2.5 dm3/h, to give 3–24 s reaction time. Owing to its much higher reactivity, silver acetate was shown to be far superior substrate for the synthesis of small (10–20 nm) spherical silver nanoparticles within a few seconds. Its restricted solubility in ethylene glycol, applied as the solvent and reducing agent, appeared to be vital for effective separation of the stage of particle growth from its nucleation to enable rapid synthesis of small particles in a highly loaded system. This was not possible to obtain using silver nitrate. All the observations could perfectly be explained by a classical LaMer–Dinegar model of NPs’ formation, but taking into account also nonisothermal character of the continuous-flow process and acetate dissolution in the reaction system. The performed studies indicate an optimal strategy for the high-yield fabrication of metal particles using polyol method

  5. Rapid identification of amino acid types in proteins using phase modulated 2D HN(CACB) and 2D HN(COCACB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Abhinav; Mondal, Somnath; Chandra, Kousik; Atreya, Hanudatta S.

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple approach to rapidly identify amino acid types in proteins from a 2D spectrum. The method is based on the fact that 13Cβ chemical shifts of different amino acid types fall in distinct spectral regions. By evolving the 13C chemical shifts in the conventional HNCACB or HN(CO)CACB type experiment for a single specified delay period, the phase of the cross peaks of different amino acid residues are modulated depending on their 13Cβ shift values. Following this specified evolution period, the 2D HN projections of these experiments are acquired. The 13C evolution period can be chosen such that all residues belonging to a given set of amino acid types have the same phase pattern (positive or negative) facilitating their identification. This approach does not require the preparation of any additional samples, involves the analysis of 2D [15N-1H] HSQC-type spectra obtained from the routinely used triple resonance experiments with minor modifications, and is applicable to deuterated proteins. The method will be useful for quick assignment of signals that shift during ligand binding or in combination with selective labeling/unlabeling approaches for identification of amino acid types to aid the sequential assignment process.

  6. mGlu2 Receptor Agonism, but Not Positive Allosteric Modulation, Elicits Rapid Tolerance towards Their Primary Efficacy on Sleep Measures in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ahnaou

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR agonists are known to induce both cellular adaptations resulting in tolerance to therapeutic effects and withdrawal symptoms upon treatment discontinuation. Glutamate neurotransmission is an integral part of sleep-wake mechanisms, which processes have translational relevance for central activity and target engagement. Here, we investigated the efficacy and tolerance potential of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3 agonist LY354740 versus mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM JNJ-42153605 on sleep-wake organisation in rats. In vitro, the selectivity and potency of JNJ-42153605 were characterized. In vivo, effects on sleep measures were investigated in rats after once daily oral repeated treatment for 7 days, withdrawal and consecutive re-administration of LY354740 (1-10 mg/kg and JNJ-42153605 (3-30 mg/kg. JNJ-42153605 showed high affinity, potency and selectivity at mGluR2. Binding site analyses and knowledge-based docking confirmed the specificity of JNJ-42153605 at the mGluR2 allosteric binding site. Acute LY354740 and JNJ-42153605 dose-dependently decreased rapid eye movement (REM sleep time and prolonged its onset latency. Sub chronic effects of LY354740 on REM sleep measures disappeared from day 3 onwards, whereas those of JNJ-42153605 were maintained after repeated exposure. LY354740 attenuated REM sleep homeostatic recovery, while this was preserved after JNJ-42153605 administration. JNJ-42153605 enhanced sleep continuity and efficiency, suggesting its potential as an add-on medication for impaired sleep quality during early stages of treatment. Abrupt cessation of JNJ-42153605 did not induce withdrawal phenomena and sleep disturbances, while the initial drug effect was fully reinstated after re-administration. Collectively, long-term treatment with JNJ-42153605 did not induce tolerance phenomena to its primary functional effects on sleep measures, nor adverse effects at withdrawal, while it

  7. mGlu2 Receptor Agonism, but Not Positive Allosteric Modulation, Elicits Rapid Tolerance towards Their Primary Efficacy on Sleep Measures in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnaou, Abdallah; Lavreysen, Hilde; Tresadern, Gary; Cid, Jose M; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus H

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists are known to induce both cellular adaptations resulting in tolerance to therapeutic effects and withdrawal symptoms upon treatment discontinuation. Glutamate neurotransmission is an integral part of sleep-wake mechanisms, which processes have translational relevance for central activity and target engagement. Here, we investigated the efficacy and tolerance potential of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) agonist LY354740 versus mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-42153605 on sleep-wake organisation in rats. In vitro, the selectivity and potency of JNJ-42153605 were characterized. In vivo, effects on sleep measures were investigated in rats after once daily oral repeated treatment for 7 days, withdrawal and consecutive re-administration of LY354740 (1-10 mg/kg) and JNJ-42153605 (3-30 mg/kg). JNJ-42153605 showed high affinity, potency and selectivity at mGluR2. Binding site analyses and knowledge-based docking confirmed the specificity of JNJ-42153605 at the mGluR2 allosteric binding site. Acute LY354740 and JNJ-42153605 dose-dependently decreased rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time and prolonged its onset latency. Sub chronic effects of LY354740 on REM sleep measures disappeared from day 3 onwards, whereas those of JNJ-42153605 were maintained after repeated exposure. LY354740 attenuated REM sleep homeostatic recovery, while this was preserved after JNJ-42153605 administration. JNJ-42153605 enhanced sleep continuity and efficiency, suggesting its potential as an add-on medication for impaired sleep quality during early stages of treatment. Abrupt cessation of JNJ-42153605 did not induce withdrawal phenomena and sleep disturbances, while the initial drug effect was fully reinstated after re-administration. Collectively, long-term treatment with JNJ-42153605 did not induce tolerance phenomena to its primary functional effects on sleep measures, nor adverse effects at withdrawal, while it promoted

  8. Rapid Arc, helical tomotherapy, sliding window intensity modulated radiotherapy and three dimensional conformal radiation for localized prostate cancer: A dosimetric comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh A Kinhikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of RapidArc (RA compared with helical tomotherapy (HT, sliding window intensity modulated radiotherapy (SW IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT for localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Prescription doses ranged from 60 Gy to planning target volume (PTV and 66.25 Gy for clinical target volume prostate (CTV-P over 25-30 fractions. PTV and CTV-P coverage were evaluated by conformity index (CI and homogeneity index (HI. Organ sparing comparison was done with mean doses to rectum and bladder. Results: CI 95 were 1.0 ± 0.01 (RA, 0.99 ± 0.01 (HT, 0.97 ± 0.02 (IMRT, 0.98 ± 0.02 (3D CRT for PTV and 1.0 ± 0.00 (RA, HT, SW IMRT and 3D CRT for CTV-P. HI was 0.11 ± 0.03 (RA, 0.16 ± 0.08 (HT, 0.12 ± 0.03 (IMRT, 0.06 ± 0.01 (3D CRT for PTV and 0.03 ± 0.00 (RA, 0.05 ± 0.01 (HT, 0.03 ± 0.01 (SW IMRT and 3D CRT for CTV-P. Mean dose to bladder were 23.68 ± 13.23 Gy (RA, 24.55 ± 12.51 Gy (HT, 19.82 ± 11.61 Gy (IMRT and 23.56 ± 12.81 Gy (3D CRT, whereas mean dose to rectum was 36.85 ± 12.92 Gy (RA, 33.18 ± 11.12 Gy (HT, IMRT and 38.67 ± 12.84 Gy (3D CRT. Conclusion: All studied intensity-modulated techniques yield treatment plans of significantly improved quality when compared with 3D CRT, with HT providing best organs at risk sparing and RA being the most efficient treatment option, reducing treatment time to 1.45-3.7 min and monitor unit to <400 for a 2 Gy fraction.

  9. Moderate hypofractionation and simultaneous integrated boost with volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) for prostate cancer. Report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alongi, F.; Navarria, P.; Tozzi, A.; Mancosu, P.; Lobefalo, F.; Reggiori, G.; Scorsetti, M. [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Fogliata, A.; Clivio, A.; Cozzi, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland). Medical Physics Unit

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: In the present study, the acute toxicity profiles for prostate patients treated with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) with volumetric modulated arcs in a hypofractionated regime are reported. Patients and methods: A total of 70 patients treated with RapidArc between May 2010 and September 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were stratified into low (36%), intermediate (49%), and high-risk (16%) groups. Target volumes (expanded to define the planning volumes (PTV)) were clinical target volume (CTV) 1: prostate; CTV2: CTV1 + seminal vesicles; CTV3: CTV2 + pelvic nodes. Low-risk patients received 71.4 Gy to PTV1; intermediate-risk 74.2 Gy to PTV1 and 61.6 or 65.5 Gy to PTV2; high-risk 74.2 Gy to PTV1, 61.6 or 65.5 Gy to PTV2, and 51.8 Gy to PTV3. All treatments were in 28 fractions. The median follow-up was 11 months (range 3.5-23 months). The acute rectal, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities were scored according to EORTC/RTOG scales. Results: Acute toxicities were recorded for the GU [G0 = 31/70 (44%), G1 = 22/70 (31%); G2 = 16/70 (23%); G3 = 1/70 (1%)], the rectum [G0 = 46/70 (66%); G1 = 12/70 (17%); G2 = 12/70 (17%); no G3], and the GI [G0 = 54/69 (77%); G1 = 11/69 (16%); G2 = 4/69 (6%); no G3]. Median time to rectal, GU, and GI toxicities were 27, 30, and 33 days, respectively. Only the GI toxicity correlated with stage and pelvic irradiation. Univariate analysis presented significant correlations between GI toxicity and intestinal irradiation (V{sub 50} {sub Gy} and V{sub 60} {sub Gy}). In the multivariate analysis, the only significant dosimetric variable was V{sub 50} {sub Gy} for the intestinal cavity. Conclusion: Moderate hypofractionation with SIB and RapidArc was shown to be safe, with acceptable acute toxicity. Longer follow-up is needed to assess late toxicity and clinical outcome. (orig.)

  10. Modulation Methods for Neutral-Point-Clamped Wind Power Converter Achieving Loss and Thermal Redistribution Under Low-Voltage Ride-Through

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    paper investigates the loss and thermal performances of a 10-MW 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) operation. A series of new space vector modulation methods is then proposed to relocate the thermal loading among the power switching devices. It is concluded that, with......The three-level neutral-point (NP)-clamped (3L-NPC) converter is a promising multilevel topology in the application of megawatt wind power generation systems. However, the growing requirements by grid codes may impose high stress and even give reliability problem to this converter topology. This...... the proposed modulation methods, the thermal distribution in the 3L-NPC wind power inverter undergoing LVRT becomes more equal, and the junction temperature of the most stressed devices can be also relieved. Also, the control ability of the dc-bus NP potential, which is one of the crucial...

  11. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  12. Dosimetric study of RapidArc plans and conventional intensity modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer involving seminal vesicles and pelvis lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birendra Rout

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to (1 identify the continual diversity between conventional fixed field intensity modulation radiotherapy (IMRT and RapidArc (RA for high-risk prostate cancer; and (2 determine potential benefits and drawbacks of using for this type of treatment.Methods: A cohort of 20 prostate cases including prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes was selected for this study. The primary planning target volume (PTVP and boost planning target volume (PTVB were contoured. The total prescription dose was 75.6 Gy (45 Gy to PTVP and an additional 21.6 Gy to PTVB. Two plans were generated for each PTV: multiple 7-fields for IMRT and two arcs for RA.Results: A Sigma index (IMRT: 2.75 ± 0.581; RA: 2.8 ± 0.738 for PTVP and (IMRT: 2.0 ± 0.484; RA: 2.1 ± 0.464 for PTVB indicated similar dose homogeneity inside the PTV. Conformity index (IMRT: 0.96 ± 0.047; RA: 0.95 ± 0.059 for PTVP and (IMRT: 0.97 ± 0.015; RA: 0.96 ± 0.014 for PTVB was comparable for both the techniques. IMRT offered lower mean dose to organ at risks (OARs compared to RA plans. Normal tissue integral dose in IMRT plan resulted 0.87% lower than RA plans. All the plans displayed significant increase (2.50 times for PTVP and 1.72 for PTBB in the average number of necessary monitor units (MUs with IMRT beam. Treatment delivery time of RA was 2 ‒ 6 minutes shorter than IMRT treatment.Conclusion: For PTV including pelvic lymph nodes, seminal vesicles and prostate, IMRT offered a greater degree of OARs sparing. For PTV including seminal vesicles and prostate, RA with two arcs provided comparable plan with IMRT. RA also improved the treatment efficiency due to smaller number of MUs required.

  13. Unilateral and bilateral neck SIB for head and neck cancer patients. Intensity-modulated proton therapy, tomotherapy, and RapidArc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberger, Carmen; Budach, Volker; Ghadjar, Pirus; Wlodarczyk, Waldemar; Marnitz, Simone [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy, Berlin (Germany); Cozzi, Luca; Fogliata, Antonella [Humanitas Cancer Center Milan, Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery Department, Milan (Italy); Jamil, Basil [Klinikum Frankfurt Oder, Praxis fuer Strahlentherapie, Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Raguse, Jan D. [Clinic for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Boettcher, Arne [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To compare simultaneous integrated boost plans for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), helical tomotherapy (HT), and RapidArc therapy (RA) for patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 20 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received definitive chemoradiation with bilateral (n = 14) or unilateral (n = 6) neck irradiation and were planned using IMPT, HT, and RA with 54.4, 60.8, and 70.4 GyE/Gy in 32 fractions. Dose distributions, coverage, conformity, homogeneity to planning target volumes (PTV)s and sparing of organs at risk and normal tissue were compared. All unilateral and bilateral plans showed excellent PTV coverage and acceptable dose conformity. For unilateral treatment, IMPT delivered substantially lower mean doses to contralateral salivary glands (< 0.001-1.1 Gy) than both rotational techniques did (parotid gland: 6-10 Gy; submandibular gland: 15-20 Gy). Regarding the sparing of classical organs at risk for bilateral treatment, IMPT and HT were similarly excellent and RA was satisfactory. For unilateral neck irradiation, IMPT may minimize the dry mouth risk in this subgroup but showed no advantage over HT for bilateral neck treatment regarding classical organ-at-risk sparing. All methods satisfied modern standards regarding toxicity and excellent target coverage for unilateral and bilateral treatment of head and neck cancer at the planning level. (orig.) [German] Planvergleich von intensitaetsmodulierter Protonentherapie (IMPT), Tomotherapie (HT) und RapidArc-Therapie (RA) fuer Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region unter Anwendung des simultan integrierten Boost-Konzepts (SIB). Fuer 20 Patienten mit Plattenepithelkarzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region und bilateraler (n = 14) oder unilateraler (n = 6) zervikaler primaerer Radiochemotherapie erfolgte eine IMPT-, HT- und RA-Planung mit 54,4, 60,8 und 70,4 GyE/Gy in 32 Fraktionen. Die Dosisverteilung, Abdeckung, Konformitaet und Homogenitaet der PTVs sowie die

  14. Addressing solar modulation and long-term uncertainties in scaling secondary cosmic rays for in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Bieber, John W.; Clem, John M.; Duldig, Marc L.; Evenson, Paul; Humble, John E.; Pyle, Roger

    2005-10-01

    Solar modulation affects the secondary cosmic rays responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide (CN) production the most at the high geomagnetic latitudes to which CN production rates are traditionally referenced. While this has long been recognized (e.g., D. Lal, B. Peters, Cosmic ray produced radioactivity on the Earth, in: K. Sitte (Ed.), Handbuch Der Physik XLVI/2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967, pp. 551-612 and D. Lal, Theoretically expected variations in the terrestrial cosmic ray production rates of isotopes, in: G.C. Castagnoli (Ed.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics 95, Italian Physical Society, Varenna 1988, pp. 216-233), these variations can lead to potentially significant scaling model uncertainties that have not been addressed in detail. These uncertainties include the long-term (millennial-scale) average solar modulation level to which secondary cosmic rays should be referenced, and short-term fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity measurements used to derive published secondary cosmic ray scaling models. We have developed new scaling models for spallogenic nucleons, slow-muon capture and fast-muon interactions that specifically address these uncertainties. Our spallogenic nucleon scaling model, which includes data from portions of 5 solar cycles, explicitly incorporates a measure of solar modulation ( S), and our fast- and slow-muon scaling models (based on more limited data) account for solar modulation effects through increased uncertainties. These models improve on previously published models by better sampling the observed variability in measured cosmic ray intensities as a function of geomagnetic latitude, altitude, and solar activity. Furthermore, placing the spallogenic nucleon data in a consistent time-space framework allows for a more realistic assessment of uncertainties in our model than in earlier ones. We demonstrate here that our models reasonably account for the effects of solar modulation on measured

  15. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kooy, H. M.; Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radio...

  16. Clinical application of RapidArc volumetric modulated arc therapy as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, four or more multiple brain metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Lee, Kyu Chan; Choi, Jin Ho; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Seok Ho; Sung, Ki Hoon; Kim, Yun Mi [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    To determine feasibility of RapidArc in sequential or simultaneous integrated tumor boost in whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) for poor prognostic patients with four or more brain metastases. Nine patients with multiple ({>=}4) brain metastases were analyzed. Three patients were classified as class II in recursive partitioning analysis and 6 were class III. The class III patients presented with hemiparesis, cognitive deficit, or apraxia. The ratio of tumor to whole brain volume was 0.8-7.9%. Six patients received 2-dimensional bilateral WBRT, (30 Gy/10- 12 fractions), followed by sequential RapidArc tumor boost (15-30 Gy/4-10 fractions). Three patients received RapidArc WBRT with simultaneous integrated boost to tumors (48-50 Gy) in 10-20 fractions. The median biologically effective dose to metastatic tumors was 68.1 Gy10 and 67.2 Gy10 and the median brain volume irradiated more than 100 Gy3 were 1.9% (24 cm3) and 0.8% (13 cm3) for each group. With less than 3 minutes of treatment time, RapidArc was easily applied to the patients with poor performance status. The follow-up period was 0.3-16.5 months. Tumor responses among the 6 patients who underwent follow-up magnetic resonance imaging were partial and stable in 3 and 3, respectively. Overall survival at 6 and 12 months were 66.7% and 41.7%, respectively. The local progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months were 100% and 62.5%, respectively. RapidArc as a component in whole brain radiation therapy for poor prognostic, multiple brain metastases is an effective and safe modality with easy application.

  17. Highly efficient terahertz wave modulators by photo-excitation of organics/silicon bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using hybrid bilayer systems comprising a molecular organic semiconductor and silicon, we achieve optically controllable active terahertz (THz) modulators that exhibit extremely high modulation efficiencies. A modulation efficiency of 98% is achieved from thermally annealed C60/silicon bilayers, due to the rapid photo-induced electron transfer from the excited states of the silicon onto the C60 layer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the broadband modulation of THz waves. The cut-off condition of the system that is determined by the formation of efficient charge separation by the photo-excitation is highly variable, changing the system from insulating to metallic. The phenomenon enables an extremely high modulation bandwidth and rates of electromagnetic waves of interest. The realization of near-perfect modulation efficiency in THz frequencies opens up the possibilities of utilizing active modulators for THz spectroscopy and communications.

  18. Comparative dosimetric and radiobiological assessment among a nonstandard RapidArc, standard RapidArc, classical intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 3D brachytherapy for the treatment of the vaginal vault in patients affected by gynecologic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Califano, Giorgia [Service of Medical Physics, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Barbieri, Viviana; Sanpaolo, Piero; Castaldo, Giovanni [U.O. of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumors of Romagna IRST, Meldola (Italy); Fusco, Vincenzo [U.O. of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Regional Cancer Hospital (C.R.O.B.), Rionero in Vulture (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a nonstandard RapidArc (RA) modality as alternative to high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BRT) or IMRT treatments of the vaginal vault in patients with gynecological cancer (GC). Nonstandard (with vaginal applicator) and standard (without vaginal applicator) RapidArc plans for 27 women with GC were developed to compare with HDR-BRT and IMRT. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison were performed by means of dose-volume histogram and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). In addition, the integral dose and the overall treatment times were evaluated. RA, as well as IMRT, results in a high uniform dose on PTV compared with HDR-BRT. However, the average of EUD for HDR-BRT was significantly higher than those with RA and IMRT. With respect to the OARs, standard RA was equivalent of IMRT but inferior to HDR-BRT. Furthermore, nonstandard RA was comparable with IMRT for bladder and sigmoid and better than HDR-BRT for the rectum because of a significant reduction of d{sub 2cc}, d{sub 1cc}, and d{sub max} (p < 0.01). Integral doses were always higher than HDR-BRT, although the values were very low. Delivery times were about the same and more than double for HDR-BRT compared with IMRT and RA, respectively. In conclusion, the boost of dose on vaginal vault in patients affected by GC delivered by a nonstandard RA technique was a reasonable alternative to the conventional HDR-BRT because of a reduction of delivery time and rectal dose at substantial comparable doses for the bladder and sigmoid. However HDR-BRT provides better performance in terms of PTV coverage as evidenced by a greater EUD.

  19. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  20. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...... to be harmonized in order for a global company to perceive e-Customs as standardized. In doing so, they contribute an explanation of the challenges associated with using a standardization mechanism for harmonizing socio-technical information systems....

  1. Antibodies to the estrogen receptor-α modulate rapid prolactin release from rat pituitary tumor cells through plasma membrane estrogen receptors

    OpenAIRE

    NORFLEET, ANDREA M.; Clarke, Charlotte H.; Gametchu, Bahiru; Watson, Cheryl S.

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) raised against the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) were used to investigate the role of ERα proteins located at the plasma membrane in mediating the rapid, estrogen-stimulated secretion of prolactin (PRL) from rat pituitary GH3/B6/F10 cells. Exposure of the cells to 1 nM 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly increased PRL release after 3 or 6 min. When ERα Abs that bind specifically to ERα but are too large to diffuse into cells were tested for activity at the cell membrane, Ab R4, targ...

  2. Research and Realization on Control Module of Laser Rapid Manufacturing System%激光快速成形系统控制模块的研发与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妙妍; 张凯

    2013-01-01

    Laser direct rapid manufacturing is a state-of-the-art technology which correlates the rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP&M) and laser processing During this process,driven by computer 3D model,materia/is deposited by scanning the laser across a surface while injecting metallic powders into the molten pool at the laser focus.The metal part is then fabricated layer by layer without any tool or mold.One of the components of laser rapid manufacturing system,the computer control module plays an important role in causing the manufacturing system automatic and intelligent.The control module can be divided into hardware and software components.The hardware structure mainly includes industrial computer,motors,and motion control card,which build the overall framework,and are driven by software structure.The software structure,namely the system application program with GUI,can instruct every module of manufacturing system to finish the motion cooperatively,adjust the processing parameters freely,and fulfill the manufacturing technology automatically and intelligently.The hardware and software structures work in harmony with each other,thus flexibly controlling the manufacturing system.%激光直接快速成形是一项融合了快速原型和激光加工的先进制造技术.该技术能在无需工模具的情况下,在计算机三维实体模型的驱动下利用激光熔覆原理逐层堆积加工金属零件.在激光快速成形系统的组成模块中,计算机控制模块在实现系统智能化和自动化方面起着至关重要的作用.该模块可以分为硬件和软件两大组成部分.硬件结构主要由工控计算机、电机和运动控制卡组成,软件结构则为具有图形用户界面的系统应用程序.硬件和软件组成部分协调工作,由此灵活控制整个激光成形系统.

  3. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling.

  4. Multisite light-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF3 is necessary for both its rapid degradation and concomitant negative feedback modulation of photoreceptor phyB levels in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weimin; Xu, Shou-Ling; Chalkley, Robert J; Pham, Thao Nguyen D; Guan, Shenheng; Maltby, Dave A; Burlingame, Alma L; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Quail, Peter H

    2013-07-01

    Plants constantly monitor informational light signals using sensory photoreceptors, which include the phytochrome (phy) family (phyA to phyE), and adjust their growth and development accordingly. Following light-induced nuclear translocation, photoactivated phy molecules bind to and induce rapid phosphorylation and degradation of phy-interacting basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH) transcription factors (PIFs), such as PIF3, thereby regulating the expression of target genes. However, the mechanisms underlying the signal-relay process are still not fully understood. Here, using mass spectrometry, we identify multiple, in vivo, light-induced Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites in PIF3. Using transgenic expression of site-directed mutants of PIF3, we provide evidence that a set of these phosphorylation events acts collectively to trigger rapid degradation of the PIF3 protein in response to initial exposure of dark-grown seedlings to light. In addition, we show that phyB-induced PIF3 phosphorylation is also required for the known negative feedback modulation of phyB levels in prolonged light, potentially through codegradation of phyB and PIF3. This mutually regulatory intermolecular transaction thus provides a mechanism with the dual capacity to promote early, graded, or threshold regulation of the primary, PIF3-controlled transcriptional network in response to initial light exposure, and later, to attenuate global sensitivity to the light signal through reductions in photoreceptor levels upon prolonged exposure. PMID:23903316

  5. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Alejandra Z; León, Luisa; Fernández, Ignacio C; González, Daniel R; Boric, Mauricio P

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min) increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14%) and RyR2 (+146±77%), without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (-25-30%) and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (-25-60%), RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (-60-75%). NOS-1 inhibition reduced (-25-40%) the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (-85±7%). Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1) normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2) β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its inotropic effect.

  6. NREL module energy rating methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  7. Progress towards a rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Guang; van de Graaff, Michael; Cornell, Eric; Jin, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    We are designing an experiment with the goal of creating a rapidly rotating ultracold Fermi gas, which is promising system in which to study quantum Hall physics. We propose to use selective evaporation of a gas that has been initialized with a modest rotation rate to increase the angular momentum per particle in order to reach rapid rotation. We have performed simulations of this evaporation process for a model optical trap potential. Achieving rapid rotation will require a very smooth, very harmonic, and dynamically variable optical trap. We plan to use a setup consisting of two acousto-optical modulators to ``paint'' an optical dipole trapping potential that can be made smooth, radially symmetric, and harmonic. This project is supported by NSF, NIST, NASA.

  8. 一种快速区域视频行检测方法的设计与实现%Achievement of Rapid Target Detection Algorithm Based on Video

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆蔚

    2011-01-01

    根据目前国内各种视频检测技术在电子警察系统上的应用,结合雷达目标检测算法,设计出具有背景自适应、目标跟踪等特点的一种快速区域视频行检测方法;该方法通过检测区域行亮度的变化,通过检测目标之间的相关处理来判断机动车是否违法,不仅能高效实现对汽车违规跨越道路中心黄线进行自动监测、记录,还为交通管理部门进行执法提供有力的证据并减少交通事故的发生;通过现场测试表明,该方法不仅准确率高,而且实时性很强,具有很大的实用价值.%According to the current domestic variety of video detection technology in the electronic police system combined with radar target detection method gives a Rapid Target video detection algorithm. The method of detection is realized through the change of line brightness in Regional Detection , through the line between target detection of related to judge whether the vehicle with illegal, It' s avaibable not only efficiently for automobile compasses across the yellow line on road center automatic monitoring and recording, also for traffic management to provide strong evidence, and reduce the number of traffic accidents. Experimental result shows that method can track the vehicles effectively and get a better time-consuming.

  9. Pulse-width modulation pre-emphasis applied in a wireline transmitter, achieving 33 dB loss compensation at 5-Gb/s in 0.13-/spl mu/m CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, B.

    2006-01-01

    A transmitter pre-emphasis technique for copper cable equalization is presented that is based on pulse-width modulation (PWM). This technique is an alternative to the usual 2-tap symbol-spaced FIR (SSF) pre-emphasis. The technique uses timing resolution instead of amplitude resolution to adjust the

  10. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  11. 基于FC开关网络模块高速数字电路的设计与实现%Design and Achievement of Switching Network Module High Speed Digital Circuit Based on FC Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张战平

    2012-01-01

    The main of this paper is about the analysis and design of switching network module high speed digital circuit based on FC network. The data transmission rate is 1. 0625Gbps in the switching network module, so the high speed digital circuit issue in the module will be the key of successful design. In this paper, the choice of transmission line, the control of characteristic impedance and several main kinds of signal integrality are analyzed in detail. The design of trace, layout, power, ground and stackup are discussed also.%主要讨论了FC (Fiber Channel)开关网络模块高速电路的设计与实现;开关网络模块的数据传输速率达到了1.0625Gbps,其高速电路设计已成为系统能否可靠运行的关键因素之一;因此,文中分析了传输线选择、特性阻抗控制以及信号完整性等问题,并阐述了布局、布线、电源地和叠层等设计方法.

  12. Achieving the Space Vision through Government Incentives and Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, David P.

    2005-02-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle family must be developed and operated at much lower cost levels than current vehicles in order to win public support, while providing a higher level of safety. The Transformational Space Corporation (t/Space) is under contract to NASA show how this can be accomplished through government incentives for the development of privately-owned infrastructure that sells services to both government and commercial space customers. This markets-based approach rewards companies that focus on delivering affordable products quickly, rather than on following elaborate government-supervised processes. The architecture developed by t/Space also eliminates the need to develop heavy-lift vehicles and lunar landers, cutting in half NASA's projected cost for the first human return to the Moon.

  13. GWDC Achieved Rapid Development in Domestic and International Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ming; Chang Xin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Greatwall Drilling Company (GWDC), an integrated petroleum engineering services company, mainly provides general contracting services of well construction for oiifield development. The company devotes major efforts to reservoir geographical study, acid fracturing treatment of formations, gas development, and other related technical extension services for oilfield development.

  14. Abelian modules

    OpenAIRE

    S. Halıcıoğlu; Harmanci, A.; GÜNGÖROĞLU, G.; N. Agayev

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we introduce abelian modules as a generalization of abelian rings. Let R be an arbitrary ring with identity. A module M is called abelian if, for any m Î M and any a Î R, any idempotent e Î R, mae=mea. We prove that every reduced module, every symmetric module, every semicommutative module and every Armendariz module is abelian. For an abelian ring R, we show that the module MR is abelian iff M[x]R[x] is abelian. We produce an example to show that M[x, α] need not be abe...

  15. Estimating achievement from fame

    OpenAIRE

    Simkin, M. V.; Roychowdhury, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a method for estimating people's achievement based on their fame. Earlier we discovered (cond-mat/0310049) that fame of fighter pilot aces (measured as number of Google hits) grows exponentially with their achievement (number of victories). We hypothesize that the same functional relation between achievement and fame holds for other professions. This allows us to estimate achievement for professions where an unquestionable and universally accepted measure of achievement does not exi...

  16. Mechanical models of amplitude and frequency modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellomonte, L; Guastella, I; Sperandeo-Mineo, R M [GRIAF - Research Group on Teaching/Learning Physics, DI.F.TE.R. -Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents some mechanical models for amplitude and frequency modulation. The equations governing both modulations are deduced alongside some necessary approximations. Computer simulations of the models are carried out by using available educational software. Amplitude modulation is achieved by using a system of two weakly coupled pendulums, whereas the frequency modulation is obtained by using a pendulum of variable length. Under suitable conditions (small oscillations, appropriate initial conditions, etc) both types of modulation result in significantly accurate and visualized simulations.

  17. Water-module interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  18. A rapid, dispersion-based wavelength-stepped and wavelength-swept laser for optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Tozburun, Serhat; Siddiqui, Meena; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Optical-domain subsampling enables Fourier-domain OCT imaging at high-speeds and extended depth ranges while limiting the required acquisition bandwidth. To perform optical-domain subsampling, a wavelength-stepped rather than a wavelength-swept source is required. This preliminary study introduces a novel design for a rapid wavelength-stepped laser source that uses dispersive fibers in combination with a fast lithium-niobate modulator to achieve wavelength selection. A laser with 20...

  19. Exploiting total internal reflection geometry for efficient optical modulation of terahertz light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xudong; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Ung, Benjamin S.-Y.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Efficient methods to modulate terahertz (THz) light are essential for realizing rapid THz imaging and communication applications. Here we report a novel THz modulator which utilizes the evanescent wave in a total internal reflection setup coupled with a conductive interface to enhance the attenuation efficiency of THz light. This approach makes it possible to achieve close to 100% modulation with a small interface conductivity of 12 mS. The frequency dependence of this technique is linked to the optical properties of the materials: a material with close to frequency independent conductivity that is also controllable will result in an achromatic modulation response, and the device performance can be optimized further by tuning the internal reflection angle. In this work, we focus on applying the technique in the terahertz frequency range. Using an LED array with a pump intensity of 475 mW/cm2 to produce carriers in a silicon wafer, we have achieved a modulation depth of up to 99.9% in a broad frequency range of 0.1 THz-0.8 THz. The required pumping power for the generation of the required free carriers is low because the sheet conductivity needed is far less than required for traditional transmission techniques. Consequently, the device can be modulated by an LED making it a very practical, low cost, and scalable solution for THz modulation.

  20. Simulation Analysis Module of High-speed Rail Bearings Based on Secondary Development in ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YE Jun; XU Juan; LUO Yi-chao

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a strong secondary development based on ADAMS feature which creates high-speed rail bearings for simulation analysis module. This thesis is in the case of non-circular pattern instructions of how to achieve rapid roller modeling, with analysis of functions and parameters required for the design of the simulation module of the high-speed rail bearing , as well as the design of dialog boxes, the environment and file structure. The specific modules is based on the secondary development language provided by ADAMS/View. Through the menus, dialog boxes which input parameters, it can achieve high iron bearing automatic modeling, dynamic analysis and post-processing to simplify the analysis of high-speed rail bearing operations, as well as improving the high-speed rail bearing development efficiency.

  1. Graphene liquid marbles as photothermal miniature reactors for reaction kinetics modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Hobley, Jonathan; Liu, Tianxi; Phang, In Yee; Ling, Xing Yi

    2015-03-23

    We demonstrate the fabrication of graphene liquid marbles as photothermal miniature reactors with precise temperature control for reaction kinetics modulation. Graphene liquid marbles show rapid and highly reproducible photothermal behavior while maintaining their excellent mechanical robustness. By tuning the applied laser power, swift regulation of graphene liquid marble's surface temperature between 21-135 °C and its encapsulated water temperature between 21-74 °C are demonstrated. The temperature regulation modulates the reaction kinetics in our graphene liquid marble, achieving a 12-fold superior reaction rate constant for methylene blue degradation than at room temperature.

  2. Cadmium telluride module development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrigth, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Efficiencies of up to 12.3% have been achieved on small devices. It is expected that 14% efficiency will be exceeded on small devices by improving the fill factors on the present devices in the reasonably near future. Efficiencies in the range 16%-18% are expected to be achieved in the longer term. Modules of 6 W, approximately 929 cm{sup 2} in area with an active area efficiency of over 8% (aperture efficiency of 7.3%) have been achieved. The feasibility of producing 4 ft{sup 2} modules of CdS/CdTe has been shown and requires further efforts in order to realize the overall potentials. The structural integrity of the encapsulation design has been studied by thermal cycling and outdoor life testing. Submodules have been life tested for over 270 days with no observable degradation by the SERI Outdoor Reliability and Life Testing Laboratory. In addition to further optimization of materials and device structure, module output in the future will be increased by an improvement in the uniformity of the deposition process, and by minimizing the loss of active area due to cell division interconnections. Module output is expected to attain 135 W m{sup -2} in the mid 1990s and over 150 W m{sup -2} in the long term. (orig.).

  3. Economic Growth——"Sound and Rapid" Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树成

    2008-01-01

    Sound and rapid development is an intrinsic requirement in the implementation of the "scientific outlook on development" and represents an important change in the concept of economic development. This article, reviews past achievements under the guidance of "rapid and sound" development, and brings to light the reasons why we need to pursue "sound and rapid" development and how it can be achieved.

  4. Prostate treatments, 1MRT o RapidArc; Tratamiento de prostata, IMART o RapidArc?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro novais, J.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Cerro Penalver, E.

    2015-07-01

    Techniques that modulate the dose (as IMRT or RapidArcTM) improve dose homogeneity within the target volume decreasing the dose in healthy organs. The aim of this work is to study the dosimetric differences in prostate radiotherapy treatments with IMRT and RapidArcTM. The results of the 109 patients studied show that plans to RapidArcTM have better coverage, compliance and dose gradient outside the target volume. (Author)

  5. Optimization of verification pretreatment of plans of radiotherapy treatment with the technique of arcoterapia with RapidArc VMAT intensity-modulated; Optimizacion de la verificacion pretratamiento de los planes de tratamiento radioterapico con la tecnica de arcoterapia con intensidad modulada RapidArc VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna Berna, A.; Puchades Puchades, V.; Mata Cologro, F.; Ramos Amores, D.

    2013-07-01

    The pretreatment verification of plans arcoterapia intensity modulated (VMAT) increases the workload on the services of radio physics. These checks focus with two objectives: First, check the dose calculation system for treatment planning; and second verify that the accelerator is able to administer treatment as has been planned. There are different commercial solutions to facilitate this procedure. The purpose of this paper is to compare the efficiency of four sets of independent verification to establish an optimal protocol. (Author)

  6. Rapid coal proximate analysis by thermogravimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Jianxiong; Yang Dezhong; Zhao Baozhong

    1987-09-01

    A rapid coal proximate analysis by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used as an alternative method for the standard proximate analysis. This paper presents a program set up to rapidly perform coal proximate analysis by using a thermal analyzer and TGA module. A comparison between coal proximate analyses by standard method (GB) and TGA is also given. It shows that most data from TGA fall within the tolerance limit of standard method.

  7. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  8. College Achievement and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Gemus, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    I study the size and sources of the monetary return to college achievement as measured by cumulative Grade Point Average (GPA). I first present evidence that the return to achievement is large and statistically significant. I find, however, that this masks variation in the return across different groups of people. In particular, there is no relationship between GPA and earnings for graduate degree holders but a large and positive relationship for people without a graduate degree. To reconcile...

  9. Polarisation Encryption/Decryption Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A polarisation encryption/decryption module comprising at least two array based modulating devices, preferably spatial light modulators (SLMs), at least one array based intensity detector, and at least one source of electromagnetic radiation. A local region of information displayed on a first of ...... rapidly. May be used for real time encryption/decryption of motion pictures. Further, a method of polarisation encrypting and decrypting information. The encryption/decryption is performed optically while the communication is performed electronically.......A polarisation encryption/decryption module comprising at least two array based modulating devices, preferably spatial light modulators (SLMs), at least one array based intensity detector, and at least one source of electromagnetic radiation. A local region of information displayed on a first...... of the modulating devices has corresponding local regions on each of the other modulating devices and on each of the detectors. Preferably uses XOR operations. The module is compact in size and capable of performing encryption as well as decryption. Provides fast encryption/decryption because the key may be changed...

  10. Rapid generation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Chen, Changchen; Rodenburg, Brandon; Malik, Mehul; Boyd, Robert W

    2013-12-16

    We report a technique for encoding both amplitude and phase variations onto a laser beam using a single digital micro-mirror device (DMD). Using this technique, we generate Laguerre-Gaussian and vortex orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes, along with modes in a set that is mutually unbiased with respect to the OAM basis. Additionally, we have demonstrated rapid switching among the generated modes at a speed of 4 kHz, which is much faster than the speed regularly achieved by phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs). The dynamic control of both phase and amplitude of a laser beam is an enabling technology for classical communication and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems that employ spatial mode encoding.

  11. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  12. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  13. Implementing RapidArc into clinical routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Esch, Ann; Huyskens, Dominique P; Behrens, Claus F;

    2011-01-01

    With the increased commercial availability of intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) comes the need for comprehensive QA programs, covering the different aspects of this newly available technology. This manuscript proposes such a program for the RapidArc (RA) (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto) I...

  14. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  15. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  16. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  17. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  18. *-Modules, co-*-modules and cotilting modules over Noetherian rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明义; 许永华

    1996-01-01

    Let R be a Noetherian ring. The projectivity and injectivity of modules over R are discussed. The concept of modules is introduced and the descriptions for co-*-modules over R are given. At last, cotilting modules over R are characterized by means of co-*-modules.

  19. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abzari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according to the standards and criteria oforganizational excellence. The result of the so-called research is this paper in which researchers foundtwenty models and components of corporate culture and based on the Industry, organizational goals andEFQM model developed a model called "The Eskimo model of Culture-Excellence". The method of theresearch is survey and field study and the questionnaires were distributed among 116 managers andemployees. To assess the reliability of questionnaires, Cronbach alpha was measured to be 95% in the idealsituation and 0/97 in the current situation. Systematic sampling was done and in the pre-test stage 45questionnaires were distributed. A comparison between the current and the ideal corporate culture based onthe views of managers and employees was done and finally it has been concluded that corporate culture isthe main factor to facilitate corporate excellence and success in order to achieve organizational effectiveness.The contribution of this paper is that it proposes a localized –applicable model of corporate excellencethrough reinforcing corporate culture.

  20. CAMS achievements in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Oe.; Fantoni, P.; Iguchi, Y.; Meyer, G.; Soerensen, A.; Dyck, C. van

    1996-01-01

    CAMS (Computerized Accident Management Support) is a system being developed as a joint research activity at the Halden Reactor Project with additional financing from the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) and the Nordic NKS/RAK-2 project. Three types of users are envisaged: the staff in the control room, the staff in the technical support centre and the staff at a national emergency centre. It is still an experimental system. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate kindly accepted to test CAMS at a safety exercise on the 4th of May, 1995. CAMS is designed assuming automatic data transfer from the plant. Missing the data link, a simulator running in the next room was updated now and then with data received by phone. As seen from CAMS, it did not matter if the data came from a fake plant or from a real plant, except that the data were delayed. Overall, it seemed that CAMS can be a very important tool for a national authority. A data link from the plant would increase its usefulness. Several comments on design features were collected and will be used to improve the system. The model needs more inputs to control the main parameters, and a larger repertoire of fault conditions should be put into the model. In the second half of 1995 the work on CAMS has concentrated upon designing new modules for signal validation, tracking simulation and state identification. This will provide better capabilities for on-line monitoring and assessment of the plant state. Further, it has been proposed to introduce Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to assist in risk monitoring. A first prototype has been made on a personal computer showing the main features of such a PSA module. (au).

  1. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  2. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  3. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and < 0.16″ in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and

  4. Achieving English Spoken Fluency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲜杰

    2000-01-01

    Language is first and foremost oral,spoken language,speaking skill is the most important one of the four skills(L,S,R,W)and also it is the most difficult one of the four skills. To have an all-round command of a language one must be able to speak and to understand the spoken language, it is not enough for a language learner only to have a good reading and writing skills. As Englisn language teachers, we need to focus on improving learners' English speaking skill to meet the need of our society and our country and provide learner some useful techniques to achieving their English spoken fluency. This paper focuses on the spoken how to improving learners speaking skill.

  5. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  6. Self oscillating PWM modulators, a topological comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    High precision control of the output voltage or current of a switch mode converter with fast response is required for a number of applications. Dependent on the type of application, the desired precision and transient response can be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve with standard PWM...... control caused by limitations in dynamic capabilities which often limits fast tracking of a reference signal, or fast settling during load steps due to too small achievable control loop bandwidth. Achievable open loop bandwidth for standard voltage and current mode PWM modulators is typical in the fs/10...... to fs which makes this type of modulators an excellent choice for a wide range of applications. Self oscillating PWM modulators can be made in a number of ways, either as voltage or current mode modulators, and the self oscillating behavior can be achieved either by using hysteresis control...

  7. Spatial light modulation in compound semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor); Gheen, Gregory O. (Inventor); Partovi, Afshin (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Spatial light modulation (22) in a III-V single crystal (12), e.g., gallium arsenide, is achieved using the photorefractive effect. Polarization rotation created by beam coupling is utilized in one embodiment. In particular, information (16)on a control beam (14) incident on the crystal is transferred to an input beam (10), also incident on the crystal. An output beam (18) modulated in intensity is obtained by passing the polarization-modulated input beam through a polarizer (20).

  8. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  9. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  10. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  11. Product Module Rig Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Chiappetta, Louis, Jr.; Hautman, Donald J.; Ols, John T.; Padget, Frederick C., IV; Peschke, William O. T.; Shirley, John A.; Siskind, Kenneth S.

    2004-01-01

    The low emissions potential of a Rich-Quench-Lean (RQL) combustor for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) application was evaluated as part of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.0.2.7 of the NASA Critical Propulsion Components (CPC) Program under Contract NAS3-27235. Combustion testing was conducted in cell 1E of the Jet Burner Test Stand at United Technologies Research Center. Specifically, a Rich-Quench-Lean combustor, utilizing reduced scale quench technology implemented in a quench vane concept in a product-like configuration (Product Module Rig), demonstrated the capability of achieving an emissions index of nitrogen oxides (NOx EI) of 8.5 gm/Kg fuel at the supersonic flight condition (relative to the program goal of 5 gm/Kg fuel). Developmental parametric testing of various quench vane configurations in the more fundamental flametube, Single Module Rig Configuration, demonstrated NOx EI as low as 5.2. All configurations in both the Product Module Rig configuration and the Single Module Rig configuration demonstrated exceptional efficiencies, greater than 99.95 percent, relative to the program goal of 99.9 percent efficiency at supersonic cruise conditions. Sensitivity of emissions to quench orifice design parameters were determined during the parametric quench vane test series in support of the design of the Product Module Rig configuration. For the rectangular quench orifices investigated, an aspect ratio (length/width) of approximately 2 was found to be near optimum. An optimum for orifice spacing was found to exist at approximately 0.167 inches, resulting in 24 orifices per side of a quench vane, for the 0.435 inch quench zone channel height investigated in the Single Module Rig. Smaller quench zone channel heights appeared to be beneficial in reducing emissions. Measurements were also obtained in the Single Module Rig configuration on the sensitivity of emissions to the critical combustor parameters of fuel/air ratio, pressure drop, and residence

  12. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  13. Diode Laser Velocity Measurements by Modulated Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, J. J.; Varghese, P. L.; Jagodzinski, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of solid-state lasers to be tuned in operating frequency at MHz rates by input current modulation, while maintaining a relatively narrow line-width, has made them useful for spectroscopic measurements. Their other advantages include low cost, reliability, durability, compact size, and modest power requirements, making them a good choice for a laser source in micro-gravity experiments in drop-towers and in flight. For their size, they are also very bright. In a filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) experiment, a diode laser can be used to scan across an atomic or molecular absorption line, generating large changes in transmission at the resonances for very small changes in frequency. The hyperfine structure components of atomic lines of alkali metal vapors are closely spaced and very strong, which makes such atomic filters excellent candidates for sensitive Doppler shift detection and therefore for high-resolution velocimetry. In the work we describe here we use a Rubidium vapor filter, and work with the strong D(sub 2) transitions at 780 nm that are conveniently accessed by near infrared diode lasers. The low power output of infrared laser diodes is their primary drawback relative to other laser systems commonly used for velocimetry. However, the capability to modulate the laser frequency rapidly and continuously helps mitigate this. Using modulation spectroscopy and a heterodyne detection scheme with a lock-in amplifier, one can extract sub-microvolt signals occurring at a specific frequency from a background that is orders of magnitude stronger. The diode laser modulation is simply achieved by adding a small current modulation to the laser bias current. It may also be swept repetitively in wavelength using an additional lower frequency current ramp.

  14. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  15. Rapid Arc for heat and Neck cancer (200 patients experience)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fandino, J. M.; Triana, G.; Gesto, C.; Diaz, I.; Candal, A.; Fernandez, C.; Izquierdo, P.; Poncet, M.; Silva, M. C.; Soto, M.; Losada, C.; Marino, A.

    2013-07-01

    Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy is increasingly standard for head and neck cancer. These advances have resulted in longer treatment times when compared to 3D Conformal Radiotherapy. Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy potentially enables shorter treatment time, achieving similar dose results. We report feasibility and acute toxicity profile of patients treated with moderate hypo fractionation and simultaneous integrated boost by means of Image Guided- Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy technique in the first two years from its clinical implementation at COG. (Author)

  16. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe2 solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbery, B. J.

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large area CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 (CIGS)/Cd(1-y)Zn(y)S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin film solar cell modules will enable 15 pct. median efficiencies to be achieved in high volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe2 (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x greater than or = 0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30 year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large area integrated thin film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  17. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe sub 2 solar cell modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbery, B.J. (Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{ge}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  18. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  19. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  20. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  1. Broad-band multisection electrooptic modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Benjamin; Marino, Richard M.; Eng, Richard S.

    1988-10-01

    A general solution has been derived for expressing the conversion of power from a base frequency to a modulation sideband using a multisection electrooptic modulator. The objective is to obtain broadband frequency modulation of a laser by the use of multiple collinear electrooptic crystals with microwave power levels well below the breakdown threshold. It is found that segmented structures lead to greater bandwidths, which increase with the number of modulator sections. This is achieved by adjusting the phases of microwaves between sections to maximize the single-sideband conversion efficiency. It is shown that a 10.6-micron CO2 laser modulator with six geometrically identical CdTe sections can potentially achieve a 3-dB bandwidth of nearly 6 GHz using a 10-kW traveling-wave tube operating at 16-GHz center frequency.

  2. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  3. Graphene Based Optical Phase Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Midrio, Michele; Romagnoli, Marco; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report phase modulation obtained by inducing a capacitive charge on graphene layers embedded in the core of a waveguide. There is a biasing regime in which graphene absorption is negligible but large index variations can be achieved with a voltage-length product as small as $V_\\pi\\,L_\\pi \\simeq 0.04 $\\,V\\,cm . Examples of phase induced changes are computed for straight waveguides and for microring resonators showing the possibility to implement several optoelectronic functionalities as modulators, tunable filters, and switches.

  4. Modulation of Intercellular Junction by Utilization of Cadherin Peptides as an Effort to Improve Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advances in combinatorial chemistry and molecular biology has influenced the discovery of many proteins, peptides and peptidomimetics as potential therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, the practical application of these potential drugs is often restricted by the difficulties of delivering them to target site(s due to the presence of biological barriers. Recently, a new method to improve the drug delivery, that is by modulating the intercellular junction, has been evaluated. Modulation of intercellular junction could be achieved by modulating the proteins which play important role in establishing the intercellular junction, one of which is cadherin. In the present work we have demonstrated the ability of several cadherin peptides, i.e. Ac-LFSHAVSSNG-NH2 (HAV-10, Ac-SHAVSS-NH2 (HAV-6, Ac-QGADTPPVGV-NH2 (ADT-10, and Ac-ADTPPV-NH2 (ADT-6 to modulate the intercellular junction of MDCK (Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells, this finding is a contribution to the establishment of a new method to improve the drug delivery by utilization of cadherin peptides by modulating the intercellular junction.

  5. Novel redox-sensing modules : Accessory protein- and nucleic acid-mediated signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedenburg, Gabriele; Groves, Matthew R; Ortiz de Orué Lucana, Darío

    2012-01-01

    SIGNIFICANCE: Organisms have evolved both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways to prevent oxidative damage to essential macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids. Pathways modulated by different protein-based sensory and regulatory modules ensure a rapid and appropriate response. RECENT AD

  6. Low modulation bias InGaN-based integrated EA-modulator-laser on semipolar GaN substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2015-10-04

    In summary, we demonstrated the monolithic integration of electroabsorption modulator with laser diode and measured DC and AC modulation characteristics of the device, which is grown on (2021̅) plane GaN substrate. By alternating the modulation voltage at −3.5 V and 0 V, we achieve the laser output power of < 1.5 mW to > 9 mW, respectively, leading to ∼8.1 dB On/Off ratio. Our results clearly show that a low power consumption modulator can be achieved with semipolar EA-modulator compared to that of the c-plane devices.

  7. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  8. Gigascale Silicon Photonic Transmitters Integrating HBT-based Carrier-injection Electroabsorption Modulator Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Enjin

    Demand for more bandwidth is rapidly increasing, which is driven by data intensive applications such as high-definition (HD) video streaming, cloud storage, and terascale computing applications. Next-generation high-performance computing systems require power efficient chip-to-chip and intra-chip interconnect yielding densities on the order of 1Tbps/cm2. The performance requirements of such system are the driving force behind the development of silicon integrated optical interconnect, providing a cost-effective solution for fully integrated optical interconnect systems on a single substrate. Compared to conventional electrical interconnect, optical interconnects have several advantages, including frequency independent insertion loss resulting in ultra wide bandwidth and link latency reduction. For high-speed optical transmitter modules, the optical modulator is a key component of the optical I/O channel. This thesis presents a silicon integrated optical transmitter module design based on a novel silicon HBT-based carrier injection electroabsorption modulator (EAM), which has the merits of wide optical bandwidth, high speed, low power, low drive voltage, small footprint, and high modulation efficiency. The structure, mechanism, and fabrication of the modulator structure will be discussed which is followed by the electrical modeling of the post-processed modulator device. The design and realization of a 10Gbps monolithic optical transmitter module integrating the driver circuit architecture and the HBT-based EAM device in a 130nm BiCMOS process is discussed. For high power efficiency, a 6Gbps ultra-low power driver IC implemented in a 130nm BiCMOS process is presented. The driver IC incorporates an integrated 27-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) generator for reliable high-speed testing, and a driver circuit featuring digitally-tuned pre-emphasis signal strength. With outstanding drive capability, the driver module can be applied to a wide range of carrier

  9. Subpicosecond-pulse generation through cross-phase-modulation-induced modulational instability in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Neto, A S; Faldon, M E; Sombra, A S; Wigley, P G; Taylor, J R

    1988-10-01

    We report subpicosecond-pulse generation at 1.319 microm in a single-mode optical fiber by modulational instability induced through cross-phase modulation by 1.06-microm pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime. Pulse-repetition rates approaching 300 GHz were achieved.

  10. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  11. SAP Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Stable demand growth internationally Super absorbent polymers (SAP) feature high water absorption, high water retention, rapid water absorption, great expanding power,strong thickening, strong anchoring and excellent elasticity.

  12. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  13. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  14. Modulation classification based on spectrogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The aim of modulation classification (MC) is to identify the modulation type of a communication signal. It plays an important role in many cooperative or noncooperative communication applications. Three spectrogram-based modulation classification methods are proposed. Their reccgnition scope and performance are investigated or evaluated by theoretical analysis and extensive simulation studies. The method taking moment-like features is robust to frequency offset while the other two, which make use of principal component analysis (PCA) with different transformation inputs,can achieve satisfactory accuracy even at low SNR (as low as 2 dB). Due to the properties of spectrogram, the statistical pattern recognition techniques, and the image preprocessing steps, all of our methods are insensitive to unknown phase and frequency offsets, timing errors, and the arriving sequence of symbols.

  15. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  16. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, T; Butterworth, A; Molendijk, J; Tuckmantel, J

    2012-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently setup for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading eects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would push the klystrons to saturation. For beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will be not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test an iterative algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the optimal phase modulation for klystron forward power considerations.

  17. The effect of the modulation shape in the ballistic thermal conductance of modulated nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on calculations of the ballistic thermal conductance of nanowires with modulated width along their length. We discuss the effect of the shape of the modulation in the thermal conductance of the nanowires. The ballistic thermal conductance is determined by the phonon transmission coefficient. It is shown that the thermal conductance of the modulated wires is lower than that of the corresponding straight wires. The phonon conductance decreases with increasing number of modulating periods and saturates to the infinite superlattice value. It decreases below this value when the modulation profile is non-periodic. It is shown that the thermal conductance can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. This behavior could lead to structures of nanowires with enhanced thermoelectric efficiency. - Graphical abstract: The thermal conductance versus temperature for straight nanowires and for wires modulated periodically by arrays of identical dots and non-periodically by arrays of non-identical dots. Highlights: ► The thermal conductance of modulated nanowires can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. ► A dramatic decrease of the thermal conductance of modulated nanowires is found when the modulation profile is non-periodic. ► Very low thermal conductance can be achieved in modulated wires that have shown efficient electron thermoelectric behavior.

  18. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  19. Observation of nonreciprocal transmission in binary phase-shift keying modulation using traveling-wave Mach-Zehnder modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Po; Gui, Chengcheng

    2016-06-15

    In coherent optical transmission, traveling-wave Mach-Zehnder modulators are commonly used to generate various advanced formats where the modulators are biased at the minimum transmission point. Here, we report that an optical isolation effect with lower backward transmission occurs under this condition. This concept is successfully demonstrated to achieve ∼7  dB isolation over a 90-nm wavelength span under binary phase-shift keying modulation using a commercial lithium niobate modulator. PMID:27304273

  20. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  1. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  2. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  3. The Predictiveness of Achievement Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy P. Phan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.

  4. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  5. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  6. Attribution theory in science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  7. Silicon high speed modulator for advanced modulation: device structures and exemplary modulator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milivojevic, Biljana; Wiese, Stefan; Whiteaway, James; Raabe, Christian; Shastri, Anujit; Webster, Mark; Metz, Peter; Sunder, Sanjay; Chattin, Bill; Anderson, Sean P.; Dama, Bipin; Shastri, Kal

    2014-03-01

    Fiber optics is well established today due to the high capacity and speed, unrivaled flexibility and quality of service. However, state of the art optical elements and components are hardly scalable in terms of cost and size required to achieve competitive port density and cost per bit. Next-generation high-speed coherent optical communication systems targeting a data rate of 100-Gb/s and beyond goes along with innovations in component and subsystem areas. Consequently, by leveraging the advanced silicon micro and nano-fabrication technologies, significant progress in developing CMOS platform-based silicon photonic devices has been made all over the world. These achievements include the demonstration of high-speed IQ modulators, which are important building blocks in coherent optical communication systems. In this paper, we demonstrate silicon photonic QPSK modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure, address different modulator configuration structures and report our progress and research associated with highspeed advanced optical modulation in silicon photonics

  8. Compact nanomechanical plasmonic phase modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B. S.; Haftel, M. I.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Lopez, D.; Blumberg, G.; Aksyuk, V. A.

    2015-03-30

    Highly confined optical energy in plasmonic devices is advancing miniaturization in photonics. However, for mode sizes approaching ≈10 nm, the energy increasingly shifts into the metal, raising losses and hindering active phase modulation. Here, we propose a nanoelectromechanical phase-modulation principle exploiting the extraordinarily strong dependence of the phase velocity of metal–insulator–metal gap plasmons on dynamically variable gap size. We experimentally demonstrate a 23-μm-long non-resonant modulator having a 1.5π rad range, with 1.7 dB excess loss at 780 nm. Analysis shows that by simultaneously decreasing the gap, length and width, an ultracompact-footprint π rad phase modulator can be realized. This is achieved without incurring the extra loss expected for plasmons confined in a decreasing gap, because the increasing phase-modulation strength from a narrowing gap offsets rising propagation losses. Such small, high-density electrically controllable components may find applications in optical switch fabrics and reconfigurable plasmonic optics.

  9. Super safe small reactor RAPID-L conceptual design and R and D. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H11-002 (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambe, Mitsuru [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Tsunoda, Hirokazu [Mitsubishi Research Inst., Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Mishima, Kaichiro [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, Akira [Tohoku Univ., School of Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Iwamura, Takamichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The 200 kWe uranium nitride fueled lithium cooled fast reactor 'RAPID-L' combined with thermoelectric power conversion system that can be operated unmanned without refueling for up to ten years has been demonstrated. The RAPID refueling concept enables quick and simplified refueling, and achieves plant design lifetime over 20 years. A significant advantage of the RAPID-L design, which does not require the use of control rods - is the introduction of the innovative reactivity control systems: lithium expansion module (LEM), lithium injection module (LIM) and lithium release module (LRM). LEM is the most promising candidate for improving inherent reactivity feedback. LEMs could realize burnup compensation. LIMs assure sufficient negative reactivity feedback in unprotected transients. LRMs enable an automated reactor startup by detecting the hot standby temperature of the primary coolant. All these systems use {sup 6}Li as liquid poison and are actuated by highly reliable physical properties (volume expansion of {sup 6}Li for LEM, and freeze seal melting for LIM and LRM). (author)

  10. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  11. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  12. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  13. Rapid methods : for food and feed quality determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Barug, D.; Lauwaars, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for rapid methods and instrumentation in the field of food and feed quality. Key issues dealt with in the food and feed industry include: monitoring of processes at all stages; showing due diligence in the control of food and nutritional quality; achieving rapid resu

  14. The Process of Science Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  15. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  16. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  17. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  18. Peer relationships and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjajić Stevan B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After their childhood, when children begin to establish more intensive social contacts outside family, first of all, in school setting, their behavior i.e. their social, intellectual, moral and emotional development is more strongly affected by their peers. Consequently, the quality of peer relationships considerably affects the process of adaptation and academic achievement and their motivational and emotional attitude towards school respectively. Empirical findings showed that there is bi-directional influence between peer relationships and academic achievement. In other words, the quality of peer relationships affects academic achievement, and conversely, academic achievement affects the quality of peer relationships. For example, socially accepted children exhibiting prosocial, cooperative and responsible forms of behavior in school most frequently have high academic achievement. On the other hand, children rejected by their peers often have lower academic achievement and are a risk group tending to delinquency, absenteeism and drop out of school. Those behavioral and interpersonal forms of competence are frequently more reliable predictors of academic achievement than intellectual abilities are. Considering the fact that various patterns of peer interaction differently exert influence on students' academic behavior, the paper analyzed effects of (a social competence, (b social acceptance/rejection, (c child's friendships and (d prosocial behavior on academic achievement.

  19. Synchronization of chaotic VCSELs by external chaotic signal parameter modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Shenghai Zhang; Xingzhong Qian; Yanbin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is achieved by external chaotic signal modulation successfully.Simulation indicates that we can get chaos synchronization if the intensity of external chaotic signal is large enough.First of all,we use direct current modulation to achieve the chaos of VCSELs,and determine the laser's chaotic state by analyzing time series of the output and the corresponding power spectrum.And then we achieve synchronization of the two chaotic systems by external chaotic signal parameter modulation.We also find that the larger the modulation intensity is,the easier it is to achieve synchronization for chaotic VCSELs.This approach can also be applied to systems with a number of modulated lasers.

  20. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  1. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  2. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  3. Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard S. Tuthill

    2004-06-10

    The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

  4. N over N cascode push pull modulator driver in 130nm CMOS enabling 20Gb/s optical interconnection with Mach-Zehnder modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shenghao; Thomson, D.; Li, K.E.; Wilson, Peter; Reed, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The N over N cascode push-pull modulator driver is demonstrated at 20Gbit/s with IBM 130nm technology. Elec-optical measurement of modulator driver integrated with Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is also presented. This modulator driver achieves 50 output impedance matching (for MZM) with on-chip termination. The power consumption of modulator driver is 312 mW and output swing is 3.4V pp on differential.

  5. Achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysser, W.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper examples from intermetallics, composites with ductile and high strength reinforcements, nanocrystalline and superplastic materials are used to illustrate generic and special achievements and prospects of advanced materials processed by powder technology. Processing technologies include reactive powder metallurgy, nanocrystalline processing, rapid solidification and mechanical alloying.

  6. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes.

  7. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  8. Rapid Hepatitis B Vaccination in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Özcan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a very important method in prevention of HBV.Especially rapid immunization takes an important place in subjects at highrisk. We have injected HBV vaccine to health workers who are attending inour hospital by rapid immunisation programme (at 0, 1 and 2 months andaimed to identify it’s efficiacy. Eighty seven subjects (69% male, 31%female were included to our study. Median age was 34 for male and 32 forwomen. We obtained 90% achievement of immunity rate after theprogramme finished. There were no significant difference between maleend female groups, and age groups. The non-responder rate was 11.6% inmale, and 7.4% in female. This rate was 6% in under 40 years old group,and 22.7% in 40 or older group. This difference was significant in twogroups statistically (p=0.02. The rapid immunization programme, weperformed has nearly the same success results as in standard programme.

  9. Capacity achieving multiwrite WOM codes

    OpenAIRE

    Shpilka, Amir

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give an explicit construction of a capacity achieving family of binary t-write WOM codes for any number of writes t, that have a polynomial time encoding and decoding algorithms. The block length of our construction is N=(t/\\epsilon)^{O(t/(\\delta\\epsilon))} when \\epsilon is the gap to capacity and encoding and decoding run in time N^{1+\\delta}. This is the first deterministic construction achieving these parameters. Our techniques also apply to larger alphabets.

  10. Coherent Detection of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Phase-Modulated Radio-over-Fibre Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Peucheret, Christophe;

    2008-01-01

    A WDM phase-modulated Radio-over-Fibre link using digital coherent detection is experimentally demonstrated. 3 times 50 Mb/s WDM transmission of a BPSK modulated 5 GHz RF carrier is achieved over 25 km....

  11. Erraticity of rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of rapidity gaps is proposed as a measure of the spatial pattern of an event. When the event multiplicity is low, the gaps between neighboring particles carry far more information about an event than multiplicity spikes, which may occur very rarely. Two moments of the gap distribution are suggested for characterizing an event. The fluctuations of those moments from event to event are then quantified by an entropy-like measure, which serves to describe erraticity. We use ECOMB to simulate the exclusive rapidity distribution of each event, from which the erraticity measures are calculated. The dependences of those measures on the order q of the moments provide single-parameter characterizations of erraticity. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  13. New Rapid Spore Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  14. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  15. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabidian, Nima; Dutta-Gupta, Shourya; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Lai, Kueifu; Lu, Feng; Lee, Jongwon; Jin, Mingzhou; Trendafilov, Simeon; Khanikaev, Alexander; Fallahazad, Babak; Tutuc, Emanuel; Belkin, Mikhail A; Shvets, Gennady

    2016-06-01

    Strong interaction of graphene with light accounts for one of its most remarkable properties: the ability to absorb 2.3% of the incident light's energy within a single atomic layer. Free carrier injection via field-effect gating can dramatically vary the optical properties of graphene, thereby enabling fast graphene-based modulators of the light intensity. However, the very thinness of graphene makes it difficult to modulate the other fundamental property of the light wave: its optical phase. Here we demonstrate that considerable phase control can be achieved by integrating a single-layer graphene (SLG) with a resonant plasmonic metasurface that contains nanoscale gaps. By concentrating the light intensity inside of the nanogaps, the metasurface dramatically increases the coupling of light to the SLG and enables control of the phase of the reflected mid-infrared light by as much as 55° via field-effect gating. We experimentally demonstrate graphene-based phase modulators that maintain the amplitude of the reflected light essentially constant over most of the phase tuning range. Rapid nonmechanical phase modulation enables a new experimental technique, graphene-based laser interferometry, which we use to demonstrate motion detection with nanoscale precision. We also demonstrate that by the judicious choice of a strongly anisotropic metasurface the graphene-controlled phase shift of light can be rendered polarization-dependent. Using the experimentally measured phases for the two orthogonal polarizations, we demonstrate that the polarization state of the reflected light can be by modulated by carrier injection into the SLG. These results pave the way for novel high-speed graphene-based optical devices and sensors such as polarimeters, ellipsometers, and frequency modulators. PMID:27152557

  17. Hemispherical Power Asymmetry from Scale-Dependent Modulated Reheating

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field $\\sigma$. $\\sigma$ must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of $\\sigma$ is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to $\\sigma$ then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component.

  18. Transient Heliosheath Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Quenby, J J

    2014-01-01

    Voyager 1 has explored the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction region between the terminal shock and heliopause following the intensity distribution of galactic cosmic ray protons above 200 MeV energy. Before this component reached the galactic level at 121.7 AU, 4 episodes of rapid intensity change occured similar to the Forbush Decreases found near the sun, rather than the expected result of models related to those describing Long Term Modulation in the inner solar system. Because the mean solar wind flow is both expected and observed to be perpendicular to the radial direction close to the heliopause, explanation is given in terms of transient radial flows related to possible heliopause boundary flapping. It is necessary that radial flows are at the sound speed found for conditions downstream of the teminal shock and that the relevant perpendicular cosmic ray diffusion is controlled by 'slab' field fluctuations accounting for 20 percent or less of the total power in field variance. However, addition...

  19. Wireless multi-level terahertz amplitude modulator using active metamaterial-based spatial light modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Saroj; Sonkusale, Sameer

    2016-06-27

    The ever increasing demand for bandwidth in wireless communication systems will inevitably lead to the extension of operating frequencies toward the terahertz (THz) band known as the 'THz gap'. Towards closing this gap, we present a multi-level amplitude shift keying (ASK) terahertz wireless communication system using terahertz spatial light modulators (SLM) instead of traditional voltage mode modulation, achieving higher spectral efficiency for high speed communication. The fundamental principle behind this higher efficiency is the conversion of a noisy voltage domain signal to a noise-free binary spatial pattern for effective amplitude modulation of a free-space THz carrier wave. Spatial modulation is achieved using an an active metamaterial array embedded with pseudomorphic high-electron mobility (pHEMT) designed in a consumer-grade galium-arsenide (GaAs) integrated circuit process which enables electronic control of its THz transmissivity. Each array is assembled as individually controllable tiles for transmissive terahertz spatial modulation. Using the experimental data from our metamaterial based modulator, we show that a four-level ASK digital communication system has two orders of magnitude improvement in symbol error rate (SER) for a degradation of 20 dB in transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) using spatial light modulation compared to voltage controlled modulation. PMID:27410614

  20. Modulation Techniques for Li-Fi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Sufyan Islim; Harald Haas

    2016-01-01

    Modulation techniques for light fidelity (Li⁃Fi) are reviewed in this paper. Li⁃Fi is the fully networked solution for multiple users that combines communication and illumination simultaneously. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are used in Li⁃Fi as visible light transmitters, therefore, only intensity modulated direct detected modulation techniques can be achieved. Single carrier modulation techniques are straightforward to be used in Li⁃Fi, however, computationally complex equalization processes are required in fre⁃quency selective Li⁃Fi channels. On the other hand, multicarrier modulation techniques offer a viable solution for Li⁃Fi in terms of power, spectral and computational efficiency. In particular, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based modula⁃tion techniques offer a practical solution for Li⁃Fi, especially when direct current (DC) wander, and adaptive bit and power load⁃ing techniques are considered. Li⁃Fi modulation techniques need to also satisfy illumination requirements. Flickering avoidance and dimming control are considered in the variant modulation techniques presented. This paper surveys the suitable modulation techniques for Li⁃Fi including those which explore time, frequency and colour domains.

  1. Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

  2. Characteristics of spatial modulation in nonlinear propagation of broad-band lasers stacked by chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the potential risks of spatial modulation of broad-band laser beams stacked by chirped pulses on the safety of optics, this paper numerically investigated the effect of temporal modulation on the generation and growth of spatial modulation during its nonlinear propagation. When there is no additional spatial modulation and the B integral is limited in the practical working range(usually less than 2.0 rad), no spatial modulation will be generated for both normal dispersion and anomalous dispersion;while with the B integral further increasing, spatial modulation will emerge with a rapid growth. When there is additional spatial modulation for anomalous dispersion, the spatial modulation with additional temporal modulation will grow more quickly than that without additional temporal modulation. However, for normal dispersion,the growth of spatial modulation for both cases is similar. (authors)

  3. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  4. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  5. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    OpenAIRE

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded...

  6. Rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖伟红; 薛华忠; 韩国柱

    2003-01-01

    Since the sexually transmitted diseases were recognized as a public health problem in China during the early 1980's, the incidence of syphilis has gradually increased. Though there have been case reports of clinical variants of neurosyphilis, including syphilitic cerebrospinal meningitis or meningomyelitis and meningovascular syphilis, occurring in different regions of China,1-3 tabes dorsalis or tabetic neurosyphilis has not yet been reported in China. Here, we report a young man with rapidly progressive tabetic neurosyphilis admitted to our hospital in October 1999.

  7. Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

    1998-09-08

    Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

  8. High-speed coherent silicon modulator module using photonic integrated circuits: from circuit design to packaged module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.

  9. New Flexible Photocell Module for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Meyer, Andreas; Palfinger, Günther

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the practical implementation of TPV systems. As a key part of these systems, we developed a new flexible photocell module for TPV applications. The module consists of commercially available monocrystalline silicon solar cells, which were cut into small stripes that are series connected to achieve a high voltage and a reduced current for operation at an illumination density of 5 - 10 suns. For an easy mounting into a heating boiler, the module is highly flexible and can be bent into a cylindrical shape. The rear side of the module is electrically isolated, but achieves a good heat coupling through a covering aluminium foil to the boiler wall. Thus, it can directly be mounted into a water-cooled boiler housing without the need of an additional water-cooling circuit. A first test module with an active cell area of 481 cm2 achieved an electricity output of 50 W by irradiation with an Yb2O3 mantle emitter heated with a 20 kW methane burner.

  10. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JiWei; WU QuanShui

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc (A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  11. Koszul differential graded modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The concept of Koszulity for differential graded (DG, for short) modules is introduced. It is shown that any bounded below DG module with bounded Ext-group to the trivial module over a Koszul DG algebra has a Koszul DG submodule (up to a shift and truncation), moreover such a DG module can be approximated by Koszul DG modules (Theorem 3.6). Let A be a Koszul DG algebra, and Dc(A) be the full triangulated subcategory of the derived category of DG A-modules generated by the object AA. If the trivial DG module kA lies in Dc(A), then the heart of the standard t-structure on Dc(A) is anti-equivalent to the category of finitely generated modules over some finite dimensional algebra. As a corollary, Dc(A) is equivalent to the bounded derived category of its heart as triangulated categories.

  12. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    CERN Document Server

    Baranec, Christoph; Wright, Shelley A; Tonry, John; Tully, R Brent; Szapudi, István; Takamiya, Marianne; Hunter, Lisa; Riddle, Reed; Chen, Shaojie; Chun, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of ~4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with a...

  13. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  14. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  15. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  16. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  17. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  18. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  19. Direct-Digital-Drive Microring Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlichman, Yossef; Ruschin, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    The method of Direct Digital Drive is applied to a microring resonator. The microring resonator is thus controlled by a segmented set of electrodes each of which is driven by binary (digital) signal. Digital linearization is performed with the aid of digital memory lookup table. The method is applied to a single microring modulator to provide an M-bit digital-toanalog converter (DAC), which may also be viewed as an M-level pulse amplitude modulator (M-PAM). It is shown, by means of simulation, that a 4-bit DAC can achieve an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 3.74bits. Applying the same method for two rings, enables the generation of two-dimensional optical M-QAM signals. It is shown, by means of simulation, that a 16-QAM modulator achieves an EVM better than -30dB.

  20. High-speed waveguide electro-optic polarization modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferness, R C; Buhl, L L

    1982-10-01

    By careful electrode design we have achieved a 1.7-GHz modulation bandwidth for a Ti:LiNbO(3) integrated-optic TE ? TM mode-converter modulator. Because of the wavelength selectivity of this modulator, it is an attractive device for simultaneously providing multiplexing and signal encoding in future wavelength-multiplexed single-mode light-wave systems. PMID:19714070

  1. Irreducible quantum group modules with finite dimensional weight spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis Hasselstrøm

    a finitely generated U q -module which has finite dimensional weight spaces and is a sum of those. Our approach follows the procedures used by S. Fernando and O. Mathieu to solve the corresponding problem for semisimple complex Lie algebra modules. To achieve this we have to overcome a number of obstacles...

  2. Forward SCT Module Assembly and Quality Control at IFIC Valencia

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, V A; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Escobar, C; Fuster, J; García, C; García-Navarro, J E; González, F; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosá, G; Martí i García, S; Miñano, M; Modesto, P; Nácher, J; Rodríguez-Oliete, R; Sánchez, F J; Sospedra, L; Strachko, V

    2007-01-01

    This note discusses the assembly and the quality control tests of 282 forward detector modules for the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker assembled at the Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC) in Valencia. The construction and testing procedures are outlined and the laboratory equipment is briefly described. Emphasis is given on the module quality achieved in terms of mechanical and electrical stability.

  3. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e- → e+e- + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate records on pseudoscalar form factor from inverse pion electroproduction and the first radial pion excitation, chiral and parity anomalies at finite temperature and density, the canonical form of an elastoplastic model of nuclear fusion, the peculiarities of the reactions of heavy and superheavy element synthesis within the dinuclear system concept, a study of the photon structure function F2γ in the reaction e+e-→e+e- + hadrons at LEP1 and LEP2, tritons for the study of the charge-exchange reactions with the LHE streamer chamber: status and some possibilities, nonlinear dynamics in nuclotron, current transformers and optical diagnostic monitor of nuclotron beam, the design features of the LHE JINR nuclotron internal target stations, a system of graphics digitization (SGD), numeric simulation of thermal treatment of metal surface by means of high current ion beam

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π-, p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference ΔσL(np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  8. Higgsstrahlung at forward rapidities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman; Potashnikova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the inclusive and single diffractive heavy flavor (top and bottom) production in association with the Higgs boson at forward rapidities in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The calculations are performed in the framework of the phenomenological dipole approach, which automatically accounts for the absorptive corrections induced by soft interactions, i.e. for the gap survival effects at the amplitude level. Major differential observables including the realistic ATLAS detector constraints are considered. The forward inclusive and diffractive Higgsstrahlung processes are generated essentially by excitation of the valence or sea quarks in the proton. The single diffractive Higgsstrahlung off top quarks is found to dominate compared to the loop-induced mechanism at sufficiently large Higgs boson transverse momenta. The Higgsstrahlung processes offer a direct and precise measurement of Higgs-top and, possibly, Higgs-bottom Yukawa couplings at the LHC, as well as the studies of the intrinsic heavy flav...

  9. Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton K. Murray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria's global impact is expansive and includes the extremes of the healthcare system ranging from international travelers returning to nonendemic regions with tertiary referral medical care to residents in hyperendemic regions without access to medical care. Implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to curb the expanding global impact of malaria associated with ever-increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Traditionally, malaria is diagnosed using clinical criteria and/or light microscopy even though both strategies are clearly inadequate in many healthcare settings. Hand held immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have been recognized as an ideal alternative method for diagnosing malaria. Numerous malaria RDTs have been developed and are widely available; however, an assortment of issues related to these products have become apparent. This review provides a summary of RDT including effectiveness and strategies to select the ideal RDT in varying healthcare settings.

  10. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  11. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  12. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  13. Rapid prototyping and time compression

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping - manufacture by layering processes: Stereolithography Selective Layer Sintering (SLS) Laminated Object Manufacture (LOM) Solid Ground Curing Small batch programmable rapid manufacture with lasers Micro-Engineering – Prototyping and Manufacture Additive - fabrication Subtractive – machining

  14. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  15. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  16. CS-Rickart modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abyzov, A. N.; Nhan, T. H. N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of CS-Rickart modules, that is a module analogue of the concept of ACS rings. A ring $R$ is called a right weakly semihereditary ring if every its finitly generated right ideal is of the form $P\\oplus S,$ where $P_R$ is a projective module and $S_R$ is a singular module. We describe the ring $R$ over which $\\mathrm{Mat}_n (R)$ is a right ACS ring for any $n \\in \\mathbb {N}$. We show that every finitely generated projective right $R$-module wil...

  17. Double Modulation Scheme for Switching Mixers Controlled by Sigma-Delta Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck; Fallesen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    A new method of modulating a signal, using sigma delta modulation in conjunction with switching- and sub-sampling mixers, is presented. Besides the normal functionality provided by the mixer, an additional mixing or modulation function can be achieved with a small modification to the existing mixer....... This modification can be carried out on a large variety of mixers including the above mentioned. Although the principle was meant to be used to down convert analog signals, the principle is general and can be used in digital circuits too. This paper verifies the new mixing scheme and compares it to the traditional...

  18. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vrugt; F.J. Oort

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacog

  19. The Use of Uas for Rapid 3d Mapping in Geomatics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Tian-Yuan Shih, Peter; Yu, Sz-Cheng; Tsai, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor). The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  20. THE USE OF UAS FOR RAPID 3D MAPPING IN GEOMATICS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-A. Teo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor. The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  1. Effects of incomplete light extinction in frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D. A.; Wójtewicz, S.; Hodges, J. T.

    2013-05-01

    The effect of finite beam extinction ratio on the precision and accuracy of cavity ring-down decay time constant measurements was examined using the frequency-agile, rapid scanning, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FARS-CRDS) technique. This new approach to CRDS uses a waveguide-based electro-optic phase modulator (EOM) to provide a laser beam extinction ratio as high as 80 dB: a value that is ≍30 dB greater than that typically achieved with acousto-optic-modulator- based beam switches. We find that the observed measurement precision scales inversely with extinction ratio, such that an EOM enables measurement of the cavity ring-down decay time with a relative precision of ≍8×10-5. We demonstrate that insufficient extinction can be the dominant cause of statistical uncertainty for extinction ratios below 60 dB. Furthermore, insufficient extinction can result in non-exponential decays, which cause systematic measurement biases in cavity losses and absorption.

  2. Migrants and educational achievement gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst

    2015-01-01

    As global migration flows increase, so do the number of migrant students in host country schools. Yet migrants' achievement scores lag well behind those of their native-born schoolmates. Performance gaps are explained largely by differences in migrant parents' socio-economic background, cultural capital, and language skills. Education policy needs to focus on language teaching, parental involvement, diversity training, and beneficial social interaction between immigrant and native-born popula...

  3. School sport and academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, John L.; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the Healthy Body, Healthy Mind philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects and research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This case study aims to investigate how partic...

  4. Database Research: Achievements and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wang; Xiao-Yong Du; Xiao-Feng Meng; Hong Chen

    2006-01-01

    Database system is the infrastructure of the modern information system. The R&D in the database system moves along by giant steps. This report presents the achievements Renmin University of China (RUC) has made in the past 25 years and at the same time addresses some of the research projects we, RUC, are currently working on. The National Natural Science Foundation of China supports and initiates most of our research projects and these successfully conducted projects have produced fruitful results.

  5. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    I am interested in discussing the historical conditions that make it possible to formulate the idea that the mathematical qualifications of citizens in modern states is connected to the progress and economic development of nations. I interconnect apparently unrelated areas in an attempt to shed light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations.The emerg...

  6. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  7. Target splitting non-coplanar RapidArc radiation therapy for a diffuse sebaceous carcinoma of the scalp: a novel delivery technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare conventional lateral photon-electron, fixed-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), coplanar and non-coplanar RapidArc for the treatment of a diffuse sebaceous gland carcinoma of the scalp. Comprehensive dosimetry comparisons were performed among 3D-CRT, IMRT and various RapidArc plans. Target coverage, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and doses to organs at risk (OAR) were calculated. Monitor unites (MUs) and delivery time of each treatment were also recorded to evaluate the execution efficiency. The influence of target splitting technique and non-coplanar planning on plan quality was discussed. IMRT was superior to 3D-CRT concerning targets’ coverage at the sacrifice of larger irradiated brain volumes to low doses. CIs and HIs were better in coplanar RapidArc and non-coplanar RapidArc plans than 3D-CRT and IMRT. Best dose coverage and sparing of OARs were achieved in non-coplanar plans using target splitting technique. Treatment delivery time was longest in the IMRT plan and shortest in the coplanar RapidArc plan without target splitting. The 3%/3 mm gamma test pass rates were above 95% for all the plans. Target splitting technique and non-coplanar arcs are recommended for total scalp irradiation

  8. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko.

    1990-01-24

    This invention concerns a module frame of solar cell and a solar cell module using this frame. In particular, it concerns a frame and a module useful for the CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} based cell. In the existing solar cell module, sealant is packed in between the edges of a glass substrate, a resin layer and a back protective thin film, etc. and a grooved frame of U-shaped section. For the sealant, silicon based resin and butyl rubber based resin are used many times, but either resin has defects such as their overflow from the module structure. In order to solve these defects, this invention proposes to provide stair-shaped protrusions along the four sides of the bottom of the box frame (herein after called the lower frame) of the module and at the same time, provide a groove for pooling the sealant at the portion where such protrusion meets the side wall, furthermore to provide depressions for pooling the sealant at the upper edge inside the side wall of the lower frame or to punch holes at the corners of the bottom of the lower frame. 9 figs.

  9. Intact rapid detection of fearful faces in the absence of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Moradi, Farshad; Felsen, Csilla; Yamazaki, Madoka; Adolphs, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala is thought to process fear-related stimuli rapidly and nonconsciously. We found that an individual with complete bilateral amygdala lesions, who cannot recognize fear from faces, nonetheless showed normal rapid detection and nonconscious processing of those same fearful faces. We conclude that the amygdala is not essential for early stages of fear processing but, instead, modulates recognition and social judgment.

  10. Individualized volume CT dose index determined by cross-sectional area and mean density of the body to achieve uniform image noise of contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT obtained at variable kV levels and with combined tube current modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    A practical body-size adaptive protocol providing uniform image noise at various kV levels is not available for pediatric CT. To develop a practical contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT protocol providing uniform image noise by using an individualized volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) determined by the cross-sectional area and density of the body at variable kV levels and with combined tube current modulation. A total of 137 patients (mean age, 7.6 years) underwent contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT based on body weight. From the CTDIvol, image noise, and area and mean density of the cross-section at the lung base in the weight-based group, the best fit equation was estimated with a very high correlation coefficient ({gamma}{sup 2} = 0.86, P < 0.001). For the next study, 177 patients (mean age, 7.9 years; the CTDIvol group) underwent contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT with the CTDIvol determined individually by the best fit equation. CTDIvol values on the dose report after CT scanning, noise differences from the target noise, areas, and mean densities were compared between these two groups. The CTDIvol values (mean{+-}standard deviation, 1.6 {+-} 0.7 mGy) and the noise differences from the target noise (1.1 {+-} 0.9 HU) of the CTDIvol group were significantly lower than those of the weight-based group (2.0 {+-} 1.0 mGy, 1.8 {+-} 1.4 HU) (P < 0.001). In contrast, no statistically significant difference was found in area (317.0 {+-} 136.8 cm{sup 2} vs. 326.3 {+-} 124.8 cm{sup 2}), mean density (-212.9 {+-} 53.1 HU vs. -221.1 {+-} 56.3 HU), and image noise (13.8 {+-} 2.3 vs. 13.6 {+-} 1.7 HU) between the weight-based and the CTDIvol groups (P > 0.05). Contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT with the CTDIvol determined individually by the cross-sectional area and density of the body provides more uniform noise and better dose adaptation to body habitus than does weight-based CT at variable kV levels and with combined tube current modulation. (orig.)

  11. A Method of Clustering Components into Modules Based on Products' Functional and Structural Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-hui; JIANG Zu-hua; ZHENG Ying-fei

    2006-01-01

    Modularity is the key to improving the cost-variety trade-off in product development. To achieve the functional independency and structural independency of modules, a method of clustering components to identify modules based on functional and structural analysis was presented. Two stages were included in the method. In the first stage the products' function was analyzed to determine the primary level of modules. Then the objective function for modules identifying was formulated to achieve functional independency of modules. Finally the genetic algorithm was used to solve the combinatorial optimization problem in modules identifying to form the primary modules of products. In the second stage the cohesion degree of modules and the coupling degree between modules were analyzed. Based on this structural analysis the modular scheme was refined according to the thinking of structural independency. A case study on the gear reducer was conducted to illustrate the validity of the presented method.

  12. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  13. Rapidly Evolving Giant Dermatofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Lang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma, also known as “fibrous histiocytoma”, is a benign dermal or subcutaneous poorly circumscribed proliferation of spindle-shaped fibroblasts and macrophages in the dermis. Although it is commonly present as a brownish nodule the legs of females, it may also arise on the upper extremities, trunk, and rarely on the head. The exact pathogenesis is unclear. However, it is widely believed that the originating insult to the dermis is a folliculitis, an arthropod bite, or an unspecified initial inflammatory condition. Giant dermatofibromas of greater than 5 cm in diameter are rare, with only 22 cases reported in the literature. We present a case of a rapidly evolving pedunculated mass in the groin of a male patient. Histological examination confirmed this to be a giant dermatofibroma. Though this specimen cannot is not confirmed as such, the cellular subtype is sometimes present as a larger lesion with anecdotal reports of local recurrence and distant metastases. The clinical and radiological features which were somewhat suspicious of malignancy are considered in the context of the definitive pathological diagnosis of a benign lesion.

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  16. Rapidly rotating red giants

    CERN Document Server

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  17. Progress, Wealth, and Mathematics Achievement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola

    2013-01-01

    light on the grid of intelligibility that makes it possible to fabricate children’s differential achievement in mathematics as a social fact connected to the wealth and development of nations. The emergence of the connection between people’s mathematical qualifications and social progress can be traced......, professional associations argue that the low numbers of people in STEM fields can severely damage the competitiveness of developed nations in international, globalized markets. The narrative that connects progress, economic superiority, and development to citizen’s mathematical competence is made intelligible...

  18. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  19. Rapid Characterization of Magnetic Moment of Cells for Magnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Chinchun; Earhart, Christopher M.; Wilson, Robert J.; Wang, Shan X.

    2013-01-01

    NCI-H1650 lung cancer cell lines labeled with magnetic nanoparticles via the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) antigen were previously shown to be captured at high efficiencies by a microfabricated magnetic sifter. If fine control and optimization of the magnetic separation process is to be achieved, it is vital to be able to characterize the labeled cells’ magnetic moment rapidly. We have thus adapted a rapid prototyping method to obtain the saturation magnetic moment of these cells....

  20. Nanodiamond vacuum field emission device with gate modulated triode characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. H.; Kang, W. P.; Raina, S.; Huang, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    A three-electrode nanodiamond vacuum field emission (VFE) device with gate modulated triode characteristics is developed by integrating nanodiamond emitter with self-aligned silicon gate and anode, employing a mold transfer technique in conjunction with chemical vapor deposition of nanodiamond. Triode behavior showing emission current modulation with high current density at low operating voltages is achieved. A systematic analysis based on modified Fowler-Nordheim theory is used to analyze gate modulated VFE characteristics, confirming the triode field emission mechanism and operating principle. The realization of an efficient VFE microtriode has achieved the fundamental step for further development of vacuum integrated microelectronics.

  1. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe{sub 2} solar cell modules. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbery, B.J. [Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co., Seattle, WA (US)

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{>=}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  2. Achieving success: moving beyond the comfort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, I

    1993-11-01

    Understanding the stages of growth, saturation and transition is the first step to setting meaningful career goals. While this concept is fairly new in dentistry, it is not new in other commercial enterprises. Business managers and owners have known for decades that growth stagnates after a period of time. At that point, a new infusion of energy and a reformation of the business's objectives and methods are needed to launch forward into the next phase of growth. Transition management in dentistry represents periods of growth that are followed by saturation and a comparatively rapid changeover to a new practice form. Saturation occurs when the clinical capacity of a practice is exceeded by the needs of a growing patient base. The key transitions in the career of a dentist are those from school to practising, and practising to retirement. A great number of dentists (due to low motivation, the comfort level or poor management skills) never reach the saturation point during their practising career. For these dentists, starting out and retirement are the only transitions that will ever apply to them. Dentists evaluating transition options must first identify which career stage they belong to since their objectives will be different at each stage. Dentists in the growth phase should focus on practice management and achieving saturation before attempting a transition. Since transitions like start-up, retirement, partnerships, associateships and buy-ins have pivotal roles in the life cycle of a practice, transitions must be managed carefully to achieve successful results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Implementation of re-configurable Digital front end module of MIMO-OFDM module using NCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena M.B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on FPGA implementation of Reconfigurable Digital Front end MIMO-OFDM module. The modeling of the MIMO-OFDM system was carried out in MATLAB followed by Verilog HDL implementation. Unlike the conventional OFDM based systems, the Numerically Controlled Oscillators (NCO is used for mapping modulated data onto the sub carriers. The use of NCO in the MIMO-OFDM system reduces the resource utilization of the design on FPGA along with reduced power consumption. The major modules that were designed, which constitute the digital front end module, are Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK modulator/demodulator, 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM modulator/demodulator and NCOs. Each of the modules was tested for their functionality by developing corresponding test benches. In order to achieve real time reconfigurability of the proposed architecture, the proposed approach is realized on FPGAs optimizing area, power and speed. Reconfigurability of the proposed approach is dependent upon user requirement. Hence the proposed approach can support future generation communication technologies that are based on MIMO-OFDM.

  4. Fabrication of metal mirror modules for snap-together VIS telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Matthias; Hartung, Johannes; Kinast, Jan; Gebhardt, Andreas; Burmeister, Frank; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The assembly effort of an optical system naturally relies on the degrees of freedom and the maximum allowable tolerances each optical surface introduces into the overall budget. Snap-together approaches traditionally can be regarded as attractive solutions for IR systems having moderate tolerances, where the required precision is achieved by simultaneously machining optical surfaces and mounting interfaces in a single machine setup. Recent improvements in manufacturing and metrology enable a transfer of the assembly approach to shorter wavelength applications, where sub-aperture figuring techniques are used in combination with suitable amorphous polishing layers to achieve the increased requirements on figure and finish. A further decrease of the assembly effort is gained by machining several optical surfaces on common mechanical substrates and fixing the relative position with uncertainties as low as the machine precision. The article presents the fabrication of large electroless nickel coated aluminum mirror modules having two functional freeform surfaces and references for metrology and system integration. The modules are part of an all metal anamorphic imaging telescope operating in the visual spectral range. Presented methods open up a rapid and reliable assembly of metal mirror based VIS telescopes to be used in ground and space based astronomy or remote sensing applications.

  5. Directed network modules

    CERN Document Server

    Pálla, G; Farkas, I J; Pollner, P; Vicsek, T; Derenyi, Imre; Farkas, Illes J.; Palla, Gergely; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e., internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the Clique Percolation Method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own webpages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and among Google's webpages the overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and t...

  6. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Y

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, a new procedure is proposed which achieves the rapid induction of false recognition memory for rich pictorial stimuli. Chapter 2 presents the basic three-step procedure in which participants study some pictures, imagine others in response to words, and perform a picture recognition test. Imagining pictures leads to a false alarm rate of 27% above baseline (Experiments 1a and 1b). In Chapter 3, a source monitoring test is used to demonstrate that this effect is not solely due t...

  7. Rapid Tooling Technique Based on Stereolithograph Prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁浩; 狄平; 顾伟生; 朱世根

    2001-01-01

    Rapid tooling technique based on the sterelithograph prototype is investigated. The epoxy tooling technological process was elucidated. It is analyzed in detail that the epoxy resin formula is easy to cast, curing process, and release agents. The transitional plaster model is also proposed. The mold to encrust mutual.inductors with epoxy and mold to inject plastic soapboxes was made with the technique The tooling needs very little time and cost, for the process is only to achieve the nice replica of the prototype. It is benefit for the trial and small batch of production.

  8. Maximum modulation of plasmon-guided modes by graphene gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radko, Ilya P; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Grigorenko, Alexander N

    2016-04-18

    The potential of graphene in plasmonic electro-optical waveguide modulators has been investigated in detail by finite-element method modelling of various widely used plasmonic waveguiding configurations. We estimated the maximum possible modulation depth values one can achieve with plasmonic devices operating at telecom wavelengths and exploiting the optical Pauli blocking effect in graphene. Conclusions and guidelines for optimization of modulation/intrinsic loss trade-off have been provided and generalized for any graphene-based plasmonic waveguide modulators, which should help in consideration and design of novel active-plasmonic devices. PMID:27137265

  9. Study on modulation techniques free of orthogonality restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Nyquist rate is a limit of transmission for traditional modulation methods from orthogonality restriction. Nonorthogonal modulation techniques (NMT) is proposed, which removes the orthogonality restriction, and as a result, higher bandwidth efficiency than the traditional methods can be achieved. First, the symbol error rate of NMT is introduced by using estimation theory. Then the relation between bandwidth efficiency and signal to noise ratio is discussed. Finally, a design instance of NMT is present and numerical experiment is made. This study explores for new modulation methods and points out a widened direction for modulation theory and applications.

  10. A photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    KREBS Frederik C.; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovolt...

  11. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having...

  12. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  13. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  14. Achievements and perspectives for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few decades the major practical applications of large radiation sources have been in the irradiation of macromolecular systems. These have risen rapidly to annual outputs of billions of dollars and continue to show steady growth. In other directions such as polymerization and grafting, radiation has been less successful, primarily because in these subjects radiation serves as only one step in a sequence of chemical reactions, and often these can be achieved by more conventional and familiar methods. We envisage future progress along several distinct lines. 1. Reduction in the cost of radiation. 2. The application of radiation technology in areas where valuable modifications are involved and where advantage can be taken of the remarkable control offered by electron beams. 3. Areas where the chemical alternatives do not exist or are difficult to apply. 4. A very different line of approach is to use radiation with its far more complete control and reproducibility to investigate many processes even if in the production stage itself a different technique is later utilized. Present examples are chemical kinetics as with ESR, pulse radiolysis, pulsed NMR, behavior of trapped charges, crystal structure, local modifications, reinforcement and orientation etc. (J.P.N.)

  15. Pragmatic Approach to Adaptive Turbo Coded Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左健存; 宋文涛; 罗汉文; 徐友云

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a pragmatic adaptive scheme for TuCM over slowly fading channels. The adaptive scheme employs a single turbo coded modulator composed of a variable-rate turbo encoder and a variable-rate variable-power MQAM for all fading regions, so it has an acceptable complexity to implement. The optimal adaptive TuCM scheme is determined subject to various system constraints. Simulations have been performed to measure the performance of the scheme for different parameters. It is shown that adopting both the turbo coded modulator and the transmit power achieves a performance within 2.5 dB of the fading channel capacity.

  16. Fermilab linac upgrade. Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 805 MHz side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 106 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and discusses the near-on-line commissioning plans for this accelerator. (Author) ref., 4 figs

  17. Fermilab Linac Upgrade: Module conditioning results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 805 MHz Side-coupled cavity modules for the Fermilab 400 MeV linac upgrade have been conditioned to accept full power. The sparking rate in the cavities and in the side-cells has been reduced to acceptable levels. It required approximately 40 x 106 pulses for each module to achieve an adequately low sparking rate. This contribution outlines the commissioning procedure, presents the sparking rate improvements and the radiation level improvements through the commissioning process and disc the near-online commissioning plans for this accelerator

  18. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation...... is obtained by varying the ca rrier concentration of th e transparent conducting oxide layer and exciting plasmonic resonance in the structure. The analysis shows that an extinction ratio of 46 dB/μm can be achieved at the telecommunication wavelength. Proposed structure is particularly convenient...

  19. Synthetic focusing in ultrasound modulated tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2010-09-01

    Several hybrid tomographic methods utilizing ultrasound modulation have been introduced lately. Success of these methods hinges on the feasibility of focusing ultrasound waves at an arbitrary point of interest. Such focusing, however, is difficult to achieve in practice. We thus propose a way to avoid the use of focused waves through what we call synthetic focusing, i.e. by reconstructing the would-be response to the focused modulation from the measurements corresponding to realistic unfocused waves. Examples of reconstructions from simulated data are provided. This non-technical paper describes only the general concept, while technical details will appear elsewhere. © 2010 American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  20. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  1. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  2. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ∼10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  3. Rapidity resummation for $B$-meson wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yue-Long

    2014-01-01

    Transverse-momentum dependent (TMD) hadronic wave functions develop light-cone divergences under QCD corrections, which are commonly regularized by the rapidity $\\zeta$ of gauge vector defining the non-light-like Wilson lines. The yielding rapidity logarithms from infrared enhancement need to be resummed for both hadronic wave functions and short-distance functions, to achieve scheme-independent calculations of physical quantities. We briefly review the recent progress on the rapidity resummation for $B$-meson wave functions which are the key ingredients of TMD factorization formulae for radiative-leptonic, semi-leptonic and non-leptonic $B$-meson decays. The crucial observation is that rapidity resummation induces a strong suppression of $B$-meson wave functions at small light-quark momentum, strengthening the applicability of TMD factorization in exclusive $B$-meson decays. The phenomenological consequence of rapidity-resummation improved $B$-meson wave functions is further discussed in the context of $B \\t...

  4. On Roald Amundsen's scientific achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the significant direct and indirect contributions to science made by the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen in the period 1897–1924. It documents that his expeditions through the North-west Passage (1903–06 with Gjøa, to the South Pole (1910–12 with Fram and through the North-east Passage (1918–1920 and the Chukchi and East Siberian seas (1921–25 with Maud yielded vast amounts of published scientific material on meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, geology, palaeontology, oceanography, ethnography, zoology and botany, which, though celebrated at the time, have since received scant recognition in more recent assessments of Amundsen's achievements.

  5. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  6. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  7. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: emerging cancer treatment technology

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Hong; Ritter, M. A.; Tomé, W. A.; Harari, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is rapidly advancing in the field of radiation oncology. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy allows for improved dose conformality, thereby affording the potential to decrease the spectrum of normal tissue toxicities associated with IMRT. Preliminary results with IMRT are quite promising; however, the clinical data is relatively immature and overall patient numbers remain small. High-quality IMRT requires intensive physics support and ...

  8. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  9. Optofluidic modulator based on peristaltic nematogen microflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuennet, J. G.; Vasdekis, A. E.; de Sio, L.; Psaltis, D.

    2011-04-01

    Nematogens rotate by the application of external fields, thereby enabling optical modulation. This principle has had a profound impact on our daily lives through the plethora of liquid-crystal displays in use around us. However, the wider use of nematic liquid crystals, particularly in microdisplays and information processing, has been hampered by their slow response times. In nematogens, rotational and translational molecular motions are coupled, so flow is inevitably linked with optical modulation. This linkage motivated us to fuse microfluidics with anisotropic liquids and introduce an optofluidic modulator that exhibits a submillisecond (250 µs) symmetric response and can operate at frequencies up to 1 kHz. The modulator is based on peristaltic nematogen microflows realized in polydimethylsiloxane microfluidics. The latter simultaneously permits peristalsis by means of elastomeric deformation, nematogen alignment and rapid prototyping through cast-moulding. Together with large-scale, vertical integration and piezoelectric nanotechnologies, this optofluidic paradigm can enable high-density and three-dimensional architectures of fast modulators.

  10. Modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibility to control dynamic processes in a matter through gamma-resonance modulation by high-frequency external variable fields in excess of inverse lifetimes of the Moessbauer nuclei excited states, that is, within the megahertz frequency range lies in the heart of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy. Through the use of the gamma-resonance process theoretical analysis methods and of the equation solution method for the density matrix with the secondary quantization of gamma-radiation field one attacks the problems dealing with the effect of both variable fields and relaxation on gamma-resonance. One has studied the gamma-radiation ultrasound modulation stages. One points out a peculiar role of the gamma-magnetic resonance effect in modulation gamma resonance spectroscopy formation. One forecasts development of the modulation gamma-resonance spectroscopy into the nonlinear gamma-resonance spectroscopy

  11. Rigidity of tilting modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr Andersen, Henning; Kaneda, Masaharu

    ) modules for $U_q$ are rigid, i.e., have identical radical and socle filtrations. Moreover, we obtain the same for a large class of Weyl modules for $U_q$. On the other hand, we give examples of non-rigid indecomposable tilting modules as well as non-rigid Weyl modules. These examples are for type $B_2......$ and in this case as well as for type $A_2$ we calculate explicitly the Loewy structure for all regular Weyl modules. We also demonstrate that these results carry over to the modular case when the highest weights in question are in the so-called Jantzen region. At the same time we show by examples that as soon...

  12. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  13. ModuleRole: A Tool for Modulization, Role Determination and Visualization in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Guipeng Li; Ming Li; Yiwei Zhang; Dong Wang; Rong Li; Roger Guimerà; Juntao Tony Gao; Zhang, Michael Q

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly increasing amounts of (physical and genetic) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data are produced by various high-throughput techniques, and interpretation of these data remains a major challenge. In order to gain insight into the organization and structure of the resultant large complex networks formed by interacting molecules, using simulated annealing, a method based on the node connectivity, we developed ModuleRole, a user-friendly web server tool which finds modules in PPI network...

  14. Dynamic phase-control of a rising sun magnetron using modulated and continuous current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, Sulmer, E-mail: sulmer.a.fernandez.gutierrez@intel.com [Intel Corporation, 2111 NE 25th Ave, Hillsboro, Oregon 97214 (United States); Browning, Jim [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Lin, Ming-Chieh [Department of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Smithe, David N. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Watrous, Jack [Confluent Sciences, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87111 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Phase-control of a magnetron is studied via simulation using a combination of a continuous current source and a modulated current source. The addressable, modulated current source is turned ON and OFF at the magnetron operating frequency in order to control the electron injection and the spoke phase. Prior simulation work using a 2D model of a Rising Sun magnetron showed that the use of 100% modulated current controlled the magnetron phase and allowed for dynamic phase control. In this work, the minimum fraction of modulated current source needed to achieve a phase control is studied. The current fractions (modulated versus continuous) were varied from 10% modulated current to 100% modulated current to study the effects on phase control. Dynamic phase-control, stability, and start up time of the device were studied for all these cases showing that with 10% modulated current and 90% continuous current, a phase shift of 180° can be achieved demonstrating dynamic phase control.

  15. Dynamic phase-control of a rising sun magnetron using modulated and continuous current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase-control of a magnetron is studied via simulation using a combination of a continuous current source and a modulated current source. The addressable, modulated current source is turned ON and OFF at the magnetron operating frequency in order to control the electron injection and the spoke phase. Prior simulation work using a 2D model of a Rising Sun magnetron showed that the use of 100% modulated current controlled the magnetron phase and allowed for dynamic phase control. In this work, the minimum fraction of modulated current source needed to achieve a phase control is studied. The current fractions (modulated versus continuous) were varied from 10% modulated current to 100% modulated current to study the effects on phase control. Dynamic phase-control, stability, and start up time of the device were studied for all these cases showing that with 10% modulated current and 90% continuous current, a phase shift of 180° can be achieved demonstrating dynamic phase control

  16. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  17. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  18. Assessment of Pupils’ Personal Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Strokova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the new state educational standards, based on the competence approach, requires some new criteria, procedures and diagnostic tools for estimating pupils’ personal achievements. However, there is a lack of necessary guidelines and recommendations for such objective evaluation and comparative analysis of the effectiveness of educational establishments. The urgent need for unified monitoring instruments induced the author to develop a criteria-diagnostic complex providing the options for evaluating the important personal development aspects – intellectual, value-oriented and moral. The author recommends a self-assessment method for evaluating the intellectual qualities (i.e. self-dependency, critical thinking, logics, flexibility, depth, originality, etc., intellectual competences, and moral traits. The method is based on the tests – «Pupil in his own eyes» and «Pupil in the expert teachers’ eyes». For examining the value orientation, the author takes the classical method by M. Rokich. The approbation of the complex evaluation method was carried out in Tyumen schools and lyceums regarding the last year pupils. The research findings and proposed assessment tools can be used by headmasters and school teachers for monitoring the pupils’ personal growth. 

  19. Achieving Nuclear Sustainability through Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the IAEA Member States recognized that concerted and coordinated research and development is needed to drive innovation that ensures that nuclear energy can help meet energy needs sustainably in the 21st century. Following an IAEA General Conference resolution, an international 'think tank' and dialogue forum were established. The resulting organization, the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), helps nuclear technology holders and users coordinate the national and international studies, research and other activities needed to achieve innovations in nuclear reactor designs and fuel cycles. Currently, 38 countries plus the European Commission are participating in the project. This group includes both developing and developed economies that represent more than 75% of the world's population and 85% of its gross domestic product. INPRO undertakes collaborative projects among IAEA Member States, which analyse development scenarios and examine how nuclear energy can support the United Nations' goals for sustainable development in the 21st century. The results of these projects can be applied by IAEA Member States in their national nuclear energy strategies and can lead to international cooperation resulting in beneficial innovations in nuclear energy technology and its deployment. For example, INPRO studies the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, including recycling of spent fuel to increase resource use efficiency and to reduce the waste disposal burdens.

  20. CEREBRAL PALSY AND MUSIC ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag L. STOSHLJEVIKJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pupils with cerebral palsy attend elementary education accordind to a regular and special teaching plan and program. Regular school curriculum was reformed in 1992, while special plan and program has not been changed and adapted according to pupil’s needs and capacities. Music is one of the best means of expressing oneself and plays a very important role in the development of every child, the child with cerebral palsy in particular.In order to test the possibility of pupils with cerebral palsy, with and without mental retardation, to apprehend the actual program content, we have conducted research on musical achievement of children with cerebral palsy. During 2007 a research was carried out, on the sample of 27 pupils with cerebral palsy and mild mental retardation who attended classes in the school “Miodrag Matikj”, and a sample of16 students with cerebral palsy without mental retardation who attended the school “Dr. Dragan Hercog” in Belgrade.Results of the research, as well as analysis of music curriculum content, indicated that the capacities of students with cerebral palsy to carry out the curriculum tasks require special approach and methodology. Therefore, we introduced some proposals to overcome the difficulties in fulfilling music curriculum demands of those pupils. We made special emphasis on the use of computer based Assistive technology which facilitates the whole process to a large extent.

  1. Dimethyl Ether Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Yangong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid capacity expansion Dimethyl ether production in China has developed rapidly in recent years. The total capacity of dimethyl ether in China was only 31.8 thousand t/a in 2002, the output was around 20 thousand tons and the operating rate was 63%. The number of producers increased to over 30 in 2006.

  2. CMOS-controlled rapidly tunable photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ray

    With rapidly increasing data bandwidth demands, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical access networks seem unavoidable in the near future. To operate WDM optical networks in an efficient scheme, wavelength reconfigurability and scalability of the network are crucial. Unfortunately, most of the existing wavelength tunable technologies are neither rapidly tunable nor spectrally programmable. This dissertation presents a tunable photodetector that is designed for dynamic-wavelength allocation WDM network environments. The wavelength tuning mechanism is completely different from existing technologies. The spectrum of this detector is programmable through low-voltage digital patterns. Since the wavelength selection is achieved by electronic means, the device wavelength reconfiguration time is as fast as the electronic switching time. In this dissertation work, we have demonstrated a tunable detector that is hybridly integrated with its customized CMOS driver and receiver with nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time. In addition to its nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time, the spectrum of this detector is digitally programmable, which means that it can adapt to system changes without re-fabrication. We have theoretically developed and experimentally demonstrated two device operating algorithms based on the same orthogonal device-optics basis. Both the rapid wavelength tuning time and the scalability make this novel device very viable for new reconfigurable WDM networks. By taking advantage of CMOS circuit design, this detector concept can be further extended for simultaneous multiple wavelength detection. We have developed one possible chip architecture and have designed a CMOS tunable optical demux for simultaneous controllable two-wavelength detection.

  3. Towards high-order modulation using complex modulation of semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William

    2016-03-21

    Optical communication using high-speed on-off-keying signal by directly modulated semiconductor lasers (DML) was one of the most significant breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1960s. The wide deployment of 2.5-Gb/s per-channel transoceanic optical fiber links in 1990s drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp of DML prevents its application to the subsequent internet capacity evolution. Today, the state-of-the-art long-haul optical transponder uses external modulators to support high-order complex modulation. In contrast, this paper shows that the "detrimental" chirp effect can be exploited to generate complex modulation with a single DML, which achieves dramatic sensitivity gain of signal-to-noise-ratio compared to the conventional intensity modulation of DML. By using large chirp parameters, complex-modulated DML paves an attractive pathway towards high-order pulse-amplitude modulation with an ultra-low transmitter cost, which has great potential in future medium reach optical communications. PMID:27136852

  4. All-solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jihoon; Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Song, Jung Hoon; An, Hyejin; Yu, Jong-Su; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Sohee

    2015-05-01

    A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade-offs between power and the active area of the photovoltaic devices, which results in a low-cost power source, and which is scalable to larger areas.A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade

  5. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm2.

  6. Mechanical Modulation of Hybrid Graphene Microfiber Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the strain engineering of two-dimensional materials such as graphene has attracted considerable attention for its great potential in functional nanodevices. Here, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the strain manipulation of a graphene-integrated microfiber system for the first time. We analyze the influential factors of strain tuning, i.e., the geometrical parameters of the microfiber, the strain magnitude, and the probe-light wavelength. Moreover, we experimentally achieve in-line modulation as high as 30% with a moderate strain of ~5%, which is two orders of magnitude larger than previous results. The dynamic vibration response is also researched. The broadband, polarization-independent, cost-effective, strain-based modulator may find applications in low-speed modulation and strain sensing. Further, we believe that our platform may allow for all-in fiber engineering of graphene-analogue materials and provide new ideas for graphene-integrated flexible device design.

  7. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  8. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  9. On Modules Whose Singular Subgenerated Modules Are Weakly Injective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Dhompongsa; J. Sanwong; S.Plubtieng; H.Tansee

    2001-01-01

    Rings over which every singular right module is injective (briefly,right SI-rings) were introduced and investigated by Goodearl. Weakly injective modules, as a generalization of injective modules, were introduced by Jain and modules are weakly injective, which we call SwI-rings. This concept is extended to SwI-modules, i.e., modules whose singular subgenerated modules are weakly injective. Several characterizations and properties of SwI-rings and SwI-modules are obtained which generalize some earlier known results on SI-rings and weakly semisimple rings.

  10. In vitro efficacy of RiaSTAP after rapid reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karri, Jay V; Cardenas, Jessica C; Johansson, Pär I;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is the first coagulation factor to reach critical levels during hemorrhage. Consequently, reestablishing normal fibrinogen levels is necessary to achieve adequate hemostasis. Fibrinogen is supplemented through administration of fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, or human...... facilitate hemostasis in rapidly bleeding patients....

  11. Rapid genotyping using pyrene-perylene locked nucleic acid complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Santhosh T.; Myznikova, Anna; Samokhina, Evgeniya;

    2013-01-01

    achieved with advantages of large Stokes shift (115 nm), high fluorescence quantum yields and low limit of target detection values (< 5 nM). Rapid and accurate genotyping of highly polymorphic HIV Pol cDNA and RNA fragments performed herein proves the possibility for broad application of the novel pyrene...

  12. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  13. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  14. Ultracompact Nano-Mechanical Plasmonic Phase Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Brian S; Czaplewski, David A; Lopez, Daniel; Blumberg, Girsh; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Dielectrics' refractive index limits photonics miniaturization. By coupling light to metal's free electrons, plasmonic devices achieve deeper localization, which scales with the device geometric size. However, when localization approaches the skin depth, energy shifts from the dielectric into the metal, hindering active modulation. Here we propose a nano-electromechanical phase modulation principle exploiting the extraordinarily strong dependence of the phase velocity of metal-insulator-metal(MIM) gap plasmons on dynamically variable gap size. We demonstrate a 23 {\\mu}m long non-resonant modulator having 1.5 {\\pi} rad range with 1.7 dB excess loss at 780 nm. Analysis shows an ultracompact 1 {\\mu}m$^{2}$ footprint {\\pi} rad phase modulator can be realized, more than an order of magnitude smaller than any previously shown. Remarkably, this size reduction is achieved without incurring extra loss, since the nanobeam-plasmon coupling strength increases at a similar rate as the loss. Such small, high density electr...

  15. GPU-based parallel clustered differential pulse code modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaji; Li, Wenze; Kong, Wanqiu

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology is widely used in marine remote sensing, geological exploration, atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. Owing to the rapid development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology, resolution of hyperspectral image has got a huge boost. Thus data size of hyperspectral image is becoming larger. In order to reduce their saving and transmission cost, lossless compression for hyperspectral image has become an important research topic. In recent years, large numbers of algorithms have been proposed to reduce the redundancy between different spectra. Among of them, the most classical and expansible algorithm is the Clustered Differential Pulse Code Modulation (CDPCM) algorithm. This algorithm contains three parts: first clusters all spectral lines, then trains linear predictors for each band. Secondly, use these predictors to predict pixels, and get the residual image by subtraction between original image and predicted image. Finally, encode the residual image. However, the process of calculating predictors is timecosting. In order to improve the processing speed, we propose a parallel C-DPCM based on CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) with GPU. Recently, general-purpose computing based on GPUs has been greatly developed. The capacity of GPU improves rapidly by increasing the number of processing units and storage control units. CUDA is a parallel computing platform and programming model created by NVIDIA. It gives developers direct access to the virtual instruction set and memory of the parallel computational elements in GPUs. Our core idea is to achieve the calculation of predictors in parallel. By respectively adopting global memory, shared memory and register memory, we finally get a decent speedup.

  16. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  17. Phase modulation pseudocolor encoding ghost imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a ghost imaging scheme that can obtain a good pseudocolor image of black-and-white objects. The essential idea is to use the multi-wavelength thermal light source and the phase modulation pseudocolor encoding technique, which overcomes the disadvantages of other methods involved the spatial filtering. Therefore, the pseudocolor ghost image achieved by this imaging scheme is better than that obtained by other methods in brightness, color, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module

    CERN Document Server

    Hmood, Ali K; Alanazi, Hamdan O; Alnaqeib, Rami; Al-Nabhani, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    Without a doubt, the electronic learning makes education quite flexible. Nowadays, all organizations and institutions are trying to avoid Monotony and the delay and inertia. As well the universities should be improving their systems continually to achieve success. Whereas, the students need to access the dissertations in the library. In this paper we will present Dissertations Repository System Using Context Module to allow the students to benefit the dissertations which is in the library flexibly.

  19. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  20. The ANTARES optical module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km2 and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail

  1. Microlensing modulation by binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dubath, F; Durrer, R; Dubath, Florian; Gasparini, Maria Alice; Durrer, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    We compute the effect of the lens quadrupole on microlensing. The time dependence of the quadrupole can lead to specific modulations of the amplification signal. We study especially binary system lenses in our galaxy. The modulation is observable if the rotation period of the system is smaller than the time over which the amplification is significant and if the impact parameter of the passing light ray is sufficiently close to the Einstein radius so that the amplification is very large. Observations of this modulation can reveal important information on the quadrupole and thus on the gravitational radiation emitted by the lens.

  2. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Komatsu, Yasumitsu; Shirai, Sadaharu.

    1989-09-29

    In the solar cell module of this invention, such junctions as CdS/CdTe or CdS/CuInSe {sub 2} are contained as a photoelectromotive force part coexists with air in a closed space which consists of glass, metal parts and a bonding resin layer; the photoelectromotive force part is coated either with a fluorine resin or a silicone resin. The fluorine resin contains a fundamental skeleton of an alternative copolymer of fluoroolefin and a hydrocarbon-based vinyl monomer; the silicone resin has three types, i.e., addition-reacted, condensated or UV-curing type, and the released oxygen is sealed in the closed space. The resin layer which adheres the glass and the metal plate is a thermoplastic resin which is polyethylene modified by copolymerization of acid anhydride. By this, the reliability of the solar cell module was enhanced. 3 figs.

  3. Australian Cosmic Ray Modulation Research

    CERN Document Server

    Duldig, M L

    2000-01-01

    Australian research into variations of the cosmic ray flux arriving at the Earth has played a pivotal role for more than 50 years. The work has been largely led by the groups from the University of Tasmania and the Australian Antarctic Division and has involved the operation of neutron monitors and muon telescopes from many sites. In this paper the achievements of the Australian researchers are reviewed and future experiments are described. Particular highlights include: the determination of cosmic ray modulation parameters; the development of modelling techniques of Ground Level Enhancements; the confirmation of the Tail-In and Loss-Cone Sidereal anisotropies; the Space Ship Earth collaboration; and the Solar Cycle latitude survey.

  4. Intelligent spacecraft module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  5. Comparative dosimetric analysis of IMRT and VMAT (RapidArc in brain, head and neck, breast and prostate malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Athar Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in the recent past has established itself as a gold standard for organs at risk (OAR sparing, target coverage and dose conformity. With the advent of a rotational treatment technology such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT, an inter-comparison is warranted to address the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Methods: Twenty patients were selected retrospectively from our patient database. Sites included were brain, head and neck, chest wall, and prostate, with five patients for each site. For all the selected patients, both the IMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated. Plan comparison was done in terms of OAR dose, dose homogeneity index (HI, dose conformity index (CI, target coverage, low isodose volumes, monitor units (MUs, and treatment time.Results: The VMAT showed better sparing of “parotids minus planning target volume (PTV”, spinal cord and head of femur as compared to the IMRT. The lung V40 for VMAT was lower, whereas the lung V10, contralateral lung mean dose, contralateral breast mean dose and mean body dose were lower with IMRT for chest wall cases. Both the VMAT and IMRT achieved comparable HI except for the brain site, where IMRT scored over VMAT. The CI achieved by the IMRT and VMAT were similar except for chest wall cases, whereas the VMAT achieved better dose conformity. The target coverage was comparable with both the plans. The VMAT clearly scored over IMRT in terms of average MUs (486 versus 812 respectively and average treatment time (2.54 minutes versus 5.54 minutes per treatment session. Conclusion: The VMAT (RapidArc has a potential to generate treatment plans for various anatomical sites which are comparable with the corresponding IMRT plans in terms of OAR sparing and plan quality parameters. The VMAT significantly reduces treatment time as compared to the IMRT, thus VMAT can increase the throughput of a busy radiotherapy department.

  6. Spin-label CW microwave power saturation and rapid passage with triangular non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) and adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) EPR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-06-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10-3 to 10-7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy.

  7. Detection of electron paramagnetic resonance absorption using frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Kuyama, Toshifumi; Ono, Mitsuhiro; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2003-10-01

    A frequency modulation (FM) method was developed to measure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) absorption. The first-derivative spectrum of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) powder was measured with this FM method. Frequency modulation of up to 1.6 MHz (peak-to-peak) was achieved at a microwave carrier frequency of 1.1 GHz. This corresponds to a magnetic field modulation of 57 μT (peak-to-peak) at 40.3 mT. By using a tunable microwave resonator and automatic control systems, we achieved a practical continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectrometer that incorporates the FM method. In the present experiments, the EPR signal intensity was proportional to the magnitude of frequency modulation. The background signal at the modulation frequency (1 kHz) for EPR detection was also proportional to the magnitude of frequency modulation. An automatic matching control (AMC) system reduced the amplitude of noise in microwave detection and improved the baseline stability. Distortion of the spectral lineshape was seen when the spectrometer settings were not appropriate, e.g., with a lack of the open-loop gain in automatic tuning control (ATC). FM is an alternative to field modulation when the side-effect of field modulation is detrimental for EPR detection. The present spectroscopic technique based on the FM scheme is useful for measuring the first derivative with respect to the microwave frequency in investigations of electron-spin-related phenomena.

  8. Nutritional Modulation of Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O. Weickert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for the development of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM. Chronic oversupply of energy from food, together with inadequate physical activity, have been recognized as the most relevant factors leading to overweight, abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and finally T2DM. Conversely, energy reduced diets almost invariably to facilitate weight loss and reduce abdominal fat mass and insulin resistance. However, sustained weight loss is generally difficult to achieve, and distinct metabolic characteristics in patients with T2DM further compromise success. Therefore, investigating the effects of modulating the macronutrient composition of isoenergetic diets is an interesting concept that may lead to additional important insights. Metabolic effects of various different dietary concepts and strategies have been claimed, but results from randomized controlled studies and particularly from longer-term-controlled interventions in humans are often lacking. However, some of these concepts are supported by recent research, at least in animal models and short-term studies in humans. This paper provides an update of the current literature regarding the role of nutrition in the modulation of insulin resistance, which includes the discussion of weight-loss-independent metabolic effects of commonly used dietary concepts.

  9. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  10. Module bay with directed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  11. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  12. Ultrasound Modulated Bioluminescence Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the density of a luminescent source in a highly-scattering medium from ultrasound modulated optical measurements. Our approach is based on the solution to a hybrid inverse source problem for the diffusion equation.

  13. GREET Pretreatment Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  14. Top Local Cohomology Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad T. Dibaei; Siamak Yassemi

    2007-01-01

    For a finitely generated module M over a commutative Noetherian local ring (R, m), it is shown that there exist only a finite number of non-isomorphic top localeohomology modules Hdim(M) (M) for all ideals a of RIt is also shown that for a giveninteger r ≥ 0, if Hra(R/p) is zero for all p in Supp(M), then Hia(M)=0 for all I ≥ r.

  15. Electrical modulation of emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Vassant, Simon; Moldovan Doyen, Ioana Cristina; Marquier, François; Pardo, F.; Gennser, Ulf; Cavanna, Antonella; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to modulate the thermal emission through an electrical modulation of the emissivity. The basic idea is to design a device where absorption is due to a resonant phenomenon. If the resonance can be electrically controlled, then absorption and, therefore, thermal emission can be controlled. We demonstrate this general concept using THz resonant absorption by surface phonon polaritons coupled through a gold grating. In our device, absorption is mostly due to a s...

  16. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  17. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  18. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  19. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  20. Pre-treatment verification of RapidArc® using Electronic Portal Imaging Device; Verificacao pre-tratamento de RapidArc® utilizando Dispositivo Eletronico de Imagem Porta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marilia B.; Ferreira, Anne Caroline M.; Bittencourt, Guilherme R.; Pirani, Luis F.; Silveira, Thiago B., E-mail: mbeckerlima@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The RapidArc® is a novel but widespread technique to achieve intensity modulated beams. One of the major challenges concerning this technique is the pretreatment verification process. The aim of this paper was to analyze the viability of the Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) used to perform the verification of RapidArc® using the Sun Nuclear SNC Patient software enable to EPID dose conversion (EPIDose license) and compare its results with punctual dose measurements against a low volume ion chamber. There were analyze five RapidArc® planning, evaluating, separately, planar and punctual doses for each arc. For punctual measurements was used a 0,15 cm³ volume ion chamber and the planar distributions, in Calibration Units (CU), were acquired using the EPID and then converted to absolute dose in centigray through EPIDose. The predicted doses were calculated using the AAA algorithm in Eclipse treatment planning system, version 8.6. The planar comparisons, performed in SNC Patient, employed the Gamma Index tool with a 4% dose difference, 4 mm distance to agreement and 20% threshold. The evaluation of punctual dose was defined by calculating deviations between predicted and measured doses. The mean approval percentage in planar distributions was 94.8% and the average deviation in punctual dose was -1.2%. The use of EPID for RapidArc® pre-treatment verification proved to be feasible and showed good sensibility, because of its high spatial resolution. However one must consider the uncertainty of the method. (author)

  1. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  2. Directed network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search technique locating network modules, i.e. internally densely connected groups of nodes in directed networks is introduced by extending the clique percolation method originally proposed for undirected networks. After giving a suitable definition for directed modules we investigate their percolation transition in the Erdos-Renyi graph both analytically and numerically. We also analyse four real-world directed networks, including Google's own web-pages, an email network, a word association graph and the transcriptional regulatory network of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained directed modules are validated by additional information available for the nodes. We find that directed modules of real-world graphs inherently overlap and the investigated networks can be classified into two major groups in terms of the overlaps between the modules. Accordingly, in the word-association network and Google's web-pages, overlaps are likely to contain in-hubs, whereas the modules in the email and transcriptional regulatory network tend to overlap via out-hubs

  3. Economical Investigation of Rapid Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Ficzere; Lajos Borbás; Ádám Török

    2013-01-01

    Usage of rapid prototyping gain developers, designers and engineers more time and consume less money and save more resources. In this article authors investigated the economic possibilities of rapid prototyping. In concurrent engineering, different tasks are tackled at the same time, and not necessarily in the usual order. Concurrent engineering is a method by which several teams within an organization work simultaneously to develop new products and allows more flexible approach. The concurre...

  4. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  5. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    CERN Document Server

    Betemps, M A; De Oliveira, E G

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in $pAu$ and $pp$ collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio $R_{pA}$ considering the transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities once compared with the already known forward one, since it is related with large $x$ kinematical region that is being probed. The nuclear modification ratio rapidity spectrum in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken $x$ behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio $R_{F_{2}}=F_{2}^{A}/F_{2}^{p}$. The $R_{pA}$ transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large $x$ nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio $R_{pA}$ is reduced as $p_T$ increases, presenting oppositive behavior once compared with the forward one. It implies the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry info...

  6. Multifunctional graphene optical modulator and photodetector integrated on silicon waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Youngblood, Nathan; Ma, Rui; Koester, Steven J; Li, Mo

    2014-01-01

    For optical communication, information is converted between optical and electrical signal domains at a high rate. The devices to achieve such a conversion are various types of electro-optical modulators and photodetectors. These two types of optoelectronic devices, equally important, require different materials and consequently it has been challenging to realize both using a single material combination, especially in a way that can be integrated on the ubiquitous silicon platform. Graphene, with its gapless band structure, stands out as a unique optoelectronic material that allows both photodetection and optical modulation. Here, we demonstrate a single graphene-based device that simultaneously provides both efficient optical modulation and photodetection. The graphene device is integrated on a silicon waveguide and is tunable with a gate made from another layer of graphene to achieve near-infrared photodetection responsivity of 57 mA/W and modulation depth of 64%. This novel multifunctional device may lead t...

  7. Plan Quality and Treatment Efficiency for Radiosurgery to Multiple Brain Metastases: Non-Coplanar RapidArc vs Gamma Knife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisong eLiu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the dosimetry and efficiency of two modern radiosurgery (SRS modalities for multiple brain metastases (Gamma Knife and LINAC-based RapidArc/volumetric modulated arc therapy, with a special focus on the comparison of low dose spread.Methods: Six patients with three or four small brain metastases were used in this study. The size of targets varied from 0.1 ~ 10.5 cc. SRS doses were prescribed according to size of lesions. SRS plans were made using both Gamma Knife® Perfexion and a single-isocenter, multiple non-coplanar RapidArc®. Dosimetric parameters analyzed included RTOG conformity index (CI, gradient index (GI, 12 Gy isodose volume (V12Gy for each target, and the dose spread (Dspread for each plan. Dspread reflects SRS plan’s capability of confining radiation to within the local vicinity of the lesion and to not spread out to the surrounding normal brain tissues. Each plan has a dose (Dspread, such that once dose decreases below Dspread (on total tissue DVH, isodose volume starts increasing dramatically. Dspread is defined as that dose when volume increase first exceeds 20 cc per 0.1 Gy dose decrease. Results: RapidArc SRS has smaller CI (1.19 ±0.14 vs. 1.50 ± 0.16, p<0.001 and larger GI (4.77 ± 1.49 vs. 3.65 ± 0.98, p <0.01. V12Gy results were comparable (2.73 ± 1.38 cc vs. 3.06 ± 2.20 cc, p = 0.58. Moderate to lower dose spread, V6, V4.5, and V3, were also equivalent. Gamma Knife plans achieved better very low dose spread (≤3 Gy and also had slightly smaller Dspread, 1.9 Gy vs 2.5 Gy. Total treatment time for Gamma Knife is estimated between 60~100 min. Gamma Knife treatments are between 3~5 times longer compared to RapidArc treatment techniques.Conclusion: Dosimetric parameters reflecting prescription dose conformality (CI, dose fall off (GI, radiation necrosis indicator (V12Gy, and dose spread (Dspread were compared between Gamma Knife SRS and RapidArc SRS for multi-mets. RapidArc plans have

  8. A dosimetric phantom study of dose accuracy and build-up effects using IMRT and RapidArc in stereotactic irradiation of lung tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppala Jan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Stereotactic lung radiotherapy (SLRT has emerged as a curative treatment for medically inoperable patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and volumetric modulated arc treatments (VMAT have been proposed as the best practical approaches for the delivery of SLRT. However, a large number of narrow field shapes are needed in the dose delivery of intensity-modulated techniques and the probability of underdosing the tumour periphery increases as the effective field size is decreased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate small lung tumour doses irradiated by intensity-modulated techniques to understand the risk for dose calculation errors in precision radiotherapy such as SLRT. Materials and methods The study was executed with two heterogeneous phantoms with targets of Ø1.5 and Ø4.0 cm. Dose distributions in the simulated tumours delivered by small sliding window apertures (SWAs, IMRT and RapidArc treatment plans were measured with radiochromic film. Calculation algorithms of pencil beam convolution (PBC and anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA were used to calculate the corresponding dose distributions. Results Peripheral doses of the tumours were decreased as SWA decreased, which was not modelled by the calculation algorithms. The smallest SWA studied was 2 mm, which reduced the 90% isodose line width by 4.2 mm with the Ø4.0 cm tumour as compared to open field irradiation. PBC was not able to predict the dose accurately as the gamma evaluation failed to meet the criteria of ±3%/±1 mm on average in 61% of the defined volume with the smaller tumour. With AAA the corresponding value was 16%. The dosimetric inaccuracy of AAA was within ±3% with the optimized treatment plans of IMRT and RapidArc. The exception was the clinical RapidArc plan with dose overestimation of 4%. Conclusions Overall, the peripheral doses of the simulated

  9. A dosimetric phantom study of dose accuracy and build-up effects using IMRT and RapidArc in stereotactic irradiation of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic lung radiotherapy (SLRT) has emerged as a curative treatment for medically inoperable patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc treatments (VMAT) have been proposed as the best practical approaches for the delivery of SLRT. However, a large number of narrow field shapes are needed in the dose delivery of intensity-modulated techniques and the probability of underdosing the tumour periphery increases as the effective field size is decreased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate small lung tumour doses irradiated by intensity-modulated techniques to understand the risk for dose calculation errors in precision radiotherapy such as SLRT. The study was executed with two heterogeneous phantoms with targets of Ø1.5 and Ø4.0 cm. Dose distributions in the simulated tumours delivered by small sliding window apertures (SWAs), IMRT and RapidArc treatment plans were measured with radiochromic film. Calculation algorithms of pencil beam convolution (PBC) and anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA) were used to calculate the corresponding dose distributions. Peripheral doses of the tumours were decreased as SWA decreased, which was not modelled by the calculation algorithms. The smallest SWA studied was 2 mm, which reduced the 90% isodose line width by 4.2 mm with the Ø4.0 cm tumour as compared to open field irradiation. PBC was not able to predict the dose accurately as the gamma evaluation failed to meet the criteria of ±3%/±1 mm on average in 61% of the defined volume with the smaller tumour. With AAA the corresponding value was 16%. The dosimetric inaccuracy of AAA was within ±3% with the optimized treatment plans of IMRT and RapidArc. The exception was the clinical RapidArc plan with dose overestimation of 4%. Overall, the peripheral doses of the simulated lung tumours were decreased by decreasing the SWA. To achieve adequate surface dose coverage to

  10. On the Performance of Adaptive Modulation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Foukalas, F.; Karetsos, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    We study the performance of cognitive radio networks (CRNs) when incorporating adaptive modulation at the physical layer. Three types of CRNs are considered, namely opportunistic spectrum access (OSA), spectrum sharing (SS) and sensing-based SS. We obtain closed-form expressions for the average spectral efficiency achieved at the secondary network and the optimal power allocation for both continuous and discrete rate types of adaptive modulation assuming perfect channel state information. The...

  11. A novel soft-switching double modulation converter (DMC)

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, FNK; Ho, WC; Pong, MH

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces a new and simple power converter topology by which both the amplitude and the duty cycle are modulated to achieve soft switching characteristic in a standard half bridge configuration. This novel double modulation power converter (DMC) is able to provide zero voltage switching and nonpulsating input ripple current. Constant switching frequency, simple control and gate drive circuit makes the DMC an ideal power converter to fill the low to medium power application gap in ...

  12. Case studies in intelligent computing achievements and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Issac, Biju

    2014-01-01

    Although the field of intelligent systems has grown rapidly in recent years, there has been a need for a book that supplies a timely and accessible understanding of this important technology. Filling this need, Case Studies in Intelligent Computing: Achievements and Trends provides an up-to-date introduction to intelligent systems.This edited book captures the state of the art in intelligent computing research through case studies that examine recent developments, developmental tools, programming, and approaches related to artificial intelligence (AI). The case studies illustrate successful ma

  13. Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gokce Uysal; M. Alper Dincer

    2009-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using data from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey. We find that the program type the student is enrolled in affects student achievement significantly. However, this effect may partially be biased by past academic achievement. In line with the previous literature, our results also indicate that school resources...

  14. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti A Upadhye; N Chandrappa

    2014-01-01

    The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater a...

  15. The Intersection of Culture and Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Elise; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Achievement motivation is something that all members of the school community want to support in students, however few may recognize that it is influenced by culture. The very meaning of "achievement" is culturally variable, and the motives that students have for achieving may be quite different, depending upon their cultural background. The…

  16. Predicting Academic Achievement with Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Treena Eileen; Thompson, Lee Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explain variation in academic achievement with general cognitive ability and specific cognitive abilities. Grade point average, Wide Range Achievement Test III scores, and SAT scores represented academic achievement. The specific cognitive abilities of interest were: working memory, processing speed, and…

  17. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  18. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  19. 28 CFR 545.28 - Achievement awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.28 Achievement awards. (a) With prior approval of... achievement award from performance pay funds. (b) With prior approval of the Psychology Services Department... also be granted an achievement award from performance pay funds....

  20. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  1. Electron butterfly distribution modulation by magnetosonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Armando A.; Chen, Lunjin; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Bortnik, Jacob; Thorne, Richard M.; Spence, Harlan

    2016-04-01

    The butterfly pitch angle distribution is observed as a dip in an otherwise normal distribution of electrons centered about αeq=90°. During storm times, the formation of the butterfly distribution on the nightside magnetosphere has been attributed to L shell splitting combined with magnetopause shadowing and strong positive radial flux gradients. It has been shown that this distribution can be caused by combined chorus and magnetosonic wave scattering where the two waves work together but at different local times. Presented in our study is an event on 21 August 2013, using Van Allen Probe measurements, where a butterfly distribution formation is modulated by local magnetosonic coherent magnetosonic waves intensity. Transition from normal to butterfly distributions coincides with rising magnetosonic wave intensity while an opposite transition occurs when wave intensity diminishes. We propose that bounce resonance with waves is the underlying process responsible for such rapid modulation, which is confirmed by our test particle simulation.

  2. The cost-effectiveness of comprehensive school reform and rapid assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart S. Yeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of 29 Comprehensive School Reform (CSR models suggests that all 29 models are less cost-effective than an alternative approach for raising student achievement, involving rapid assessment systems that test students 2 to 5 times per week in math and reading and provide rapid feedback of the results to students and teachers. Results suggest that reading and math achievement could increase approximately one order of magnitude greater for every dollar invested in rapid assessment rather than CSR. The results also suggest that reading and math achievement could increase two orders of magnitude for every dollar invested in rapid assessment rather than class size reduction and three orders of magnitude for every dollar invested in rapid assessment rather than high quality preschool.

  3. Recent Achievement in Gene Cloning and Functional Genomics in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a model plant for photoperiodism as well as for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, a rather low efficiency in soybean transformation hampers functional analysis of genes isolated from soybean. In comparison, rapid development and progress in flowering time and photoperiodic response have been achieved in Arabidopsis and rice. As the soybean genomic information has been released since 2008, gene cloning and functional genomic studies have been revived as indicated by successfully characterizing genes involved in maturity and nematode resistance. Here, we review some major achievements in the cloning of some important genes and some specific features at genetic or genomic levels revealed by the analysis of functional genomics of soybean.

  4. Module network inference from a cancer gene expression data set identifies microRNA regulated modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bonnet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs that recognize and regulate mRNA target genes. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that they are key regulators of numerous critical functions in development and disease, including cancer. However, defining the place and function of miRNAs in complex regulatory networks is not straightforward. Systems approaches, like the inference of a module network from expression data, can help to achieve this goal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the last decade, much progress has been made in the development of robust and powerful module network inference algorithms. In this study, we analyze and assess experimentally a module network inferred from both miRNA and mRNA expression data, using our recently developed module network inference algorithm based on probabilistic optimization techniques. We show that several miRNAs are predicted as statistically significant regulators for various modules of tightly co-expressed genes. A detailed analysis of three of those modules demonstrates that the specific assignment of miRNAs is functionally coherent and supported by literature. We further designed a set of experiments to test the assignment of miR-200a as the top regulator of a small module of nine genes. The results strongly suggest that miR-200a is regulating the module genes via the transcription factor ZEB1. Interestingly, this module is most likely involved in epithelial homeostasis and its dysregulation might contribute to the malignant process in cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that a robust module network analysis of expression data can provide novel insights of miRNA function in important cellular processes. Such a computational approach, starting from expression data alone, can be helpful in the process of identifying the function of miRNAs by suggesting modules of co-expressed genes in which they play a regulatory role. As shown in this study, those modules can then be

  5. Rapid virtual stenting for intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Chen, Danyang; Chen, Zihe; Wang, Xiangyu; Paliwal, Nikhil; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Corso, Jason J.; Xu, Jinhui

    2016-03-01

    The rupture of Intracranial Aneurysms is the most severe form of stroke with high rates of mortality and disability. One of its primary treatments is to use stent or Flow Diverter to divert the blood flow away from the IA in a minimal invasive manner. To optimize such treatments, it is desirable to provide an automatic tool for virtual stenting before its actual implantation. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called ball-sweeping, for rapid virtual stenting. Our method sweeps a maximum inscribed sphere through the aneurysmal region of the vessel and directly generates a stent surface touching the vessel wall without needing to iteratively grow a deformable stent surface. Our resulting stent mesh has guaranteed smoothness and variable pore density to achieve an enhanced occlusion performance. Comparing to existing methods, our technique is computationally much more efficient.

  6. Mode change design for capacity modulation in reciprocating compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Young Ju; Kim, Jin Kook [LG Electronics Inc., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Bong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young June [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Due to environmental issues, the development of low energy consumption products has become one of the main topics in the home appliance industry. The energy consumption of a refrigerator depends on the efficiency of its compressor as well as on the refrigerator cycle design, such as the capacity modulation. This study features the design of a novel capacity modulation reciprocating compressor, i.e., two-step capacity modulation (TCM). In a TCM compressor, capacity modulation is achieved by changing the dead volume in the cylinder. Instead of a concentric sleeve, an eccentric sleeve is used to change the dead volume for the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation of a motor. For stable capacity modulation, a new latching system with a key, a spring, and an eccentric sleeve is introduced, and the mode change reliability is verified by dynamic analysis

  7. Effects of Gender, Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement Motivation on College Students’ Achievement in Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Ajogbeje Oke James; Borisade Fidelis Tunde; Aladesaye Charles Ademuyiwa; Ayodele Oludolapo Bolanle

    2013-01-01

    The urge to excel or perform maximally in mathematics varies from individual to individual because achievement motivation is often developed or learnt during socialization and learning experiences. The study examined the relationship between College of Education students’ achievement motivation and mathematics achievement, correlation coefficient between mathematics anxiety and college students’ achievement motivation as well as mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. The sample, 268...

  8. Solar cell module. Taiyo denchi module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Hitoshi.

    1989-09-06

    In the conventional solar cell module, the cell cost is elevated because the cross sections of the cell edge is surrounded with frames of various shape and the gap is filled with a sealant. In additionn, the top end of the module frame is placed roughly 1 mm above the glass surface; the photoelectromotive force part is covered with such deposits as soils and sands, thus badly affecting the photovoltaic generation. In this invention, weather-proof opaque paint is coated around the surface glass to interrupt the light irradiation to the adhesive resin layer between the glass and the back sheet, thus preventing the degradation of the resin layer. Cost is low because of using a thin film. The light interruption by the deposits can be prevented. The photoelectromotive force element is a n-type CdS film or CdS/CdTe. The resin layer around the glass is a thermoplastic polyolefin which is modified with acid anhydrides. 5 figs.

  9. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  10. The biometric-based module of smart grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Ermoshkina, A.

    2015-10-01

    Within Smart Grid concept the flexible biometric-based module base on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and selective Neural Network is developed. The formation of the selective Neural Network the biometric-based module uses the method which includes three main stages: preliminary processing of the image, face localization and face recognition. Experiments on the Yale face database show that (i) selective Neural Network exhibits promising classification capability for face detection, recognition problems; and (ii) the proposed biometric-based module achieves near real-time face detection, recognition speed and the competitive performance, as compared to some existing subspaces-based methods.

  11. Wireless Local Area Network Adaptive Modulation and Coding Technology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zeng-you; SUN Xiao-fan

    2012-01-01

      Expound the existing modulation mode of the present wireless local area network. Directing at the problem that when single modulation method conveys data with high speed in the frequency selective fading channel, the system throughput will be declined and the efficiency of the spectrum will be lowered . Put forward the scheme that the OFDM sub-carrier will use differ⁃ent modulation modes after dynamic groups by amplitude frequency response. Simulation results show that the scheme will lower the complexity of the system achievement, and can get a higher spectrum efficiency.

  12. Upper Bounds for Betti Numbers of Multigraded Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Beecher, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a sharp upper bound for the Betti numbers of a finitely generated multigraded $R$-module, where $R=\\Bbbk [x_{1},...,x_{m}]$ is the polynomial ring over a field $\\Bbbk$ in $m$ variables. The bound is given in terms of the rank and the first two Betti numbers of the module. An example is given which achieves these bounds simultaneously in each homological degree. Using Alexander duality, a bound is established for the total multigraded Bass numbers of a finite multigraded modul...

  13. Enhancement of ammonia gas detection by integrating wavelength-modulated spectra across the line 992.69 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallah, Mohammad; Salloum, Akil

    2016-05-01

    A rapid tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption sensor was developed for real-time measurements of ammonia concentration by using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) at 992.698 cm-1 of the ν2 vibrational band. This line has patterns free from interference with other species in the atmosphere, and can be used for open-path detection. The 1f signal was used to normalize the 2f signal thereby eliminating the need for calibration and explaining the laser transmission variations. Using WMS with a large modulation depth and integrating the absolute value of the resulting spectra increased the limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor by a factor of seven, compared with the LOD achieved by using the maximum value of the WMS 2f signal. Furthermore, an increase by a factor of 25 compared with the direct absorption spectroscopy was achieved, which allowed obtaining LOD ∼ 1 ppb with a resolution time of <2 s for the detection of NH3 in the atmosphere using a short-path cell (a 60-cm absorption cell with four passes).

  14. Hilbert modules and their representation

    OpenAIRE

    Takahaschi, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    A Hilbert module over a  C*-algebra A with identity is an unitary A-module H, endowed with an inner product taking values in A. We consider these modules and derive some of their elementary properties. Later we consider fields of Hilbert modules and obtain a representation of H by means of continuous sections. This result will be used in other papers ([7] and [8]) to get a duality  theorem and to study special Hilbert modules.

  15. Final Design of the SLAC P2 Marx Klystron Modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, M.A.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; MacNair, D.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The SLAC P2 Marx has been under development for two years, and follows on the P1 Marx as an alternative to the baseline klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider. The P2 Marx utilizes a redundant architecture, air-insulation, a control system with abundant diagnostic access, and a novel nested droop correction scheme. This paper is an overview of the design of this modulator. There are several points of emphasis for the P2 Marx design. First, the modulator must be compatible with the ILC two-tunnel design. In this scheme, the modulator and klystron are located within a service tunnel with limited access and available footprint for a modulator. Access to the modulator is only practical from one side. Second, the modulator must have high availability. Robust components are not sufficient alone to achieve availability much higher than 99%. Therefore, redundant architectures are necessary. Third, the modulator must be relatively low cost. Because of the large number of stations in the ILC, the investment needed for the modulator components is significant. High-volume construction techniques which take advantage of an economy of scale must be utilized. Fourth, the modulator must be simple and efficient to maintain. If a modulator does become inoperable, the MTTR must be small. Fifth, even though the present application for the modulator is for the ILC, future accelerators can also take advantage of this development effort. The hardware, software, and concepts developed in this project should be designed such that further development time necessary for other applications is minimal.

  16. Laser rapid manufacturing of Colmonoy-6 components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, C. P.; Jain, A.; Ganesh, P.; Negi, J.; Nath, A. K.

    2006-10-01

    This paper introduces a new manufacturing technique for the fabrication of Colmonoy-6 components using laser rapid manufacturing (LRM). LRM is a upcoming rapid manufacturing technology, being developed at various laboratories around the world. It is similar to laser cladding at the process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit material on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn out parts, while LRM is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. In the present study, a high power continuous wave (CW) CO 2 laser system, integrated with a co-axial powder-feeding system and three-axis workstation was used. The effect of processing parameters during multi-layer deposition of Colmonoy-6 has been studied and optimized to fabricate about a dozen bushes. Thus fabricated bushes were finally machined and ground to achieve the desired dimensions and surface finish. These bushes were tested for non-destructive testing (like-ultrasonic testing, Dye-penetrant testing), metallographic examinations, micro-hardness measurement, X-ray diffraction and thermal ageing. Results compared well with those fabricated by deposition of Colmonoy-6 on austenitic stainless steel rods using gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Thus, the new manufacturing technique not only produced quality product, but also minimized machining of hard-faced material and brought significant saving of time and costly Colmonoy-6 material.

  17. Educational Resilience: The Relationship between School Protective Factors and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banatao, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Educators are increasingly pressured to raise standardized test scores. Test-focused school leaders, however, may neglect school climate factors associated with positive student development and increased student achievement. The California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) and its Resilience Youth Development Module (RYDM) represent a research-based,…

  18. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  19. Dynamic behavior and complexity of modulated optical micro ring resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yang; Wei Pan; Bin Luo; ShuiYing Xiang; Ning Jiang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The dynamic behavior of an optical micro ring resonator (OMRR) with an amplitude modulator positioned in the micro ring is investigated quantitatively by adopting a recently introduced quantifier, the permutation entropy (PE).The effects of modulation depth are focused on, and the roles of input power are considered.The two-dimensional (2D) maps of PE showing dependence on both modulation depth and input power are presented as well.PE values nearly increase with modulation depth.On the other hand, the optimal value of input power is achieved when the PE reaches its maximum.Thus, PE can successfully quantify the dynamics of modulated OMRR.Selecting the parameters in the region with high PE values would contribute to the complexity-enhanced OMRR-based chaotic communication systems.%The dynamic behavior of an optical micro ring resonator (OMRR) with an amplitude modulator positioned in the micro ring is investigated quantitatively by adopting a recently introduced quantifier, the permutation entropy (PE). The effects of modulation depth are focused on, and the roles of input power are considered. The two-dimensional (2D) maps of PE showing dependence on both modulation depth and input power are presented as well. PE values nearly increase with modulation depth. On the other hand, the optimal value of input power is achieved when the PE reaches its maximum. Thus, PE can successfully quantify the dynamics of modulated OMRR. Selecting the parameters in the region with high PE values would contribute to the complexity-enhanced OMRR-based chaotic communication systems.

  20. Generating single photons at gigahertz modulation-speed using electrically controlled quantum dot microlenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehahn, A.; Schmidt, R.; Hopfmann, C.; Schulze, J.-H.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gantz, L.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Gershoni, D. [The Physics Department and the Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-01-11

    We report on the generation of single-photon pulse trains at a repetition rate of up to 1 GHz. We achieve this speed by modulating the external voltage applied on an electrically contacted quantum dot microlens, which is optically excited by a continuous-wave laser. By modulating the photoluminescence of the quantum dot microlens using a square-wave voltage, single-photon emission is triggered with a response time as short as (281 ± 19) ps, being 6 times faster than the radiative lifetime of (1.75 ± 0.02) ns. This large reduction in the characteristic emission time is enabled by a rapid capacitive gating of emission from the quantum dot, which is placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n-junction biased below the onset of electroluminescence. Here, since our circuit acts as a rectifying differentiator, the rising edge of the applied voltage pulses triggers the emission of single photons from the optically excited quantum dot. The non-classical nature of the photon pulse train generated at GHz-speed is proven by intensity autocorrelation measurements with g{sup (2)}(0) = 0.3 ± 0.1. Our results combine optical excitation with fast electrical gating and thus show promise for the generation of indistinguishable single photons at rates exceeding the limitations set by the intrinsic radiative lifetime.

  1. Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake Modulates Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis in Central Nerve Terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marland, Jamie Roslin Keynes; Hasel, Philip; Bonnycastle, Katherine; Cousin, Michael Alan

    2016-01-29

    Presynaptic calcium influx triggers synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis and modulates subsequent SV endocytosis. A number of calcium clearance mechanisms are present in central nerve terminals that regulate intracellular free calcium levels both during and after stimulation. During action potential stimulation, mitochondria rapidly accumulate presynaptic calcium via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). The role of mitochondrial calcium uptake in modulating SV recycling has been debated extensively, but a definitive conclusion has not been achieved. To directly address this question, we manipulated the expression of the MCU channel subunit in primary cultures of neurons expressing a genetically encoded reporter of SV turnover. Knockdown of MCU resulted in ablation of activity-dependent mitochondrial calcium uptake but had no effect on the rate or extent of SV exocytosis. In contrast, the rate of SV endocytosis was increased in the absence of mitochondrial calcium uptake and slowed when MCU was overexpressed. MCU knockdown did not perturb activity-dependent increases in presynaptic free calcium, suggesting that SV endocytosis may be controlled by calcium accumulation and efflux from mitochondria in their immediate vicinity.

  2. Multilevel Modulation formats for Optical Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the use of multilevel modulation formats for optical communication systems. Multilevel modulation is an attractive method of increasing the spectral efficiency of optical communication systems. Various modulation formats employing phase modulation, amplitude modulation...

  3. The cost-effectiveness of comprehensive school reform and rapid assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart S. Yeh

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of 29 Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models suggests that all 29 models are less cost-effective than an alternative approach for raising student achievement, involving rapid assessment systems that test students 2 to 5 times per week in math and reading and provide rapid feedback of the results to students and teachers. Results suggest that reading and math achievement could increase approximately one order of magnitude greater for every dollar invested i...

  4. Hollow dimension of modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the following general question: Given a module Mwhich has finite hollow dimension and which has a finite collection of submodules Ki (1≤i≤n) such that M=K1+... +Kn, can we find an expression for the hollow dimension of Min terms of hollow dimensions of modules built up in some way from K1 Kn? We prove the following theorem:Let Mbe an amply supplemented module having finite hollow dimension and let Ki (1≤i≤n) be a finite collection of submodules of Msuch that M=K1+...+Kn. Then the hollow dimension h(M) of Mis the sum of the hollow dimensions of Ki (1≤i≤n) ifand only if Ki is a supplement of K1+...+Ki-1+Ki+1+...+Kn in Mfor each 1≤i≤n.

  5. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  6. Space Experiment Module (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodell, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    The Space Experiment Module (SEM) Program is an education initiative sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle Small Payloads Project. The program provides nationwide educational access to space for Kindergarten through University level students. The SEM program focuses on the science of zero-gravity and microgravity. Within the program, NASA provides small containers or "modules" for students to fly experiments on the Space Shuttle. The experiments are created, designed, built, and implemented by students with teacher and/or mentor guidance. Student experiment modules are flown in a "carrier" which resides in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. The carrier supplies power to, and the means to control and collect data from each experiment.

  7. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  8. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  9. Models for Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Troost, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We recall the structure of the indecomposable sl(2) modules in the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand category O. We show that all these modules can arise as quantized phase spaces of physical models. In particular, we demonstrate in a path integral discretization how a redefined action of the sl(2) algebra over the complex numbers can glue finite dimensional and infinite dimensional highest weight representations into indecomposable wholes. Furthermore, we discuss how projective cover representations arise in the tensor product of finite dimensional and Verma modules and give explicit tensor product decomposition rules. The tensor product spaces can be realized in terms of product path integrals. Finally, we discuss relations of our results to brane quantization and cohomological calculations in string theory.

  10. Phase modulated multiphoton microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Pullerits, Tonu

    2015-01-01

    We show that the modulation of the phases of the laser beams of ultra-short pulses leads to modulation of the two photon fluorescence intensity. The phase modulation technique when used in multi-photon microscopy can improve the signal to noise ratio. The technique can also be used in multiplexing the signals in the frequency domain in multi-focal raster scanning microscopy. As the technique avoids the use of array detectors as well as elaborate spatiotemporal multiplexing schemes it provides a convenient means to multi-focal scanning in axial direction. We show examples of such uses. Similar methodology can be used in other non-linear scanning microscopies, such as second or third harmonic generation microscopy.

  11. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  12. Rapid Manufacturing - auch mit SLM

    OpenAIRE

    Spierings, Adriaan; Levy, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    Rapid Manufacturing (RM) wurde als Schlagwort in der letzten Zeit insbesondere aus dem Bereich des Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) bekannt. In dieser inzwischen über 15-jährigen Technologieentwicklung wurden in den vergangenen Jahren bedeutende Fortschritte erzielt, die die Bauteileigenschaften nahe an die Anforderungen für End-Teile heran brachten. So ist das RM denn auch weniger aus der Sicht grösserer Losgrösse zu verstehen. Viel mehr bedeutet Rapid Manufacturing, dass die Bauteile nach ei...

  13. Photovoltaic concentrator module technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Chamberlin, Jay L.; Boes, Eldon C.

    Significant developments in the development of photovoltaic (PV) concentrator technology are described. Concentrator cell research, advances in PV concentrator cell technology, and PV concentrator module development are described. Reliability issues currently of concern, including the applicability of wet insulation resistance tests to concentrator modules, correlation of accelerated thermal cycling tests with life expectancy in the field, and the importance of quality assurance during manufacture, are discussed. Two PV concentrator power systems installed in 1989 are discussed. A PV concentrator initiative program established by the DOE is given, and the results of the latest cost study are presented.

  14. Flexible programmable logic module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  15. Instant node package module

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Juzer

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical exploration of the lifecycle of creating node modules as well as learning all of the top features that npm has to offer.Intended for readers who want to create their first node.js modules. The programming paradigm of JavaScript is not covered so a foundation in these concepts would be beneficial.

  16. Modulating aging and longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    Provides information and an evaluation of a variety of approaches tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress. After decades of systematic....... This book provides the most up-to-date information and a critical evaluation of a variety of approaches being tried for modulating aging and longevity, including dietary supplementation with antioxidants, vitamins and hormones, genetic engineering, life-style alterations, and hormesis through mild stress...

  17. Pain and modulation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain is one of the most important and sometimes difficult problems, that patients and physicians are encountered. It may be clinically acute or chronic, acute pain has usually definite cause and favourable response to treatment. On the other hand there are difficulties in diagnosis and management of chronic pain. Peripheral and cranial nerves convey pain impulses toward central nervous system, and modulations take place at several levels. Diagnosis of different pains, including nociceptive, nerve trunk pain and deafferentation types is essential to acceptable management. In this article we review pain pathway, neurotransmitters and modulation.

  18. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, S. P.; Johnson, S. X.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes work performed under a three-phase subcontract. The objectives of the program include (1) achievement of active-area efficiencies of greater than 14% on small cells; (2) achievement of aperture-area efficiencies of greater than 13% on 0.09-sq m (1 sq ft) modules; (3) achievement of aperture-area efficiencies of greater than 12.5% on 0.37-sq m (4 sq ft) modules; and achievement of greater than 20-year module life (based on life testing extrapolations) with no greater than 10% efficiency degradation. The results obtained and described herein include the following: (1) efficiencies of 12.7% were achieved on small-area devices; (2) 0.09-sq m(1 sq ft) modules achieved greater than 8% aperture-area efficiency, but work for further efficiency improvement was redirected toward the 0.37-sq m(4 sq ft) modules; (3) 0.37-sq m (4 sq ft) modules achieved 26.5-W output, which calculates to 8.0% aperture-area efficiency; (4) consistent prototype production was focused on and substantially achieved within Phase 2; (5) life testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory showed no inherent stability problems with the CdTe technology, and the accuracy of module measurement was satisfactorily resolved; and (6) a 'cradle-to-cradle' recycling program was begun based upon the philosophy that the establishment of such mechanisms will be required to ensure maximum recapture and recycling of all manufacturing waste materials and/or modules returned from the field.

  19. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  20. Motor modules in robot-aided walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizzi Leonardo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that locomotion is achieved by means of rhythm generating networks (central pattern generators and muscle activation generating networks. This modular organization can be partly identified from the analysis of the muscular activity by means of factorization algorithms. The activity of rhythm generating networks is described by activation signals whilst the muscle intervention generating network is represented by motor modules (muscle synergies. In this study, we extend the analysis of modular organization of walking to the case of robot-aided locomotion, at varying speed and body weight support level. Methods Non Negative Matrix Factorization was applied on surface electromyographic signals of 8 lower limb muscles of healthy subjects walking in gait robotic trainer at different walking velocities (1 to 3km/h and levels of body weight support (0 to 30%. Results The muscular activity of volunteers could be described by low dimensionality (4 modules, as for overground walking. Moreover, the activation signals during robot-aided walking were bursts of activation timed at specific phases of the gait cycle, underlying an impulsive controller, as also observed in overground walking. This modular organization was consistent across the investigated speeds, body weight support level, and subjects. Conclusions These results indicate that walking in a Lokomat robotic trainer is achieved by similar motor modules and activation signals as overground walking and thus supports the use of robotic training for re-establishing natural walking patterns.

  1. Experimental demonstration of deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Schwarze, Thomas S; Mehmet, Moritz; Heinzel, Gerhard; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán

    2016-01-25

    Experiments for space and ground-based gravitational wave detectors often require a large dynamic range interferometric position readout of test masses with 1 pm/√Hz precision over long time scales. Heterodyne interferometer schemes that achieve such precisions are available, but they require complex optical set-ups, limiting their scalability for multiple channels. This article presents the first experimental results on deep frequency modulation interferometry, a new technique that combines sinusoidal laser frequency modulation in unequal arm length interferometers with a non-linear fit algorithm. We have tested the technique in a Michelson and a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer topology, respectively, demonstrated continuous phase tracking of a moving mirror and achieved a performance equivalent to a displacement sensitivity of 250 pm/Hz at 1 mHz between the phase measurements of two photodetectors monitoring the same optical signal. By performing time series fitting of the extracted interference signals, we measured that the linearity of the laser frequency modulation is on the order of 2% for the laser source used. PMID:26832546

  2. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775

  3. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Nathan J.; Inglese, James; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. The method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. This demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  4. Rapid RNA-ligand interaction analysis through high-information content conformational and stability landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Nathan J. [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Inglese, James [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States); Ferré-D’Amaré, Adrian R. [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-12-07

    The structure and biological properties of RNAs are a function of changing cellular conditions, but comprehensive, simultaneous investigation of the effect of multiple interacting environmental variables is not easily achieved. We have developed an efficient, high-throughput method to characterize RNA structure and thermodynamic stability as a function of multiplexed solution conditions using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In a single FRET experiment using conventional quantitative PCR instrumentation, 19,400 conditions of MgCl2, ligand and temperature are analysed to generate detailed empirical conformational and stability landscapes of the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) riboswitch. This method allows rapid comparison of RNA structure modulation by cognate and non-cognate ligands. Landscape analysis reveals that kanamycin B stabilizes a non-native, idiosyncratic conformation of the riboswitch that inhibits c-di-GMP binding. Our research demonstrates that allosteric control of folding, rather than direct competition with cognate effectors, is a viable approach for pharmacologically targeting riboswitches and other structured RNA molecules.

  5. Novel Electro-Optical Modulator Utilizing GeO2-Doped Silica Waveguide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiusheng; JIA Dagong

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve a modulator with broad bandwidth and perfect impedance match,a novel electro-optical modulator based on GeO2-doped silica waveguides on silicon substrate is designed.The finite element model of the whole electro-optical modulator is established by means of ANSYS.With the finite element method analysis,the performance of the novel modulator is predicted.The simulation reveals that the designed modulator operates with a product of 3 dB optical bandwidth and modulating length of 226.59 GHz-cm,and a characteristic impedance of 51.6 Ω at 1 550 nm wavelength.Moreover,the calculated electrical reflected power of coplanar waveguide electrode is below -20 dB in the frequency ranging from 45 MHz to 65 GHz.Therefore,the designed modulator has wide modulation bandwidth and perfect impedance match.

  6. RRTM: A rapid radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlawer, E.J.; Taubman, S.J.; Clough, S.A. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) for the calculation of longwave clear-sky fluxes and cooling rates has been developed. The model, which uses the correlated-k method, is both accurate and computationally fast. The foundation for RRTM is the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) from which the relevant k-distributions are obtained. LBLRTM, which has been extensively validated against spectral observations e.g., the high-resolution sounder and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, is used to validate the flux and cooling rate results from RRTM. Validations of RRTM`s results have been performed for the tropical, midlatitude summer, and midlatitude winter atmospheres, as well as for the four Intercomparison of Radiation Codes in Climate Models (ICRCCM) cases from the Spectral Radiance Experiment (SPECTRE). Details of some of these validations are presented below. RRTM has the identical atmospheric input module as LBLRTM, facilitating intercomparisons with LBLRTM and application of the model at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites.

  7. Broadband microwave phase shifter based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a scheme to achieve tunable ~180 degrees microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers.......We present a scheme to achieve tunable ~180 degrees microwave phase shifts at frequencies exceeding 100 GHz based on high speed cross gain modulation in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  8. Knowledge Exchange Within the Rapid Climate Change Program (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, C.; Srokosz, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Rapid Climate Change Program (RAPID) is a major UK-led science program investigating the susceptibility to and risk of abrupt change in the climate system, with a particular focus on the role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). RAPID commenced in 2001, with initial funding to 2008 and has just entered its second phase - RAPID-WATCH - extending some aspects of the program until 2014. Scientifically, a key focus of the program has concerned the development and deployment of a continuous AMOC observing system, although the program has also supported research into a number of other aspects of rapid climate change, including paleo studies of past rapid changes, modeling of the past and future climate, and the development of methods with which to aid the quantification of future risks. Given the societal implications that abrupt climate change associated with the AMOC may have for the North Atlantic region, a major focus within the program has been the implementation of a Knowledge Exchange strategy with which to engage key decision and policy makers within the UK political and industrial sectors. This interaction is especially pertinent for those decision makers involved in the development of adaptive capacities that must incorporate resilience to so-called high-impact, low-probability class threats. We will summarize here the main aspects of our approach, outlining activities/methods used both to satisfy the obvious need to transfer key scientific findings from the program to users, but also in facilitating a return flow of knowledge which can be used by scientists to refine the impact and utility of scientific output. We will draw on particular experience gained from the program's involvement in i: personnel exchanges with central government departments; ii: interaction and co-operation with third party stakeholder organizations (e.g. the UK Climate Impacts Program); and iii: provision of written and oral briefings. Throughout, techniques

  9. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  10. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  11. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  12. Evolution of rapid nerve conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelfranco, Ann M; Hartline, Daniel K

    2016-06-15

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses is a priority for organisms needing to react quickly to events in their environment. While myelin may be viewed as the crowning innovation bringing about rapid conduction, the evolution of rapid communication mechanisms, including those refined and enhanced in the evolution of myelin, has much deeper roots. In this review, a sequence is traced starting with diffusional communication, followed by transport-facilitated communication, the rise of electrical signaling modalities, the invention of voltage-gated channels and "all-or-none" impulses, the emergence of elongate nerve axons specialized for communication and their fine-tuning to enhance impulse conduction speeds. Finally within the evolution of myelin itself, several innovations have arisen and have been interactively refined for speed enhancement, including the addition and sealing of layers, their limitation by space availability, and the optimization of key parameters: channel density, lengths of exposed nodes and lengths of internodes. We finish by suggesting several design principles that appear to govern the evolution of rapid conduction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26879248

  13. Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Bigeng; Meng, Chao; Fang, Wei; Xiao, Yao; Li, Xiyuan; Hu, Zhifang; Xu, Yingxin; Tong, Limin; Wang, Hongqing; Liu, Weitao; Bao, Jiming; Shen, Y Ron

    2014-02-12

    Graphene is an optical material of unusual characteristics because of its linearly dispersive conduction and valence bands and the strong interband transitions. It allows broadband light-matter interactions with ultrafast responses and can be readily pasted to surfaces of functional structures for photonic and optoelectronic applications. Recently, graphene-based optical modulators have been demonstrated with electrical tuning of the Fermi level of graphene. Their operation bandwidth, however, was limited to about 1 GHz by the response of the driving electrical circuit. Clearly, this can be improved by an all-optical approach. Here, we show that a graphene-clad microfiber all-optical modulator can achieve a modulation depth of 38% and a response time of ∼ 2.2 ps, limited only by the intrinsic carrier relaxation time of graphene. This modulator is compatible with current high-speed fiber-optic communication networks and may open the door to meet future demand of ultrafast optical signal processing. PMID:24397481

  14. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  15. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  16. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  17. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  18. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  19. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  20. Special Operation. Module 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special operations, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: topstitching and mitering. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a check-out…

  1. Coplanar interconnection module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, R. D.; Windsor, H. F.

    1970-01-01

    Module for interconnecting a semiconductor array to external leads or components incorporates a metal external heat sink for cooling the array. Heat sink, extending down from the molded block that supports the array, is immersed in a liquid nitrogen bath which is designed to maintain the desired array temperature.

  2. Modules: Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of modules, design-based instruction, and other approaches to technology education can be assessed by determining whether they communicate clear goals; present a clear definition and historical view of technology; present technology processes, actions, and authentic contexts; foster cooperation and teamwork; include open-ended…

  3. Inequality, SES, economic indicators, and student achievement

    OpenAIRE

    John J. McCreary; Edwards, Julianne M.; Gregory J. Marchant

    2015-01-01

    HLM model fit was used to determine the relationship of the country level economic variables of GDP and the GINI Index to 2012 student PISA reading, math, and science achievement, along with individual SES, country SES mean, and country SES inequality. For all achievement areas the complete model of all variables represented the best fit. The significant predictors in the models were country SES inequality and student SES. This suggested a less direct relationship to achievement for the econo...

  4. Predicting Academic Achievement from Classroom Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Flynt, Cynthia J.

    2008-01-01

    PREDICTING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT FROM CLASSROOM BEHAVIORS by Cynthia J. Flynt Nancy Bodenhorn & Kusum Singh, Co-Chairs Counselor Education (ABSTRACT) This study examined the influence of behaviors exhibited in the classroom on reading and math achievement in the first, third and eighth grades; and the influence of teacher perceptions on reading and math achievement of African-Americans versus White students and male versus female students. Lastly, the study examined te...

  5. Predicting achievement in mathematics in adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Maja; PUKLEK LEVPUŠČEK, Melita; Sočan, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The study examined individual factors and social factors that influence adolescent studentsʼ achievement in mathematics. The predictive model suggested direct positive effects of student intelligence, self-rated openness and parental education on achievement in mathematics, whereas direct effects of extraversion on measures of achievement were negative. Indirect positive effects of intelligence, self-rated conscientiousness, student-perceived mathematics teacherʼs press for understanding and ...

  6. Fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, Rodger E

    2007-01-01

    This lecture covers the fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation, which can be defined as any modulation technique that requires a transmission bandwidth much greater than the modulating signal bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating signal. After reviewing basic digital modulation techniques, the principal forms of spread spectrum modulation are described. One of the most important components of a spread spectrum system is the spreading code, and several types and their characteristics are described. The most essential operation required at the receiver in a spread spect

  7. Rapid cavity prototyping using mode matching and globalised scattering matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Shinton, I

    2009-01-01

    Cavity design using traditional mesh based numerical means (such as the finite element or finite difference methods) require large mesh calculations in order to obtain accurate values and cavity optimisation is often not achieved. Here we present a mode matching scheme which utilises a globalised scattering matrix approach that allows cavities with curved surfaces (i.e. cavities with elliptical irises and or equators) to be accurately simulated allowing rapid cavity prototyping and optimisation to be achieved. Results on structures in the CLIC main

  8. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  9. A STUDY ON ACADEMIC ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT ON SECONDARY LEVEL SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Samit Kumar Das; Ujjwal Kumar Halder; Bapi Mishra

    2014-01-01

    21ST century can be indicated as the century of competition. Everywhere there is a race, a competition. With the huge development in science and technology, all part of the world is connected with this competition. Especially in the field of education, this competition rapidly increased among the students. To survive in this competition, educational achievement is necessary and compulsory to all and for good educational achievement, anxiety free,a positive environment is also ...

  10. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  11. Electro-cochlear potentials elicited by sinusoidally modulated signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, C; Rodenburg, M

    1977-01-01

    Responses of the guinea pig cochlea to amplitude-modulated stimuli were measured with the aid of a gross electrode. The dynamic characteristics of this part of the auditory system was studied by varying several parameters of the applied signal. The signals used as carriers in our experiments were either white noise or pure tones of 1 and 4 kHz. The modulation frequency, dynamic and intensity characteristics were determined by varying the modulating frequency, the modulation depth and the intensity of the applied signal. To get an idea about possible non-linear aspects of the system under investigation, we always computed the Fourier transform of the response data and plotted the amplitude of the various harmonics and the phase of the fundamental separately as functions of the signal parameter in question. The greatest response was always found at a modulation frequency of about 200 Hz, with a relatively gradual rise up to this frequency and a sharper drop above 200 Hz. The phase of the fundamental changes very rapidly at frequencies above Hz. The distortion is mainly second-harmonic and has a maximum about 1 octave lower than the fundamental. The carrier frequency and the intensity of the stimulus were not found to have a great influence on the frequency characteristic. For small modulation depths, the system is nearly linear; at higher intensities and modulation depths saturation occurs, coinciding with a relative increase in the intensity of the second harmonic with respect to the fundamental. PMID:880128

  12. A product module mining method for PLM database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷佻钰; 彭卫平; 雷金; 钟院华; 张秋华; 窦俊豪

    2016-01-01

    Modular technology can effectively support the rapid design of products, and it is one of the key technologies to realize mass customization design. With the application of product lifecycle management (PLM) system in enterprises, the product lifecycle data have been effectively managed. However, these data have not been fully utilized in module division, especially for complex machinery products. To solve this problem, a product module mining method for the PLM database is proposed to improve the effect of module division. Firstly, product data are extracted from the PLM database by data extraction algorithm. Then, data normalization and structure logical inspection are used to preprocess the extracted defective data. The preprocessed product data are analyzed and expressed in a matrix for module mining. Finally, the fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is used to generate product modules, which are stored in product module library after module marking and post-processing. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by a case study of high pressure valve.

  13. Use of electrochemical DNA biosensors for rapid molecular identification of uropathogens in clinical urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Joseph C; Mastali, Mitra; Gau, Vincent; Suchard, Marc A; Møller, Annette K; Bruckner, David A; Babbitt, Jane T; Li, Yang; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Landaw, Elliot M; McCabe, Edward R B; Churchill, Bernard M; Haake, David A

    2006-02-01

    We describe the first species-specific detection of bacterial pathogens in human clinical fluid samples using a microfabricated electrochemical sensor array. Each of the 16 sensors in the array consisted of three single-layer gold electrodes-working, reference, and auxiliary. Each of the working electrodes contained one representative from a library of capture probes, each specific for a clinically relevant bacterial urinary pathogen. The library included probes for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterocococcus spp., and the Klebsiella-Enterobacter group. A bacterial 16S rRNA target derived from single-step bacterial lysis was hybridized both to the biotin-modified capture probe on the sensor surface and to a second, fluorescein-modified detector probe. Detection of the target-probe hybrids was achieved through binding of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-fluorescein antibody to the detector probe. Amperometric measurement of the catalyzed HRP reaction was obtained at a fixed potential of -200 mV between the working and reference electrodes. Species-specific detection of as few as 2,600 uropathogenic bacteria in culture, inoculated urine, and clinical urine samples was achieved within 45 min from the beginning of sample processing. In a feasibility study of this amperometric detection system using blinded clinical urine specimens, the sensor array had 100% sensitivity for direct detection of gram-negative bacteria without nucleic acid purification or amplification. Identification was demonstrated for 98% of gram-negative bacteria for which species-specific probes were available. When combined with a microfluidics-based sample preparation module, the integrated system could serve as a point-of-care device for rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infections.

  14. Rapid variability of OB-stars: nature and diagnostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, D.

    In the past decade, rapid photospheric variability has been recognized as the non-standard property that perhaps is the most common one among early-type stars. These proceedings offer an unusually complete overview of the existing observations. They are equally complete in their reflectance of the presently considered models. Because the simple definition 'on a rotational time scale' of the qualifier 'rapid' used in the title is very adequate for many stars, modulation is a strong contender also as a general model. The model that can be made to formally reproduce the widest range of observations is nonradial pulsation which, therefore, has earned itself the somewhat ambiguous reputation as a model for everything. An attraction of this model is that it would give the possibility to infer also structural and evolutionary quantities. It was the second purpose of the workshop to offer at least a glimpse of this potential.

  15. Rapid Molecular Cloud and Star Formation: Mechanisms and Movies

    CERN Document Server

    Heitsch, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that the observationally inferred rapid onset of star formation after parental molecular clouds have assembled can be achieved by flow-driven cloud formation of atomic gas, using our previous three-dimensional numerical simulations. We post-process these simulations to approximate CO formation, which allows us to investigate the times at which CO becomes abundant relative to the onset of cloud collapse. We find that global gravity in a finite cloud has two crucial effects on cloud evolution. (a) Lateral collapse (perpendicular to the flows sweeping up the cloud) leads to rapidly increasing column densities above the accumulation from the one-dimensional flow. This in turn allows fast formation of CO, allowing the molecular cloud to ``appear'' rapidly. (b) Global gravity is required to drive the dense gas to the high pressures necessary to form solar-mass cores, in support of recent analytical models of cloud fragmentation. While the clouds still appear ``supersonically turbulent'', this turbule...

  16. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, William Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct screenings for new products. Past studies have demonstrated reductions in required screening resources (time, amount of herbicide active ingredient, and size of seedlings) can be achieved relative to field exclosure screenings. Rapid screening methods including, greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening were performed using triclopyr and 8 exp...

  17. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  18. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  19. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  20. Mathematics Achievement: Do Teachers Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ahmad Farid; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gender of teachers, teachers' qualification, experience and training on mathematics achievement among eighth grade students in Malaysia using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Only gender of teachers has significant influence on student's achievement in mathematics.

  1. The Effects of Ethnicity Upon School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James G.

    The study examined the effects of ethnicity, family income, adult education level, and unemployment rates on school achievement. Data were obtained from 85 public school districts in New Mexico which enrolled primarily Spanish-surnamed pupils. The composite achievement scores from the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) for grades 5 and 8…

  2. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  3. A Historical Perspective on Closing Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been written recently about gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for many years. This manuscript presents a historical perspective of the problem, viewing it as one of reducing variation in students' achievement. Specifically, it reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin S.…

  4. Multimedia Technology and Students' Achievement in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Edmar Bernardes; Kvasnak, Robb Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this study done at a community college in South Florida, the achievements of students who spoke English as their second language who had attended their K-12 education outside the United States in their home countries, in a U.S. college course on world geography are compared with the achievements of students in the same classes who spoke English…

  5. Physical Environment and Middle Grade Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    This study measured the influence of air conditioning, carpeting, fluorescent lighting, and interior pastel coloring on the academic achievement of eighth grade Georgia pupils in 1975-76 when the variance due to socioeconomic status was statistically controlled. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the achievement scores of students on the…

  6. Education Watch: Achievement Gap Summary Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    These summary tables focus on the state-by-state academic achievement of African American, Hispanic American, American Indian, Asian American, and white students. Data are presented on achievement gains by state (4th grade reading scale scores, 1992-1998; 8th grade science and scale scores, 1996-2000; 4th grade math scale scores, 1992-2000; and…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), New York showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major subgroups with just a few exceptions. Achievement gaps in reading and math also narrowed at grades 4 and 8 for most…

  8. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  9. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  10. Low power spatial light modulator with pharaonis phoborhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial light modulation (SLM) has been theoretically analysed in pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR) and its mutants based on nonlinear intensity induced excited-state absorption, to achieve large percentage modulation at low power. Amplitude modulation of probe laser read beam (I p') transmissions at 560, 512 and 390 nm, corresponding to the peak absorption of ppRO, ppRKL and ppRM intermediate states, respectively, of ppR photocycle, by write beam intensity (I m') at 498 nm, corresponding to the peak absorption of the initial ppR state, have been analysed using the rate equation approach, considering all six intermediate states in its photocycle. The SLM characteristics are shown to be sensitive to the normalized small signal absorption coefficient (β) and the rate constants of intermediates. For a given I m' range, there is an optimum value of β (β opt) for maximum percentage modulation. We can achieve 100% modulation of the read beam if the initial ppR state does not absorb the respective probe beams. The SLM characteristics of F86D ppR have also been used to design an all-optical XOR logic gate. High dynamic range and sensitivity can be achieved at low write beam intensities in ppR compared to wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (WT-bR)

  11. Low power spatial light modulator with pharaonis phoborhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Parag [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University), Agra 282005 (India); Roy, Sukhdev [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University), Agra 282005 (India)]. E-mail: sukhdevr@hotmail.com; Singh, C.P. [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University), Agra 282005 (India)

    2005-04-22

    Spatial light modulation (SLM) has been theoretically analysed in pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR) and its mutants based on nonlinear intensity induced excited-state absorption, to achieve large percentage modulation at low power. Amplitude modulation of probe laser read beam (I {sub p}') transmissions at 560, 512 and 390 nm, corresponding to the peak absorption of ppR{sub O}, ppR{sub KL} and ppR{sub M} intermediate states, respectively, of ppR photocycle, by write beam intensity (I {sub m}') at 498 nm, corresponding to the peak absorption of the initial ppR state, have been analysed using the rate equation approach, considering all six intermediate states in its photocycle. The SLM characteristics are shown to be sensitive to the normalized small signal absorption coefficient ({beta}) and the rate constants of intermediates. For a given I {sub m}' range, there is an optimum value of {beta} ({beta} {sub opt}) for maximum percentage modulation. We can achieve 100% modulation of the read beam if the initial ppR state does not absorb the respective probe beams. The SLM characteristics of F86D ppR have also been used to design an all-optical XOR logic gate. High dynamic range and sensitivity can be achieved at low write beam intensities in ppR compared to wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (WT-bR)

  12. Scalable Light Module for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Light- Emitting Diode Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarsa, Eric [Cree, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    During this two-year program Cree developed a scalable, modular optical architecture for low-cost, high-efficacy light emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Stated simply, the goal of this architecture was to efficiently and cost-effectively convey light from LEDs (point sources) to broad luminaire surfaces (area sources). By simultaneously developing warm-white LED components and low-cost, scalable optical elements, a high system optical efficiency resulted. To meet program goals, Cree evaluated novel approaches to improve LED component efficacy at high color quality while not sacrificing LED optical efficiency relative to conventional packages. Meanwhile, efficiently coupling light from LEDs into modular optical elements, followed by optimally distributing and extracting this light, were challenges that were addressed via novel optical design coupled with frequent experimental evaluations. Minimizing luminaire bill of materials and assembly costs were two guiding principles for all design work, in the effort to achieve luminaires with significantly lower normalized cost ($/klm) than existing LED fixtures. Chief project accomplishments included the achievement of >150 lm/W warm-white LEDs having primary optics compatible with low-cost modular optical elements. In addition, a prototype Light Module optical efficiency of over 90% was measured, demonstrating the potential of this scalable architecture for ultra-high-efficacy LED luminaires. Since the project ended, Cree has continued to evaluate optical element fabrication and assembly methods in an effort to rapidly transfer this scalable, cost-effective technology to Cree production development groups. The Light Module concept is likely to make a strong contribution to the development of new cost-effective, high-efficacy luminaries, thereby accelerating widespread adoption of energy-saving SSL in the U.S.

  13. Generic ISIS Transport Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Generic ISIS Transport Module is to provide a means to bring living specimens to and from orbit. In addition to living specimens, the module can...

  14. Prime Submodules and Flat Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.AZIZI

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some characterizations of prime submodules in fiat modules and, particularly,in free modules are given. Furthermore, the height of prime submodules and some saturated chain of prime submodules are also given.

  15. Real-time modulated nanoparticle separation with an ultra-large dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeming, Kerwin Kwek; Thakor, Nitish V; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit size-dependent properties which make size-selective purification of proteins, DNA or synthetic nanoparticles essential for bio-analytics, clinical medicine, nano-plasmonics and nano-material sciences. Current purification methods of centrifugation, column chromatography and continuous-flow techniques suffer from particle aggregation, multi-stage process, complex setups and necessary nanofabrication. These increase process costs and time, reduce efficiency and limit dynamic range. Here, we achieve an unprecedented real-time nanoparticle separation (51-1500 nm) using a large-pore (2 μm) deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) device. No external force fields or nanofabrication are required. Instead, we investigated innate long-range electrostatic influences on nanoparticles within a fluid medium at different NaCl ionic concentrations. In this study we account for the electrostatic forces beyond Debye length and showed that they cannot be assumed as negligible especially for precise nanoparticle separation methods such as DLD. Our findings have enabled us to develop a model to simultaneously quantify and modulate the electrostatic force interactions between nanoparticle and micropore. By simply controlling buffer solutions, we achieve dynamic nanoparticle size separation on a single device with a rapid response time (1200%), outperforming standard benchtop centrifuge systems. This novel method and model combines device simplicity, isolation precision and dynamic flexibility, opening opportunities for high-throughput applications in nano-separation for industrial and biological applications. PMID:26575003

  16. LS1 Report: achieving the unachievable

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    The dismantling and extraction of a defective DFBA module from LHC Point 6, announced a few weeks ago, has been completed without a hitch. The DFBAs in the LHC are unique and irreplaceable components that must be handled with care.   The Transport team extract the defective module in one of the two DFBAs at Point 6. This module was brought to the surface, where it is currently being repared. Dismantling and extracting part of an electrical feed box (DFBA) had not been planned and could not have been foreseen. Nonetheless, that is what had to be done. When the LS1 teams discovered that the bellows of one of the DFBAs in Sector 5-6 were damaged - and completely inaccessible - they were not exactly overwhelmed with solutions. In fact, they had only one option: to dismantle them and take them up to the surface. Step 1: measure the alignment of the module to be taken out in relation to the beam lines to ensure that when the DFBA is put back in, it is in the right position for the beam to pass thr...

  17. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpey, Jeffrey C.; Stump, Paul O.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters [1], tungsten-halogen lamps [2], and conventional arc lamps [3] have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally [4,5]. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 Å) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion.

  18. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelpey, J.C.; Stump, P.O. (Eaton Corp., Beverly, MA (USA). Semiconductor Equipment Operations)

    1985-01-01

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters, tungsten-halogen lamps and conventional arc lamps have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 A) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion.

  19. Rapid annealing using the water-wall arc lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid annealing techniques using graphite strip heaters, tungsten-halogen lamps and conventional arc lamps have been gaining favor to provide controllable activation of ion implants while minimizing the diffusion of the implanted dopant. These conventional heat sources have given good results, but they all suffer from limitations in power output and/or the ability to change power levels rapidly. The water-wall d.c. arc lamp overcomes these limitations and allows precise control and excellent reproducability of the anneal cycle. The high power output and excellent optical coupling of the water-wall lamp allows ilumination from one side of the sample. The wafer temperature can then be directly monitored with a pyrometer and the fast response time of the lamp allows the pyrometer output to control the lamp power and, hence, provide direct feedback control of the wafer temperature. Direct control is important to overcome variations caused by different doping levels or dielectric coatings on the wafers. Annealing experiments using the water-wall lamp have shown that good activation and essentially complete removal of implant damage can be achieved while moving the junction only minimally. The degree of dopant diffusion (generally on the order of 1000 A) is small compared to device dimensions but is somewhat more than would be expected from classical diffusion theory using published diffusion coefficients. The differences depend on the implanted species and models are being developed to explain the discrepancies. The vary rapid heating and cooling rates obtainable with the water-wall lamp offer a great deal of flexibility in the time/temperature cycles used for annealing (or other rapid thermal processes). There are indications that the ability to achieve a rapid cooling rate allows more complete activation of high dose implants and rapid heating rates may reduce the residual damage and amount of diffusion. (orig.)

  20. Hybrid silicon-vanadium dioxide electro-optic modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Markov, Petr; Marvel, Robert E.; Haglund, Richard F.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-03-01

    Small-footprint, low-power devices that can modulate optical signals at THz speeds would transform next-generation onchip photonics. We describe a hybrid silicon-vanadium dioxide (Si-VO2) electro-optic ring resonator modulator as a candidate platform for achieving this performance benchmark. Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a strongly correlated material exhibiting a semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) accompanied by large changes in electrical and optical properties. While VO2 can be switched optically on a sub-picosecond time scale, the ultimate electrical switching speed remains to be determined. In a 5 μm radius Si-VO2 ring resonator, we achieve 1.5 dB modulation in response to a 10 ns square voltage pulse of 2.5 V. In the steady state regime, we report a modulation depth of 10 dB. The larger modulation depth at longer timescales is attributed to a Joule heating contribution. Experimental results, corroborated by FDTD simulations, reveal the relationship between the portion of a VO2 patch undergoing the SMT and the resulting effects on the Si-VO2 device performance. This work indicates that with further reduction of VO2 patch sizes and increase in resonator Q factor, there is promise for the Si-VO2 ring resonator electro-optic modulator as a competitive option for on-chip photonics technology.

  1. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  2. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mithun; K Porsezian

    2014-02-01

    We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

  3. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  4. Modulators of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doya, Kenji

    2008-04-01

    Human and animal decisions are modulated by a variety of environmental and intrinsic contexts. Here I consider computational factors that can affect decision making and review anatomical structures and neurochemical systems that are related to contextual modulation of decision making. Expectation of a high reward can motivate a subject to go for an action despite a large cost, a decision that is influenced by dopamine in the anterior cingulate cortex. Uncertainty of action outcomes can promote risk taking and exploratory choices, in which norepinephrine and the orbitofrontal cortex appear to be involved. Predictable environments should facilitate consideration of longer-delayed rewards, which depends on serotonin in the dorsal striatum and dorsal prefrontal cortex. This article aims to sort out factors that affect the process of decision making from the viewpoint of reinforcement learning theory and to bridge between such computational needs and their neurophysiological substrates.

  5. Lightweight Trauma Module - LTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Current patient movement items (PMI) supporting the military's Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) mission as well as the Crew Health Care System for space (CHeCS) have significant limitations: size, weight, battery duration, and dated clinical technology. The LTM is a small, 20 lb., system integrating diagnostic and therapeutic clinical capabilities along with onboard data management, communication services and automated care algorithms to meet new Aeromedical Evacuation requirements. The Lightweight Trauma Module is an Impact Instrumentation, Inc. project with strong Industry, DoD, NASA, and Academia partnerships aimed at developing the next generation of smart and rugged critical care tools for hazardous environments ranging from the battlefield to space exploration. The LTM is a combination ventilator/critical care monitor/therapeutic system with integrated automatic control systems. Additional capabilities are provided with small external modules.

  6. Stable local oscillator module.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  7. Low-Driving-Voltage Optical Modulation Utilizing FWM for High-Speed Transmission Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko; Matsuura; Toshiya; Matsuda; Tomoyoshi; Kataoka

    2003-01-01

    We propose an optical transmitter with reduced modulator driving voltage. This reduction is achieved through an on-off ratio improvement technique based on FWM. We confirmed the feasibility of the method in a 43-Gbit/s experiment.

  8. Module Utilization Committee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the US Department of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules. The final report of that committee accounts for that disposition. The membership and activities of the committee are set forth and the results of its activities are reported.

  9. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... by bendng losses co-operates to provide more compact modulators with improved performance (extinction) and speed....

  10. FERMI multi-chip module

    CERN Multimedia

    This FERMI multi-chip module contains five million transistors. 25 000 of these modules will handle the flood of information through parts of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC. To select interesting events for recording, crucial decisions are taken before the data leaves the detector. FERMI modules are being developed at CERN in partnership with European industry.

  11. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  12. Thermal modulation for gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbrink, Ernest F. (Inventor); Libardoni, Mark (Inventor); Stewart, Kristine (Inventor); Waite, J. Hunter (Inventor); Block, Bruce P. (Inventor); Sacks, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thermal modulator device for gas chromatography and associated methods. The thermal modulator device includes a recirculating fluid cooling member, an electrically conductive capillary in direct thermal contact with the cooling member, and a power supply electrically coupled to the capillary and operable for controlled resistive heating of the capillary. The capillary can include more than one separate thermally modulated sections.

  13. -k-torsionfree modules and

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The notion of ω-k-torsionfree modules with respect to a bimoduleω is introduced, which is characterized in terms of left addR ω-approximations. The notion of ω-left approximation dimension is introduced, and the forms of k-syzygy modules being k-torsionfree modules are described.

  14. Status of development of the HTR module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing concern about the rising global temperature of the earth due to the ''Greenhouse Effect'' is increasingly focussing worldwide interest on passively safe reactors for heat and power production. In this context the development status of the HTR-Module designed by the Siemens-Group merits strong interest. The HTR-Module has a high degree of passive safety features. Even in case of hypothetical accidents the decay heat is dissipated from the primary system to the environment by passive measures alone i.e. by heat conduction, convection and radiation. The detailed engineering for the HTR-Module continues to progress. In addition to the engineering for the layout considerable progress has been made in the detailed engineering for specific components - e.g. pressure vessel, steam generator, hot gas duct, blower etc. - and specific systems - e.g. first core, helium purification system, reactor safety system, reactor control etc. The procedure for the conceptual licence has been continued. A large number of supplementary analyses and reports have been elaborated and submitted for this procedure. Many workshop meetings have been held with the nominated experts. The hypothetical accidents have been analysed and a special report on these accidents has been submitted. The safety analyses report has been revised, taking into account the results and achievements reached during the ongoing licensing procedure. Parallel to these engineering activities outstanding in R and D work for the HTR-Module, e.g. in the field of fuel elements etc. has been continued. The HTR-Module has found worldwide interest. Respective activities are going on in Bangladesh, PR China, USSR, Indonesia etc. Relevant application studies have been carried out and/or initiated. (author). 15 refs, 16 figs

  15. Physics. Module 1. Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Бовтрук, Алла Георгіївна; Мєняйлов, Сергій Миколайович; Максимов, Сергій Леонідович; Поліщук, Аркадій Петрович

    2009-01-01

    Ukraine’s joining Bologna process requires creating new books in physics (in English in particular). The book is developed for all forms of studying physics on the Credit-based Modular System basis in higher school. «Physics. Module 1. Mechanics» presents Newtonian mechanics and Special theory of relativity. It contains eight Study Units which include theoretical information, test questions, sample problems, laboratory works and individual home tasks. It is designed for students of engi...

  16. Weighted network modules

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Illes J.; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm (CPMw, Clique Percolation Method with weights) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique per...

  17. of Banach modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Let A be a Banach algebra, E be a Banach A-bimodule and Δ E → A be a bounded Banach A-bimodule homomorphism. It is shown that under some mild conditions, the weakΔ''-amenability of E'' (as an A''-bimodule necessitates weak Δ-amenability of E (as an A-bimodule. Some examples of weak-amenable Banach modules are provided as well.

  18. Chemical release module facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical release module provides the capability to conduct: (1) thermite based metal vapor releases; (2) pressurized gas releases; (3) dispersed liquid releases; (4) shaped charge releases from ejected submodules; and (5) diagnostic measurements with pi supplied instruments. It also provides a basic R-F and electrical system for: (1) receiving and executing commands; (2) telemetering housekeeping data; (3) tracking; (4) monitoring housekeeping and control units; and (5) ultrasafe disarming and control monitoring.

  19. COMBINING MODULES FOR MOVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzi, E; Cheung, V.C.K.; d’Avella, A.; Saltiel, P.; Tresch, M.

    2007-01-01

    We review experiments supporting the hypothesis that the vertebrate motor system produces movements by combining a small number of units of motor output. Using a variety of approaches such as microstimulation of the spinal cord, NMDA iontophoresis, and an examination of natural behaviors in intact and deafferented animals we have provided evidence for a modular organization of the spinal cord. A module is a functional unit in the spinal cord that generates a specific motor output by imposing ...

  20. Direct digital RF synthesis and modulation for MSAT mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stewart; Datta, Ravi; Sydor, John

    1993-01-01

    A practical method of performing direct digital RF synthesis using the Hilbert transform single sideband (SSB) technique is described. It is also shown that amplitude and phase modulation can be achieved directly at L-band with frequency stability and spurii performance exceeding stringent MSAT system requirements.