WorldWideScience

Sample records for achieve household waste

  1. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  2. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  3. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  4. Household Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waste collection" near your zip code in the Earth 911 database Exit for more information. Contact your ... lemon juice in one pint of mineral or vegetable oil and wipe furniture. Rug Deodorizer Liberally sprinkle ...

  5. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  6. Compositional data analysis of household waste recycling centres in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, J. A.; Boldrin, Alessio

    of these projects on the recycling rates does not exist. Thus, compositional data analysis technique was applied to analyze consistently waste data. Based on the waste composition obtained from a recycling center in Denmark, we analyzed the composition of waste treatment and disposal options. Zero and non......The Danish government has set a target of 50% recycling rates for household waste by 2022. To achieve this goal, the Danish municipalities should increase the source separation of household waste. While significant knowledge and experiences were locally gained, lessons learnt have not been...

  7. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants....... The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  8. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  9. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives......This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  10. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  11. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  12. Household hazardous waste management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Moustakas, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    This paper deals with the waste stream of household hazardous waste (HHW) presenting existing management systems, legislation overview and other relevant quantitative and qualitative information. European Union legislation and international management schemes are summarized and presented in a concise manner by the use of diagrams in order to provide crucial information on HHW. Furthermore, sources and types, numerical figures about generation, collection and relevant management costs are within the scope of the present paper. The review shows that the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in households is not clearly defined in legislation, while there is absence of specific acts regulating the management of HHW. The lack of obligation to segregate HHW from the household waste and the different terminology used makes it difficult to determine the quantities and composition of this waste stream, while its generation amount is relatively small and, therefore, is commonly overlooked in waste statistics. The paper aims to cover the gap in the related literature on a subject that is included within the crucial waste management challenges at world level, considering that HHW can also have impact on other waste streams by altering the redox conditions or causing direct reactions with other non hazardous waste substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Concept of Household Waste in Environmental Pollution Prevention Efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarsih, Elvi

    2014-01-01

    Background : Waste is materials that are not used anymore which is the rest of human activities result including household, industrial, and mining. At a certain concentration, the presence of the waste can have a negative impact on the environment and on human health, so we need a proper handling for the waste. Household waste is waste from the kitchen, bathroom, laundry, house hold waste and industrial former human waste. Household waste that is over and it is not overcome is very potential ...

  14. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Furthermore, avoidable vegetable and animal food waste were the primary source of household food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste suggesting the amount...

  15. Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Camilla; Stage, Jesper

    2018-03-28

    Swedish legislation makes municipalities responsible for recycling or disposing of household waste. Municipalities therefore play an important role in achieving Sweden's increased levels of ambition in the waste management area and in achieving the goal of a more circular economy. This paper studies how two municipal policy instruments - weight-based waste tariffs and special systems for the collection of food waste - affect the collected volumes of different types of waste. We find that a system of collecting food waste separately is more effective overall than imposing weight-based waste tariffs in respect not only of reducing the amounts of waste destined for incineration, but also of increasing materials recycling and biological recovery, despite the fact that the direct incentive effects of these two systems should be similar. Separate food waste collection was associated with increased recycling not only of food waste but also of other waste. Introducing separate food waste collection indirectly signals to households that recycling is important and desirable, and our results suggest that this signalling effect may be as important as direct incentive effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...... was collected by sampling and sorting residual household waste in Denmark. The food waste was subdivided into three fractions: (1) avoidable vegetable food waste, (2) avoidable animal-derive food waste, and (3) avoidable food waste. The correlation was carried out using: (a) the amount of food waste (kg per...

  17. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  18. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...

  19. Household Solid Waste Disposal in Public Housing Estates in Awka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on household solid waste disposal in the public housing estates in Awka, Anambra State. The study identified solid waste disposal methods from the households in AHOCOL, Udoka, Iyiagu and Real Housing Estates with an intention to make proposals for better solid waste disposal.

  20. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, Srinath R.; Bhave, Prashant P.

    2006-01-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes

  1. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  2. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Ying; Wu Songwei; Wang Yunlong; Wu Weixiang; Chen Yingxu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  3. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  4. Household waste prevention--a review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jayne; Giorgi, Sara; Sharp, Veronica; Strange, Kit; Wilson, David C; Blakey, Nick

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports a synthesis of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention, based on a UK portfolio of primary research and a broad international review. Waste prevention was defined as strict avoidance, reduction at source (e.g. home composting) and reuse (for the product's original purpose) - recycling was excluded. A major focus was on consumers. Waste prevention is not one but many behaviours; the review revealed a general hierarchy in their popularity, from donating goods to charity at the top; through small reuse behaviours around the home; to activities involving changes in consumption habits at the bottom; one estimate is that 60% of the public does at least one of these activities, some of the time. Barriers to engaging householders include both modern consumer culture and a genuine confusion that waste prevention is equivalent to recycling. The public can be engaged through local or national campaigns, with a wide range of interventions and communications approaches available. On the products and services side, the primary opportunity within the scope of the review was identified as increasing reuse. The barriers included operational difficulties (funding, capacity, logistics) and consumer attitudes towards second-hand goods. The main opportunities are to ensure more strategic planning for reuse by local authorities and better co-ordination and joint working with the third sector. The review examined the impact or potential of various policy measures designed to influence household behaviour directly or the products and services provided to them. Overall, the international evidence suggests that waste prevention benefits will be derived from a 'package' of measures, including, for example, prevention targets, producer responsibility, householder charging, funding for pilot projects, collaboration between the public, private and third sectors, and public intervention campaigns. UK evidence suggests that the greatest tonnage diversions can be

  5. Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-04-01

    The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill.

  6. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  8. The determinants for the adoption of compost from household waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compost from household waste for crop production by farmers living nearby Yaoundé, ... International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... The descriptive results show that 14 factors mostly affect the compost adoption by farmers.

  9. Household Hazardous Waste: Everyone's Problem--Everyone's Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Linda

    1985-01-01

    Examines the household hazardous waste problem, addressing several areas related to regulation, disposal, and control. Also gives a list of safer alternatives for household cleaners/disinfectants, paint products, and pesticides. Indicates that individuals can collectively make a difference in public exposure by changing purchases and practices.…

  10. Household food waste collection: Building service networks through neighborhood expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armington, William R; Chen, Roger B

    2018-04-17

    In this paper we develop a residential food waste collection analysis and modeling framework that captures transportation costs faced by service providers in their initial stages of service provision. With this framework and model, we gain insights into network transportation costs and investigate possible service expansion scenarios faced by these organizations. We solve a vehicle routing problem (VRP) formulated for the residential neighborhood context using a heuristic approach developed. The scenarios considered follow a narrative where service providers start with an initial neighborhood or community and expands to incorporate other communities and their households. The results indicate that increasing household participation, decreases the travel time and cost per household, up to a critical threshold, beyond which we see marginal time and cost improvements. Additionally, the results indicate different outcomes in expansion scenarios depending on the household density of incorporated neighborhoods. As household participation and density increases, the travel time per household in the network decreases. However, at approximately 10-20 households per km 2 , the decrease in travel time per household is marginal, suggesting a lowerbound household density threshold. Finally, we show in food waste collection, networks share common scaling effects with respect to travel time and costs, regardless of the number of nodes and links. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Community mobilization and household level waste management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A baseline household survey was conducted and entomological and sociological surveys were carried out .... Research methods ... including the objectives and the methodology were .... tained both quantitative and qualitative assessments.

  12. The management of household hazardous waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2009-01-01

    Waste legislation in the United Kingdom (UK) implements European Union (EU) Directives and Regulations. However, the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in household or municipal situations, household hazardous waste (HHW), does not occur in UK, or EU, legislation. The EU's Hazardous Waste Directive and European Waste Catalogue are the principal legislation influencing HHW, although the waste categories described are difficult to interpret. Other legislation also have impacts on HHW definition and disposal, some of which will alter current HHW disposal practices, leading to a variety of potential consequences. This paper discusses the issues affecting the management of HHW in the UK, including the apparent absence of a HHW-specific regulatory structure. Policy and regulatory measures that influence HHW management before disposal and after disposal are considered, with particular emphasis placed on disposal to landfill.

  13. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M.

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  14. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  15. Sustainable reverse logistics for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of the thesis titled “Sustainable Reverse Logistics for Household Plastic Waste”

    PhD Candidate: Xiaoyun Bing

    Recycled plastic can be used in the manufacturing of plastic products to reduce the use of virgin plastics material. The cost of recycled plastics is usually lower

  16. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. ► We merge attitude–behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. ► Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. ► Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. ► Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude–behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz’s altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals’ engagement in future policies.

  17. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  18. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PEOPLE'S PERCEPTION ON HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Longe ، O. O. Longe ، E. F. Ukpebor

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current work examined the structure of household waste management system, collection and disposal within the context of a wider research on integrated solid waste management in households. A sample of 30 households from eleven selected residential areas with a focus group of 60 respondents in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria was used. The selected residential areas were divided into high, middle and low socio-economic strata. The research examined a range of environmental behaviours, attitude and perception of respondents on household solid waste management. The results established waste management behaviours among the respondents on solid waste management system, services, patronage of services and cost recovery methods. Public opinion and perception on solid waste management system is characterized with irregularity and inefficient collection system; with poor monitoring of the private waste service providers by the local authority. Willingness to pay for waste management services provided by the private service providers, the Private Sector Participation operators is higher among the middle and high income socio-economic groups than in the low income group. However, with the application of sustainable environmental education greater success ratio could be achieved. Level of patronage of solid waste management services is high across the three socio-economic groups but patronage is shared among the two operating service providers (formal and informal. The Private Sector Participation has the highest patronage level with 64.6% severity index while the informal sector (Cart pushers have only 48.7% severity index both percentages translate to the agreed and neutral perception opinion ranges respectively. The paper advocates for improved solid waste management system through proper monitoring of the services of the Private Sector Participation operators by the Local Government Area for improved service efficiency. Finally the

  20. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.

  1. Households willingness to pay for improved solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akhtar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste is a byproduct of human life. Nowadays, municipal solid waste is being produced in excessive amounts and in this way, both developing and developed countries are facing challenges regarding generation of waste. Economic development, urbanization and improved living standards in cities have contributed to increase in the amount and complexity of solid waste produced. The present study was conducted in the residential area of main Boulevard Gulberg, Lahore to determine the present methods and efficiency of current solid waste management facility and to estimate the willingness of the selected households to pay for the improvement of solid waste management through questionnaire survey. It was found that current Solid waste management system in the area is fair but needs more improvement in terms of improved collection efficiency and rates, recycling bins, and segregation of waste at storage. According to the questionnaire survey, majority of the respondents despite belonging to middle class incomes are willing to pay an amount less than USD 4.8 for the improvement of waste management facility in the area. The area lacks frequent collection of waste containers. Therefore, there is a need for upgradation of storage and collection facilities in terms of increase in collection efficiency and rates, introduction of recycling facility and segregation of waste at source. Waste storage and collection sites of the area should be monitored periodically and waste should be disposed of in a scientific manner in sanitary landfills.

  2. Household food waste in Nordic countries: Estimations and ethical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey Gjerris

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B explanations for food waste at household level; (C a number of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives need to be developed to establish cultural habits replacing a focus on affluence and individual choice with a focus on participatory embeddedness in a more-than-human lifeworld.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1786

  3. Community based assessment on household management of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Conclusion: in the study community household management of waste is in poor condition. Health-workers and local authorities must pay special emphasis to improve these conditions. Further in-depth studies should also be encouraged to look for improved interventions. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2010;24(2):103-109].

  4. Ecosystem Approach to Urban Household Waste Management in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecosystem Approach to Urban Household Waste Management in the context of ... in Ecohealth (COPEH) supported by IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  5. An Assessment of Household Solid Waste Disposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2. 1. 3. A. M. Stanley , S. S. Andrew , A. A. Dania and I. F. Sani. 1Department of Building, A.B.U., Zaria,. 2Department of ... waste is nuisance when left ... farms, wetlands, uncompleted buildings ... (2011), the impact of ..... Research Proposal.

  6. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most......A total of 26.1Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11kg of batteries, 2.2kg of toners and 16kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household...

  8. Factors influencing household participation in solid waste management (Case study: Waste Bank Malang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Arifiani, N. F.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Putri, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Solid waste management is very important measure in order to reduce the amount of waste. One of solid waste management form in Indonesia is waste banks. This kind of solid waste management required high level of participation of the community. The objective of this study is to explore factors influencing household participation in waste banks. Waste bank in Malang City (WBM) was selected as case study. Questionnaires distribution and investigation in WBM were conducted to identify problems of participation. Quantitative analysis was used to analyze the data. The research reveals that education, income, and knowledge about WBM have relationship with participation in WBM.

  9. Monitoring environmental burden reduction from household waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeshi; Hirai, Yasuhiro; Asari, Misuzu; Yano, Junya; Miura, Takahiro; Ii, Ryota; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the amount of prevented household waste in Kyoto city was quantified using three methods. Subsequently, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction by waste prevention was calculated in order to monitor the impact of waste prevention. The methods of quantification were "relative change from baseline year (a)," "absolute change from potential waste generation (b)," and "absolute amount of activities (c)." Method (a) was popular for measuring waste prevention, but method (b) was the original approach to determine the absolute amount of waste prevention by estimating the potential waste generation. Method (c) also provided the absolute value utilizing the information of activities. Methods (b) and (c) enable the evaluation of the waste prevention activities with a similar baseline for recycling. Methods (b) and (c) gave significantly higher GHG reductions than method (a) because of the difference in baseline between them. Therefore, setting a baseline is very important for evaluating waste prevention. In practice, when focusing on the monitoring of a specific policy or campaign, method (a) is an appropriate option. On the other hand, when comparing the total impact of waste prevention to that of recycling, methods (b) and (c) should be applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, R.J.; Gronow, J.R.; Voulvoulis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge

  11. Accelerated In-vessel Composting for Household Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Prashant P.; Joshi, Yadnyeshwar S.

    2017-12-01

    Composting at household level will serve as a viable solution in managing and treating the waste efficiently. The aim of study was to design and study household composting reactors which would treat the waste at source itself. Keeping this aim in mind, two complete mix type aerobic reactors were fabricated. A comparative study between manually operated and mechanically operated reactor was conducted which is the value addition aspect of present study as it gives an effective option of treatment saving the time and manpower. Reactors were loaded with raw vegetable waste and cooked food waste i.e. kitchen waste for a period of 30 days after which mulch was allowed to mature for 10 days. Mulch was analyzed for its C/N ratio, nitrate, phosphorous, potassium and other parameters to determine compost quality, every week during its period of operation. The results showed that compost obtained from both the reactors satisfied almost all compost quality criteria as per CPHEEO manual on municipal solid waste management and thus can be used as soil amendment to increase the fertility of soil.In terms of knowledge contribution, this study puts forth an effective way of decentralized treatment.

  12. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  13. Chemical composition of material fractions in Danish household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    batches of 80-1200 tonnes of unsorted household waste was incinerated and the content of the waste determined from the content of the outputs from the incinerator. The indirect method is believed to better represent the small but highly contaminated material fractions (e,g., batteries) than the direct...... like paper, cardboard anti organic fractions. The single fraction contributing most to the total energy content is the non-recyclable plastic fraction, contributing 21% of the energy content and 60% of the chlorine content, although this fraction comprises less than 7% by weight. Heavy metals originate...... mainly from inert fractions, primarily batteries....

  14. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Household Waste Composition in the Different Districts of Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Miafodzyeva, Sviatlana; Brandt, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Separating household waste into fractions at the place where it was generated is one of the most popular methods of collection household waste in most European countries. In 1994 a producer responsibility ordinance for packaging was introduced in Sweden. This ordinance mandates householders to sort out packaging waste, clean the waste and sort different package materials – paper, plastic, glass and metal in assigned recycling bins. Household’s participation is mandatory but in practice it is ...

  16. Model of Chinese Household Kitchen Waste Separation Behavior: A Case Study in Beijing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High participation rates by the public in authority projects are key in increasing resident recycling levels. Understanding waste separation behavior is crucial to achieving sustainable waste management within such household-based schemes. To identify the driving forces behind the seldom-discussed kitchen garbage separation behavior, five psychological factors, namely, attitude, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, moral norms, and responsibility denial, are established. Our data originate from a social study of Beijing citizens conducted in July 2013 (n = 362. Through structural equation modeling, we find that moral norms are consistently the most important predictor of household kitchen waste (KW separation behavior. Subjective norms have a larger effect on such behavior than responsibility denial. Data analysis shows that perceived behavior control contributes significantly and independently to the explanation of such behavior. By contrast, attitude towards KW separation is found to be significantly negatively correlated with separation behavior. In conclusion, the model with direct and indirect effects of psychological factors explains 50.3% of the variance in household KW source separation behavior. Implications of the results for the promotion of household KW separation programs are discussed.

  17. Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    , information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal...... paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable...... concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams....

  18. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorpas, Antonis A.; Lasaridi, Katia; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Chroni, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes

  19. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorpas, Antonis A., E-mail: antonis.zorpas@ouc.ac.cy [Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lasaridi, Katia, E-mail: klasaridi@hua.gr [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece); Voukkali, Irene [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Loizia, Pantelitsa, E-mail: irenevoukkali@envitech.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Chroni, Christina [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  20. Indoor household pesticides: hazardous waste concern or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J M; Guiney, P D; Howard, P H; Aronson, D B; Gray, D A

    2000-01-01

    Many indoor household pesticides are efficient and useful tools for a variety of functions necessary to maintain clean, sanitary, and pleasant homes and institutional facilities, and to provide significant public health benefits. They do so by incorporating active ingredients and formulation technology that have not been associated with significant environmental impact in use or when disposed in landfills. Chemical and environmental fate properties, toxicological characteristics, and use patterns of indoor household pesticides that distinguish them from other categories of pesticides which have been associated with environmental contamination should be recognized when HHW policy is debated and established by governmental agencies. Most indoor household pesticides as defined here should not be considered hazardous waste or HHW because those relatively few containers, often no longer full, that have been disposed with MSW over the years have not been associated with environmental contamination. The tiny amounts of those product residues that will reach MSW landfills have been shown, in general, not to have chemical or environmental fate characteristics that would make them susceptible to leaching. Those that do have the potential to leach based on these characteristics, in most cases, do not represent a threat to human health based on toxicological considerations. However, compounds such as propoxur, which are very mobile and relatively persistent in soil and in addition have been associated with significant potential health effects, may be targeted by the screening process as described here and could be selected for further investigation as candidates for special waste management status (such as HHW). Our analysis and recommendations have not been extended to the many types of lawn and garden pesticides that are commonly used by homeowners and are frequently brought to HHW programs. However, their potential for groundwater contamination could also be judged using

  1. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, A. M.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation.

  2. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of PCB...

  3. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  4. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The policy of household waste management in lithuania: how we could recycle more responsibly?

    OpenAIRE

    Vaištaraitė, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    The Policy of Household Waste Management in Lithuania: How We Could Recycle More Responsibly? The main purpose of these bachelor thesis is evaluate the impact of Lithuanian policy of household waste management for habitants’ behaviour. In this work the author aims to find out the behaviour changes caused by implementing policy and give the recommendations for the more effective policy of household waste management. The issue raised in this work – although there is creating sorting infrastruct...

  6. Influence of assumptions about household waste composition in waste management LCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Uncertainty in waste composition of household waste. ► Systematically changed waste composition in a constructed waste management system. ► Waste composition important for the results of accounting LCA. ► Robust results for comparative LCA. - Abstract: This article takes a detailed look at an uncertainty factor in waste management LCA that has not been widely discussed previously, namely the uncertainty in waste composition. Waste composition is influenced by many factors; it can vary from year to year, seasonally, and with location, for example. The data publicly available at a municipal level can be highly aggregated and sometimes incomplete, and performing composition analysis is technically challenging. Uncertainty is therefore always present in waste composition. This article performs uncertainty analysis on a systematically modified waste composition using a constructed waste management system. In addition the environmental impacts of several waste management strategies are compared when applied to five different cities. We thus discuss the effect of uncertainty in both accounting LCA and comparative LCA. We found the waste composition to be important for the total environmental impact of the system, especially for the global warming, nutrient enrichment and human toxicity via water impact categories.

  7. The role of household chaos in understanding relations between early poverty and children's academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrova, Irina; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Willoughby, Michael; Pan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The following prospective longitudinal study used an epidemiological sample (N = 1,236) to consider the potential mediating role of early cumulative household chaos (6–58 months) on associations between early family income poverty (6 months) and children's academic achievement in kindergarten. Two dimensions of household chaos, disorganization and instability, were examined as mediators. Results revealed that, in the presence of household disorganization (but not instability) and relevant covariates, income poverty was no longer directly related to academic achievement. Income poverty was, however, positively related to household disorganization, which was, in turn, associated with lower academic achievement. Study results are consistent with previous research indicating that household chaos conveys some of the adverse longitudinal effects of income poverty on children's outcomes and extend previous findings specifically to academic achievement in early childhood. PMID:27330247

  8. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan; Chung, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced

  9. A material flow analysis on current electrical and electronic waste disposal from Hong Kong households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Winifred Ka-Yan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chung, Shan-Shan, E-mail: sschung@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhang, Chan [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Most household TWARC waste is sold directly to private e-waste collectors in HK. ► The current e-waste recycling network is popular with HK households. ► About 80% of household generated TWARC is exported overseas each year. ► Over 7000 tonnes/yr of household generated TWARC reach landfills. ► It is necessary to upgrade safety and awareness in HK’s e-waste recycling industry. - Abstract: A material flow study on five types of household electrical and electronic equipment, namely television, washing machine, air conditioner, refrigerator and personal computer (TWARC) was conducted to assist the Government of Hong Kong to establish an e-waste take-back system. This study is the first systematic attempt on identifying key TWARC waste disposal outlets and trade practices of key parties involved in Hong Kong. Results from two questionnaire surveys, on local households and private e-waste traders, were used to establish the material flow of household TWARC waste. The study revealed that the majority of obsolete TWARC were sold by households to private e-waste collectors and that the current e-waste collection network is efficient and popular with local households. However, about 65,000 tonnes/yr or 80% of household generated TWARC waste are being exported overseas by private e-waste traders, with some believed to be imported into developing countries where crude recycling methods are practiced. Should Hong Kong establish a formal recycling network with tight regulatory control on imports and exports, the potential risks of current e-waste recycling practices on e-waste recycling workers, local residents and the environment can be greatly reduced.

  10. Household food waste to wastewater or to solid waste? That is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggelman, Carol; Ham, Robert K

    2003-12-01

    Decision makers need sound analyses of economic and environmental impacts of options for managing household food waste. Food waste impacts public health (it rots, smells, and attracts rodents) and costs (it drives collection frequency). A life cycle inventory is used to quantify total materials, energy, costs and environmental flows for three municipal solid waste systems (collection followed by compost, waste-to-energy or landfill) and two wastewater systems (kitchen food waste disposer followed by rural on-site or municipal wastewater treatment) for food waste management. Inventory parameters are expressed per 100 kg of food waste (wet weight) to place data on a normalised basis for comparison. System boundaries include acquisition, use and decommissioning. Parameters include inputs (land, materials, water) and output emissions to air, water and land. Parameters are ranked simply from high to low. Ranking highest overall was the rural wastewater system, which has a high amount of food waste and carrier water relative to the total throughput over its design life. Waste-to-energy was second; burning food waste yields little exportable energy and is costly. Next, municipal wastewater tied with landfill. Municipal wastewater is low for land, material, energy and cost, but is highest for food waste by-product (sludge). Landfill ranks low for air emissions and cost. Compost ranks lowest; it has the lowest material and water inputs and generates the least wastewater and waterborne waste.

  11. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - an example of 7 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies......An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1 ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste....... The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering...

  13. Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Pedersen, G A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2015-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. No time to waste: applying social psychological methods\\ud and theories to household food waste reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Graham-Rowe, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The amount of food thrown away by UK households is substantial and, to a large extent, avoidable. Despite the obvious imperative for research to identify key factors that motivate, enable or prevent household food waste reduction, little research to date has directly addressed this objective. The research presented in this thesis had two clear aims:\\ud (1) to investigate antecedents of household food waste reduction and barriers to change, and\\ud (2) to explore whether self-affirmation techni...

  15. WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigum, Marianne, E-mail: mkkb@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus, E-mail: claus_petersen@econet.dk [Econet A/S, Strandboulevarden 122, 5, 2100 København Ø (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H., E-mail: thho@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljøvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. • We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. • We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. • Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. • Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these

  16. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that...

  17. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  19. Weight-based pricing in the collection of household waste. The Oostzaan case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderhof, Vincent; Kooreman, Peter; Allers, Maarten; Wiersma, Doede

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the effects of weight-based pricing in the collection of household waste. Using a comprehensive panel data set on all households in a Dutch municipality we estimate short-run as well as long-run price effects for the amounts of both compostable and non-recyclable household waste. We find significant and sizeable price effects, with the elasticity for compostable waste being four times as large as the elasticity for non-recyclable waste. Long-run elasticities are about 30% larger than short-run elasticities

  20. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  1. A survey of the influencing factors and models for resident's household waste management behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of household solid waste has been concerned and researched on by municipalities and researchers.At present, household solid waste has been changed to management problem from technical one. From the point view of management, the research on household solid waste is to study the factors which influence resident's behavior of managtng their waste. Based on the literature review, firstly, this paper summarizes those factors which have already been identified to have impact on resident's behavior of managing their waste. They are social-demographic variables,knowledge, environmental values, psychological factors, publicity and system design. Secondly, three typical models of the relationship between factors and behavior, which are factors determining task performance in waste management,conceptualization of waste management behavior and the theoretical model of repeated behavior on household waste management, are analyzed and the deficiencies of these models are also analyzed. Finally, according to the current situation in household waste management and the culture and resident's habits in China, this paper puts forward a research focus and suggestions about resident 's behavior of household solid waste management.

  2. Waste design for households with respect to water, organics and nutrients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, M.

    1997-01-01

    . The BOD and COD load to wastewater can be significantly reduced by separating toilet wastes and part of the kitchen wastes. The phosphate content of detergents influences the phosphorus load significantly. Kitchen wastes can be diverted to the solid waste system or the compostable fraction of solid wastes......Waste design couples handling and treatment of waste with the production and control of waste materials. This integrated approach will allow for a reduced use of non renewable resources in waste treatment The paper discusses the use of waste design for households and its impact on the composition...... of household wastewater. This will allow for the design of a wastewater with characteristics quite different from those normally found. The separation of toilet wastes or just urine can reduce the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in the wastewater to a level where no further nutrient removal is needed...

  3. The effects of unit pricing system upon household solid waste management: The Korean experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.

    1999-09-01

    Initial effects of adoption of a unit pricing system paired with aggressive recycling programs appear to be substantial. This paper explores the impact of price incentives under the unit pricing system on household solid waste generation and recycling in Korea. The author employs a simultaneous equation model considering the feedback effects between total waste generation and recycling. Estimation results using 3017 Korean household survey data indicate that a rise in waste collection fee induces households to recycle more wastes. However, this effect is partially offset by decreases in source-reduction efforts due to the feedback effects, resulting in relatively lower price elasticity of demand for solid waste collection services. This implies that household demand for solid waste collection services will not decrease much with additional increases in the collection fee, unless further recycling incentives such as more frequent recyclable pickup services are accompanied.

  4. The potential of household solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal District, Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmadewanthi, I. D. A. A.; Kurniawati, S.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid population growth affects the amount of waste generated. Sukomanunggal Subdistrict is the densest area in West Surabaya which has a population of 100,602 inhabitants with a total area of 11.2 km2. The population growth significantly affects the problem of limited land for landfill facilities (final processing sites). According to the prevailing regulations, solid waste management solutions include the solid waste reduction and management. This study aims to determine the potential reduction of household solid waste at the sources. Household solid waste samplings were performed for eight consecutive days. The samples were then analyzed to obtain the generation rate, density, and composition so that the household solid waste reduction potential for the next 20 years could be devised. Results of the analysis showed that the value of waste is 0.27 kg/person/day, while the total household solid waste generation amounted to 27,162.58 kg/day or 187.70 m3/day. Concerning the technical aspects, the current solid waste reduction in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has reached 2.1% through the application of waste bank, composting, and scavenging activities at the dumping sites by the garbage collectors. In the year of 2036, the potential reduction of household solid waste in Sukomanunggal Subdistrict has been estimated to reach 28.0%.

  5. What gets measured gets managed: A new method of measuring household food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimelech, Efrat; Ayalon, Ofira; Ert, Eyal

    2018-03-22

    The quantification of household food waste is an essential part of setting policies and waste reduction goals, but it is very difficult to estimate. Current methods include either direct measurements (physical waste surveys) or measurements based on self-reports (diaries, interviews, and questionnaires). The main limitation of the first method is that it cannot always trace the waste source, i.e., an individual household, whereas the second method lacks objectivity. This article presents a new measurement method that offers a solution to these challenges by measuring daily produced food waste at the household level. This method is based on four main principles: (1) capturing waste as it enters the stream, (2) collecting waste samples at the doorstep, (3) using the individual household as the sampling unit, and (4) collecting and sorting waste daily. We tested the feasibility of the new method with an empirical study of 192 households, measuring the actual amounts of food waste from households as well as its composition. Household food waste accounted for 45% of total waste (573 g/day per capita), of which 54% was identified as avoidable. Approximately two thirds of avoidable waste consisted of vegetables and fruit. These results are similar to previous findings from waste surveys, yet the new method showed a higher level of accuracy. The feasibility test suggests that the proposed method provides a practical tool for policy makers for setting policy based on reliable empirical data and monitoring the effectiveness of different policies over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week -1 and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 o C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH 4 Mg -1 input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N 2 O Mg -1 ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH 4 and N 2 O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH 4 during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH 4 emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg -1 ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  7. Investigation of Household Hazardous Waste Production in Amirkola, Iran, in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: It is extremely important to recognize the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of this type of waste before any planning on them due to the lack of the prepared program in the field of household hazardous waste (HHW management in the country. This research has been done in Babol, Iran, in order to achieve this important goal. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out on the basis of cluster samplingamong150families of Amirkola, Iran, to determine the per capita and percentage of different types of HHW. Training items in the form of pamphlets and special disposal bags were given to the families for being familiar with the types of waste and collection the waste, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS version19 and to signify of mean data was used with one-way analysis of variance. Results: Average production of HHW was 75.6 kg a day, which contained almost 0.3% of municipal waste. The most important types of hazardous waste, including cleaners (60%, drugs (15.5%, toxic materials and chemicals (9.5%, electronics (8%, cosmetics (6.5%, sharp objects (1%, and pesticides (0.5%. Conclusion: This study showed that a high percentage of the amount of hazardous waste was allocated to the cleaners and medicines respectively. In this respect, the families were trained in order to reduce HHW in the source, to separate and recycle them. Moreover, it is also recommended to collect, transport and dispose of in accordance with health regulations.

  8. Household food waste disposal in South Africa: A case study of Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is becoming an important issue in light of population growth and global food security concerns. However, data on food wastage are limited, especially for developing countries. Global estimates suggest that households in developed...

  9. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Summary Report. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.; Galvin, David V.

    The Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project was established as an interagency effort to reduce the level of toxicants entering the environment by developing a control plan for the safe disposal of small quantities of household chemicals. This summary report provides an overview of the aspects of this problem that were examined, and the steps…

  10. Estimation of Household Waste in the Republic of Serbia using R software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Tokai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimation of annual amount of waste generated by households in Republic of Serbia. Waste generated by households is a part of municipal waste that also includes waste generated by trade and services activities as well as by tourists. In order to estimate pure household waste, regression analysis was preformed with reference to Cammarota et al. (2005 ”A proposal for the estimation of household waste”. In order to face this problem, regression models were constructed for municipal waste that are based on non domestic variables which are related to trade and services activities and tourism. The part of the municipal waste that could not be explained by a model based on non domestic variables was ascribed to pure household waste. In order to check validity of results, the model residuals were then related to domestic variables (usual population and the average number of inhabitants per occupied dwelling. The regression models were fitted using R software.

  11. Operationalisation of service quality in household waste collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Nico Alexander; Gellenbeck, Klaus; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Since 2007, there has been intensive discussion at European and national levels concerning the standardisation of services including those in the sector of waste management. The drafts of the European standard prEN 16250 and the German preliminary standard DIN SPEC 1108 are intended to establish a uniform definition of corresponding services and their (minimum) service levels. Their binding application in practice requires that systematic inspections be provided to ascertain to what degree a service has been carried out as agreed upon. However, both standardisation projects give only a few examples of potential quality characteristics and offer no concrete information concerning methods of measurement. Because intersectoral or cross-service quality inspections do not exist, there is a need for the development of specific quality inspections. The study introduced in this article examines the question of how the service quality of door-to-door waste collection can be systematically measured. To this end, the quality concept applied to the process of waste collection was first concretised and then operationalised using indicators. Based upon this, the methods of the quality inspections were developed and subjected to a trial of their applicability in a German waste management company. The methods for measuring and evaluating take into account, in addition to the different boundary conditions of collection, also the possible customer influence on the collection process and consequently on the service performed by the collection crew. In order to avoid time- and therefore cost-intensive exhaustive surveys, a multilevel random-controlled selection of survey units was developed, too. Based on the analysis of the measurement data, it was possible to determine specific time requirement values for the regular performance of the data surveys, as well as minimum sample sizes as a function of the number of container locations of the waste collection tours. On the basis of this

  12. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - An example of 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas H; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-11-01

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies. The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering the benefits of recycling of materials and recovering and utilization of energy. Environmental benefits come from paper recycling and, to a lesser extent, the recycling of metals and glass. Waste-to-energy plants can lead to an environmental load (as in France) or a saving (Germany and Denmark), depending mainly on the composition of the energy being substituted. Sensitivity analysis and a data quality assessment identified a range of critical parameters, suggesting from where better data should be obtained. The study concluded that household waste management is environmentally the best in European countries with a minimum reliance on landfilling, also induced by the implementation of the Waste Hierarchy, though environmental performance does not correlate clearly with the rate of material recycling. From an environmental point of view, this calls for a change in the waste management paradigm, with less focus on where the waste is routed and more of a focus on the quality and utilization of recovered materials and energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of household water consumption are extremely difficult in intermittent water supply (IWS) regimes in low- and middle-income countries, where water is delivered for short durations, taps are shared, metering is limited, and household storage infrastructure varies widely. Nonetheless, consumption estimates are necessary for utilities to improve water delivery. We estimated household water use in Hubli-Dharwad, India, with a mixed-methods approach combining (limited) metered data, storage container inventories, and structured observations. We developed a typology of household water access according to infrastructure conditions based on the presence of an overhead storage tank and a shared tap. For households with overhead tanks, container measurements and metered data produced statistically similar consumption volumes; for households without overhead tanks, stored volumes underestimated consumption because of significant water use directly from the tap during delivery periods. Households that shared taps consumed much less water than those that did not. We used our water use calculations to estimate waste at the household level and in the distribution system. Very few households used 135 L/person/d, the Government of India design standard for urban systems. Most wasted little water even when unmetered, however, unaccounted-for water in the neighborhood distribution systems was around 50%. Thus, conservation efforts should target loss reduction in the network rather than at households.

  14. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizeau, Kate; Massow, Mike von; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste

  15. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  16. Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous...

  17. Pro-environmental Behavior Regarding Solid Waste Management in Householders of Kalutara Urban Council Area- A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Amarasinghe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems generated by solid waste have become a major national issue in Sri Lanka due to high levels of economic growth and consumption. Inappropriate management of solid waste may generate many problems such as environmental pollution, public health, social and economic problems as well as aesthetic issues. Therefore, this problem needs immediate attention not only for the management of waste, but also for the study of individual behavior related to solid waste production and use. This research was carried out as a case study in Kalutara urban council area, where behavior that is related to the production and management of waste is analyzed. To achieve this, a questionnaire survey was done for the households of Kalutara North, Kalutara South and Katukurunda. The households’ descriptive, inferential and informative believes were identified where they express agreement or disagreement regarding the final disposal of waste. In total 100 households completed the questionnaire. This work approached the behavioral aspect of the problem by considering the attitudes towards the environment and the beliefs about the environment. In addition, knowledge of environment and the problems raised have been considered for prediction of environmentally protective behavior. In this investigation, the classification of believes were considered in terms of austerity or limitation of consumption, conservation and material beliefs or material squandering. Further, the environmental attitudes were considered as emotional, cognitive (know and behavioral. Based on the preliminary results of this study, it can be concluded that believes and attitudes show a certain level of relation with the behavior of the households. The questionnaire survey was useful to highlight the solid waste problem that exists in the area and to indicate the trends of attitudes and behavior among the solid waste management. Further, by considering the findings of this study, an environmental

  18. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...

  19. Quantifying household waste of fresh fruit and vegetables in the EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentiis, Valeria; Corrado, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-04-11

    According to national studies conducted in EU countries, fresh fruit and vegetables contribute to almost 50% of the food waste generated by households. This study presents an estimation of this waste flow, differentiating between unavoidable and avoidable waste. The calculation of these two flows serves different purposes. The first (21.1 kg per person per year) provides a measure of the amount of household waste intrinsically linked to the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, and which would still be generated even in a zero-avoidable waste future scenario. The second (14.2 kg per person per year) is a quantity that could be reduced/minimised by applying targeted prevention strategies. The unavoidable waste was assessed at product level, by considering the inedible fraction and the purchased amounts of the fifty-one most consumed fruits and vegetables in Europe. The avoidable waste was estimated at commodity group level, based on the results of national studies conducted in six EU member states. Significant differences in the amounts of avoidable and unavoidable waste generated were found across countries, due to different levels of wasteful behaviours (linked to cultural and economic factors) and different consumption patterns (influencing the amount of unavoidable waste generated). The results of this study have implications for policies both on the prevention and the management of household food waste. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractUsing a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has

  1. The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solomon, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Solid Management is a concern in East African capital cities. The absence of managing solid waste is a serious problem. An ever bigger concern is the growing quantities of waste that are generatedat households level in informal settlements. In most cases proper safeguard measures are largely

  2. Compositional data analysis of household waste recycling centres in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, J. A.; Boldrin, Alessio

    of these projects on the recycling rates does not exist. Thus, compositional data analysis technique was applied to analyze consistently waste data. Based on the waste composition obtained from a recycling center in Denmark, we analyzed the composition of waste treatment and disposal options. Zero and non......-zero pattern was used to describe historical changes in the definition and components of waste fractions. Variation array was applied to determine the relationship between waste treatment and disposal options. As a result, compositional data analysis technique enables to analyze waste data regardless...

  3. Towards sustainable consumption: A socio-economic analysis of household waste recycling outcomes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y; Liu, Shuwen

    2018-05-15

    Many high-density cities struggle to find space for disposing municipal solid waste. Hong Kong is one of these cities, seeking to scale up waste recovery efforts as an alternative to disposal. However, territory-wide recovery initiatives do not account for socio-economic variations across place, leading to mixed outcomes among diverse communities. This study aims to investigate socio-economic effects on recycling behavior in a sample of subsidized rental housing estates. It constitutes an improvement from previous studies by using the entire estate as a unit of analysis and analyzing actual recycling outcomes, which have received limited attention from researchers. The analysis focused on the volume of recyclables collected from 158 public housing estates in Hong Kong, with an average population of 12,285. Results suggest that recycling outcomes vary with a limited set of socio-economic factors. Housing estates managed by a private property management company and populated by better off households collected more recyclables from their residents. Measures of absolute and relative recycling intensity achieved similar results. The findings will be useful for identifying residential communities requiring additional support for promoting waste separation and recycling. Differentiated policies for economically disadvantaged communities are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes

  5. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that

  6. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit; Aditya, Gautam; Saha, Goutam K

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An assessment of different household wastes as larval habitats of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. ► Household wastes of four major categories namely earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells varied significantly for Aedes immature depending on species, month and location. ► Based on the relative density of Aedes immature, cluster analyses allowed segregation and classification of the waste containers and relative importance as mosquito larval habitats. ► Conversion of disposed wastes into larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population in Kolkata and similar cities of tropics lacking suitable waste management practices. - Abstract: An assessment of the household wastes as larval habitats of the dengue vectors was made considering Kolkata, India, as geographical area. Wastes of four major categories, namely, earthen, porcelain, plastic and coconut shells were monitored for positive with immature of either Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. Twenty six types of wastes with varying size and shape, resembling containers, were identified that hosted mosquito immature. The number of waste containers positive for Aedes immature varied significantly (P < 0.05) with respect to location, type and month. The relative density of Aedes immature in the waste containers varied significantly (P < 0.05) with the types and months. The significant interaction between the month, waste container types and density of Aedes immature suggest that the household wastes are important contributors to the maintenance of the population of Aedes mosquito in the city. Based on the relative density of mosquito immature in the wastes, cluster analysis allowed segregation and classification of the wastes and their importance as mosquito larval habitats. Apparently, the containers that are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population

  7. Wheat straw, household waste and hay as a source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomczak, Anna; Bruch, Magdalena; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for bioenergy three lignocellulosic materials: raw hay, pretreated wheat straw and pretreated household waste were considered for the production of bioethanol and biogas. Several mixtures of household waste supplemented with different fractions of wheat straw and hay...... in fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated. Wheat straw and household wastes were pretreated using IBUS technology, patented by Dong Energy, which includes milling, stem explosion treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Methane production was investigated using stillages, the effluents...... from bioethanol fermentation experiment. Previous trial of biogas production from above mentioned household wastes was enclosed....

  8. Fresh, frozen, or ambient food equivalents and their impact on food waste generation in Dutch households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anke M; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Boer, Eric P J; Kremer, Stefanie

    2017-09-01

    In Europe, it is estimated that more than 50% of total food waste - of which most is avoidable - is generated at household level. Little attention has been paid to the impact on food waste generation of consuming food products that differ in their method of food preservation. This exploratory study surveyed product-specific possible impacts of different methods of food preservation on food waste generation in Dutch households. To this end, a food waste index was calculated to enable relative comparisons of the amounts of food waste from the same type of foods with different preservation methods on an annual basis. The results show that, for the majority of frozen food equivalents, smaller amounts were wasted compared to their fresh or ambient equivalents. The waste index (WI) proposed in the current paper confirms the hypothesis that it may be possible to reduce the amount of food waste at household level by encouraging Dutch consumers to use (certain) foods more frequently in a frozen form (instead of fresh or ambient). However, before this approach can be scaled to population level, a more detailed understanding of the underlying behavioural causes with regard to food provisioning and handling and possible interactions is required. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Empirical Study on Factors Influencing Residents' Behavior of Separating Household Wastes at Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Ying; Zhu Qinghua; Murray Haight

    2007-01-01

    Source separation is the basic premise for making effective use of household wastes. In eight cities of China, however, several pilot projects of source separation finally failed because of the poor participation rate of residents. In order to solve this problem, identifying those factors that influence residents' behavior of source separation becomes crucial. By means of questionnaire survey, we conducted descriptive analysis and exploratory factor analysis. The results show that trouble-feeling, moral notion, environment protection, public education, environment value and knowledge deficiency are the main factors that play an important role for residents in deciding to separate their household wastes. Also, according to the contribution percentage of the six main factors to the total behavior of source separation, their influencing power is analyzed, which will provide suggestions on household waste management for policy makers and decision makers in China.

  10. National Waste Act – implications for consumers and households

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available of the consumer good to the point of final disposal of the resulting waste. Waste minimisation, reuse and recycling (including composting) needs to be introduced at all levels of society and become part of everyday life for all. All must lead by example and create...

  11. The costs of household food waste in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting), wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain...

  12. Household Willingness to Pay for solid Waste Disposal Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    implement the sanitation bye-laws and re-institute the sanitation court to deal with cases of improper solid waste ... 8(2), 2016 Pages 1-17 ..... by both private companies and Waste Management Department, KMA) [1 for good quality service;.

  13. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), Ethiopian ... directly—should be able to participate in municipal discussions on improving .... solid waste management (SWM) payment that the public pays for improved ..... 6 Private firms may be subcontracted by the waste collection cooperatives, which are.

  14. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...... to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  16. Talking Trash: Bringing Research into Action while Reducing Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation was an exploration of how changing the waste system is a necessary part of achieving sustainable human systems and how transforming consumer attitudes towards waste is a vital piece of sustainable waste management. This research was also an exploration of the attitudes and beliefs that promote and prohibit waste reduction…

  17. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  18. THE PILOT STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE GENERATED IN SUBURBAN PARTS OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Steinhoff-Wrześniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the studies were waste generated in suburban households, in 3-bag system. The sum of wastes generated during the four analyzed seasons (spring, summer, autumn, winter – 1 year, in the households under study, per 1 person, amounted to 170,3 kg (in wet mass basis. For 1 person, most domestic waste was generated in autumn – 45,5 kg per capita and the least in winter – 39,0 kg per capita. The analysis performed of sieved composition (size fraction showed that fractions: >100 mm, 40–100 mm, 20–40 mm constituted totally 80% of the mass of wastes (average in a year. The lowest fraction (<10 mm, whose significant part constitutes ashes, varied depending on the season of year: from 3.5% to 12.8%. In the morphological composition of the households analyzed (on average in 4 seasons, biowastes totally formed over 53% of the whole mass of wastes. A significant part of waste generated were also glass waste (10,7% average per year and disposable nappies (8,3% average per year. The analysis of basic chemical components of biowastes showed that in case of utilizing them for production of compost, it would be necessary to modify (correct the ratios C/N and C/P. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the biowastes were characterized by very high moisture content and neutral pH.

  19. Current status of circularity for aluminum from household waste in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrings, R; Fellner, J

    2018-02-20

    Aluminum (Al) represents the metal with the highest consumption growth in the last few decades. Beside its increasing usage in the transport (lightweight construction of vehicles) and building sector, Al is used ever more frequently for household goods like packaging material, which represents a readily available source for secondary aluminum due to its short lifetime. The present paper investigates the extent to which this potential source for recycling of Al is already utilized in Austria and highlights areas for future improvements. Thereto a detailed material flow analysis for Al used in packaging & household non-packaging in 2013 was conducted. In practice, all Al flows starting from market entrance through waste collection and processing until its final recycling or disposal have been investigated. The results indicate that about 25,100 t/a (2.96 kg/cap/a) of Al packaging & household non-packaging arose as waste. At present about 9800 t/a, or 39%, are recycled as secondary Al, of which 26% is regained from separate collection and sorting, 8% from bottom ash and 5% from mechanical treatment. The type of Al packaging & household non-packaging affects the recycling rate: 82% of the total recycled quantities come from rigid packaging & household non-packaging, while only 3% of the total recycled Al derives from flexible materials. A significant amount of Al was lost during thermal waste treatment due to oxidation (10%) and insufficient recovery of Al from both waste incineration bottom ash and municipal solid waste treated in mechanical biological treatment plants (49%). Overall it can be concluded that once Al ends up in commingled waste the recovery of Al becomes less likely and its material quality is reduced. Although Austria can refer to a highly developed recycling system, the Austrian packaging industry, collection and recovery systems and waste management need to increase their efforts to comply with future recycling targets. Copyright © 2018

  20. Life cycle assessment of a household solid waste source separation programme: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-10-01

    The environmental impact of an extended property close source-separation system for solid household waste (i.e., a systems for collection of recyclables from domestic properties) is investigated in a residential area in southern Sweden. Since 2001, households have been able to source-separate waste into six fractions of dry recyclables and food waste sorting. The current system was evaluated using the EASEWASTE life cycle assessment tool. Current status is compared with an ideal scenario in which households display perfect source-separation behaviour and a scenario without any material recycling. Results show that current recycling provides substantial environmental benefits compared to a non-recycling alternative. The environmental benefit varies greatly between recyclable fractions, and the recyclables currently most frequently source-separated by households are often not the most beneficial from an environmental perspective. With optimal source-separation of all recyclables, the current net contribution to global warming could be changed to a net-avoidance while current avoidance of nutrient enrichment, acidification and photochemical ozone formation could be doubled. Sensitivity analyses show that the type of energy substituted by incineration of non-recycled waste, as well as energy used in recycling processes and in the production of materials substituted by waste recycling, is of high relevance for the attained results.

  1. SLEUTH (Strategies and Lessons to Eliminate Unused Toxicants: Help!). Educational Activities on the Disposal of Household Hazardous Waste. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program Report No. 1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyckman, Claire; And Others

    This teaching unit is part of the final report of the Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. It consists of activities presented in an introduction and three sections. The introduction contains an activity for students in grades 4-12 which defines terms and concepts for understanding household hazardous wastes. Section I provides activities…

  2. Radioactive waste management practices in India: achievements and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattal, P.K.; Basu, S.

    2013-01-01

    Safe and effective management of radioactive waste has been given utmost importance from the very inception of nuclear industry in India. This article gives an account of the basic principles, practices being followed in our country to achieve this objective. A brief description of the existing methods for management of diverse kinds of radioactive wastes including high level radioactive waste and also the research and development activities to address the future challenges is presented in the article. (author)

  3. Measuring Individual Skills in Household Waste Recycling: Implications for Citizens' Education and Communication in Six Urban Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Paola; Bacciu, Anna; Caggianelli, Ilaria; Castaldi, Viviana; Fucci, Eleonora; Ritondale, Deborah; Trabalzini, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the analysis of six urban contexts in which a practical tool measuring individual skills concerning household waste recycling was tested. The tool is a structured questionnaire including a simulation task that assesses respondents' abilities to sort household waste adequately in a given context/municipality. Results indicate…

  4. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  5. Characterization of e-waste: an inventory from households and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of e-waste: an inventory from households and the recycling sector in south eastern Nigeria. ... This proffers stakeholders, more especially the regulatory agencies, with a guide in predicting seasonally generated WEEE as well as appropriate approaches adopted as sustainable management strategies.

  6. Co-combustion of household waste in small-scale energy supply and waste disposal plants; Co-Verbrennung von Siedlungsabfaellen in Kleinanlagen zur dezentralen Energieversorgung und Abfallentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Ramona

    2012-07-01

    The studies described in this book demonstrate that the co-combustion of household waste in small-scale combustion plants constitutes an alternative disposal concept which facilitates the operation of decentralised waste disposal and heat supply systems. The basic idea of the concept is the co-combustion of different waste fractions in common household logwood heating systems. The experiments performed have shown that this is technically feasible using currently available technology without further modification and that these plants are capable of combusting various waste fractions at low emission levels. Several co-combustion systems were compared with basic oil, pellet and logwood heating systems in both economic and ecological respects. For this purpose cost-effectiveness calculations and a life cycle assessment were performed and brought together in an eco-efficiency analysis. The results show that the most cost-effective and eco-efficient solution is achieved when the co-combustion system is operated for high energy yield and simultaneous reduction of incombustible fractions.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boateng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson’s Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas. PMID:27807453

  9. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  10. Examination of Household Solid Waste Management in Nadowli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to identify the gaps between existing practices and the provisions of the hierarchy of waste management model in the Nadowli Township of the Upper West Region of Ghana. A cross-sectional study design with quantitative and qualitative approaches was adopted and questionnaires, ...

  11. Sustainable reverse logistics network design for household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic recycling is a legal requirement and can yield environmental benefits. In the Netherlands, there is a complex network of various collection methods, separation centers, sorting centers and reprocessors. The first step of the recycling system, separating plastics from other waste, can occur

  12. Medication wasted - Contents and costs of medicines ending up in household garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; de Rooij, Roger H P F

    2018-02-10

    Despite potentially considerable implications for public health, the environment and public funds, medicine waste is an under-researched topic. This study aims to analyse medicines drawn from household garbage in Vienna (Austria) and to assess possible financial implications for public payers. Four pharmaceutical waste samples collected by the Vienna Municipal Waste Department between April 2015 and January 2016 were investigated with regard to their content. The value of medicines was assessed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, and the portion of costs attributable to the social health insurance was determined. Data were extrapolated for Vienna and Austria. The waste sample contained 1089 items, of which 42% were excluded (non-pharmaceuticals, non-Austrian origin and non-attributable medicines). A total of 637 items were further analysed. Approximately 18% of these medicines were full packs. 36% of the medicines wasted had not yet expired. Nearly two out of three medicines wasted were prescription-only medicines. The majority were medicines related to the 'alimentary tract and metabolism' (ATC code A), the 'nervous system' (ATC code N) and the 'respiratory system' (ATC code R). The medicines wasted had a total value of € 1965, € 2987 and € 4207, expressed at ex-factory, reimbursement and pharmacy retail price levels, respectively. Extrapolated for Vienna, at least € 37.65 million in terms of expenditure for public payers were wasted in household garbage, corresponding to € 21 per inhabitant. This study showed that in Vienna some medicines end up partially used or even completely unused in household garbage, including prescription-only medicines, non-expired medicines and medicines for chronic diseases. While there might be different reasons for medicines being wasted, the findings suggest possible adherence challenges as one issue to be addressed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  14. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia, E-mail: iraia.oribe@deusto.es; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation.

  15. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M.; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have modelled household waste generation in Biscay municipalities. • We have identified relevant characteristics regarding household waste generation. • Factor models are used in order to identify the best subset of explicative variables. • Biscay’s municipalities are grouped by means of hierarchical clustering. - Abstract: The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation

  16. Practices of pharmaceutical waste generation and discarding in households across Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Valente, Susana; Vaz, João

    2016-10-01

    This work is the first nationwide study in Portugal on pharmaceutical waste generated at households, exploring people's attitudes and risk perception. The waste audit was carried out from September to November 2014, targeting pharmaceutical products kept by a sample of families (n = 244). This campaign was an assignment of VALORMED, the non-profit association that manages waste and packaging from expired and unused pharmaceutical products collected by the pharmacies. On average, each household kept at home 1097 g of pharmaceutical products, of which 20% were in use, 72% were not in use, and 8% were mostly expired products ready to discard. Face-to-face interviews with householders showed that 69% of the respondents claimed returning pharmaceutical waste to the local pharmacy. However, this figure is overrated, probably owing to a possible 'good answer' effect. The barriers identified to proper disposal were mainly established routines and lack of close disposal points. This study also provides an insight into the Portuguese awareness and daily practices concerning pharmaceutical waste, which is the cornerstone of any future strategy to reduce the release of active pharmaceutical ingredients into ecosystems. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Treatment of Household Waste in Small Towns of China: Status, Basic Conditions and Appropriate Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Pin-jing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Small town is the gateway of population migrating from rural areas to urban areas in the process of urbanization. The level of its household solid waste treatment is pivotal to the environmental and sanitary quality of surrounding rural areas. Furthermore, small town is the primary administrative center for rural districts, and will impose important influences on the solid waste management in villages. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effects of treatment modes on the household solid waste treatment in towns and surrounding villages. Based on the waste generation in small towns, this study analyzed the current status and existing problems for solid waste treatment, and discussed the related administrative management and financial supporting conditions in small towns. By summarizing the characteristics of the existing modes and comparing the costs for different treatment modes, the present study proposed that the most appropriate mode was“diversion in villages-diversion, transportation or treatment in towns-treatment and disposal in counties”, in which the town was the core node for the treatment of rural solid waste, so that the administrative and financial advantages of small towns could be highlighted and consequentially promoted the management of rural solid waste.

  18. On achieving the state's household recycling target: A case study of Northern New Jersey, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otegbeye, M.; Abdel-Malek, L.; Hsieh, H.N.; Meegoda, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities

  19. Environmental Aspects Of Home Composting Of Organic Household Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Six composting units were monitored during a two-year long experimental campaign. Data regarding chemical compositions of waste inputs and outputs, gaseous emissions and leachate productions were collected, organized in mass balances and assessed by means of LCA. The management of the home...... composting unit was very relevant for the environmental performance of home composting, as the turning frequency influence the emissions of CH4 which is the main responsible for potential impacts on global warming. Results showed that overall home composting has low environmental impacts (between -2 and 16 m...

  20. Estimating Household Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Pham Thi Thuy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the household willingness to pay (WTP for improved solid waste management in Thu Dau Mot city, Binh Duong by using Dichotomons choice Contingent Valuation Method. A questionnaire was designed to draw a sample of 330 respondents for the study. The results show that mean household willingness to pay for solid waste management system in Thu Dau Mot is about 24 thousand VND/ month/ household, higher than the current fee (20 thousand VND month/ household.The paper used a logistic regression to establish the factor affecting to the household willingness to pay for solid waste management system. The logit results show that those with a higher income and more educated is willing to pay more for improvement in management of their solid waste. Also, more environmental aware the person the more they are willing to pay. Moreover, females are less likely to give a positive response to WTP compare to male.

  1. Public-private sector partnership in household waste management as perceived by residents in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D

    2012-08-01

    In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.

  2. Materials flow through the household and reduction in domestic solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-05-01

    Energy conservation programs are usually designed to reduce the waste associated with direct energy use for example, heating and lighting levels, and use of appliances. But householders can also influence energy consumption in other sectors. Their buying and consuming habits will affect the energy involved in extraction, production, transportation, use and disposal of commodities. Their attitudes and behavior will affect their neighbours' efforts at reducing materials throughput. Therefore, the household must be an important target in any effort to alter energy use patterns throughout society. The purpose of this study was to determine whether practical programs could be developed to reduce materials flows through the hosuehold. Since solid waste output is a very reliable measure of these flows, the question was posed from the perspective of reducing the generation of residential solid waste. In this context particular attention was given to the range of possible actions open to the householder himself. It would have been unrealistic, however, to ignore environmental design and other legislative options. The study is divided into three parts. The first attempts to identify those actions by the householder which will have the greatest effect in reducing the total environmental impact (including energy use) of the materials moving through the household. The second deals with the problem of persuading people to engage in these actions. The final part combines promising strategies with significant actions. The result is a series of program options which are assessed with respect to four criteria: potential significance for residential solid waste reduction, chances of success, ease of implementation, and costs. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Achieving RCRA compliance in DOE defense waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankhauser, W.A.; Shepard, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) generates significant volumes of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) through its defense-related activities. Defense RMW is co-regulated by DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/State agencies in accordance with requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act (AEA). This paper highlights some of the problems encountered in co-regulation and discusses achievements of the defense waste management program in integrating RCRA requirements into RMW operations. Defense waste sites are planning facility modifications and major new construction projects to develop treatment, storage and disposal capacity for existing RMW inventories and projected needs

  4. Utilization of the household organic wastes in compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache O, B.

    1995-01-01

    Residues or wastes are a problem to the cities, owing to its collect and disposal produce many negative effects in public health and the environment as odors, microorganism (pathogens), vectors (flies, rodents and mosquitoes), and others. To solve this problem have been propose mainly two alternatives: 1. Sanitary landfills and 2. Recycling. To recover the residues as biodegradable as not-biodegradable, exist alternatives as composting (fermentation process or aerobic oxidation) and recycling - reuse, respectively. The composting process in aspects as the required conditions to that the organism acts efficiently as control of temperature (between 40-75 centigrade degrees), feed (carbon, nitrogen and other organic matter), aeration (by mixing or turning), control of moisture (between 50-60%), are present. Methodology aspects to composting also are described

  5. The significance of avoiding household food waste - A means-end-chain approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Beate; Bokelmann, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    Many humans suffer from hunger, while edible food is discarded. This study aims at showing the importance of avoiding food waste in households and its causes by applying the means-end-chain analysis. Additional the means-end-chain approach should be examined in how far the method is suitable to get insights towards this topic. Consumer backgrounds in terms of feelings and attitudes regarding food waste should be shown, with the particular question why food waste personally is important. The data collection occurred utilizing the hard laddering method within a quantitative online survey. The results indicate that avoiding food waste is important for the greater part of consumers, as many claim to have a bad conscience, seeing it as morally wrong and reprehensible to waste food. A sample breakdown of gender, age and income points differences among these groups in regards to psychological consequences and value systems. Financial and environmental aspects have a lesser impact on attitudes and feelings regarding food waste in households. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-05-18

    Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to investigate household disposal practices and harm resulting from SMW generated in households and the community. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 600 households was undertaken in Ga South Municipal Assembly in Accra, Ghana from mid-April to June, 2014. Factors investigated included socio-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins respectively. A corresponding 23% and 35% of respondents discarded these items without a container. Harm from SMW in the household and in the community was reported by 5% and 3% of respondents respectively. Persons who believed they were at risk of diseases associated with SMW were nearly three times more likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring on it hazardous properties. Given the low rates of harm reported, elimination of preventable harm might justify community intervention.

  7. Solid medical waste: a cross sectional study of household disposal practices and reported harm in Southern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Asuquo Udofia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid medical waste (SMW in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to investigate household disposal practices and harm resulting from SMW generated in households and the community. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 600 households was undertaken in Ga South Municipal Assembly in Accra, Ghana from mid-April to June, 2014. Factors investigated included socio-demographic characteristics, medication related practices, the belief that one is at risk of diseases associated with SMW, SMW disposal practices and reported harm associated with SMW at home and in the community. Results Eighty percent and 89% of respondents discarded unwanted medicines and sharps in household refuse bins respectively. A corresponding 23% and 35% of respondents discarded these items without a container. Harm from SMW in the household and in the community was reported by 5% and 3% of respondents respectively. Persons who believed they were at risk of diseases associated with SMW were nearly three times more likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15–6.54. Conclusion The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring on it hazardous properties. Given the low rates of harm reported, elimination of preventable harm might justify community

  8. ANALYSIS OF HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOUR TO THE COLLECTION OF WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA LOREDANA NICOLESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of household behaviour to the collection of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania based on an econometric multifactorial linear regression model. In the model, the amount of WEEE* collected in the counties rep resents the endogenous variable, and factors such as regional gross domestic product, the number of employees, monthly average net nominal earnings, unemployed persons, retirees, existing housing, education and other non - quantifiable factors with regional influence are influence factors or explanatory (exogenous variables. The period considered for the study is 2010 - 2012, and statistics are taken and processed at county level. The study is necessary to identify the extent to which those factors influence t he collection of WEEE from private households. The results of this study may lead to an improvement of the management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Romania, being useful for policy makers and stakeholders involved in the system.

  9. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...... sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated...

  10. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  11. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Van Ruijven, Bas J; Van Vuuren, Detlef P; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku

    2013-01-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US$ 2005 65–86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially. (letter)

  12. Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2001-05-17

    This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and

  13. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...... product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications...

  14. A multiple criteria analysis for household solid waste management in the urban community of Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapepula, Ka-Mbayu; Colson, Gerard; Sabri, Karim; Thonart, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Household solid waste management is a severe problem in big cities of developing countries. Mismanaged solid waste dumpsites produce bad sanitary, ecological and economic consequences for the whole population, especially for the poorest urban inhabitants. Dealing with this problem, this paper utilizes field data collected in the urban community of Dakar, in view of ranking nine areas of the city with respect to multiple criteria of nuisance. Nine criteria are built and organized in three families that represent three classical viewpoints: the production of wastes, their collection and their treatment. Thanks to the method PROMETHEE and the software ARGOS, we do a pair-wise comparison of the nine areas, which allows their multiple criteria rankings according to each viewpoint and then globally. Finding the worst and best areas in terms of nuisance for a better waste management in the city is our final purpose, fitting as well as possible the needs of the urban community. Based on field knowledge and on the literature, we suggest applying general and area-specific remedies to the household solid waste problems.

  15. The knowledge, awareness, attitude and motivational analysis of plastic waste and household perspective in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Rahman, Ataur; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this study is to analyze the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward plastic waste and to distinguish the key drivers that encourage the households in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to participate in "No plastic campaign," This study used the logistic regression model to explain the factors that may affect the willingness to participate (WTP) of households in the campaign. In this study, it is found that 35 % of households are willing to participate in the campaign. The results of the study also indicate that people who are more informed and more convinced of their knowledge have a more positive attitude toward recycling than their counterparts do. Furthermore, this study provides additional evidence of the level and classification of importance of motivating factors for plastic recycling, using the modified average and coefficient of variation of the models. From the analysis, the factor "helps reduce landfill use" is found as the most important factor and the factor of "raising money for charity" is found as the least important factor that motivates households to participate in recycling. The determinations of the study suggest some strategies that could hold implications for government and households to boost them to participate in the campaign "No Plastic Bag."

  16. [Household waste management in the health district of Builaska in Mbuji-Mayi, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangoy, Kasangye; Ngoyi, John; Mudimbiyi, Olive

    2016-01-01

    The presence of household waste on public roads affects environmental health leading to unsanitary conditions which may cause disease outbreaks, some of which may occur in epidemic form. Over the past two decades, waste management has become increasingly complex both for developing and underdeveloping countries. This study aims to determine the types of waste and the management of waste generated by the households. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the health district of Bulaska, Kasai Oriental, is a forward-looking approach based upon interview and active observation. The questionnaire was addressed to the head of household or the delegate out of 170 households, representing a convenience sample, from 21 to 25 June 2010. This study revealed that: 94.7% of respondents who answered our questionnaire were female; 47% of respondents had a primary level of study; 41.1% of respondents were housewives; the average household size was 7 people per household; in 83.5% of cases the wastes generated were solid. 50% of households in the health area used public road for trash disposal. Given the results of this study, further development of awareness programs on environmental sanitation is necessary.

  17. Fermentation of household wastes and industrial waste water; Vergaerung von haeuslichen Abfaellen und Industrieabwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bioenergie ' arbi' , Maschwanden (Switzerland); Engeli, H [Probag AG, Dietikon (Switzerland); Glauser, M [Biol-Conseils SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Hofer, H [HTH-Verfahrenstechnik, Winterthur (Switzerland); Membrez, Y [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland); Meylan, J -H [Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel, J -P [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Genie biologique, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1993-07-01

    This comprehensive brochure reviews various technologies for the environment-friendly treatment of organic wastes and residues. The principles of anaerobic digestion are discussed. Authorities, planners and engineers concerned with waste treatment are provided with an overview of current technology in the organic wastes area. The brochure emphasises the importance of fermentation processes in waste treatment, discusses the legal pre-requisites for biogas production, lists the biological and process-oriented fundamentals of fermentation and examines the energy potential of biogenic wastes and waste water. Further, details are given on the treatment of both industrial waste water and solid organic wastes and, finally, the economics of fermentation is examined. Useful data is presented in table form and the various processes described are illustrated by schematics and flow diagrams. An appendix lists suggestions for further reading on the subject.

  18. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette

    2008-01-01

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  19. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  20. Insulin therapy waste produced in the households of people with diabetes monitored in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Holanda da Cunha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the insulin therapy waste disposal produced in the households of people with diabetes mellitus (DM. Method: Cross-sectional study with 105 Primary Care patients. Socio-demographic and clinical variables and insulin therapy practice were analyzed through the absolute and relative frequencies, Fisher's exact test and prevalence ratio (PR. Results: The association between types of insulin (60.0%, administered with a disposable syringe attached to a needle (80.9%, and a high percentage of reuse and disposal in normal household waste (57.1% stood out. The professionals who most frequently provided guidance to people with diabetes were the nurses. Patients who had received instructions about disposal were 21 times more likely to dispose of waste properly than those who had not (PR 21.5; P 0.05. Conclusion: People with diabetes served in Primary Health Care require guidance and material resources to carry out the appropriate disposal of insulin therapy waste.

  1. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials...

  2. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling; Skal husholdningernes madaffald braendes eller genanvendes? Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af oeget genanvendelse af organisk dagrenovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  3. Characteristics and Generation of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) in Semarang City Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikri, Elanda; Purwanto; Sunoko, Henna Rya

    2018-02-01

    Most of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) is currently mixed with domestics waste. So that, it can impact human health and environmental quality. One important aspect in the management strategy is to determine the quantity generated and characteristics of HHW. The method used to determine the characteristics HHW refers to SNI 19-2454-2002, while the HHW generation refers to the SNI 19-3694-1994 calculated based on weight and volume. Research was conducted in four districts of Semarang. The samples used in this study were 400 families calculated based on the proportion of Slovin Formula. The characteristic of HHW in Semarang City is mainly infectious (79%), then poisonous (13%), combustible (6%) and corrosive materials (2%). The quantity HHW generated is 0.01 kg/person/day equivalent with 5.1% of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Semarang (linear equations : y=1,278x+82,00 (volume), y=0,216x+13,89 (weight).

  4. Medicines discarded in household garbage: analysis of a pharmaceutical waste sample in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Leopold, Christine; Zuidberg, Christel; Habl, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a sample of pharmaceutical waste drawn from household garbage in Vienna, with the aim to learn whether and which medicines end up unused in normal household waste. We obtained a pharmaceutical waste sample from the Vienna Municipal Waste Department. This was drawn by their staff in a representative search in October and November 2009. We did a manual investigation of the sample which contained packs and loose blisters, excluded medical devices and traced loose blisters back to medicines packs. We reported information on the prescription status, origin, therapeutic group, dose form, contents and expiry date. We performed descriptive statistics for the total data set and for sub-groups (e.g. items still containing some of original content). In total, 152 packs were identified, of which the majority was prescription-only medicines (74%). Cardiovascular medicines accounted for the highest share (24%). 87% of the packs were in oral form. 95% of the packs had not expired. 14.5% of the total data set contained contents but the range of content left in the packs varied. Results on the packs with contents differed from the total: the shares of Over-the Counter medicines (36%), of medicines of the respiratory system (18%) and of the musculo-skeletal system (18%), for dermal use (23%) and of expired medicines (19%) were higher compared to the full data set. The study showed that some medicines end up unused or partially used in normal household garbage in Vienna. Our results did not confirm speculations about a high percentage of unused medicines improperly discarded. There is room for improved patient information and counseling to enhance medication adherence and a proper discharge of medicines.

  5. The remote, the mouse, and the no. 2 pencil: the household media environment and academic achievement among third grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Robinson, Thomas N

    2005-07-01

    Media can influence aspects of a child's physical, social, and cognitive development; however, the associations between a child's household media environment, media use, and academic achievement have yet to be determined. To examine relationships among a child's household media environment, media use, and academic achievement. During a single academic year, data were collected through classroom surveys and telephone interviews from an ethnically diverse sample of third grade students and their parents from 6 northern California public elementary schools. The majority of our analyses derive from spring 2000 data, including academic achievement assessed through the mathematics, reading, and language arts sections of the Stanford Achievement Test. We fit linear regression models to determine the associations between variations in household media and performance on the standardized tests, adjusting for demographic and media use variables. The household media environment is significantly associated with students' performance on the standardized tests. It was found that having a bedroom television set was significantly and negatively associated with students' test scores, while home computer access and use were positively associated with the scores. Regression models significantly predicted up to 24% of the variation in the scores. Absence of a bedroom television combined with access to a home computer was consistently associated with the highest standardized test scores. This study adds to the growing literature reporting that having a bedroom television set may be detrimental to young elementary school children. It also suggests that having and using a home computer may be associated with better academic achievement.

  6. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebø, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. ► EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. ► Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. ► Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. ► Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon–neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  7. Food consumption and waste and the embedded carbon, water and ecological footprints of households in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guobao; Li, Mingjing; Semakula, Henry Musoke; Zhang, Shushen

    2015-10-01

    Strategies for reducing food waste and developing sustainable diets require information about the impacts of consumption behavior and waste generation on climatic, water, and land resources. We quantified the carbon, water, and ecological footprints of 17,110 family members of Chinese households, covering 1935 types of foods, by combining survey data with available life-cycle assessment data sets. We also summarized the patterns of both food consumption and waste generation and analyzed the factors influencing the observed trends. The average person wasted (consumed) 16 (415) kg of food at home annually, equivalent to 40 (1080) kg CO2e, 18 (673) m(3), and 173 (4956) gm(2) for the carbon, water and ecological footprints, respectively. The generation of food waste was highly correlated with consumption for various food groups. For example, vegetables, rice, and wheat were consumed the most and accounted for the most waste. In addition to the three plant-derived food groups, pork and aquatic products also contributed greatly to embedded footprints. The data obtained in this study could be used for assessing national food security or the carrying capacity of resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Household waste behaviours among a community sample in Iran: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Zeidi, Isa Mohammadi; Emamjomeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Asefzadeh, Saeed; Pearson, Heidi

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing recycling behaviour can lead to better and more effective recycling programs in a community. The goal of this study was to examine factors associated with household waste behaviours in the context of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) among a community sample of Iranians that included data collection at time 1 and at follow-up one year later at time 2. Study participants were sampled from households under the coverage of eight urban health centers in the city of Qazvin. Of 2000 invited households, 1782 agreed to participate in the study. A self-reported questionnaire was used for assessing socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e. attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and intention). Furthermore, questions regarding moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were asked, creating an extended TPB. At time 2, participants were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire on self-reported recycling behaviours. All TPB constructs had positive and significant correlations with each other. Recycling behaviour at time 1 (past behaviour) significantly related to household waste behaviour at time 2. The extended TPB explained 47% of the variance in household waste behaviour at time 2. Attitude, perceived behavioural control, intention, moral obligation, self-identity, action planning, and past recycling behaviour were significant predictors of household waste behaviour at time 2 in all models. The fact that the expanded TPB constructs significantly predicted household waste behaviours holds great promise for developing effective public campaigns and behaviour-changing interventions in a region where overall rates of household waste reduction behaviours are low. Our results indicate that educational materials which target moral obligation and action planning may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household hazardous waste disposal to landfill: Using LandSim to model leachate migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, Rebecca J.; Gronow, Jan R.; Hall, David H.; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate contains a number of aquatic pollutants. A specific MSW stream often referred to as household hazardous waste (HHW) can be considered to contribute a large proportion of these pollutants. This paper describes the use of the LandSim (Landfill Performance Simulation) modelling program to assess the environmental consequences of leachate release from a generic MSW landfill in receipt of co-disposed HHW. Heavy metals and organic pollutants were found to migrate into the zones beneath a model landfill site over a 20,000-year period. Arsenic and chromium were found to exceed European Union and US-EPA drinking water standards at the unsaturated zone/aquifer interface, with levels of mercury and cadmium exceeding minimum reporting values (MRVs). The findings demonstrate the pollution potential arising from HHW disposal with MSW. - Aquatic pollutants linked to the disposal of household hazardous waste in municipal landfills have the potential to exist in soil and groundwater for many years

  10. Influence of assumptions about household waste composition in waste management LCAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-01-01

    This article takes a detailed look at an uncertainty factor in waste management LCA that has not been widely discussed previously, namely the uncertainty in waste composition. Waste composition is influenced by many factors; it can vary from year to year, seasonally, and with location, for example. The data publicly available at a municipal level can be highly aggregated and sometimes incomplete, and performing composition analysis is technically challenging. Uncertainty is therefore always present in waste composition. This article performs uncertainty analysis on a systematically modified waste composition using a constructed waste management system. In addition the environmental impacts of several waste management strategies are compared when applied to five different cities. We thus discuss the effect of uncertainty in both accounting LCA and comparative LCA. We found the waste composition to be important for the total environmental impact of the system, especially for the global warming, nutrient enrichment and human toxicity via water impact categories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Food waste disposal units in UK households: The need for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. - Highlights: ► FWDs can be a less conventional way for diverting food waste from landfill. ► We compared water industry costs to savings from MSW collection and treatment. ► A large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs to the water industry. ► At a low uptake, MSW collection savings are not enough to cover these costs. ► Findings highlight the need for policy intervention, regulating the use of FWDs.

  12. Vehicle routing for the eco-efficient collection of household plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; de Keizer, Marlies; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2014-04-01

    Plastic waste is a special category of municipal solid waste. Plastic waste collection is featured with various alternatives of collection methods (curbside/drop-off) and separation methods (source-/post-separation). In the Netherlands, the collection routes of plastic waste are the same as those of other waste, although plastic is different than other waste in terms of volume to weight ratio. This paper aims for redesigning the collection routes and compares the collection options of plastic waste using eco-efficiency as performance indicator. Eco-efficiency concerns the trade-off between environmental impacts, social issues and costs. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Collection alternatives are compared by a scenario study approach. Real distances between locations are calculated with MapPoint. The scenario study is conducted based on real case data of the Dutch municipality Wageningen. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency and collection points, etc. Results show that the current collection routes can be improved in terms of eco-efficiency performance by using our method. The source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner. The model also shows to be an efficient decision support tool to investigate the impacts of future changes such as alternative vehicle type and different response rates. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors Influencing Attitude, Safety Behavior, and Knowledge regarding Household Waste Management in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Mamady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste indiscriminate disposal is recognized as an important cause of environmental pollution and is associated with health problems. Safe management and disposal of household waste are an important problem to the capital city of Guinea (Conakry. The objective of this study was to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with practice, knowledge, and safety behavior of family members regarding household waste management and to produce a remedial action plan. I found that no education background, income, and female individuals were independently associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. Unplanned residential area was an additional factor associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. I also found that the community residents had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The promotion of environmental information and public education and implementation of community action programs on disease prevention and health promotion will enhance environmental friendliness and safety of the community.

  14. Improvement of public administration in the sphere of solid household waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Krynychna

    2017-08-01

    Positive trends in the sphere of state regulation of the waste management system can be seen in recent years, but Ukraine has not created the appropriate legal and regulatory framework yet that would gradually reach the requirements of the European legislation. Conclusions of the research. The enshrined regulations of national rules on disposal and solid waste management are currently not implemented fully. This calls for the improvement of enforcement practice on this issue, as well as the introduction of amendments and additions to existing legal acts. It is necessary to develop an effective state program that would include a complex of state measures for the creation of specialized enterprises for sorting and processing of solid waste in Ukraine, to conduct a series of educational actions among citizens. Ukrainian legislation on the effective solution of the problem of solid household waste management should be based on national characteristics and positive experience of relevant European legislation in this sphere. And the attraction of foreign investments in the waste recycling industry will definitely contribute to the improvement of the ecological situation in Ukraine.

  15. Monitoring household waste recycling centres performance using mean bin weight analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Sarah; Cherrett, Tom; Waterson, Ben

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a modelling approach used to investigate the significance of key factors (vehicle type, compaction type, site design, temporal effects) in influencing the variability in observed nett amenity bin weights produced by household waste recycling centres (HWRCs). This new method can help to quickly identify sites that are producing significantly lighter bins, enabling detailed back-end analyses to be efficiently targeted and best practice in HWRC operation identified. Tested on weigh ticket data from nine HWRCs across West Sussex, UK, the model suggests that compaction technique, vehicle type, month and site design explained 76% of the variability in the observed nett amenity weights. For each factor, a weighting coefficient was calculated to generate a predicted nett weight for each bin transaction and three sites were subsequently identified as having similar characteristics but returned significantly different mean nett bin weights. Waste and site audits were then conducted at the three sites to try and determine the possible sources of the remaining variability. Significant differences were identified in the proportions of contained waste (bagged), wood, and dry recyclables entering the amenity waste stream, particularly at one site where significantly less contaminated waste and dry recyclables were observed.

  16. Environmental impacts and resource losses of incinerating misplaced household special wastes (WEEE, batteries, ink cartridges and cables)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Damgaard, Anders; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of misplaced special waste (sWEEE, lamps, CRT, batteries, ink cartridges and cables) to environmental impacts from incineration of residual household waste was quantified through life cycle assessment (LCA)-modelling. Misplaced special waste was quantified to constitute less than 1...... and batteries. However as shown by sensitivity analysis, lack of good data on the transfer of rare and hazardous metals to the flue gas in the incineration process should receive further investigation before the environmental impacts from misplaced incinerated special waste can fully be concluded upon. Although...... special waste (sWEEE, lamps, CRT, batteries, ink cartridges, and cables)....

  17. Buying less and wasting less food. Changes in household food energy purchases, energy intakes and energy density between 2007 and 2012 with and without adjustment for food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Stephen; Horgan, Graham W; Macdiarmid, Jennie I

    2017-05-01

    Consumers in the UK responded to the rapid increases in food prices between 2007 and 2009 partly by reducing the amount of food energy bought. Household food and drink waste has also decreased since 2007. The present study explored the combined effects of reductions in food purchases and waste on estimated food energy intakes and dietary energy density. The amount of food energy purchased per adult equivalent was calculated from Kantar Worldpanel household food and drink purchase data for 2007 and 2012. Food energy intakes were estimated by adjusting purchase data for food and drink waste, using waste factors specific to the two years and scaled for household size. Scotland. Households in Scotland (n 2657 in 2007; n 2841 in 2012). The amount of food energy purchased decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 8·6 to 8·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d (Pfood waste, estimated food energy intake was not significantly different (7·3 and 7·2 MJ/adult equivalent per d for 2007 and 2012, respectively; P=0·186). Energy density of foods purchased increased slightly from 700 to 706 kJ/100 g (P=0·010). While consumers in Scotland reduced the amount of food energy that they purchased between 2007 and 2012, this was balanced by reductions in household food and drink waste over the same time, resulting in no significant change in net estimated energy intake of foods brought into the home.

  18. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Household hazardous waste disposal to landfill: using LandSim to model leachate migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Rebecca J; Gronow, Jan R; Hall, David H; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate contains a number of aquatic pollutants. A specific MSW stream often referred to as household hazardous waste (HHW) can be considered to contribute a large proportion of these pollutants. This paper describes the use of the LandSim (Landfill Performance Simulation) modelling program to assess the environmental consequences of leachate release from a generic MSW landfill in receipt of co-disposed HHW. Heavy metals and organic pollutants were found to migrate into the zones beneath a model landfill site over a 20,000-year period. Arsenic and chromium were found to exceed European Union and US-EPA drinking water standards at the unsaturated zone/aquifer interface, with levels of mercury and cadmium exceeding minimum reporting values (MRVs). The findings demonstrate the pollution potential arising from HHW disposal with MSW.

  20. Feasibility basis for use of new solid household waste processing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertakova, Y. V.; Zvyagintsev, G. L.; Babich, T. N.; Polozhentseva, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    Economic efficiency assessment of innovative organizational project of solid household waste processing enterprise (SHW) is given. A distinctive feature of this project is new mining and chemical technology use of waste depolymerization. The proved feature is fuel-resource production in portion modules of tubular type. They are patented and approved under laboratory conditions. The main ways of SHW processing in the world including Russia are described. Advantages and disadvantages are revealed. Comparative analysis is carried out. Technology prioritization is a result of this analysis. During organization of such enterprise, it was proved that not only SHW processing is a result of its functioning. The other result is environmentally friendly production using secondary raw materials. These products can be sold and can have bring income. Main investment and current expenses necessary for the offered project implementation are defined. This allows making economic assessment of innovative enterprise efficiency.

  1. Waste disposal and households' heterogeneity. Identifying factors shaping attitudes towards source-separated recycling in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Padilla, Alcides; Trujillo, Juan C

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management in many cities of developing countries is not environmentally sustainable. People traditionally dispose of their solid waste in unsuitable urban areas like sidewalks and satellite dumpsites. This situation nowadays has become a serious public health problem in big Latin American conurbations. Among these densely-populated urban spaces, the Colombia's capital and main city stands out as a special case. In this study, we aim to identify the factors that shape the attitudes towards source-separated recycling among households in Bogotá. Using data from the Colombian Department of Statistics and Bogotá's multi-purpose survey, we estimated a multivariate Probit model. In general, our results show that the higher the household's socioeconomic class, the greater its effort for separating solid wastes. Likewise, our findings also allowed us to characterize household profiles regarding solid waste separation and considering each socioeconomic class. Among these profiles, we found that at lower socioeconomic classes, the attitudes towards solid waste separation are influenced by the use of Internet, the membership to an environmentalist organization, the level of education of the head of household and the homeownership. Hence, increasing the education levels within the poorest segment of the population, promoting affordable housing policies and facilitating Internet access for the vulnerable population could reinforce households' attitudes towards a greater source-separated recycling effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Household solid waste generation rate and physical composition analysis: case of Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis in the western region, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Atta Nyankson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, one of the rapidly expanding cities of Ghana has been facing serious problems with solid waste management. This is mainly due to the lack of available information about the types and quantity of solid waste generation in the area. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of household solid waste generation and its composition in the aforesaid city. The methodology and procedures for this study were derived from the Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed MSW (ASTM D 5231-92. All samples were hand sorted into 6 waste categories (paper, plastic, organics, metals, glass, and other waste. The study revealed that by weight, organic wastes constitutes the largest proportion of household solid waste (38% followed by 19% plastics, 7% papers, 4% metals, 4% glass and 28% other wastes (comprising of sand, stones, ash, inert substances. The rate of daily waste generation per capita in the low, middle and high income households were 0.27±0.19, 0.4±0.19 and 0.58±0.24 kg/cap/day, respectively. The study revealed that there is no waste treatment or recovery facility established within the metropolis hence no significant waste recovery and reuse activities exist. The study showed that more than 38 % of the waste generated in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis is decomposable organic matter that can be re-used through composting as well as 34% of the waste having recycling potential thereby considerably mitigating the solid waste problem. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12644 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 221-235

  3. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE AND RECYCLABLE ORIGIN OF HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Raquel da Silva Sottoriva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As the sustainable development that the society aims is based on economic, social and environmental factors, it can be said that the environmental crisis has as the component factors: natural resources, population and pollution. To reduce the pressure that human activities have on the environment, it is necessary to know the production process, inputs and outputs, to reduce potential problems such as waste and facilitate opportunities for system optimization. In this context it was investigated the life cycle of waste and household hazardous recyclable items to identify possibilities for reducing impact on supply chains. As a result it was found that the raw material most used by the paper industry is pine and eucalyptus plantations and some industries also use sugar cane. From the growing process until the paper is industrialized, there is a large demand of time. The cutting of eucalyptus should be done between 5 and 7 years, since the pine requires 10 to 12 years. After used, the papers can and should be recycled. When recycling 1 ton of paper 29.2 m3 of water can be saved, 3.51 MWh of electricity 76 and 22 trees when compared to traditional production processes. The cultivation of trees also contributes to carbon capture and sequestration. The eucalyptus ages 2, 4, 6, 8 years fixing concentrations of 11.12, 18.55, 80.91 and 97.86 t / ha, respectively. The paper can also be designed to compost due to biodegradability. The metal, glass and plastics are not biodegradable and inorganic nature needing to be recycled or reused. Recycling 1 ton of plastic is no economy of 5.3 MWh and 500 kg of oil. Even with the gains of environmental, social and economic impacts of recycling compared to traditional processes, in Brazil, the percentage of recycling paper and glass and PET bottles are less than 60%. The recycling of aluminum cans and steel exceeds 90%. Lamps and batteries are materials that are inadequately provide for contamination to the

  4. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The character of household waste in the three different types of households were assesed. • The quantity, density and composition of household waste were determined. • The physicochemical characteristics were determined. • The changing character of household waste during past 10 years was described. • The potential of energy recovery of household waste in Czech republic was assesed. - Abstract: The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories – urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in

  5. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  6. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly.

  7. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsdotter Beck-Friis, Barbro

    2001-01-01

    In Sweden, composting of source-separated organic household waste is increasing, both domestically at the small-scale, and in larger municipal plants. Composting means a microbial decomposition of organic material, which results in the production of environmentally undesirable gases, such as ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ). The aim of this thesis was to study the emissions of NH 3 , N 2 O and CH 4 to the atmosphere during composting of source-separated organic household waste. The studies were conducted in an experimental reactor under constant and controlled conditions and in municipal compost heaps. Emissions of NH 3 , N 2 O and CH 4 occurred at different phases during composting. Ammonia started to volatilise during the shift from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions when short-chained fatty acids were decomposed. Nitrous oxide was only emitted during the first days of composting and later during the cooling phase when nitrate was formed. Methane was only produced during the thermophilic phase. Large municipal compost heaps are a significant source for the production and emission of the greenhouse gases N 2 O and CH 4 . To avoid unwanted gaseous emissions to the atmosphere during composting, gaseous exchange with the atmosphere should be controlled in future composting plants

  8. Methodological aspects of modeling household solid waste generation in Japan: Evidence from Okayama and Otsu cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Jia, Renfu; Duan, Ruiyang; Gu, Aijun

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a quantitative methodology and two empirical case studies in Japan on modeling household solid waste (HSW) generation based on individual consumption expenditure (ICE) and local waste policy effects by using the coupled estimation model systems. Results indicate that ICE on food, miscellaneous commodities and services, as well as education, cultural, and recreation services are mainly associated with the changes of HSW generation and its components in Okayama and Otsu from 1980 to 2014. The effects of waste policy measures were also identified. HSW generation in Okayama will increase from 11.60 million tons (mt) in 1980 to 25.02 mt in 2025, and the corresponding figures are 6.82 mt (in 1980) and 14.00 mt (in 2025) in Otsu. To better manage local HSW, several possible and appropriate implications such as promoting a green lifestyle, extending producer responsibility, intensifying recycling and source separation, generalizing composting, and establishing flexible measures and sustainable policies should be adopted. Results of this study would facilitate consumer management of low waste generation and support an effective HSW policy design in the two case cities. Success could lead to emulation by other Japanese cities seeking to build and maintain a sustainable, eco-friendly society. Moreover, the methodologies of establishing coupled estimation model systems could be extended to China and other global cities.

  9. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  10. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D.; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  11. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk; Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  12. Issues around household pharmaceutical waste disposal through community pharmacies in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjić, Danijela; Vitale, Ksenija

    2014-06-01

    Croatian regulations mandate pharmacies to receive unused medicines from households. Pharmacies are considered as producers and holders of pharmaceutical waste and are obliged to finance this service. Model where pharmacies are responsible for financing disposal of unused medicines without reimbursement is not common in Europe. Present service was not tested before implementation. To investigate the elements of the pharmaceutical waste disposal service provided by pharmacies, and to gain insight into the factors that might influence the effectiveness of the service. Setting All pharmacies in the city of Zagreb. Each pharmacy was asked to weigh the collected waste from the public during a period of 30 days, between June 1st and July 10th of 2011, absent from any media advertisement and answer a specifically designed questionnaire that was exploring possible connections between the amount of collected waste, type of pharmacy ownership, discretion while disposing, location of the container, appropriate labeling and to compare the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods. Quantity of collected unused medicines from the public. Of 210 pharmacies, 91 participated completing the questionnaire (43 % response rate). The total amount of collected waste was 505 kg. Pharmacies owned by the city of Zagreb had higher response rate (74 %) than privately owned pharmacies (36 %), and collected significantly higher amount of waste. Anonymity when disposing influenced collected quantity, while labelling and location of the container did not. There were differences in the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods due to the demographic characteristics and number of pharmacies per capita. The effectiveness of the pharmacy service of collecting unused medicines in Croatia shows a number of weaknesses. The amount of collected medicines is below the European average. Functioning of the service seems to be negatively influenced by the type of pharmacy ownership, distribution

  13. Community mobilization and household level waste management for dengue vector control in Gampaha district of Sri Lanka; an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyewickreme, W; Wickremasinghe, A R; Karunatilake, K; Sommerfeld, J; Axel, Kroeger

    2012-12-01

    Waste management through community mobilization to reduce breeding places at household level could be an effective and sustainable dengue vector control strategy in areas where vector breeding takes place in small discarded water containers. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of this assumption. An intervention study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in the populous Gampaha District of Sri Lanka. Eight neighborhoods (clusters) with roughly 200 houses each were selected randomly from high and low dengue endemic areas; 4 of them were allocated to the intervention arm (2 in the high and 2 in the low endemicity areas) and in the same way 4 clusters to the control arm. A baseline household survey was conducted and entomological and sociological surveys were carried out simultaneously at baseline, at 3 months, at 9 months and at 15 months after the start of the intervention. The intervention programme in the treatment clusters consisted of building partnerships of local stakeholders, waste management at household level, the promotion of composting biodegradable household waste, raising awareness on the importance of solid waste management in dengue control and improving garbage collection with the assistance of local government authorities. The intervention and control clusters were very similar and there were no significant differences in pupal and larval indices of Aedes mosquitoes. The establishment of partnerships among local authorities was well accepted and sustainable; the involvement of communities and households was successful. Waste management with the elimination of the most productive water container types (bowls, tins, bottles) led to a significant reduction of pupal indices as a proxy for adult vector densities. The coordination of local authorities along with increased household responsibility for targeted vector interventions (in our case solid waste management due to the type of preferred vector breeding places) is

  14. Co-Benefits of Household Waste Recycling for Local Community’s Sustainable Waste Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornchai Challcharoenwattana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate co-benefits in term of GHG reduction, and avoided landfill costs by implementing a community-based management (CBM program for municipal solid waste (MSW. Two towns of peri-urban settlement in Thailand were investigated in case studies to compare eco-performance between the towns with and without implementation of the CBM program. MSW mass flows together with MSW utilization records were analyzed based on data in year 2013. Climate co-benefits from waste utilization activities were examined. Results from the study indicated that waste banks in the CBM program can effectively divert most of recyclables from entering landfills. The performance of “waste bank—recyclable recovery program” recycling rate from the case study with CBM is 172.20 kg per member per year, which is about 926% higher than average CBMs with MSW recycling in Thailand, and the success of CBM can be attributed to its curbside pickup service and fair-pricing of recyclables. The study also found that if the town decided to divert wastes from landfilling, carbon intensity of the MSW system would be 0.47 tons of CO2-eq per ton of collected MSW. The landfilling cost would be approximately 7.41 USD per ton of MSW as landfilling cost. With CBM programs, current MSW reutilization rate has achieved 9.68% of generated waste, and 16.80% of GHG emission has been avoided, along with a reduction in landfill costs of 11.57%. Two scenarios of waste utilization in Thailand were explored and compared, in terms of which scenarios yielded the highest co-benefits. The study demonstrates that by allowing local mechanism and community involvement programs to develop with operational waste banks, the efficiency of collecting recycling wastes increased. A similar system can be applied to other communities in other countries.

  15. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The hydrolysis of aluminum dross in tap water generates pure hydrogen. ► Aluminum particles from dross are activated by mechanically milling technique. ► The process is completely greenhouse gases free and is cleanly to environment. ► Hydrolysis process leads to recycling of waste aluminum by hydrogen production. - Abstract: A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation.

  16. Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households" explains how the Town of Carrboro used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  17. A solid waste management survey in Davao del Sur (school and household waste management survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondillo, Mark Jude F.; Amaba, Jeneley A.; Paniza, Lyndelle Ann D.; Cubol, John Rhico V.

    2018-02-01

    Environmental degradation has become a very alarming issue at present. Human activities have been the primary cause of this unfortunate event which has resulted to other complications such as health problems. The resources are limited and people solely depend on it for living. Thus, the necessity to address these concerns arises. Various solid waste management programs have been established however the people's commitment has continued to challenge the local authorities as well as the cooperating agencies. This study was conducted in order to assess the awareness, practice and attitude towards the existing solid waste management programs of the selected students in Davao del Sur. It also aims to measure the effectiveness and current status of these implemented programs. The study used survey method. One hundred sixty eight of 227 students were surveyed using a validated, self-administered instrument. The study revealed that majority of the students is well aware of the existing solid waste management programs, practice them and is willing to learn more about the issue. Others, on the other hand, do the opposite. It is of great importance that all citizens must commit in the implementation of environmental programs so as to be more effective.

  18. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  19. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  20. An empirical model for prediction of household solid waste generation rate - A case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the quantity of household solid waste generation is very much essential for effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW). In actual practice, modelling methods are often found useful for precise prediction of MSW generation rate. In this study, two models have been proposed that established the relationships between the household solid waste generation rate and the socioeconomic parameters, such as household size, total family income, education, occupation and fuel used in the kitchen. Multiple linear regression technique was applied to develop the two models, one for the prediction of biodegradable MSW generation rate and the other for non-biodegradable MSW generation rate for individual households of the city Dhanbad, India. The results of the two models showed that the coefficient of determinations (R 2 ) were 0.782 for biodegradable waste generation rate and 0.676 for non-biodegradable waste generation rate using the selected independent variables. The accuracy tests of the developed models showed convincing results, as the predicted values were very close to the observed values. Validation of the developed models with a new set of data indicated a good fit for actual prediction purpose with predicted R 2 values of 0.76 and 0.64 for biodegradable and non-biodegradable MSW generation rate respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of influencing municipal characteristics regarding household waste generation and their forecasting ability in Biscay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oribe-Garcia, Iraia; Kamara-Esteban, Oihane; Martin, Cristina; Macarulla-Arenaza, Ana M; Alonso-Vicario, Ainhoa

    2015-05-01

    The planning of waste management strategies needs tools to support decisions at all stages of the process. Accurate quantification of the waste to be generated is essential for both the daily management (short-term) and proper design of facilities (long-term). Designing without rigorous knowledge may have serious economic and environmental consequences. The present works aims at identifying relevant socio-economic features of municipalities regarding Household Waste (HW) generation by means of factor models. Factor models face two main drawbacks, data collection and identifying relevant explanatory variables within a heterogeneous group. Grouping similar characteristics observations within a group may favour the deduction of more robust models. The methodology followed has been tested with Biscay Province because it stands out for having very different municipalities ranging from very rural to urban ones. Two main models are developed, one for the overall province and a second one after clustering the municipalities. The results prove that relating municipalities with specific characteristics, improves the results in a very heterogeneous situation. The methodology has identified urban morphology, tourism activity, level of education and economic situation as the most influencing characteristics in HW generation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a household waste treatment subsystem, volume 1. [with water conservation features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresko, T. M.; Murray, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The domestic waste treatment subsystem was developed to process the daily liquid and non-metallic solid wastes provided by a family of four people. The subsystem was designed to be connected to the sewer line of a household which contained water conservation features. The system consisted of an evaporation technique to separate liquids from solids, an incineration technique for solids reduction, and a catalytic oxidizer for eliminating noxious gases from evaporation and incineration processes. All wastes were passed through a grinder which masticated the solids and deposited them in a settling tank. The liquids were transferred through a cleanable filter into a holding tank. From here the liquids were sprayed into an evaporator and a spray chamber where evaporation occurred. The resulting vapors were processed by catalytic oxidation. Water and latent energy were recovered in a combination evaporator/condenser heat exchanger. The solids were conveyed into an incinerator and reduced to ash while the incineration gases were passed through the catalytic oxidizer along with the processed water vapor.

  3. Characteristics and Generation of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW in Semarang City Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikri Elanda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of Household Hazardous Waste (HHW is currently mixed with domestics waste. So that, it can impact human health and environmental quality. One important aspect in the management strategy is to determine the quantity generated and characteristics of HHW. The method used to determine the characteristics HHW refers to SNI 19-2454-2002, while the HHW generation refers to the SNI 19-3694-1994 calculated based on weight and volume. Research was conducted in four districts of Semarang. The samples used in this study were 400 families calculated based on the proportion of Slovin Formula. The characteristic of HHW in Semarang City is mainly infectious (79%, then poisonous (13%, combustible (6% and corrosive materials (2%. The quantity HHW generated is 0.01 kg/person/day equivalent with 5.1% of municipal solid waste (MSW in Semarang (linear equations : y=1,278x+82,00 (volume, y=0,216x+13,89 (weight.

  4. Minimizing Onsite Organic Household Left-Over Waste: The Emission Benefits of Keeping Pet Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As waste management is becoming all the more crucial, this study investigates the way in which house left-over organic waste can be better managed on site, in order to minimize the off-site treatment cost and maximize environmental performance. For the implementation of this research, a full year measurement was recorded, showing the organic leftover waste food intake of two rabbits in a household of four. The organic food, collected in two separate baskets suitable for composting—though one for rabbit intake—was 168.5 kg in total, plus 68.8 kg, which was delivered directly to the composting bin, along with food remains and rabbit feces. The results show that, over the examined year, a total of up to 0.417 metric tons of CO2 equivalent per year emissions was avoided, suggesting that if 30 houses were to apply this methodology, one garbage truck journey per year would be saved. Overall, this study suggests that better information and environmental awareness can result in on-site, low cost, individual management of recyclable organic material, which would assist with the decrease in the cost of management, along with increased environmental performance.

  5. Evaluation of a new pulping technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Larsen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A new technology for pre-treating source-separated organic household waste prior to anaerobic digestion was assessed, and its performance was compared to existing alternative pre-treatment technologies. This pre-treatment technology is based on waste pulping with water, using a specially developed...... screw mechanism. The pre-treatment technology rejects more than 95% (wet weight) of non-biodegradable impurities in waste collected from households and generates biopulp ready for anaerobic digestion. Overall, 84-99% of biodegradable material (on a dry weight basis) in the waste was recovered...... in the biopulp. The biochemical methane potential for the biopulp was 469±7mL CH4/g ash-free mass. Moreover, all Danish and European Union requirements regarding the content of hazardous substances in biomass intended for land application were fulfilled. Compared to other pre-treatment alternatives, the screw...

  6. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, R.; Buysse, J.; Gellynck, X.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. ► We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. ► Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. ► All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. ► Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  7. Comparison of vermicompost characteristics produced from sewage sludge of wood and paper industry and household solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei, A I; Yousefi, Z; Khosravi, T

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of produced compost from the sludge of wastewater treatment plant using earthworms and compare it with the vermicompost produced from household solid waste. In the current study, three treatments with the same conditions in terms of organic wastes type were prepared to produce vermicompost from household solid waste and sewage sludges using earthworms. The standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical parameters in the different produced vermicomposts. The mean of C/N in the household solid waste, raw biological and chemical sludges was 32, 22.5, and 26.5, respectively. These levels were 16.5, 14.5, and 15 in the vermicomposts. The mean of nitrogen and phosphorus percentages in the vermicompost of solid waste, biological and chemical sludges was 2.2%, 2.6%, 2.3% and 0.72%, 0.54%, and 0.56%, respectively. The mean percentages of organic matters in the initial substrates and vermicomposts of solid waste, biological and chemical sludges were 97.2%, 90%, 80.5% and 65.8%, 67.8% and 63% respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals decreased in all vermicomposts. The EC levels in solid waste, biological and chemical sludges were 1459, 1041, and 1487 μs/cm, respectively. These levels were 544, 385 and 635 μs/cm in the produced compost. Eisenia fetida can convert household solid waste, and biological and chemical sludges produced from wastewater treatment plant into a high-quality and acceptable compost.

  8. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: Multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, R., E-mail: ray.jacobsen@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Buysse, J., E-mail: j.buysse@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Gellynck, X., E-mail: xavier.gellynck@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal is to compare collection costs for residual household waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have clustered all municipalities in order to find mutual comparable pairs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each pair consists of one private and one public operating waste collection program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All cases show that private service has lower costs than public service. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipalities were contacted to identify the deeper causes for the waste management program. - Abstract: The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private.

  9. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Effects of household detergent on anaerobic fermentation of kitchen wastewater from food waste disposer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Khanal, S K; Lee, J W

    2013-01-15

    This study examines the effects of household detergent on anaerobic methane fermentation of wastewater from food waste disposers (FWDs). Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) demonstrated that methane production substantially decreased at a higher detergent concentration. The Gompertz three-parameter model fitted well with the ATA results, and both the extent of methane production (M) and methane production rate (R(m)) obtained from the model were strongly affected by the concentration of the detergent. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the detergent was 603 mg/L based on R(m). Results from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) analysis of microbial culture revealed that deterioration of methane fermentation was attributed to impaired structure of anaerobic microbial membrane due to detergent. This study suggests that wastewater from FWD could be used for methane production, but it is necessary to reduce the concentration of detergent prior to anaerobic fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Status of Household Solid Waste and People’s Perception on its Management at Sitakunda Upazila, Chittagong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Juwel Rana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban household solid waste (HSW is well-known, but has little knowledge about the rural areas and sub-cities. The quest of the study was to investigate current HSW management system and people’s attitude towards it’s at Sitakunda Upazila. The study was conducted through a semi-structured questionnaire survey by interviewing 150 households from 3 different socioeconomic groups. The results showed that on an average each household generated 1.26 kg/day wastes which stands at 0.24 kg/person/day in the study area. However, HSW generation is positively correlated with family size (rxy=0.991, p˂0.05, average age of family members (rxy=0.455, p˂0.01, and monthly earnings (rxy=0.999, p˂0.01 of the households. Amidst the various categories of wastes, vegetable and food wastes (VFWs were identified as the highest value 68.4%. In contrast, 24.6% of the generated wastes were recyclable and 75.4% non-recyclable; 82.1% organic and 17.9% inorganic. A large percentage of sampled households opined that present HSW management involves merely partial collection that is also irregular in urban areas but absent in rural areas. Unfair HSW collection was noticed by 58.7% and partial source segregation is also rare 14%. Besides, 42.7% people were found to dispose their daily generated wastes by open dumping and 25.3% nearby lagoon. A large number of people were dissatisfied 68% and only 6.7% were satisfied with the existing HSW management system. In addition, most of the people encountered bad odor problems by 28.7% and wastes spread on roadside by 38%. Significant quantity of recyclable wastes was noticed to collect from households by hawkers/scraps in the study area and very few household were found to use VFWs with cow-dung to generate biogas.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 58-75

  12. Research on Factors Influencing Municipal Household Solid Waste Separate Collection: Bayesian Belief Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujie Chu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Municipal household solid waste (MHSW has become a serious problem in China over the course of the last two decades, resulting in significant side effects to the environment. Therefore, effective management of MHSW has attracted wide attention from both researchers and practitioners. Separate collection, the first and crucial step to solve the MHSW problem, however, has not been thoroughly studied to date. An empirical survey has been conducted among 387 households in Harbin, China in this study. We use Bayesian Belief Networks model to determine the influencing factors on separate collection. Four types of factors are identified, including political, economic, social cultural and technological based on the PEST (political, economic, social and technological analytical method. In addition, we further analyze the influential power of different factors, based on the network structure and probability changes obtained by Netica software. Results indicate that technological dimension has the greatest impact on MHSW separate collection, followed by the political dimension and economic dimension; social cultural dimension impacts MHSW the least.

  13. An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: the case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Olle; Söderholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used.

  14. An econometric analysis of regional differences in household waste collection: The case of plastic packaging waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage, Olle; Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish producer responsibility ordinance mandates producers to collect and recycle packaging materials. This paper investigates the main determinants of collection rates of household plastic packaging waste in Swedish municipalities. This is done by the use of a regression analysis based on cross-sectional data for 252 Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that local policies, geographic/demographic variables, socio-economic factors and environmental preferences all help explain inter-municipality collection rates. For instance, the collection rate appears to be positively affected by increases in the unemployment rate, the share of private houses, and the presence of immigrants (unless newly arrived) in the municipality. The impacts of distance to recycling industry, urbanization rate and population density on collection outcomes turn out, though, to be both statistically and economically insignificant. A reasonable explanation for this is that the monetary compensation from the material companies to the collection entrepreneurs vary depending on region and is typically higher in high-cost regions. This implies that the plastic packaging collection in Sweden may be cost ineffective. Finally, the analysis also shows that municipalities that employ weight-based waste management fees generally experience higher collection rates than those municipalities in which flat and/or volume-based fees are used

  15. KAJIAN PENGELOLAAN KUALITAS LIMBAH RUMAH TANGGA DI KOTA MAKASSAR (Study of the Household Waste Quality Management in Makassar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Siri Dangnga

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan kajian ini adalah: (1. Untuk mengetahui kebijakan Pemerintah Daerah Kota Makassar mengnai sistm dan pengembangan prasarana serta langkah-langkah yang ditempuh dalam pembuangan limbah rumah tangga, dan (2. Untuk mengetahui konsentrasi sat pencemar pada limbah rumah tangga yang terdapat di saluran pembuangan yang akan dilepas ke lingkungan. Pengelolaan limbah rumah tangga yang diterapkan di Kota Makassar adalah: (1 meningkatkan sistem setempat dari lubang peresapan menjadi tangki septik yang dilengkapi lubang resapan, (2 mengembangkan organisasi pengelola sistem terpusat, (3 mengembangkan sistem jaringan pelayanan air limbah untuk bagian kota yang padat penduduknya, (4 membangun sebuah instalasi pengolahan air limbah (IPAL, (5 memotivasi partisipasi masyarakat dan swasta dalam sistem pengelolaan air limbah, dan (6 mengembangkan sistm interceptor di luar daerah yang dilayani oleh sistem pengelolaan air limbah.     Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan bahwa beberapa parameter kandungan limbah rumah tangga telah melampaui baku mutu atau nilai ambang batas untuk limbah Golongan I. Parameter tersebut adalah Oksigen terlarut (DO, fosfat, BOD, dan deterjen.   ABSTRACT The objectives of the study are: (1 to know the government policies in Makassar city about system and infrastructure developing and efforts condacted in household waste disposal. (2 to understand the concentration of pollutant on household waste content which exists in disposal system discharge to the environment. The household waste management applied in Makassar City were to: (1 increase the spot system from infiltrate hole to septic tank equipped with absorption level. (2 develop the central system management organization, (3 develop the waste network system in densely populated city; (4 build the waste management installation, (5 motivate the participation of the general public and private in the waste management system; (6 develop the interceptor system outside territory

  16. Residents’ Household Solid Waste (HSW Source Separation Activity: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the Suzhou government has provided household solid waste (HSW source separation since 2000, the program remains largely ineffective. Between January and March 2014, the authors conducted an intercept survey in five different community groups in Suzhou, and 505 valid surveys were completed. Based on the survey, the authors used an ordered probit regression to study residents’ HSW source separation activities for both Suzhou and for the five community groups. Results showed that 43% of the respondents in Suzhou thought they knew how to source separate HSW, and 29% of them have source separated HSW accurately. The results also found that the current HSW source separation pilot program in Suzhou is valid, as HSW source separation facilities and residents’ separation behavior both became better and better along with the program implementation. The main determinants of residents’ HSW source separation behavior are residents’ age, HSW source separation facilities and government preferential policies. The accessibility to waste management service is particularly important. Attitudes and willingness do not have significant impacts on residents’ HSW source separation behavior.

  17. Treatment aerobic conjugate of sludges of septic tanks and household organic solid wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderson Barbosa da Silva Feitosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed at to evaluate the co-composting as technological alternative to the treatment of sludges of septic tanks with household organic solid wastes originating from cities of small and medium loads. The sludges and the domiciliary organic solid waste were collected in Cabaceiras, Caraúbas and Queimadas, state of Paraíba. The experiment consisted of four treatments with three repetitions, totaling 12 reactors, of cylindrical configuration in polyethylene of 100 L of capacity. Each reactor was fed with 50 kg substratum with variable composition in function of the sludge fraction: 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. The manual turning was accomplished three times a week and the temperature was monitored daily. The total destruction of helminth eggs in period differentiated in function of the sludges fraction (14, 28, 35 and 63 days and the medium transformation of 54.1% of sludges in biosolids class A and class B, with favorable characteristics to the use in agricultural cultures in 91 days, expressed the viability of the treatment for co-composting of sludges of tanks septic multichamber of collective use for the cities of small and medium load.

  18. The development of the food barn in achieving food security of poor household in Wonogiri Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminah

    2018-03-01

    Food barn has function as food stock which managed by households both individually and collectively. It has important role in food security. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the development of food barns, and formulate alternative strategies in the development of food barns in Wonogiri regency. The samples of this research were determined by random sampling. The data collection technique was done by interview, field observation and focus group discussion (FGD). The data analysis was done quantitatively with multiple regression, and qualitative information. The results showed that the age of respondents included in the category of middle age, their level of education was mostly from elementary school, most of their occupation were farmers, they had narrow knowledge of land management, and their income was around 1-2 million rupiah/month. In fact, the perception of food barns, institutional regulation of food barns, and the Economic institutions of food barn have a positive significant influence toward food barn development, filling the food barn and institutional capacity of food barn groups in realizing the food security of poor household in Wonogiri Regency. In food barn development, there are positive and clear perceptions of the food barn, institutional regulations. It indicates that significant as well as the economic institution of food barn are needed so that the food security can be realized.

  19. Cost comparison between private and public collection of residual household waste: multiple case studies in the Flemish region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Buysse, J; Gellynck, X

    2013-01-01

    The rising pressure in terms of cost efficiency on public services pushes governments to transfer part of those services to the private sector. A trend towards more privatizing can be noticed in the collection of municipal household waste. This paper reports the findings of a research project aiming to compare the cost between the service of private and public collection of residual household waste. Multiple case studies of municipalities about the Flemish region of Belgium were conducted. Data concerning the year 2009 were gathered through in-depth interviews in 2010. In total 12 municipalities were investigated, divided into three mutual comparable pairs with a weekly and three mutual comparable pairs with a fortnightly residual waste collection. The results give a rough indication that in all cases the cost of private service is lower than public service in the collection of household waste. Albeit that there is an interest in establishing whether there are differences in the costs and service levels between public and private waste collection services, there are clear difficulties in establishing comparisons that can be made without having to rely on a large number of assumptions and corrections. However, given the cost difference, it remains the responsibility of the municipalities to decide upon the service they offer their citizens, regardless the cost efficiency: public or private. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable......Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher...... recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant...

  1. Pharmacopollution and Household Waste Medicine (HWM): how reverse logistics is environmentally important to Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André Luiz; de Vasconcelos Barros, Raphael Tobias; Pereira, Sandra Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Pharmacopollution is a public health and environmental outcome of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) dispersed through water and/or soil. Its most important sources are the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals), livestock, aquaculture, and households (patients' excretion and littering). The last source is the focus of this article. Research questions are "What is the Household Waste Medicine (HWM) phenomenon?", "How HWM and pharmacopollution are related?", and "Why is a reverse logistic system necessary for HWM in Brazil?" This article followed the seven steps proposed by Rother (2007) for a systematic review based on the Cochrane Handbook and the National Health Service (NHS) Center for Reviews Dissemination (CDR) Report. The HWM phenomenon brings many environmental, public health, and, social challenges. The insufficient data is a real challenge to assessing potential human health risks and API concentrations. Therefore, the hazard of long-term exposure to low concentrations of pharmacopollutants and the combined effects of API mixtures is still uncertain. HWM are strongly related to pharmacopollution, as this review shows. The Brazilian HWM case is remarkable because it is the fourth pharmaceutical market (US$ 65,971 billion), with a wide number of private pharmacies and drugstores (3.3: 10,000 pharmacy/inhabitants), self-medication habits, and no national take-back program. The HWM generation is estimated in 56.6 g/per capita, or 10,800 t/year. The absence of a reverse logistics for HWM can lead to serious environmental and public health challenges. The sector agreement for HWM is currently under public consultation.

  2. Water reuse achieved by zero discharge of aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelchner, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    Plans for zero discharge of aqueous waste from ERDA's nuclear weapons plant near Denver are discussed. Two plants - a process waste treatment facility now under construction, and a reverse osmosis desalting plant now under design, will provide total reuse of waste water for boiler feed and cooling tower supply. Seventy million gallons of water per year will be conserved and downstream municipalities will be free of inadvertent pollution hazards

  3. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Eriksen, M K; Martín-Fernández, J A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-08-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large volumes and are commonly used as plasticisers in plastics manufacturing. Potential impacts on human health require restricted use in selected applications and a need for the closer monitoring of potential sources of human exposure. Although the presence of phthalates in a variety of plastics has been recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP had the highest frequency of detection in the samples analysed, with 360μg/g, 460μg/g and 2700μg/g as the maximum measured concentrations, respectively. Among other, statistical analysis of the analytical results suggested that phthalates were potentially added in the later stages of plastic product manufacturing (labelling, gluing, etc.) and were not removed following recycling of household waste plastics. Furthermore, DEHP was identified as a potential indicator for phthalate contamination of plastics. Close monitoring of plastics intended for phthalates-sensitive applications is recommended if recycled plastics are to be used as raw material in production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Socio-economic considerations of converting food waste into biogas on a household level in Indonesia: The case of the city of Bandung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Encep; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon; Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced

  5. Pilot Study of Generation and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes in Selected Household in Rural Areas in the South-Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelczyk Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot study of the composition of wastes was carried out in 15 rural family households engaged in agricultural activity. In the study group the average resident of rural areas generates about 166 kg of municipal wastes annually. The conducted studies showed that the composition of municipal wastes coming from rural households changes seasonally. During the periods of summer and autumn, the quantity of bio-wastes increased distinctly. The average mass of wastes transferred to the companies engaged in the collection of wastes in the analyzed rural households is almost 50 kg · M–1. year–1. The studies showed that over 80% of organic wastes (kitchen and garden is utilized in the place where they are generated. In the studies, organic wastes were collected selectively (in separate bags, which undoubtedly had infiuence on their humidity (70–90%. Laboratory analysis of these wastes showed that the ratio C:N in it was from 7 to 19, whereas pH lay within the limits from 5.8 to 6.9 indicating its very good properties for the composting process. Therefore composting of organic waste from rural household should be recommended as the best way for its disposal and the weight reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills. Comparison of the analyzed variants showed that some waste other than kitchen and garden does not leave the holding (it is re-used or burned in home hearths.

  6. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled material, substance, energy, and cost flows of a waste refinery process. • Ca. 56% of 1 Mg dry waste input can be recovered as bioliquid yielding 6.2 GJ biogas. • Nutrients and carbon recovery in the bioliquid was estimated to 81–89%. • The biogenic carbon in the input waste was 63% of total carbon based on 14 C analyses. • The quality of the digestate may be critical with respect to use on land. - Abstract: Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials are offered by waste refineries where a bioliquid is produced from enzymatic treatment of mixed waste. In this study, potential flows of materials, energy, and substances within a waste refinery were investigated by combining sampling, analyses, and modeling. Existing material, substance, and energy flow analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2 GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and biogenic carbon recovery was estimated to be between 81% and 89% of the input. Biogenic and fossil carbon in the mixed household waste input was determined to 63% and 37% of total carbon based on 14 C analyses. Additional recovery of metals and plastic was possible based on further process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives such as direct incineration

  7. The changing character of household waste in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 as a function of home heating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležalová, Markéta; Benešová, Libuše; Závodská, Anita

    2013-09-01

    The authors of this paper report on the changing character of household waste, in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2009 in households differentiated by their heating methods. The data presented are the result of two projects, financed by the Czech Ministry of Environment, which were undertaken during this time period with the aim of focusing on the waste characterisation and complete analysis of the physicochemical properties of the household waste. In the Czech Republic, the composition of household waste varies significantly between different types of households based on the methods of home heating employed. For the purposes of these studies, the types of homes were divided into three categories - urban, mixed and rural. Some of the biggest differences were found in the quantities of certain subsample categories, especially fine residue (matter smaller than 20 mm), between urban households with central heating and rural households that primarily employ solid fuel such coal or wood. The use of these solid fuels increases the fraction of the finer categories because of the higher presence of ash. Heating values of the residual household waste from the three categories varied very significantly, ranging from 6.8 MJ/kg to 14.2 MJ/kg in 1999 and from 6.8 MJ/kg to 10.5 MJ/kg in 2009 depending on the type of household and season. The same factors affect moisture of residual household waste which varied from 23.2% to 33.3%. The chemical parameters also varied significantly, especially in the quantities of Tl, As, Cr, Zn, Fe and Mn, which were higher in rural households. Because knowledge about the properties of household waste, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, is very important not only for future waste management, but also for the prediction of the behaviour and influence of the waste on the environment as the country continues to streamline its legislation to the European Union's solid waste mandates, the results of these studies were employed by the

  8. Model selection and averaging in the assessment of the drivers of household food waste to reduce the probability of false positives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramyan, Lusine; Piras, Simone; Quested, Thomas Edward; Righi, Simone; Setti, Marco; Vittuari, Matteo; Stewart, Gavin Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Food waste from households contributes the greatest proportion to total food waste in developed countries. Therefore, food waste reduction requires an understanding of the socio-economic (contextual and behavioural) factors that lead to its generation within the household. Addressing such a complex subject calls for sound methodological approaches that until now have been conditioned by the large number of factors involved in waste generation, by the lack of a recognised definition, and by limited available data. This work contributes to food waste generation literature by using one of the largest available datasets that includes data on the objective amount of avoidable household food waste, along with information on a series of socio-economic factors. In order to address one aspect of the complexity of the problem, machine learning algorithms (random forests and boruta) for variable selection integrated with linear modelling, model selection and averaging are implemented. Model selection addresses model structural uncertainty, which is not routinely considered in assessments of food waste in literature. The main drivers of food waste in the home selected in the most parsimonious models include household size, the presence of fussy eaters, employment status, home ownership status, and the local authority. Results, regardless of which variable set the models are run on, point toward large households as being a key target element for food waste reduction interventions. PMID:29389949

  9. Model selection and averaging in the assessment of the drivers of household food waste to reduce the probability of false positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Matthew James; Aramyan, Lusine; Piras, Simone; Quested, Thomas Edward; Righi, Simone; Setti, Marco; Vittuari, Matteo; Stewart, Gavin Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Food waste from households contributes the greatest proportion to total food waste in developed countries. Therefore, food waste reduction requires an understanding of the socio-economic (contextual and behavioural) factors that lead to its generation within the household. Addressing such a complex subject calls for sound methodological approaches that until now have been conditioned by the large number of factors involved in waste generation, by the lack of a recognised definition, and by limited available data. This work contributes to food waste generation literature by using one of the largest available datasets that includes data on the objective amount of avoidable household food waste, along with information on a series of socio-economic factors. In order to address one aspect of the complexity of the problem, machine learning algorithms (random forests and boruta) for variable selection integrated with linear modelling, model selection and averaging are implemented. Model selection addresses model structural uncertainty, which is not routinely considered in assessments of food waste in literature. The main drivers of food waste in the home selected in the most parsimonious models include household size, the presence of fussy eaters, employment status, home ownership status, and the local authority. Results, regardless of which variable set the models are run on, point toward large households as being a key target element for food waste reduction interventions.

  10. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis to monitor the co-composting process of olive oil mill wastes and organic household refuse

    OpenAIRE

    Barje , F.; Amir , S.; Winterton , Peter; Pinelli , Eric; Merlina , Georges; Cegarra , J.; Revel , Jean-Claude; Hafidi , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The co-composting of olive oil mill wastes and household refuse was followed for 5 months. During the thermophilic phase of composting, the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) count, showed a significant rise with a slight regression of fungal biomass. In the same way, phospholipid fatty acids PLFAs common in bacteria, showed a significant increase of hydroxyl and branched PLFAs. The evaluation of the ratio of octadecenoic PLFAs to stearic acid (C18:1/C18:0) revealed ...

  11. Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Björn; Burvall, Jan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-01-01

    In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations.

  12. Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Bjoern; Burvall, Jan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-01-01

    In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations

  13. Explaining the differences in household food waste collection and treatment provisions between local authorities in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees, A D; Williams, I D

    2017-12-01

    Separate household food waste collection for anaerobic digestion is one method used in the sustainable management of biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW). Recycling of food waste contributes to the UK's reuse, recycling and composting targets and can help local authorities boost plateauing rates whilst encouraging landfill diversion. This study explored the reasons for differences in the provision of food waste collections, using two comparable local authorities, one with a collection in Wales (Cardiff), and the other absent of such service in England (Southampton). A PESTLE analysis investigated the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental impacts of separate food waste collections. The greenhouse gas impacts of the collection and treatment systems of MSW in both cities were estimated for 2012/13. Results showed significant policy and legislative differences between devolved governments, that separate food waste collections can save local authorities significant sums of money and substantially reduce greenhouse gas impacts. A survey of one hundred respondents in each city aimed to understand attitudes and behaviours towards recycling, food waste segregation, cooking and purchasing habits. The number of frequent recyclers and levels of satisfaction were higher in the authority which provided a separate food waste collection. In the area which lacked a separate collection service, over three-quarters of respondents would participate in such a scheme if it were available. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A life cycle approach to the management of household food waste - A Swedish full-scale case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The comparison of three different methods for management of household food waste show that anaerobic digestion provides greater environmental benefits in relation to global warming potential, acidification and ozone depilation compared to incineration and composting of food waste. Use of produced biogas as car fuel provides larger environmental benefits compared to a use of biogas for heat and power production. → The use of produced digestate from the anaerobic digestion as substitution for chemical fertilizer on farmland provides avoidance of environmental burdens in the same ratio as the substitution of fossil fuels with produced biogas. → Sensitivity analyses show that results are highly sensitive to assumptions regarding the environmental burdens connected to heat and energy supposedly substituted by the waste treatment. - Abstract: Environmental impacts from incineration, decentralised composting and centralised anaerobic digestion of solid organic household waste are compared using the EASEWASTE LCA-tool. The comparison is based on a full scale case study in southern Sweden and used input-data related to aspects such as source-separation behaviour, transport distances, etc. are site-specific. Results show that biological treatment methods - both anaerobic and aerobic, result in net avoidance of GHG-emissions, but give a larger contribution both to nutrient enrichment and acidification when compared to incineration. Results are to a high degree dependent on energy substitution and emissions during biological processes. It was seen that if it is assumed that produced biogas substitute electricity based on Danish coal power, this is preferable before use of biogas as car fuel. Use of biogas for Danish electricity substitution was also determined to be more beneficial compared to incineration of organic household waste. This is a result mainly of the use of plastic bags in the incineration alternative (compared to paper bags in the

  15. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation – Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. ► Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. ► Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. ► Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (−0.1 to −2.4 kg NO 3 - eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (−0.4 to −1.0 kg SO 2 - eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (−790 to −960 kg CO 2 - eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (−1.7 to −3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the importance of taking also downstream emissions into consideration when comparing different collection systems. The

  16. An international waste convention: measures for achieving sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Gary D; McLeod, Glen; Anbarci, Melanie A

    2006-12-01

    Waste is a by-product of economic growth. Consequently, economic growth presents challenges for sustainable resource management and development because continued economic growth implies continued growth in waste outputs. Poor management of waste results in the inappropriate depletion of natural resources and potentially adverse effects on the environment, health and the economy. It is unsustainable. This paper begins by outlining the magnitude of and the current response to the growth in the quantity of waste outputs. This is followed by a consideration of why the international response to date, including the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, fails to address the issue adequately. The paper concludes with a discussion on why and how an international treaty or other measure could advance sustainable development by providing an appropriate framework within which to address the problem.

  17. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative...

  18. Identifying the key factors in increasing recycling and reducing residual household waste: a case study of the Flemish region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, X; Jacobsen, R; Verhelst, P

    2011-10-01

    The competent waste authority in the Flemish region of Belgium created the 'Implementation plan household waste 2003-2007' and the 'Implementation plan sustainable management 2010-2015' to comply with EU regulation. It incorporates European and regional requirements and describes strategies, goals, actions and instruments for the collection and treatment of household waste. The central mandatory goal is to reduce and maintain the amount of residual household waste to 150 kg per capita per year between 2010-2015. In literature, a reasonable body of information has been published on the effectiveness and efficiency of a variety of policy instruments, but the information is complex, often contradictory and difficult to interpret. The objective of this paper is to identify, through the development of a binary logistic regression model, those variables of the waste collection scheme that help municipalities to reach the mandatory 150 kg goal. The model covers a number of variables for household characteristics, provision of recycling services, frequency of waste collection and charging for waste services. This paper, however, is not about waste prevention and reuse. The dataset originates from 2003. Four out of 12 variables in the model contributed significantly: income per capita, cost of residual waste collection, collection frequency and separate curbside collection of organic waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system – application to the "household waste management chain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Beraud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site.


    1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.. These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005.

  20. Functional analysis, a resilience improvement tool applied to a waste management system - application to the "household waste management chain"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, H.; Barroca, B.; Hubert, G.

    2012-12-01

    A waste management system plays a leading role in the capacity of an area to restart after flooding, as their impact on post-crisis management can be very considerable. Improving resilience, i.e. enabling it to maintain or recover acceptable operating levels after flooding is primordial. To achieve this, we must understand how the system works for bringing any potential dysfunctions to light and taking preventive measures. Functional analysis has been used for understanding the complexity of this type of system. The purpose of this article is to show the interest behind this type of method and the limits in its use for improving resilience of waste management system as well as other urban technical systems1, by means of theoretical modelling and its application on a study site. 1In a systemic vision of the city, urban technical systems combine all the user service systems that are essential for the city to operate (electricity, water supplies, transport, sewerage, etc.). These systems are generally organised in the form of networks (Coutard, 2010; CERTU, 2005).

  1. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pemission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (pemission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  2. Relationship between Personality Traits of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management and Household Income and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Md. Murad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of the urban poor householders concerning solid waste management systems and monthly household income and education. To attain the objective, the study employed statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way ANOVA, chi-squared „likelihood ratio“ test and simple descriptive statistics. The findings show that the urban poor communities with low income and education have been proven to behave in ways matching with and conducive to environment-friendly solid waste management, for instance, by practicing recycling and waste source reduction. This study also proves that the urban low-income communities generally have a very proactive role from a sound environmental management perspective, as they are the main recyclers and source-reducers of solid waste. The study suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, skills, and empowerment of the urban poor as means of promoting their living conditions.

  3. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  4. Application of cryogenic grinding to achieve homogenization of transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.H.; Hill, D.D.; Lucero, M.E.; Jaramillo, L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE/RFFO) and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado. Researchers on this project have developed a method for cryogenic grinding of mixed wastes to homogenize and, thereby, to acquire a representative sample of the materials. There are approximately 220,000 waste drums owned by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)-50,000 at RFETS and 170,000 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The cost of sampling the heterogeneous distribution of waste in each drum is prohibitive. In an attempt to produce a homogeneous mixture of waste that would reduce greatly the cost of sampling, researchers at NIST and RFETS are developing a cryogenic grinder. The Los Alamos work herein described addresses the implementation issues of the task. The first issue was to ascertain whether samples of the open-quotes small particleclose quotes mixtures of materials present in the waste drums at RFETS were representative of actual drum contents. Second, it was necessary to determine at what temperature the grinding operation must be performed in order to minimize or to eliminate the release of volatile organic compounds present in the waste. Last, it was essential to evaluate any effect the liquid cryogen might have on the structural integrity and ventilation capacity of the glovebox system. Results of this study showed that representative samples could be and had been obtained, that some release of organics occurred below freezing because of sublimation, and that operation of the cryogenic grinding equipment inside the glovebox was feasible

  5. Household waste recycling behaviour in South Africa - has there been progress in the last 5 years?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, Wilma F

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available the first national survey. Comparing the results from the 2010 and 2015 surveys shows that the percentage of dedicated recycling households in large urban areas has almost doubled over the past five years, but remains very low at 7.2%. Households in smaller...

  6. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Reverse Supply Chain Redesign for Household Plastic Waste under the Emission Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, J.M.; Chabaane, A.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing global resource scarcity, waste becomes a resource that can be managed globally. A reverse supply chain network for waste recycling needs to process all the waste with minimum costs and environmental impact. As re-processing of waste is one of the major sources of pollution in the

  8. Vehicle routing for the eco-efficient collection of household plastic waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, X.; Keizer, de M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Plastic waste is a special category of municipal solid waste. Plastic waste collection is featured with various alternatives of collection methods (curbside/drop-off) and separation methods (source-/post-separation). In the Netherlands, the collection routes of plastic waste are the same as those of

  9. Porous ceramics achievement by soybean and corn agricultural waste insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdameri, C.Z.; Ank, A.; Zatta, L.; Anaissi, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Porous ceramic materials are produced by incorporating organic particles and stable foams. Generally it improves low thermal conductivity, which gives thermal comfort for buildings. The southwest region of Parana state is one of the largest producers of grains in Brazil, this causes the disposal of a large amount of waste in the agricultural processing. This paper presents the characterization of porous ceramics produced from clay minerals and agricultural waste (soybeans and corn). The precursor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. For the ceramic materials produced, characterizations about density, water absorption, tensile strength by diametrical compression strength and flexural strength curves was performed. The results showed high possibility of industrial/commercial application because the ceramic materials were produced from low costs precursors leading to ceramic products with properties of interest in construction. (author)

  10. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    involves the lowest greenhouse gas load for the types of waste glass packaging, metal packaging and plastic packaging. Biological treatment (biogas production) provides the lowest GHG (greenhouse gas) impact for the treatment of wet organic waste. Energy recovery provides the lowest GHG impact for the treatment of paper, cardboard and wood waste. Disposal provides the greatest greenhouse gas load for all the analyzed types of waste, but plastic and glass containers. For waste composition has a major impact on greenhouse gas emissions for the landfill and the energy efficiency of the waste. The composition varies both with the types of waste disposed and with what kind of source separation schemes offered in the various municipalities. This in turn can vary depending on population density (urban areas / cities versus scattered buildings), and motivation of the individual citizen to source sorting. Energy recovery means the lowest greenhouse gas emissions for an 'average composite' residual waste in Norway. Analysis of residual waste should always be considered in context with the total amounts and handling of sorted out waste types, as well as total amounts and composition of residual waste. This is important to achieve a comprehensive assessment and avoid suboptimalization. Transport related greenhouse gas emissions are generally of relatively little importance in relation to the environmental benefits arising from the material and / or energy utilization. 3. The model is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions resulting from disposal of a total of approximately 4.1 million tons of waste from households, industry, construction and service industries. 4. Analysis of a realistic optimal scenario for disposal of household waste show that this system can be virtually carbon-neutral. 5. The choice of which assumptions to be incorporated in this type of analysis depends on the purpose of analysis, in addition to local and geographical conditions. 6. Relevant

  11. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1 the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM using elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, total carbon (TC, black carbon (BC, and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 as indicators; 2 the correlations among the indicators; 3 the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4 factors that influence personal exposure to DPM.A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM.The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (p<0.05. Workers of trucks meeting Euro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure.We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  12. The characteristics of household food waste in Hong Kong and their implications for sewage quality and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Feixiang; Dai, Ji; Hong, Yuze; Wong, Meiyin; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Guanghao

    2018-04-01

    Food waste (FW) is a worldwide environmental issue due to its huge production amount. FW separation from municipal solid waste followed by different treatment strategies has been widely accepted. Food waste disposer (FWD) is a promising approach to separate and collect household food waste (HFW), which has been widely applied in many countries. However, the feasibility of FWD application in many countries is still being debated due to the major concerns over the impact of FWD on the wastewater treatment plants. In order to investigate the feasibility of FWD application, FW characterization is a key work to be conducted in advance. Since the FW characteristics largely vary by region, reliable and representative FW characteristics in different countries should be investigated. To provide such information for further studies on FW management for Hong Kong, HFW was collected from Hong Kong typical households over one year and analyzed systemically in this study. The FW composition varied little from place to place or season to season, and the values observed were comparable with results reported from other countries and regions. Based on the reliable HFW characteristics obtained from one-year survey coupled with statistical analysis, simulated HFW for Hong Kong consisting of 50% fruits, 20% vegetables, 20% starchy food and 10% meat was proposed for future studies. On the other hand, the FWD treatment caused more than 50% of the biodegradable organic content in HFW to dissolve. With a ratio of 1 g food waste to 1 L sewage, total solids in the wastewater stream were predicted to increase by 73%, total chemical oxygen demand by 61%, soluble chemical oxygen demand by 110%, nitrogen by 6% and phosphorus by 16%. Theoretically, 22 million m 3 /year of additional methane could be generated if 50% of Hong Kong residential buildings equipped with FWD. That would certainly increase pollutant loading on the wastewater treatment plants, but also energy recovery potential

  13. Emissions of toxic pollutants from co-combustion of demolition and construction wood and household waste fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Ortuño, Núria; Persson, Per-Erik; Conesa, Juan A; Jansson, Stina

    2018-07-01

    Four different types of fuel blends containing demolition and construction wood and household waste were combusted in a small-scale experimental set-up to study the effect of fuel composition on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes (PCBzs), chlorophenols (PCPhs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two woody materials, commercial stemwood (ST) and demolition and construction wood (DC) were selected because of the differences in their persistent organic pollutants (POPs), ash and metals content. For household waste, we used a municipal solid waste (MSW) and a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW with 5-20 wt% and up to 5 wt% food waste content respectively. No clear effect on the formation of pollutants was observed with different food waste content in the fuel blends tested. Combustion of ST-based fuels was very inefficient which led to high PAH emissions (32 ± 3.8 mg/kg fuel ). The use of DC clearly increased the total PCDD and PCDF emissions (71 ± 26 μg/kg fuel ) and had a clear effect on the formation of toxic congeners (210 ± 87 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg fuel ). The high PCDD and PCDF emissions from DC-based fuels can be attributed to the presence of material contaminants such as small pieces of metals or plastics as well as timber treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives and pentachlorophenol in the DC source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of phthalates in unsorted household wastes; Anaerob nedbrytning av ftalater med ymp fraan anaerobt behandlat hushaallsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, H.

    1993-10-01

    Phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate were tested for their biodegradability in anaerobic, unsorted household wastes. The compounds were analyzed by measuring absorbance after centrifugation of a water suspension. This cheap and rapid method was proven to be applicable. Both phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate disappeared almost completely in 1-3 months, using initial concentrations from 50 to 250 mg/l. The same methodology was used for diethylhexyl phthalate, but did not work. The stoichiometrically expected amounts of methane were not found for any of the compounds, and in case of diethyl phthalate an inhibition of the methane production was observed. (36 refs., 17 figs.)

  15. The power of nudging ; Using reverse logistics to improve recycling behaviour in household waste management while taking the intention-action gap into account

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsen, Asta Gjetø; Støyle, Rebecka Våge

    2016-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Business, Logistics, operations and supply chain management - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2016 Reverse logistics plays an important role in keeping resources in the supply chain for as long as possible through the creation of a circular waste management system. In household waste management, the success of such a system depends on the end-consumer, which supplies waste to the reverse supply chain. The aim of this thesis is therefore to examin...

  16. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of energy and material recovery of household waste management from the environmental point of view - Case Kaunas, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoranen, Mika; Soukka, Risto; Denafas, Gintaras; Horttanainen, Mika

    2009-01-01

    The results of life cycle assessment of five different energy recovery-based waste management system options are presented. The system options were designed for the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. The Kaunas model was formed according to the Simple Integrated System Management concept developed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. CML2001 was selected as the method according to which the life cycle impact assessment profiles were compiled and analyzed. The results suggest that energy recovery from biowaste, paper and cardboard derived from households could be a more recommendable waste management option than material recovery of the fractions (composting of biowaste and recycling of paper and cardboard). The calculations were carried out with limited process information, and cannot thus be generalized in all parts

  18. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasebarth, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  19. Putting solid household waste to sustainable use: a case study in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia da Silva; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto

    2012-12-01

    The management of solid residues has, in recent decades, been a source of concern for public administrators the world over. Experiments in the sustainable use of such residues are highly relevant in social and environmental terms, stimulating widespread interest and debate, with considerable research going into sustainability projects. In many areas, however, adequate public funding for sustainable-use projects is hard to come by. One of the major reasons for this is that public authorities, particularly in times of financial constraints, are reluctant to invest in undertakings in which the economic returns are difficult to quantify. Official scrutiny of the expenditures of public authorities is also normally heavily influenced by cost-benefit analyses. The specific objective of this article is to show that putting solid domestic residue (household solid waste) to sustainable use is capable of generating economic returns, as well as environmental benefits for society as a whole. These economic returns can be set out in financial statements, which may, in turn, be used to justify expenditures by public authorities on sustainable-use projects and as a basis for further investment in such incentives. We drew on the findings of existing research into sustainable use, undertaken by the Municipal Urban Cleaning Company in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to establish a conceptual framework for setting out the economic results of the collection of household solid waste.

  20. The management challenge for household waste in emerging economies like Brazil: realistic source separation and activation of reverse logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, M

    2014-09-01

    Business opportunities in the household waste sector in emerging economies still evolve around the activities of bulk collection and tipping with an open material balance. This research, conducted in Brazil, pursued the objective of shifting opportunities from tipping to reverse logistics in order to close the balance. To do this, it illustrated how specific knowledge of sorted waste composition and reverse logistics operations can be used to determine realistic temporal and quantitative landfill diversion targets in an emerging economy context. Experimentation constructed and confirmed the recycling trilogy that consists of source separation, collection infrastructure and reverse logistics. The study on source separation demonstrated the vital difference between raw and sorted waste compositions. Raw waste contained 70% biodegradable and 30% inert matter. Source separation produced 47% biodegradable, 20% inert and 33% mixed material. The study on collection infrastructure developed the necessary receiving facilities. The study on reverse logistics identified private operators capable of collecting and processing all separated inert items. Recycling activities for biodegradable material were scarce and erratic. Only farmers would take the material as animal feed. No composting initiatives existed. The management challenge was identified as stimulating these activities in order to complete the trilogy and divert the 47% source-separated biodegradable discards from the landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Defining the multi-dimensional aspects of household waste management: A study of reported behavior in Devon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Stewart; Gilg, Andrew; Ford, Nicholas [Department of Geography, School of Geography, Archaeology and Earth Resources, University of Exeter, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter, Devon EX4 4RJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the structure of waste reduction, reuse and recycling behavior within the context of wider research on environmental action in and around the home. Using a sample of 1265 households from Devon, England, the research examined a range of environmental behaviors, focusing on energy saving, water conservation, green consumerism and waste management. Using factor analysis, the data were analysed to examine how the different behavioral variables related to each other. The research found that waste management behaviors were evident in two of the three factors identified. These related not only to recycling or reuse behaviors but also to consumption practices, such as purchasing recycled products. However, an analysis of the frequency of each of these factorially-defined behaviors revealed that recycling was still the activity most practised by individuals, with reduction behaviors least popular. This was explored further by the use of cluster analysis, which defined four distinctive behavioral types with different demographic characteristics. Accordingly, the research demonstrates that examining waste management behaviors within the context of wider environmental actions can be of use.

  2. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rousta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  3. The Economic representation of environmental consumer behavior. The case of household waste; Representation economique du comportement ecologique des consommateurs. Le cas des dechets menagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolivet, P.

    2001-12-01

    This PhD dissertation deals with the economic representation of consumer behavior with regards to their environmental conscience. The particular focus point is the production of household wastes, which is analyzed from a dual point of view: on the one hand as a consequence of consumption activities, and as a specific economic choice activity on the other. The central problem of this dissertation is thus the following: can the phenomenon 'waste' be economically represented as an individual consumption act? The first part of this thesis deals with the environmental sensitivity of consumers in general, and their sensitivity for waste in particular. It is supposed that individuals can integrate the environment in their consumption choices, when buying products on the market: this is defined as continuous environmental rationality. The second part develops the behavior of an individual that decides to separate its waste. On the basis of a qualitative survey among households, their discourse and actions are analyzed in order to define the behavior of a waste consumer-producer. One of the results of our survey is the assumption that when economic agents have an environmental conscience, this latter is not necessarily translated into consumption choices. The conscience for household wastes, which occur only after the consumption moment, defines a discontinuous environmental rationality. On this basis, we suggest to widen the traditional analytical framework of household consumption. (author)

  4. Preliminary drivers associated with household food waste generation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, Fhumulani R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available in Microsoft Excel, and analysed using the chi-square statistical test and SAS statistical software. The main reasons for household food wastage were identified as buying in excess, preparation of more food than would be consumed, poor storage, poor purchase...

  5. Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgley, Susan M.

    Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific…

  6. Estimating the impact of the 'digital switchover' on disposal of WEEE at household waste recycling centres in England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Keynes, S.

    2011-01-01

    Using Hampshire County Council (HCC) as a case study, this paper evaluates and discusses the estimated impacts of the so-called digital switchover (DSO) (scheduled for 2012 in Hampshire) on Household Waste Recycling Centres (HWRCs) in England and the UK. Two public surveys of Hampshire residents were used to collect data on their preparedness for and awareness of the switchover and its implications. The survey also sought to establish the quantities of televisions (TVs) and TV related devices that are ready for the DSO. The quantities of TV and related devices that are likely to be disposed via HCC's collection network have been established and compared to the County's current handling capacities for waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE). Best and worst case potential net disposal scenarios have been established and the latter compared to Government projections. In addition, the potential environmental, logistical, financial and legal impacts of the WEEE arising as a consequence of the switchover have been identified and discussed. The results indicate that the majority of TVs both in Hampshire and the UK are digital ready and that awareness of the switchover is high. In contrast, most recording devices in Hampshire are not ready for the DSO. Awareness of the timeframe of the event remains modest however and about half of Hampshire households were not aware that TV recording devices will be affected by the switchover. A significant proportion of waste TVs and related equipment would be taken to HWRCs in contrast to smaller items such as remote controls that would more likely be disposed with normal household waste. Projected figures for the DSO year show that if Hampshire maintained its current collection capacity for WEEE it would experience a handling shortfall of around ∼100 K for TVs and recording devices, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that the UK Government may have substantially underestimated the quantities of TV and

  7. Reduction at the source of household wastes: why not trying the inciting tariffing?; La reduction a la source des dechets menagers: pourquoi ne pas essayer la tarification incitative?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glachant, M.

    2002-11-01

    This article discusses how the existing financing tools of the household wastes management implemented in France can be changed to become inciting tools for the reduction of the volume of wastes at the source. It comprises 5 parts: the first part presents the present day way of financing of the public utility of household wastes in France and discusses its (very modest) inciting effect. In the next two parts the possible modalities to make it more inciting are discussed. These parts stresses on two questions: is it better to charge the upstream producers via contributions to chartered companies or to charge the downstream households via volume- or weight-proportional fees? How much should they pay? Then some experiences of inciting tariffing are briefly reviewed: the Duales German system of upstream charging and the US and Dutch downstream charging systems. (J.S.)

  8. Bio-Wastes as an Alternative Household Cooking Energy Source in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudina Terefe Tucho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to the present day, wood has been used to supply the needs for cooking in rural Africa. Due to the ongoing deforestation, households need to change to other energy sources. To cover this need, a large amount of people are using residues from agriculture (straw, manure instead. However, both straw and manure also have a function in agriculture for soil improvement. Using all the straw and manure will seriously affect the food production. In this paper we first determine the amount of energy that households need for cooking (about 7 GJ per year. Then we estimate the amount of residues that can be obtained from the agricultural system and the amount of energy for cooking that can be derived from this amount when different conversion techniques are used. The amount of residues needed is strongly affected by the technology used. The traditional three stone fires require at least two times as much resource than the more advanced technologies. Up to 4 ha of land or 15 cows are needed to provide enough straw and manure to cook on the traditional three stone fires. When more efficient techniques are used (briquetting, biogas this can be reduced to 2 ha and six cows. Due to large variation in resource availability between households, about 80% of the households own less than 2 ha and 70% holds less than four cows. This means that even when modern, energy efficient techniques are used the largest share of the population is not able to generate enough energy for cooking from their own land and/or cattle. Most rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa may share similar resource holding characteristics for which the results from the current findings on Ethiopia can be relevant.

  9. Quantifying food losses in South Africa and the costs of household food waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is problematic for a number of reasons, including the loss of a potentially valuable food source or resource for use in other processes (e.g. energy generation or composting); wasted resources and emissions in the food supply chain...

  10. Management of household waste on a farm in the municipality of Varre-Sai, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Peixoto Maciel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a diagnostic about the waste generated in a rural property, proposes and develops actions to mitigate the wrong accommodation made by the residents of the property. To remediate the problems detected, partnerships were implemented with the Varre Sai city government, the owner of the property, and the farm residents. A task force to collect the waste was organized, earthworm containers were constructed, and lectures were given. The project also included an agreement with the local government to collect the waste and supply recipients to the nine families of sharecroppers. The domestic waste was correctly allocated as well as the organic waste derived from the crops.

  11. THERMAL PROCESSING OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH USING ENERGY OF INCINERATED SOLID HOUSEHOLD WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KROT O. P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The use of resources that have not been directly used for their intended purpose is one of the important tasks of sustainable urban development. The need for an integrated approach to the problem of waste management is realized all over the world. In recent decades, there has been a trend in Ukraine for a significant increase in waste. European experience in handling solid domestic waste uses various processing methods: recycling on the basis of separate collection, sorting, composting and thermal processing with generation of thermal and electric energy. In Ukraine, the most common method of handling waste remains burial in landfills that do not meet European standards, are not properly equipped, they do not comply with the norms and rules of storage. This leads to contamination of groundwater, as well as to the release into the atmosphere of various compounds. No less problem is the accumulation of phosphogypsum in industrial waste dumps. It is necessary to develop innovative technology of a complex for utilization of phosphogypsum using thermal energy of solid domestic waste. The article compares the technological characteristics of aggregates for incineration of solid waste and the production of semi-aqua gypsum to identify the possibility of their interfacing, and also formulated tasks for eliminating inconsistencies in interfaced technologies. The equipment of thermal units of interfaced technologies is offered.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  13. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  14. How the origin of fresh household waste affects its ability to be biodegraded: an assessment using basic tools and its application to the city of Kara in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segbeaya, K N; Feuillade-Cathalifaud, G; Baba, G; Koledzi, E K; Pallier, V; Tchangbedji, G; Matejka, G

    2012-12-01

    Waste biodegradation has been largely investigated in the literature by using conventional tests like the BMP test and the respirometric test, whereas only few studies deal with the use of leaching tests in combination with biological activity measurements. Consequently, this study used an improved leaching test to evaluate the biodegradability of two deposits of fresh household waste from the city of Kara in Togo. The first deposit came from households in neighborhoods located in the outskirts of the city and the second consisted of fresh waste, mainly composed of business waste and household waste, collected in the urban center and aimed at being deposited in the landfill. A physicochemical characterization of the two deposits completed the leaching test. The biological activity was monitored by measuring O(2) consumption and CO(2) production. pH, DOC/OM, VFA/DOC ratios and the SUVA index was measured in the leaching juice to assess both the state of degradation of the waste in the deposits and the ability of the organic matter to be mobilized quickly and to be easily assimilated by microorganisms. The biodegradability of waste from the city of Kara correlated with their origin even though the physical characteristics of the two deposits studied differed greatly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternald, Olle [and others

    2010-09-15

    This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment. Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner. The results regarding waste weight reduction show that systems that use paper bags give a substantial weight reduction in both the kitchen (12%) as well as in the garbage disposal container, resulting in an average total weight reduction of 27%. For the bio-plastic bag, there is a small, measurable weight reduction of 7% in the kitchen. One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains (typically used for apartment blocks) the reduction was much smaller. The average total weight reduction for bio-plastic systems was 10%. The corresponding value for total weight reduction for plastic bags in an optical system was 2%-4%, with an average of 2%. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed. The data for generated (collected) biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received (weighted) material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and

  16. The newest achievements of studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peizhe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    From 1991 to 1996, key studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes have been incorporated into the national plan for environmental protection science and technology. At present, the research achievements have been accomplished, have passed national approval, and have been accepted. The author of this paper, as leader of the national group for this research work, expounds the newest achievements of the studies involving four parts: (1) the reutilization technology of electroplating sludge, including the ion-exchange process for recovering the sludge and waste liquor for producing chromium tanning agent and extracting chromium and colloidal protein from tanning waste residue; on the recovery of heavy metals from the electroplating waste liquor with microbic purification; on the demonstration project of producing modified plastics from the sludge and the waste plastics; and on the demonstration of the recovery of heavy metals from waste electroplating sludge by using the ammonia-leaching process; (2) the demonstrative research of reutilization technology of chromium waste residues, including production of self-melting ore and smelting of chromium-containing pig iron, and of pyrolytic detoxification of the residue with cyclone furnace; (3) the incineration technology of hazardous wastes with successful results of the industrial incinerator system for polychlorinated biphenyls; and (4) the safety landfill technology for disposal of hazardous wastes, with a complete set of technology for pretreatment, selection of the site, development of the antipercolating materials, and design and construction of the landfill. Only a part of the achievements is introduced in this paper, most of which has been built and is being operated for demonstration to further spreading application and accumulate experience. 6 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated...... and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties......) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition...

  18. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; De Bruin, M.; Aalbers, Th.G.; Meyer, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  19. Residents’ Willingness to Pay for Household Kitchen Waste Separation Services in Haidian and Dongcheng Districts, Beijing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a contingent valuation study on household kitchen waste separation (HKWS services via willingness to pay (WTP conducted in the Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing city in 2013. This study focuses on a real program to understand households’ attitudes toward HKWS and to estimate the value of HKWS services. The results of this study revealed that 41.4% agreed to accept the proposed price of HKWS services, while 42.2% refused to pay, but with a positive attitude toward the HKWS program. In addition, respondents’ WTP for proposed HKWS services is significantly related to the level of bid price and their gender, age and education experience. Attitudinal factors that affect resident WTP were also found. For example, respondents who perceive themselves as having a higher ability to conduct HKWS at the source are more willing to pay for their HKWS services, while respondents who complain of the inconvenience of conducting HKWS show negative WTP. The results also showed that on average each household is willing to pay about US$1.44 per month for HKWS services, which is based on 327 respondents after excluding 64 (16.4% of all sample who indicated complete opposition to the HKWS program.

  20. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  1. Management of source-separated organic household waste intended for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina

    performance, e.g. by predicting methane production and the amount of residue, and also the environmental profile, e.g. by assessing the environmental value of impact contributions when substituting fossil energy and mineral fertilisers. SSOHW is known as a highly heterogeneous waste stream, and thus its...... biodegradable matter loss. Several well-established technologies, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, are known, and these sit alongside newly emerging solutions. To ensure the environmental sustainability of the waste management sector when implementing the AD of SSOHW, it is important...

  2. Syngas obtained by microwave pyrolysis of household wastes as feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelles, Olga; Beneroso, Daniel; Menéndez, J Angel; Arenillas, Ana; García, J Luis; Prieto, M Auxiliadora

    2017-11-01

    The massive production of urban and agricultural wastes has promoted a clear need for alternative processes of disposal and waste management. The potential use of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as feedstock for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by a process known as syngas fermentation is considered herein as an attractive bio-economic strategy to reduce these wastes. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of Rhodospirillum rubrum as microbial cell factory for the synthesis of PHA from syngas produced by microwave pyrolysis of the MSW organic fraction from a European city (Seville). Growth rate, uptake rate, biomass yield and PHA production from syngas in R. rubrum have been analysed. The results revealed the strong robustness of this syngas fermentation where the purity of the syngas is not a critical constraint for PHA production. Microwave-induced pyrolysis is a tangible alternative to standard pyrolysis, because it can reduce cost in terms of energy and time as well as increase syngas production, providing a satisfactory PHA yield. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J. P.; Pastor, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex

  4. Pathogens\\' Reduction in Vermicompost Process Resulted from the Mixed Sludge Treatments-Household Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hossien Karimi; Mohammad Rezvani; Morteza Mohammadzadeh; Yaser Eshaghi; Mehdi Mokhtari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of pathogenic microbial agents and pathogens in organic fertilizers causes health problems and disease transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of vermicomposting process in improve the microbial quality of the compost produced. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted as a pilot-scale one, in the laboratory of school of Health. In order to produce vermicompost, some perishable domestic waste were mixed whit sludge o...

  5. Process performance and modelling of anaerobic digestion using source-sorted organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2018-01-01

    Three distinctive start-up strategies of biogas reactors fed with source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste were investigated to reveal the most reliable procedure for rapid process stabilization. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with mathematical modeling outputs....... The combination of both experimental and modelling/simulation succeeded in optimizing the start-up process for anaerobic digestion of biopulp under mesophilic conditions....

  6. Evaluation and monitoring of an household waste incineration plant in Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, A.; Le Moullec, Y.; Gilibert, E.

    1995-01-01

    Urban population is more and more concerned by air quality and waste disposal. In Paris Area, municipal waste are incinerated in three large plants all equipped with gas cleaning systems, except one that will be equipped in June 1995. It appeared interesting to characterize and evaluate the impact of this incinerator on ambient air quality in an area where other sources interfere. An sampling campaign was set up on six sites of AIRPARIF (ile de France Air Quality Monitoring Network). Nitrogen oxides. Sulphur dioxide and black smokes are measured in continuously. Other pollutants, considered more specific of waste incineration plants were analysed on a 24 h-sampling basis (heavy metals, hydrochloride acid, Chlorides). The first results seem to show some trends. Regarding usual pollutants, it appears downwind sites present higher average level that upwind sites. For hydrochloric acid, 24 h. averages are higher when the site was frequently downwind during the day. The size of the data set is small for heavy metals, however it seems that an impact can be detected for Cd and Zn. (author)

  7. Achievements of research and development of Kajima on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaka, Yoshikazu; Morikawa, Seiji; Okutsu, Kazuo; Furuichi, Mitsuaki; Toida, Masaru; Yamamoto, Takuji

    2004-01-01

    Kajima Corporation has been committed to the construction of nuclear power plant for a long time as a construction company. In 1957 Kajima made its first construction of the main building for the JRR-1 (Japan Research Reactor No.1) of JAERI, which was the first and historical one in Japan. Since then the company has been involved in many projects related to nuclear power generation. In addition to the construction, Kajima has been playing an important role in the technology development of decommissioning system as well as radioactive waste waste disposal facilities, both of which are now having an increasing importance. In a sense of technology development, the technology of civil engineering is commonly applicable to the construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities, however, some other technology developments have to be made due to the unique characteristics of radioactive waste disposal. Kajima has promoted many research and development projects related to radioactive waste disposal in order to improve the reliability and the feasibility of the nuclear recycling process. This report introduces some of the achievements as follows made by Kajima: Construction of radioactive waste disposal facilities, Natural barrier, Engineering barrier, Monitoring. (author)

  8. Recycling of plastic waste: Presence of phthalates in plastics from households and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Martín-Fernández, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastics recycling has the potential to substitute virgin plastics partially as a source of raw materials in plastic product manufacturing. Plastic as a material may contain a variety of chemicals, some potentially hazardous. Phthalates, for instance, are a group of chemicals produced in large...... recognised, the influence of plastic recycling on phthalate content has been hypothesised but not well documented. In the present work we analysed selected phthalates (DMP, DEP, DPP, DiBP, DBP, BBzP, DEHP, DCHP and DnOP) in samples of waste plastics as well as recycled and virgin plastics. DBP, DiBP and DEHP...

  9. Municipal household waste used as complement material for composting chicken manure and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L. Amadji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few organic materials available as agricultural soil amendment because their low chemical content means that large quantities are required. In order to improve the availability of raw materials for composting, as well as the quality of the compost produced, municipal solid waste (MW was added to cotton-seed residue (CSR and to the association of CSR with chicken manure (M in different weight/weight (MW/added materials ratios of 5:1 and 2:1. Aerobic composting was processed and compost yield was determined, as well as compost particle size and pH. Also, the compost bulk density and its water holding capacity were determined as well as contents of total nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium (Ca, magnesium and heavy metals. According to its pH and carbon/nitrogen ratio values, the municipal waste of Cotonou was judged to be a good raw material for composting in order to improve availability of the organic source of nutrients. The composts produced with MW+M+CSR had the highest potential for amending Ferralsols, especially with a mixture of 2:1 (200 kg MW+100 kg M+100 kg CSR that could be applied at 10 t ha–1. However, further improvement in composting methods was suggested to increase Ca++ and reduce mercury contents, respectively. Moreover, potassium balance should be improved in the produced compost.

  10. Cooperative urban mining in Brazil: Collective practices in selective household waste collection and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, J

    2015-11-01

    Solid waste is a major urban challenge worldwide and reclaiming the resources embedded in waste streams, involving organized recyclers, is a smart response to it. Informal and organized recyclers, mostly in the global south, already act as important urban miners in resource recovery. The paper describes the complex operations of recycling cooperatives and draws attention to their economic, environmental, and social contributions. A detailed discussion based on empirical data from the recycling network COOPCENT-ABC in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, contextualizes this form of urban mining. The analysis is situated within Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) and Ecological Economy (EE) theory. Current challenges related to planning, public policy, and the implementation of cooperative recycling are analysed on the level of individual recyclers, cooperatives, municipalities and internationally. There are still many hurdles for the informal, organized recycling sector to become recognized as a key player in efficient material separation and to up-scale these activities for an effective contribution to the SSE and EE. Policies need to be in place to guarantee fair and safe work relations. There is a win-win situation where communities and the environment will benefit from organized urban mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 1. Main achievements of the joint study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the main achievements of a joint theoretical study aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR wastes, relying to a certain extent on national practices in this particular area, on the basis of economical and radiological criteria. All individual intermediate steps entering a management route, from radioactive-wastes production up to their disposal in near-surface sites or in a deep repository, have been identified, described and cost-evaluated throughout the study. The radiological impact assessment comprises estimates of both individual and collective doses resulting from normal discharges of radioactive effluents and from disposal of radioactive waste products in near-surfaces sites. All specific data concerning the description of the different management routes considered as well as the methodology applied to evaluate cost and radiological impact are detailed in the subsequent volumes of the series (Volumes 2 to 8)

  12. Pilot scale digestion of source-sorted household waste as a tool for evaluation of different pre-sorting and pre-treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svärd, Å; Gruvberger, C.; Aspegren, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot scale digestion of the organic fraction of source-sorted household waste from Sweden and Denmark was performed during one year. The study includes 17 waste types with differences in originating municipality, housing type, kitchen wrapping, sack type, pre-treatment method and season. The pilot...... scale digestion has been carried out in systems with a 35-litres digester connected to a 77-litres gas tank. Four rounds of digestion were performed including start-up periods, full operation periods for evaluation and post-digestion periods without feeding. Different pre-sorting and pre-treatment...

  13. The Synergy between Scuba Diving and Household Behaviour: Testing Plastic and Food Waste "The use of natural habitats for tourism education"

    OpenAIRE

    Soares Mota, Luís Cândido

    2014-01-01

    The activity of scuba diving is used for studying behaviours of U.S. visitors to a popular tourist destination in Mexico. The impact created by human activity can produce marine debris and therefore affect the marine environment. The subpopulation of 181 divers was tested for their current household practices regarding discarding plastic and food waste, providing quantitative statistics for divers’ referential behaviour. Prior to partaking in scuba diving, certified, trainee, and “one-day-exp...

  14. Strategic Factors of Household Solid Waste Segregation at Source Program, Awareness and Participation of Citizens of the 3 Municipality District of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasem Ghanbari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Solving the problems caused by household solid waste and its management without the continuous cooperation of the citizens as the main producers of household solid waste is impossible. The aims of this study were to define strategic factors of Household Solid Waste Segregation at Source Program and the level of awareness and participation of citizens in the program.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study we interviewed 640 citizens of the 3 Municipality District of Tehran. Internal Factor Evaluation and External Factor Evaluation matrices were used to assess the strategic factors of the program.Results: Of 640 participants, 517 (80.8% were aware of the program, and 383 (59.9% participated in the program. Among participants 628 (98.1% were well-informed about the correlation between implementation of the program and environmental health promotion. People between 35 to 45 years showed the most participation rate.Conclusion: This study showed that citizens showed acceptable awareness of the program and evaluation of internal and external factors indicated high potential to increase public participation in the program.

  15. Scientific research - support for achieving the national strategy for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The lecture contains an overview on current status of research activity in Romania and especially, the organizing and development of research activity in nuclear field. The main characteristics for fundamental and applied research, for technological development and for innovation and technological transfer are presented beside of the evolution of legislative framework, the dynamics of research and development institutions and of number of scientific researchers. The main modalities for financing of research activities in nuclear field based on Governmental Decision No. 144/1998, Technical Cooperation Program with AIEA, Phare projects and the second National Program for Research, Development and Innovation are discussed. Aspects concerning the selection and financing of research topics in correlation with the requirements of National Strategy for the Safety Management of Radioactive Waste in cooperation with radioactive waste producers are discussed. Current and future requirements, concerning the near-surface and geological disposal of radioactive waste and resized of Research National Program in nuclear field according to the provisions of the new National Energy Strategy have to be taken into consideration. The present material and human resources and the infrastructure and ascending financing of research activities in nuclear field constitutes a guaranty that the main objectives of national strategy for safety management of spent fuel and radioactive waste can be achieved. (author)

  16. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  17. [Gender-related achievements and challenges in the 2006 National Health Survey: analysis of adults and households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2011-01-01

    To examine the ability of the 2006 Spanish Health Survey (SHS-2006) to analyze the population's health from a gender perspective and identify gender-related inequalities in health, and to compare the 2006 version with that of 2003. A contents analysis of the adults and households questionnaires was performed from the gender perspective, taking gender as (a) the basis of social norms and values, (b) the organizer of social structure: gender division of labor, double workload, vertical/horizontal segregation, and access to resources and power, and (c) a component of individual identity. The 2006 SHS uses neutral language. The referent is the interviewee, substituting the head of the family/breadwinner of past surveys. A new section focuses on reproductive labor (caregiving and domestic tasks) and the time distribution for these tasks. However, some limitations in the questions about time distribution were identified, hampering accurate estimations. The time devoted to paid labor is not recorded. The 2006 version includes new information about family commitments as an obstacle to accessing healthcare and on the delay between seeking and receiving healthcare appointments. The SHS 2006 introduces sufficient variations to confirm its improvement from a gender perspective. Future surveys should reformulate the questions about the time devoted to paid and reproductive labor, which is essential to characterize gender division of labor and double workload. Updating future versions of the SHS will also involve gathering information on maternity/paternity and parental leave. The 2006 survey allows delays in receiving healthcare to be measured, but does not completely allow other delays, such as diagnostic and treatment delays, to be quantified. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The radioactive waste management program of the C.E.C. Achievements, planning and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Orlowski, S.

    1986-01-01

    The achievements of twelve years of waste management research, carried out by shared-cost actions with laboratories of member countries of the European Communities and by direct research at its Joint Research Center are being reviewed. Activities were essentially directed to reach three goals: (a) to develop the necessary waste treatment and conditioning technologies, (b) to study disposal concepts in various types of geological formations in the European Community, (c) to address problems connected with their implementation such as safety assessment, quality assurance, financing, etc., which are particularly suited to the Community framework. Planning and perspectives for the next decade are also given. Implementation and optimization of concepts presently under development is indicated as the prevailing objective

  19. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative for the European Union member countries were considered. For AD, biogas utilisation with a biogas engine was considered and two potential situations investigated - biogas combustion with (1) combined heat and power production (CHP) and (2) electricity production only. For incineration, four technology options currently available in Europe were covered: (1) an average incinerator with CHP production, (2) an average incinerator with mainly electricity production, (3) an average incinerator with mainly heat production and (4) a state-of-the art incinerator with CHP working at high energy recovery efficiencies. The study was performed using a life cycle assessment in its consequential approach. Furthermore, the role of waste-sorting guidelines (defined by the material fractions allowed for SSOHW) in relation to GWP of treating overall SSOHW with AD was investigated. A case-study of treating 1tonne of SSOHW under framework conditions in Denmark was conducted. Under the given assumptions, vegetable food waste was the only material fraction which was always better for AD compared to incineration. For animal food waste, kitchen tissue, vegetation waste and dirty paper, AD utilisation was better unless it was compared to a highly efficient incinerator. Material fractions such as moulded fibres and dirty cardboard were attractive for AD, albeit only when AD with CHP and incineration with mainly heat production were compared. Animal straw, in contrast, was always better to incinerate. Considering the total amounts of individual material fractions in waste generated within households in Denmark, food waste (both animal and vegetable derived) and kitchen tissue are the main material

  20. Local Partnerships: Achieving Stakeholder Consensus on Low-Level Waste Disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.; Bergmans, A.; Derveaux, K.; Vanhoof, L.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear waste management is more then finding a technical answer to a technical problem. Dealing with nuclear, or any other form of hazardous waste, for that matter, not only implies solving a technical problem, it also means solving a societal problem. And societal questions cannot be resolved in a technical laboratory. Of course, the technical aspect of nuclear waste management and disposal is a very important one, but the societal aspect is of equal importance. In order to find an implementable solution to deal with nuclear waste, attention should be paid to what kind of solution the society wants and under what conditions a proposed solution might be acceptable. This, however, cannot be achieved by simply adding a number of ''societal parameters'' to a technical concept modeling. It is something that can only be established through interaction with the public concerned. And that, in addition, is not something that can be preformed as an accidental spin off of a vastly elaborated technical program. Communicating or interacting with the public does not mean sweeping them off their feet with smoothly edited leaflets explaining how technically sound the proposed solution is and how wonderful it would fit in their back yard. Adding, just to proof how brilliantly this all has been thought through, numerous safety measures, so people would feel reassured. This kind of communication, will only activate people's suspicion and drive them straight into a ''NIMBY''-reaction. The public (and by this we mean the stakeholders or the people actually concerned) should be involved in the decision making on nuclear waste from the very start of the program. This means that they must be aware of the fact that tests are taken place, that they can participate in the follow up of these technical analysis, and, that they have a say in whether further steps will eventually be taken

  1. The evolution of the Italian EPR system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Technical and economic performance in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Marinella; Veit, Raphael; Massarutto, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the Italian collective system for the management of household Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), and its evolution over time, following the European Directives on WEEE, which include the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The analysis focuses on the technical and economic performance of WEEE compliance organisations (consortia), as they are the key players in the Italian EPR regime. Economic results have not usually been provided in previous studies, due to the lack of available data. This study overcomes this problem by accessing the financial statements for the years 2009-2014 of all consortia. The main conclusions of the study are: The Italian EPR system barely exceeded the technical target of the first WEEE Directive (4kg per capita). Improvements are necessary to achieve the target set for 2019 by the Recast Directive. The economic performance of the Italian EPR regime improved significantly over time. The fees charged per tonne of WEEE collected decreased by almost 43% from 652 Euro per tonne in 2009 to 374 Euro per tonne in 2014, while the fees per tonne put on the market (POM) were 134 Euro in 2009 and 104 Euro in 2014. The results prove the theory which states that, competing consortia use the learning effects to reduce the contribution fees for producers rather than to increase the quantity collected. Municipalities remain the most important actor in WEEE collection operations. Consortia compensate municipalities with a reimbursement that ranges between 28 and 38 Euros per tonne collected. These repayments cover only partially their costs. Additional studies should investigate their role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Participation in a Household Hazardous Waste Collection Drive and "Before" and "After" Public Knowledge and Disposal Practices: Champaign County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Roland J.

    The extent to which households use, store, and dispose of hazardous materials has become a matter of increasing concern but has been rarely assessed. This report provides an assessment of the first household hazardous materials publicity campaign and collection event held in Illinois. The report describes survey results concerning the state of…

  3. Evaluation and optimization of a method for pretreatment of sorted household wastes for biogas production; Utvaerdering och optimering av metod foer foerbehandling av kaellsorterat hushaallsavfall till biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden)); Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden)); Eriksson, Ylva; Holmstroem, David (Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    At NSR in Helsingborg, Sweden, organic household waste is digested and converted into biogas and bio-fertiliser. The incoming waste contains a small fraction of non-sorted waste such as plastics, metal and paper. These materials, especially plastics, can cause operational problems in the digester and pollution of the bio-fertiliser. In order to separate these particles from the digestion substrate, the waste requires pre-treatment. For two years, a screw press has been applied for pre-treating the waste at NSR. In the pre-treatment process, food waste is grounded and mixed with water to form a slurry. The slurry is separated into a dry fraction (reject) and a liquid fraction in the press. The liquid fraction is the digestion substrate and is sent to the digester while the reject is sent to combustion. Though, the separation in the screw press is not complete and thus organic, easily degradable matter ends up in the reject. In order to evaluate the efficiency in the screw press and to estimate the loss of easily degradable matter (and thus loss of methane), an assessment of the mass- and energy balances was carried out. The composition of the in- and outgoing fractions was analysed with the purpose of determining the distribution of organic material in the two outgoing fractions. The methane potential in the liquid fraction was compared with the methane potential in the slurry so as to estimate the loss of methane. The results of the mass balances showed that 63 % of the organic material that enters the screw press ends up in the liquid fraction and 37 % ends up in the reject. One ton of waste that enters the pre-treatment facility will eventually result in 1.5 tons of liquid and 0.2 tons of reject. Analysis of the composition was carried out in the slurry, the liquid fraction and the reject. These analyses showed that the liquid fraction contains a higher concentration of easily degradable matter such as fat and protein than the reject. In the incoming material, as

  4. Differences in the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during composting of two types of household bio-waste collected in four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Ales; Szakova, Jirina; Ochecova, Pavla

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during 3 different compost aeration rates of household bio-waste, originating in urban settlement (U-bio-waste) and family house buildings (F-bio-waste). The first two weeks, when the thermophilic composting phase became, the highest decline of exchangeable content was recorded. After 12 weeks of composting, lower exchangeable content was found in the case of U-bio-waste composts than F-bio-waste composts, despite higher loss of fresh mass. The order of fractions in both final composts was as follows: residual>oxidizable>reducible>exchangeable. The exchangeable portion of total content in final composts decreased in this order: Zn (17%), Cd (11%), Pb (4%) and Cu (3%). Regarding the low exchangeable content of heavy metals and high-quality organic matter, these types of composts could be used not only as fertilizer, but for remediation of metals contaminated land. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biohydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) at extreme-thermophilic temperature (70 degrees C) - Influence of pH and acetate concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen production from household solid waste (HSW) was performed via dark fermentation by using an extreme-thermophilic mixed culture, and the effect of pH and acetate on the biohydrogen production was investigated. The highest hydrogen production yield was 257 +/- 25 mL/gVS(added) at the optimum...... pH of 7.0. Acetate was proved to be inhibiting the dark fermentation process at neutral pH, which indicates that the inhibition was caused by total acetate concentration not by undissociated acetate. Initial inhibition was detected at acetate concentration of 50 mM, while the hydrogen fermentation...

  6. Effect of Household Solid Waste on Initial Growth Performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal and management became one of the major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Realising the problem, the present study has been undertaken with a view to find a sound and effective way of bio-degradable solid waste management. The study was carried out in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at University of Chittagong to determine the effects of solid waste and waste inoculated with mycorrhizal soil on initial growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona. Before planting the seedlings, decomposable waste and mycorrhiza inoculated decomposable waste were placed on the planting holes. Physical growth parameters of seedlings (shoot and root length, leaf and branch number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and nodulation status and the macro nutrients (N, P and K were recorded after six months of planting. The highest performance of physical parameters was recorded in the soil treated by mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Cedrela toona was represented by maximum nutrients uptake (N-2.60%, P-0.21% and K-2.34% respectively in the soil treated with mycorrhiza. In case of Acacia auriculiformis, N uptake was maximum (3.02% in control while K uptake was highest (1.27% in soil with waste and P (0.18% uptake was highest in the soil treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Highest initial growth performance was revealed by seedlings treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. This study suggested to use mycorrhiza and waste for plantation purposes for hygienic disposal of solid waste and to reduce cost of cultivation.

  7. evaluation of municipal solid waste management system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: solid waste, household, waste bin, willingness to pay, municipal. 1. INTRODUCTION .... significant differences between WTP and household ... Gender. Income of Household. Education Status. House Type. Household Size. Male.

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of advanced household electric appliance recycling technology; 1998 nendo senshinteki kaden recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop a household electric appliance recycling technology, research and development has been made on crushing of compressors, separation of resins and metals, and regenerative utilization of urethane used as the refrigerator heat insulating material. In the compressor crushing technology, development was made on a ring hammer crusher of wood pattern horizontal type. In the research of the resin-metal separation technology, the dry-type separation and material purity were enhanced successfully by means of classification of materials to be crushed according to grain sizes, and classification using an eddy current screening device and a specific gravity screening device. In the research of the urethane regenerative utilization technology, the contained fluorocarbon was decomposed at the rate of 99.999% by modifying and rinsing the pyrolytic gas from the urethane by means of cracking, having achieved to make the material innocuous. The fuel gas thus obtained can be utilized for electric power generation. In addition, a method to granulate the material was established by mixing it with thermo-plastic resins. It was discovered that using the recovered urethane, which is pulverized smaller than 300 {mu} m, can elevate the heat insulation performance when it is used as the vacuum heat insulator, proving its capability of being re-utilized in refrigerators. (NEDO)

  9. Achieving compliance with healthcare waste management regulations : empirical evidence from small European healthcare units

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Anabela

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare units generate substantial amounts of hazardous or potentially hazardous wastes as by-products of their medical services. The inappropriate management of these wastes poses significant risks to people and the environment. In Portugal, as in other EU countries, the collection, storage, treatment and disposal of healthcare waste is regulated by law. Although legal provisions covering the safe management of healthcare waste date back to the 1990s, little is known about the compliance ...

  10. Development and characterization of new high-level waste form containing LiCl KCl eutectic salts for achieving waste minimization from pyroprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Zun; Kim, In Tae; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Byeung Gil; Eun, Hee Chul; Son, Seock Mo; Ah, Su Na

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop new high level waste (HLW) forms and fabrication processes to dispose of active metal fission products that are removed from electrorefiner salts in the pyroprocessing based fuel cycle. The current technology for disposing of active metal fission products in pyroprocessing involves non selectively discarding of fission product loaded salt in a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form. Selective removal of fission products from the molten salt would greatly minimize the amount of HLW generated and methods were developed to achieve selective separation of fission products during a previous I NERI research project (I NERI 2006 002 K). This I NERI project proceeds from the previous project with the development of suitable waste forms to immobilize the separated fission products. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has focused primarily on developing these waste forms using surrogate waste materials, while the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has demonstrated fabrication of these waste forms using radioactive electrorefiner salts in hot cell facilities available at INL. Testing and characterization of these radioactive materials was also performed to determine the physical, chemical, and durability properties of the waste forms

  11. New paradigms on how to achieve zero food waste in future cities : Optimizing food use by waste prevention and valorization

    OpenAIRE

    Redlingshofer, Barbara; Guilbert, Stéphane; Fuentes, Claire; Gracieux, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Cities currently manage uneaten food and other food system based biowaste quite inefficiently. The organic compound, despite its high nutriment value, is only to a small extent recycled and returned to farm soil and therefore, does not contribute to closing ecological nutrient cycles and to supporting sustainable food production [1]. In the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills [2]. Forkes has shown for Toronto that only 4.7% at most of food waste nitrogen (includi...

  12. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, Jeffrey D.; Jansen, John R.; Janke, David H.; Plowman, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results

  13. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-03-09

    Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has

  14. Achieving local support for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.A.; Seidler, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how Illinois is progressing toward the goal of having a new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility in operation by the federally mandated milestone of January 1, 1993. To accomplish this task, Illinois has adopted a voluntary siting process. The voluntary siting process will be successful by definition only if a high level of local support can be achieved and sustained. A strong public participation program in conjunction with a comprehensive information and education program is essential to fostering the necessary local support. Many other elements are also needed throughout this process. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) has found that making grants to local governments, awarding scholarships for area students, enacting a comprehensive system of legislation and regulations, explaining the site identification and characterization program, describing facility design features, practicing a strong policy of buying and hiring locally, maintaining good relationships with local news media and building trust through personal relationships have all greatly contributed to support for the LLW program in the potential host communities

  15. Wet oxidation treatment of organic household waste enriched with wheat straw for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation into ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.

    2004-01-01

    Organic municipal solid waste enriched with wheat straw was subjected to wet-oxidation as a pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation into bio-ethanol. The effect of tempera (185-195degrees C), oxygen pressure (3-12) and sodium carbonate (0-2 g l(-1)) addition on enzymatic...... in the treated waste could be converted into respectively hexose and pentose sugars compared to 46% for cellulose and 36% for hemicellulose in the raw waste. For all wet oxidation conditions tested, total carbohydrate recoveries were high (> 89%) and 44-66% of the original lignin could be converted into non......-toxic carboxylic acids mainly (2.2-4.5 % on DS basis). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the treated waste at 10% DS by Saccharomyces cerevisae yielded average ethanol concentrations of 16.5 to 22 g l(-1) for enzyme loadings of 5 and 25 FPU g(-1) DS, respectively. The cellulose to ethanol...

  16. Waste minimisation. Home digestion trials of biodegradable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bench, M.L.; Woodard, R.; Harder, M.K.; Stantzos, N. [Waste and Energy Research Group (WERG), Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Brighton, East Sussex BN2 4GJ (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    Minimisation of municipal solid waste and diversion from landfill are necessary for the UK to manage waste sustainably and achieve legislative compliance. A survey of householder attitudes and experiences of a trial for minimising household food waste from waste collection in the county of West Sussex, UK is described. The minimisation method used the Green Cone food digester, designed for garden installation. A postal questionnaire was distributed to 1000 householders who had bought a cone during the trial and a total of 433 responses were received. The main reason for people buying the Green Cone had been concerns about waste (88%), with 78% and 67% of respondents, respectively, claiming to have participated in recycling and home composting in the last 30 days. The waste material most frequently put in the digester was cooked food (91%), followed by fruit waste, vegetable matter and bones/meat. Some respondents were using it for garden and animal waste from pets. Most users found the Green Cone performed satisfactorily. Approximately, 60% of respondents had seen a reduction of 25-50% in the amount of waste they normally put out for collection, with analysis showing reported levels of reduction to be significant (p<0.05). Additional weight surveys by householders recorded an average of 2.7kg/(hweek) diverted to the food digester.

  17. Food Waste Generation at Household Level: Results of a Survey among Employees of Two European Research Centers in Italy and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Jörissen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus in literature that private households are significant contributors to the total amount of food waste in the EU. Thus, any strategy to meaningfully combat food wastage must put the end consumer in the center of prevention activities. This requires deeper insights into people’s motivations to discard still edible food and knowledge about potential barriers to reduce wasting. This paper reports on results of an online survey among two European research centers in Italy (JRC/Ispra and Germany (KIT/Karlsruhe. The focus of the survey was on households’ behaviors (shopping, eating, and food preparation habits and its influence on the generation of food waste. Furthermore, reasons for the disposal of food as well as measures and technologies most needed to prevent wastage were discussed. The results of the survey are analyzed, especially with regard to two questions: (1 Are there considerable differences between Ispra and Karlsruhe? (2 Are there considerable similarities or inconsistencies with the results of previous studies?

  18. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  19. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideker, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP's waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP's RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators' understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations

  20. Reporting 1998 - households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership

  1. Policy Mixes to Achieve Absolute Decoupling: A Case Study of Municipal Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Montevecchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying the effectiveness of environmental policies is of primary importance to address the unsustainable use of resources that threatens the entire society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate on the effectiveness of environmental policy instruments to decouple waste generation and landfilling from economic growth. In order to do so, the paper analyzes the case study of the Slovakian municipality of Palarikovo, which has drastically improved its waste management system between 2000 and 2012, through the utilization of differentiated waste taxes and awareness-raising and education campaigns, as well as targeting increased recycling and municipal composting. We find evidence of absolute decoupling for landfilled waste and waste generation, the latter being more limited in time and magnitude. These policy instruments could therefore play an important role in municipalities that are still lagging behind in waste management. More specifically, this policy mix was effective in moving away from landfilling, initiating recycling systems, and to some extent decreasing waste generation. Yet, a more explicit focus on waste prevention will be needed to address the entirety of the problem effectively.

  2. Digestion of biogenic wastes from households, industry and wastes harvested on public grounds. Vergaerung biogener Abfaelle aus Haushalt, Industrie und Landschaftspflege; Schlussbericht: Band A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The mass and biogas potentials of organic municipal and industrial solid wastes, as well as of wastes harvested on public grounds, have been determined. The mass potential was found to be around 285'000 tons of digestible organic matter per year. By digesting all this matter, theoretically, about 130'000'000 m[sup 3] of biogas or 3 PJ of energy could be generated yearly. The practical realizable potential is estimated to be nearly 2 PJ/a, including the savings by substituting the energy needed nowadays for the importation of peat and for the production of artificial fertilizers. Considering the fact, that the incineration of organic wastes costs more than biological treatment, the potential is relatively easy to realize. More than 50% of the humus losses of Swiss soils could be compensated by the application of digestion and composting technology. The different technologies for anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes are compared: the thermophilic, one-stage digestion seems to be further advanced in development than (mesophilic) two-stage digestion. Co-digestion of sludges of municipal waste water treatment plants and solid organic wastes may be advantageous for rural areas. An appropriate marketing strategy for the application of the solid product, however, has to be looked at. Because the two-stage process seems to have some advantages regarding the rate of organic matter breakdown, the product quality and the hygienic conditions, a mesophilic two-stage experimental plant has been constructed. The results of the first experiment of a simple combination of a percolated hydrolytic step with a pulsating, dynamic anaerobic filter are presented. Data on the quality of the solid product from anaerobic digestion of biogenic solid wastes are given. (author) 9 figs., 11 tabs., 75 refs.

  3. Achievement report in fiscal 2000 on technical development to recycle waste building materials and glasses. Development of waste building material recycling technology (Research and development of wooden board manufacturing technology using demolished building lumbers); 2000 nendo kenchiku glass nado recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kenhciku haizai recycle gijutsu kaihatsu (kenchiku kaitai mokuzai wo mochiita mokushitsu board seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made on a wooden board manufacturing technology re-utilizing demolished building lumbers and waste plastics with an intention of saving resources and reducing wastes. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In developing the technology to re-use demolished building lumbers, a method for removing metals attached to demolished building lumbers was established by using a magnetic separator and a metal detector, with which it was verified that iron can be removed nearly 100%. With regard to waste plastics, simultaneous use of specific gravity separation utilizing centrifugal force and electrostatic separation provided a prospect that metals and plastics of high melting points can be removed from mixed resins in waste household electric appliances, and that polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and ABS can be classified at high accuracy. In manufacturing waste wood and waste plastic boards, pilot plants were built to use the 'melt spray method', 'melt blow method', and 'laminating method' as the means to spray molten resin onto wood raw materials, wherein trials were performed on mixing molten resins with wood flakes, and on board forming. (NEDO)

  4. Emission of greenhouse gases from home aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion and vermicomposting of household wastes in Brisbane (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yiu C; Sinha, Rajiv K; Weijin Wang

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three different home waste treatment methods in Brisbane, Australia. Gas samples were taken monthly from 34 backyard composting bins from January to April 2009. Averaged over the study period, the aerobic composting bins released lower amounts of CH(4) (2.2 mg m(- 2) h(-1)) than the anaerobic digestion bins (9.5 mg m(-2) h(-1)) and the vermicomposting bins (4.8 mg m(-2) h( -1)). The vermicomposting bins had lower N(2)O emission rates (1.2 mg m(-2) h(- 1)) than the others (1.5-1.6 mg m(-2) h( -1)). Total GHG emissions including both N(2)O and CH(4) were 463, 504 and 694 mg CO(2)-e m(- 2) h(-1) for vermicomposting, aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion, respectively, with N(2)O contributing >80% in the total budget. The GHG emissions varied substantially with time and were regulated by temperature, moisture content and the waste properties, indicating the potential to mitigate GHG emission through proper management of the composting systems. In comparison with other mainstream municipal waste management options including centralized composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, landfilling and incineration, home composting has the potential to reduce GHG emissions through both lower on-site emissions and the minimal need for transportation and processing. On account of the lower cost, the present results suggest that home composting provides an effective and feasible supplementary waste management method to a centralized facility in particular for cities with lower population density such as the Australian cities.

  5. Determinants and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Policy Effectiveness on Residents' Separation Intention for Rural Household Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chuanhui; Zhao, Dingtao; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Lanfang

    2018-04-11

    Currently, villages "besieged with garbage" have become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Separation of rural residential solid waste (RRSW) is one of the main strategies for waste reduction. Although previous studies have analyzed the social and psychological motivations of residents' separation intention for municipal solid waste (MSW), little attention has been paid to the situation in rural areas. This paper investigates key factors influencing rural residents' separation intention, as well as analyzing the moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness on the relationship between the determinants and the intention, using survey data of 538 rural residents in the province of Sichuan in China. The results show that all the proposed key factors influence the separation intention significantly. Furthermore, the policies were divided into two types and the moderating effects were tested for each type. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of both the inducement policy and the capacity building policy moderated the relationship between attitude and separation intention positively, while the perceived effectiveness of the inducement policy moderated the relationship between subjective norms and intention negatively. The findings provide insightful information for policymakers to design effective RRSW separation policies.

  6. Determinants and the Moderating Effect of Perceived Policy Effectiveness on Residents’ Separation Intention for Rural Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dingtao; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Lanfang

    2018-01-01

    Currently, villages “besieged with garbage” have become a serious problem in rural areas of China. Separation of rural residential solid waste (RRSW) is one of the main strategies for waste reduction. Although previous studies have analyzed the social and psychological motivations of residents’ separation intention for municipal solid waste (MSW), little attention has been paid to the situation in rural areas. This paper investigates key factors influencing rural residents’ separation intention, as well as analyzing the moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness on the relationship between the determinants and the intention, using survey data of 538 rural residents in the province of Sichuan in China. The results show that all the proposed key factors influence the separation intention significantly. Furthermore, the policies were divided into two types and the moderating effects were tested for each type. The results show that the perceived effectiveness of both the inducement policy and the capacity building policy moderated the relationship between attitude and separation intention positively, while the perceived effectiveness of the inducement policy moderated the relationship between subjective norms and intention negatively. The findings provide insightful information for policymakers to design effective RRSW separation policies. PMID:29641502

  7. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households-Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Noah; Lindahl, Therese; Borgström, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  8. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the management of organic household waste (OHW) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the waste-life cycle assessment (LCA) model EASEWASTE. The focus was on home composting of OHW in Denmark and six different home composting units (with different input and different mixing frequencies) were modelled. In addition, incineration and landfilling was modelled as alternatives to home composting. The most important processes contributing to the environmental impact of home composting were identified as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (load) and the avoided emissions in relation to the substitution of fertiliser and peat when compost was used in hobby gardening (saving). The replacement of fertiliser and peat was also identified as one of the most sensible parameters, which could potentially have a significant environmental benefit. Many of the impact categories (especially human toxicity via water (HTw) and soil (HTs)) were affected by the heavy metal contents of the incoming OHW. The concentrations of heavy metals in the compost were below the threshold values for compost used on land and were thus not considered to constitute a problem. The GHG emissions were, on the other hand, dependent on the management of the composting units. The frequently mixed composting units had the highest GHG emissions. The environmental profiles of the home composting scenarios were in the order of −2 to 16 milli person equivalents (mPE) Mg −1 wet waste (ww) for the non-toxic categories and −0.9 to 28 mPE Mg −1 ww for the toxic categories. Home composting performed better than or as good as incineration and landfilling in several of the potential impact categories. One exception was the global warming (GW) category, in which incineration performed better due to the substitution of heat and electricity based on fossil fuels.

  9. A Novel Process Configuration for Anaerobic Digestion of Source-Sorted Household Waste Using Hyper-Thermophilic Post-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    A novel reactor configuration was investigated for anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). An anaerobic hyper-thermophilic (68°C) reactor R68 was implemented as a post–treatment step for the effluent of a thermophilic reactor R1 (55°C) in order to enhance...... hydrolysis of recalcitrant organic matter, improve sanitation and ease the stripping of ammonia from the reactor. The efficiency of the combined system was studied in terms of methane yield, volatile solids (VS) reduction and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production at different hydraulic retention times (HRT...

  10. The implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform main achievement in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delay, J.; Garcia, M.; Kowe, R.

    2015-01-01

    After decades of bilateral and multilateral cooperation, several European waste management organizations decided, under the auspices of the European Commission (EC), to join their forces to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges associated with the implementation of their respective geological disposal programs. The main objectives of the Implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste technology platform (IGD-TP) are to initiate and carry out collaborative actions in Europe to tackle the remaining research, development and demonstration (RD&D) challenges with a view to advancing the implementation of geological disposal programmes for high-level and long-lived waste in Europe. This paper presents the organisation of the work and the main Joint activities and projects to date, initiated by the IGD-TP members and supported for some of them by the European Commission under the FP7 framework programme and in the near future under the Horizon 2020 programme. (authors)

  11. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Barry D. (Dept. of Social Sciences, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (United States)), e-mail: bdsolomo@mtu.edu; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban (Center for Public Sector Research, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  12. Thirty Years of Social Science Research on High-Level Nuclear Waste: Achievements and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban

    2010-09-01

    Research on high-level nuclear waste management has focused on technical and scientific issues since the U.S. National Academy of Sciences first studied the problem in the mid 1950s and recommended long-term disposal in deep salt formations. In this review, we trace the development of the problem's definition and its associated research since socioeconomic, political and policy issues were first given consideration and nuclear waste management became recognized as more than a technical issue. Three time periods are identified. First, from the mid 1970s to early 1980s, initial research explored institutional dimensions of nuclear waste, including ethics. The second period began in the early 1980s with a concerted effort to solve the problem and site nuclear waste repositories, and ended in the mid 1990s with minimal progress in the U.S. and general stalemate in Asia and Europe (with the notable exception of Sweden). This phase accelerated research on risk perception and stigma of nuclear waste, and elevated a focus on public trust. Great attention was given to repository siting conflicts, while minimal attention was placed on ethics, equity, political systems, and public participation. The last period, since the mid 1990s, has been characterized by continuing political stalemate and increased attention to public participation, political systems and international solutions. Questions of ethics have been given renewed attention, while research on risk perceptions and siting conflicts continues. We frame these periods in a broader context of the shifting role of applied social scientists. The paper concludes with a general discussion of this research area and prospects for future research

  13. A Baumol-Oates approach to solid waste taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.

    2002-01-01

    A national Baumol–Oates tax on waste in Denmark helped achieve a reduction of 26% in net solid waste from 1987 to 1998. The tax, which is levied per ton of waste, was particularly effective as regards the heavier waste streams such as construction waste and garden waste. When it comes to industrial...... and commercial waste, there are indications that the waste tax is not sufficiently significant to induce changes in behavior, and that except for very waste-intensive enterprises, companies do not seem to be very price sensitive. For household waste, the impact of the tax can be improved where tariffs...... for garbage collection are weight based, rather than per unit. However, the waste sector is an area in which the price signals are modified and filtered by institutionalized practices in municipal administration, and in which true-cost pricing is not easy to achieve. Hence, the rational choice assumption...

  14. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  15. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when applied

  16. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The current US nuclear waste disposal program began with passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and was modified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The Amendments Act made many major changes to the original Act, the most significant of which was the singling out of Yucca Mountain as the only site to be studied for a deep geologic high-level nuclear waste repository. While that decision appeared to simplify and streamline the program, it vastly increased the levels of public resistance and protest, particularly in Nevada. To counter the lack of public acceptance of its programs, the Department of Energy has embarked on countless efforts purportedly aimed at creating public participation. However, nuclear proponents portray a Yucca Mountain repository as inevitable. With this a foregone conclusion, it is apparent to the public that opportunities for meaningful participation do not exist - the only allowable change is in their attitudes. This is purely paternalism and, as such, it is an insult to concerned citizens. Intelligent citizens believe that they cannot play a meaningful role in the current program. Their participation amounts to joining a game or contest that is rigged. All rules, regulations and standards governing the Yucca Mountain project are either changing or proposed to be changed. In a game of golf, players cannot determine their handicap midway through the course. While there are jokes told about such actions in sports, a nuclear waste policy is no laughing matter. In this case, the game, or site characterization program, is now referred to by many as 'advocacy science'. With Yucca Mountain as the only site, and the frantic cries of the commercial nuclear utilities that the lack of a disposal site is a national crisis, the investigations of the site appear to watchful citizens to be aimed at proving its suitability, rather than an objective study. Risk Assessment and risk communication, while very useful when

  17. Recycling of Organic Wastes to Achieve the Clean Agriculture Approach with Aid of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Objective of this current work is to study Organic matter decomposition under clean agriculture system in sandy soil using nuclear technique. This desirtatation has the following targets: - Amendment and improving sandy soil properties - Utilization of farm wastes (Recycling) in safe mode -Benefits form organic matter decomposition. - Follow up the fate of same nutrients (Nitrogen) released in soil media after organic matter (O.M) decomposition and Impact on plant nutrition status.-saving the environment on short and long run.

  18. Achievements and Perspectives of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, D.; Lacoste, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management is the first legal instrument to directly address the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management on a global scale. The Joint Convention entered into force in 2001. This paper describes its process and its main achievements to date. The perspectives to establish of a Global Waste Safety Regime based on the Joint Convention are also discussed. (authors)

  19. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  20. Ways to achieve optimum utilization of waste gas heat in cement kiln plants with cyclone preheaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbiss, E

    1986-02-01

    Kiln exit gases and the exhaust gases from clinker coolers often cannot be fully utilized in drying plants. In such cases a part of the heat content of the gases should be utilized for water heating. In addition, it is possible to utilize the waste gas heat in conventional steam boilers, with which, depending on design, it is possible to generate electricity at a rate of between 10-30 kWh/t (net output). A new and promising method of utilization of waste gas heat is provided by precalcining systems with bypass, in which up to 100% of the kiln exit gases can be economically bypassed and be utilized in a steam boiler, without requiring any cooling. A development project, already started, gives information on the operational behaviour of such a plant and on the maximum energy recoverable. Alternatively, the bypass gases may, after partial cooling with air or preheater exit gas, be dedusted and then utilized in a grinding/drying plant. Furthermore, they can be used in the cement grinding process for the drying of wet granulated blastfurnace slag or other materials. For this it is not necessary to dedust the bypass gases.

  1. Development of low-pH cements for immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste: achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins de Freitas, Regeane; Al-Tabbaa, Abir [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Although cementation is a widely recognized solidification/ stabilization process for immobilisation of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (ILRW), the low resistance to hyper-alkaline pore waters compromises the effectiveness of the process when Portland Cement (PC) is employed. Moreover the manufacture of PC is responsible for significant CO{sub 2} emissions. In this context, low pH cements are environmentally more suitable and have emerged as a potential alternative for obtaining secure waste forms. This paper summarises the achievements on development of low-pH cements and the challenges of using these new materials for the ILRW immobilisation. The performance of waste forms is also discussed in terms of radionuclides release. Reactive magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphate cements are emphasised as they feature important advantages such as consumption of available constituents for controlling acid-base reactions, reduced permeability and higher density. Additionally, in order to identify new opportunities for study, the long-term modelling approach is also briefly discussed. (authors)

  2. Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative Project Achievements for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohman, E.H.; Lohrstorfer, C.L.; Venedam, R.J.; Weeks, S.J.; Fannin, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI) project has been in existence since 2002. In this short time period, AMSI has successfully developed, tested and/or demonstrated over 30 advanced sensors and monitoring systems for applications in environmental restoration, waste management and other areas of national interest. This presentation summarizes the AMSI project, and gives examples of recent successes. The purpose of the presentation is to make Symposium attendees aware of AMSI's capabilities and experience, for possible use in the future. Example successes include the following: - Automated hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) monitoring in wells alongside the Columbia River; - Atmospheric chemical sensor array for remote, real-time plume tracking; - Wireless sensor platform for long-term monitoring of subsurface moisture; - Embedded piezo-resistive micro-cantilever (EPM) units for carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) detection; - 'iHistorian' for efficient, real-time data management of chemical releases. (authors)

  3. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  4. Schooling and Achievement: A Discussion on African American Students from Low Socio-Economic Households and Their Over-Diagnoses of Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankerson, Pamela S.

    2011-01-01

    The following is a discussion on student level of academic achievement, specifically that of African American learners. The misdiagnosis of Black students having learning disabilities and other disabilities will be examined, and the factors as to why this misdiagnosis occurs so often. Research will be provided as evidence to support this claim, as…

  5. Inactivation of bacterial pathogenic load in compost against vermicompost of organic solid waste aiming to achieve sanitation goals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Waste management strategies for organic residues, such as composting and vermicomposting, have been implemented in some developed and developing countries to solve the problem of organic solid waste (OSW). Yet, these biological treatment technologies do not always result in good quality compost or vermicompost with regards to sanitation capacity owing to the presence of bacterial pathogenic substances in objectionable concentrations. The presence of pathogens in soil conditioners poses a potential health hazard and their occurrence is of particular significance in composts and/or vermicomposts produced from organic materials. Past and present researches demonstrated a high-degree of agreement that various pathogens survive after the composting of certain OSW but whether similar changes in bacterial pathogenic loads arise during vermitechnology has not been thoroughly elucidated. This review garners information regarding the status of various pathogenic bacteria which survived or diffused after the composting process compared to the status of these pathogens after the vermicomposting of OSW with the aim of achieving sanitation goals. This work is also indispensable for the specification of compost quality guidelines concerning pathogen loads which would be specific to treatment technology. It was hypothesized that vermicomposting process for OSW can be efficacious in sustaining the existence of pathogenic organisms most specifically; human pathogens under safety levels. In summary, earthworms can be regarded as a way of obliterating pathogenic bacteria from OSW in a manner equivalent to earthworm gut transit mechanism which classifies vermicomposting as a promising sanitation technique in comparison to composting processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  7. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate 'Partitioning and Transmutation' (P and T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P and T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ∼100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P and T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P and T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9%) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9% also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be 'transmuted' (or 'burned') in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be

  8. Influence of recycling programmes on waste separation behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Katya; Alriksson, Stina

    2017-10-01

    To achieve high rates of waste reuse and recycling, waste separation in households is essential. This study aimed to reveal how recycling programmes in Sweden and Bulgaria influenced inhabitants' participation in separation of household waste. The waste separation behaviour of 111 university students from Kalmar, Sweden and 112 students from Plovdiv, Bulgaria was studied using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. The results showed that a lack of proper conditions for waste separation can prevent individuals from participating in this process, regardless of their positive attitudes. When respondents were satisfied with the local conditions for waste separation their behaviour instead depended on their personal attitudes towards waste separation and recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City...

  10. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  11. The C-simulator as a tool to investigate the potential of household waste compost to increase soil organic matter in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tits, Mia; Hermans, Inge; Elsen, Annemie; Vandendriessche, Hilde

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important parameter of the quality of arable land. At the global scale, agricultural soils are considered to be a major sink of carbon dioxide. Results of thousands of soil analyses carried out annually by the Soil Service of Belgium have shown that carbon stocks in Flemish agricultural land have dwindled in the past decades, and this in spite of the increased use of animal manure from intensive livestock holdings. In the framework of the improvement of the SOM content and at the same time the idea of organic waste recycling ("cradle to cradle"-principle), a long-term field experiment with household waste compost (HWC) was set up in 1997 by the Soil Service of Belgium. In this trial different HWC application rates and timings were realized yearly, in order to investigate its nutritive value for arable crops, its effect on crop yield and its long-term effect on soil fertility, pH and soil organic matter content. Yearly data on crop rotation, crop development and yield as well as soil and HWC analyses were obtained for each trial treatment. Climatic data were obtained from nearby weather stations. Also in the context of the SOM-problem, the Soil Service of Belgium and the University of Ghent have developed, at the request of the Flemish government, the C-simulator, a simple but efficient interactive tool to assist farmers with the carbon stock management on their arable land. By providing input on the current carbon status of a particular field, the crop rotation and the (organic) fertiliser plan, the program calculates the expected evolution of the soil organic carbon over a thirty year period. By consulting comparative lists of characteristics of different crops and organic manures the farmer can adjust his strategy for a more efficient organic matter management. The calculations of the C-simulator are based on the RothC model, which was calibrated for Flemish conditions through an extensive literature study. Specific data on the

  12. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  13. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  14. Characterization of wastes and their recycling potentials; A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Key words: Solid waste, waste characterization, recycling potentials, waste scavengers. ABSTRACT: Wastes ... Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing ... wastes generated by household, commercial activities or other ...

  15. Solid medical waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udofia, Emilia Asuquo; Gulis, Gabriel; Fobil, Julius

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid medical waste (SMW) in households is perceived to pose minimal risks to the public compared to SMW generated from healthcare facilities. While waste from healthcare facilities is subject to recommended safety measures to minimize risks to human health and the environment, similar...... waste in households is often untreated and co-mingled with household waste which ends up in landfills and open dumps in many African countries. In Ghana, the management of this potentially hazardous waste stream at household and community level has not been widely reported. The objective of this study...... likely to report harm in the household (OR 2.75, 95%CI 1.15-6.54). CONCLUSION: The belief that one can be harmed by diseases associated with SMW influenced reporting rates in the study area. Disposal practices suggest the presence of unwanted medicines and sharps in the household waste stream conferring...

  16. Information report, on behalf of the delegation to the national and sustainable development, about the management of household wastes in the French territory; Rapport d'information, au nom de la delegation a l'amenagement et au developpement durable du territoire, sur la gestion des dechets menagers sur le territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    The French law from July 13, 1992, relative to the elimination of wastes and to the waste management facilities, was based on four goals: reduction of waste production at the source, transport, valorization by recycling or energy recovery, and disposal of ultimate wastes only. This report makes a status of the situation of wastes management in France, ten years after the enforcement of the 1992 law: persistence of the society problem of wastes, mitigated results (collection, processing, delays, insufficient valorization), present day and future national development stakes (saturated storage and processing facilities, public psychological reserve, environmental conflicts), financing, new proposals (restoring public confidence, transforming harmful effects into richnesses thanks to financial incentives). Some additional information is given in appendixes which make the second part of this report (origin and processing of household wastes, storage facilities with a capacity greater than 20000 t/year, list of incineration facilities in operation, transport of municipal wastes). (J.S.)

  17. Information report, on behalf of the delegation to the national and sustainable development, about the management of household wastes in the French territory; Rapport d'information, au nom de la delegation a l'amenagement et au developpement durable du territoire, sur la gestion des dechets menagers sur le territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    The French law from July 13, 1992, relative to the elimination of wastes and to the waste management facilities, was based on four goals: reduction of waste production at the source, transport, valorization by recycling or energy recovery, and disposal of ultimate wastes only. This report makes a status of the situation of wastes management in France, ten years after the enforcement of the 1992 law: persistence of the society problem of wastes, mitigated results (collection, processing, delays, insufficient valorization), present day and future national development stakes (saturated storage and processing facilities, public psychological reserve, environmental conflicts), financing, new proposals (restoring public confidence, transforming harmful effects into richnesses thanks to financial incentives). Some additional information is given in appendixes which make the second part of this report (origin and processing of household wastes, storage facilities with a capacity greater than 20000 t/year, list of incineration facilities in operation, transport of municipal wastes). (J.S.)

  18. Dose concepts and the achievability of protection for the disposal of long-lived solid waste according to ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Schneider, Th.

    2010-01-01

    Th. Schneider introduced the subject explaining that the main strength of the ICRP is to set up a unified protection system applicable to all types of exposure situations. In 2007, the ICRP issued ICRP 103 which formally replaces the previous recommendations that were issued in 1991 as ICRP 60. One of the major features of the new recommendations is the evolution from 'the previous process-based protection approach using practices and interventions to a situation-based approach applying the fundamental principles of protection to all controllable exposure situations' in a similar way. In the case of radioactive waste disposal, the long timescale to be dealt with led ICRP to publish the dedicated recommendations ICRP 81 (1999) based on ICRP 60. Th. Schneider presented then a series of issues raised by the radioactive waste management community, relating the recommendations of ICRP 81 to the new orientations provided by ICRP 103. Radiation detriment is a complex construction based on not directly measurable quantities such as equivalent and effective doses. Effective dose is a risk-related quantity and should not be used in assessing health effects on a specific individual. Dose and risk as well as the radiation detriment are still appropriate for long term evaluation even though there are uncertainties associated with the assessment of the dose. It would be a mistake to consider that the ICRP dosimetric quantities and the radiation detriment are not appropriate for long term evaluations, but their meaning must be understood. What is at stake is not to evaluate the level of health of a group of population in 10 6 years from now, but to estimate through a comparison (risk indicator associated with several options of protection at the design level of the repository) the level of protection achieved by a radioactive waste strategy. Current radiological protection criteria are a reasonable basis to assess the disposal strategy. They give a general appreciation of the

  19. Recyclables Valorisation as the Best Strategy for Achieving Landfill CO2e Emissions Abatement from Domestic Waste: Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taboada-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various nations in the world have developed technologies and strategies for appropriate waste disposal, and to abate waste generation and greenhouse gasses. Alternatives like recovering materials can help, but they require reliable information to improve planning and management. This study quantifies the Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions produced by the lack of valorisation of materials in a Mexican city. Two waste characterisations in a lower-class neighbourhood were carried out. For the CO2 emission estimation, two scenarios were considered. DEFRA emission factors for waste treatment processes were used. Waste generation was 0.64 kg/capita/day in the first study, and 0.50 kg/capita/day in the second. The CO2eq emissions of collected waste in the neighbourhood were estimated at 1824 kg for 2013 (0.20 kg/capita/day and 1636 kg for 2015 (0.19 kg/capita/day. The behaviour of solid waste management in the city can be explained by the “prisoner’s dilemma” model, studied in game theory, which is ideally suited to analysing situations affected by multiple agents, but requires an accurate understanding of solid waste actors and social implications.

  20. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  1. Solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Golomeova, Saska; Zhezhova, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Waste is unwanted or useless materials from households, industry, agriculture, hospitals. Waste materials in solid state are classified as solid waste. Increasing of the amount of solid waste and the pressure what it has on the environment, impose the need to introduce sustainable solid waste management. Advanced sustainable solid waste management involves several activities at a higher level of final disposal of the waste management hierarchy. Minimal use of material and energy resources ...

  2. How should the household waste be handled? Evaluation of different treatment methods; Hur skall hushaallsavfallet tas om hand? Utvaerdering av olika behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, J.O.; Carlsson Reich, M.; Granath, J. [The Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Baky, Andras [Swedish Inst. of Agriculatural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology

    2002-02-01

    Energy turnover, and environmental and economic consequences of different municipal solid waste management systems have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, recycling of separated plastic and cardboard packages and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easy degradable organic waste, were studied and also compared to landfilling. A simulation model (ORWARE), based on LCA methodology, was used. The following parameters were used for evaluating the different waste management options: consumption of energy resources, emissions of greenhouse gases, emissions of acidifying substances, emissions of eutrophicating substances, emissions of photo oxidant formers, heavy metal flows, financial economy and welfare economy. The analysis was based on a model municipality. In a sensitivity analysis different technical, geographic and demographic parameters have been varied, making the result to cover several different types of municipalities and regions. The conclusions from the study are as follows. The most obvious conclusion is that landfilling should be avoided. Wastes that can be incinerated (combusted), material recycled, anaerobically digested or composted should not be landfilled. This is valid even if landfill gas is extracted and utilised, and the leachate is collected and treated. This is due to that the resources in the waste are inefficiently utilised when landfilled, making it necessary to produce materials, fuels and nutrients from virgin resources. It is impossible to draw unambiguous conclusions of which of the other treatment options that is is most preferable. There are advantages and disadvantages with all options. In a systems perspective there are small differences between incineration and aerobic digestion of easy degradable organic material, and between incineration and material recycling of e.g. plastics and cardboard. Material recycling, anaerobic digestion and incineration should not be seen

  3. Waste -92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekwall, K.

    1992-11-01

    The report gives a review of waste incineration in Sweden today, including environmental and legal aspects. 21 incinerator plants are in use, producing heat to district heating network and, to a minor part, electric power. In 1991 1.31 Mton household waste and 0.35 Mton industrial waste were incinerated producing 4.4 Twh of energy. In a few cities 30-40 percent of the district heat comes from waste incineration. The theoretical and practical potentials for energy production in Sweden are estimated to 7 respective 5 TWh for household waste and 9 respective 5-6 TWh for industrial waste. Landfill gas is extracted at about 35 sites, with a yearly production of 0.3 TWh which corresponds to 3-5 percent of the potentially recoverable quantity. (8 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.)

  4. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems,

  5. Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of the Economic and Environmental Efficiency Valuation of Solid Household Waste Recycling Теоретико-методические аспекты оценки экономико-экологической эффективности рециклинга твердых бытовых отходов

    OpenAIRE

    Dovga Tatyana N.

    2013-01-01

    The basic organizational and methodological problems of the economic and environmental efficiency valuation of solid household waste recycling that can arise in waste processing plants and complexes of Ukraine are investigated in the article. The urgency of implementing solid household waste recycling process was justified. The new approach to the classification of the economic and environmental efficiency valuation indicators of solid household waste recycling in Ukraine was proposed by the ...

  6. Exploration on the Recycling Mechanism of Waste Household Appliances and Electronic Products in China%我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少艺

    2012-01-01

    我国因人口众多,电子电器产品的实际拥有量非常大,当这些产品被淘汰或换代时,产品废弃的数量同样巨大。如何有效地进行废旧电器电子的资源化回收处理,已经成为当前关系到我国经济、社会和环境可持续发展及我国再生资源回收利用面临的一个新课题。分析了我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理现状及存在问题,提出建立相关的法律、法规、市场机制及出台积极的经济政策,同时利用经济政策和利益驱动刺激回收市场发展,并加大绿色技术投入,使得废旧家电回收利用规模化发展。%Our country has a large population, electronic appliances products with the actual ownership is very big, when these products are eliminated or generation, the number of waste products also great. How to effectively carry out of waste electrical and electronic resources recycling processing, already became current relates our country economy, society and the environment sustainable development and our country renewable resource recycling faces a new topic. This article has analyzed our country waste household appliances and electronic products recycling status and problems, proposed the establishment of relevant laws, regulations, the market mechanism and the introduction of active economic policy, while the use of economic policy and interest drive stimulus recycling market development, and increase the green technology investment, the scale development of waste house-hold appliances recycling.

  7. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  8. Extended producer responsibility: The impact of organizational dimensions on WEEE collection from households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Filippo; Rizzi, Francesco; Frey, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) has been the backbone of product life cycle management in Europe since the 2000s. Unfortunately, EPR implementation has multiple impacts on the supply chain and, thus, its consequences are not always easily manageable. Although several studies have explored various examples within the EU, the determinants of the effectiveness of EPR management are still not fully understood. This research seeks to bridge this gap by making use of quantitative analyses to investigate how key issues related to: WEEE Directive transposition and organizational settings adopted by each Member State, influenced the results achieved in those Member States in terms of collection from households. In details, a latent class analysis (LCA) has been used to analyse different EPR management strategies based on the policy set, the supply chain structure, and the performance of the household collection of electronic waste. Results highlight the strong connection between allocation of responsibility and organizational model adopted in Member States and performance related to small households equipment's. Conclusions shows the need for stronger coordination of EPR and waste policies in order to achieve adequate levels of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection, the need of a clear delineation of the responsibilities of each subject of the supply chain and also the importance of "clearing houses" in moderating the impacts of short-sighted competition between collective schemes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resolving Governance Issues to Achieve Priority Sustainable Development Goals Related to Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Rodić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a key utility service that more than 2 billion people are currently lacking, solid waste management (SWM is a crosscutting issue that can be directly linked to 12 out of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Distinguishing between physical components and governance aspects of SWM, this research focuses on governance issues concerning basic solid waste collection services and controlled disposal, thus addressing the ‘How’ and the ‘Who’ dimensions of a SWM system. As a form of transdisciplinary research, the findings from the literature on governance issues in SWM were iteratively subjected to several rounds of commentary by a large group of stakeholders from six continents, within the authors’ work for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP’s 2015 Global Waste Management Outlook. The study identifies a combination of complementary instruments required for extending collection to all and bringing disposal under control. While municipalities have a legal responsibility for providing services to their citizens, various service providers can contribute to an effective SWM system. Appropriate forms of funding are essential to secure financial sustainability of the services under the local conditions of affordability and willingness to pay. As new services require behavioural change on the part of citizens and municipal waste departments alike, communication and exchange with other stakeholders function as enabling and supporting factors. The significance of capacity development is highlighted.

  10. Research challenges in municipal solid waste logistics management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M; Ramos, Tania Rodrigues Pereira; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana Paula; Wong, Chee Yew; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2016-02-01

    During the last two decades, EU legislation has put increasing pressure on member countries to achieve specified recycling targets for municipal household waste. These targets can be obtained in various ways choosing collection methods, separation methods, decentral or central logistic systems, etc. This paper compares municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in various EU countries to identify the characteristics and key issues from a waste management and reverse logistics point of view. Further, we investigate literature on modelling municipal solid waste logistics in general. Comparing issues addressed in literature with the identified issues in practice result in a research agenda for modelling municipal solid waste logistics in Europe. We conclude that waste recycling is a multi-disciplinary problem that needs to be considered at different decision levels simultaneously. A holistic view and taking into account the characteristics of different waste types are necessary when modelling a reverse supply chain for MSW recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of Household Socio-economic Status in an Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... tended to correspond with high income status of the households. ... figures to describe household socio-economic status remains a gap that ... Accra because it is skills, knowledge and the abilities which enable ... the city) that people rely on to achieve their livelihood objectives. ..... Gender of household.

  12. TIMBULAN SAMPAH B3 RUMAHTANGGA DAN POTENSI DAMPAK KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN DI KABUPATEN SLEMAN, YOGYAKARTA (Generation of Household Hazardous Solid Waste and Potential Impacts on Environmental Health in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswanto Iswanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Sampah rumahtangga yang mengandung Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3 seperti baterai, lampu listrik, elektronik, kemasan pestisida, pemutih pakaian, pembersih lantai, cat, kaleng bertekanan (aerosol, sisa obat-obatan, termometer dan jarum suntik berpotensi mengancam kesehatan manusia dan lingkungan. Meskipun kuantitas sampah B3 rumahtangga (SB3-RT di Kabupaten Sleman hanya 2,44 g/orang/hari atau sekitar 0,488% dari sampah domestik, tetapi karena memiliki karakteristik mudah meledak, mudah terbakar, reaktif, beracun, infeksius dan/atau korosif maka sangat membahayakan bagi kesehatan dan lingkungan (air, tanah, udara. Sampai saat ini, SB3-RT di Kabupaten Sleman masih ditangani seperti layaknya sampah domestik, yaitu dibakar, dibuang ke sungai, ditimbun di pekarangan, dibuang ke tempat pembuangan sampah ilegal atau dibuang ke Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir (TPA Piyungan. Jenis SB3-RT yang banyak ditemukan adalah sampah elektronik (24,91%, lampu listrik bekas (18,08% dan baterai bekas (16,71%. Ketiga jenis sampah tersebut mengandung berbagai unsur logam berat seperti Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, Li, Sb dan Fe yang umumnya bersifat toksik, karsinogenik dan akumulatif yang dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia secara langsung atau melalui rantai makanan. Pemaparan bahan berbahaya beracun (B3 dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada berbagai jaringan/organ tubuh pada masyarakat sekitar tempat pembuangan, petugas sampah, pemulung, pengepul, pemanfaat dan pelaku daur ulang SB3-RT. Oleh karena itu SB3-RT perlu dikelola sebagaimana mestinya sesuai dengan sifat dan karakteristiknya.   ABSTRACT Household solid waste containing hazardous and toxic materials such as batteries, electric light, electronics, pesticides, bleach, cleaner, paint, pressurized cans (aerosol, unused medicines, thermometers and syringes can threaten human and environment. Although the quantity of Household Hazardous Solid Waste (HHSW in Sleman Regency only 2.44 g/person/day or

  13. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd, Highfield, SOUTHAMPTON, Hampshire, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cole, C. [Centre for Innovative and Collaborative Construction Engineering, School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  14. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I.D.; Cole, C.

    2013-01-01

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  15. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  16. SIMGERE: software para avaliação de cenários de gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos domiciliares SIMGERE: software to assess scenarios of integrated household solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Miyoko Massukado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento de um sistema de apoio à decisão como ferramenta para analisar diferentes cenários de gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos domiciliares. O SIMGERE, nome do software, foi desenvolvido para auxiliar as Administrações Públicas Municipais na gestão dos resíduos sólidos domiciliares por meio da simulação de cenários, mostrando os efeitos que poderão ocorrer a partir de possíveis mudanças nas estratégias da gestão. Para tanto, foi definido e delimitado o campo de trabalho do sistema de apoio à decisão seguindo-se para a construção do modelo conceitual com base no conhecimento adquirido na literatura pertinente, para depois traduzi-lo em telas de ação e fluxogramas de decisão. Terminados estes procedimentos iniciou-se a codificação do modelo em linguagem de programação (Delphi 6.0. Paralelamente foram realizados testes de validação do sistema quanto a usabilidade e coerência, sendo os erros ajustados. Finalmente, foram gerados os arquivos executáveis do sistema para sua instalação e posterior disponibilização.This paper presents a development of decision support system tool to analyze household solid waste management scenarios. SIMGERE, software's name, was developed to aid Municipal Administration in the management of their household solid waste through the simulation of scenarios, showing the effects that can happen if some targets were changed in the management. The development of the method consisted in defining and delimiting the work field of decision support system, followed by the construction of a conceptual model based on the acquired knowledge. The model was then translated in action screens and decision workflows, which were programmed in Delphi 6.0. At the same time tests of system validation were accomplished in two ways - first on program's usability and second on the coherence of results, being the adjusted mistakes. Finally, the executable files of the

  17. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing Based on Multimode Selectivity simultaneously Achievable in a Single Device. 11. Design and Evaluation of a Small Portable Sensor for the Determination of Ferrocyanide in Hanford Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemiller, Michael L.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Ridgway, Thomas H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Sell, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on multimode selectivity simultaneously achievable in a single device. 11. Design and evaluation of a small portable sensor for the determination of ferrocyanide in Hanford waste samples

  18. Deliberations of working group 5: are waste management institutions set up for achieving confidence over the long term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.

    2000-01-01

    Working Group 5 started with a presentation providing an overview of recent research on the issue of public acceptance of waste management. It identified a trustworthy and credible organisation as one that could be also described as: Open, innovative, flexible, responsive, and fair. This presentation was followed by a discussion about 'Which re structural requirements for the effective performance of waste management institutions?'; The WG continued then with a round around the table during which it was possible to compile the views of all participants on the question 'What would characterise a organisation that would earn the trust from the stakeholders (a high reliability organisation)?'. In answering this question, each participant was also asked to consider whether there are differences to be noted according to whether the organisation is an implementing one, authority, municipality or a NGO. Most answers concentrated on the implementer's role. It was concluded, however, that many of the items listed below are valid for the other actors and, especially, the authorities. When compiling the list there was a need to structure the answers into 3 groups, which are discussed in this paper: - Organisational aspects. - Mission(s). - Behaviour. (author)

  19. Household-scale environmental health in the Ezulwini Valley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    class, and were only somewhat comparable to previous national-scale assessments. ..... iPads and Fulcrum app offered a number of advantages, including .... Solid waste disposal method (percent households surveyed) by community.

  20. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  1. Effects of pH and hydraulic retention time on hydrogen production versus methanogenesis during anaerobic fermentation of organic household solid waste under extreme-thermophilic temperature (70ºC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dawei; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Two continuously stirred tank reactors were operated with household solid waste at 70°C, for hydrogen and methane production. The individual effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days) at pH 7 or pH (5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7) at 3-day HRT was investigated on the hydrogen production...... versus methanogenesis. It was found that at pH 7, the maximum hydrogen yield was 107 mL-H2/g VSadded (volatile solid added) but no stable hydrogen production was obtained as after some time methanogenesis was initiated at all tested HRTs. This demonstrated that sludge retention time alone was not enough...... for washing out the methanogens at pH 7 under extreme-thermophilic conditions. Oppositely, we showed that keeping the pH level at 5.5 was enough to inhibit methane and produce hydrogen stably at 3-day HRT. However, the maximum stable hydrogen yield was low at 21 mL-H2/g VSadded. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2008...

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. Rock & Roll : Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, L.; Rem, P.C.; Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the

  4. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  5. Environmental analysis of the system for the households' wastewater and organic waste. Synthesis of handling systems studied in the research program 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource'; Miljoesystemanalys av hushaallens avlopp och organiska avfall. Syntes av hanteringssystem undersoekta inom FoU-programmet 'Organiskt avfall som vaextnaeringsresurs'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, E. [Chalmers Inst. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Sanitary Engineering; Joensson, Haakan; Sonesson, Ulf [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Agricultural Engineering; Gruvberger, C.; Dalemo, M. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Stenstroem, T.A. [Swedish Inst. for Infections Disease Control, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    Knowledge derived within the RandD programme 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource' was in this study used to compare four systems for handling wastewater and organic waste. In the conventional system, the sewage is treated in a sewage plant (SP) with mechanical, biological (incl. 70% nitrogen reduction) and chemical treatment. The sludge is anaerobically digested, dewatered and stored for 20 days. In the energy forest irrigation system the SP has no special nitrogen or phosphorus reduction and the effluent water is stored during winter and used for irrigation during summer. In the liquid compost system the wastewater from the vacuum toilets is co-treated with organic household waste in a reactor at 55 deg C for 7 days. In the other systems, the organic household waste is treated in a central windrow compost. In the urine separation system, the source-separated urine is hygienised by separate storage for 6 months. In the liquid compost and urine separation systems the grey water or the grey water plus faecal wastewater respectively is treated in a SP with phosphorus reduction but without nitrogen reduction. The residual products of the systems fertilise arable land 10 km away. The mass flows, environmental effects, energy turnover and resource utilisation were simulated using ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch model), assuming that the wastewater and organic household waste from 20,000 people were treated by the systems. Table values were used for composition of wastewater etc. Industrial wastewater and surface water were excluded from the study. The risk of disease transmission was discussed from the flows and faecal concentrations of the wastewater and from estimated intake of Salmonella, EHEC and Cryptosporidium by some animals under assumed conditions. Throughout the study, it was assumed that the systems function well, without disruptions, and that they are used as intended. The compared environmental effects and resource usage were prioritised in

  6. The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. An instrument to achieve a global safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risoluti, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention) is the first legally binding international treaty in the area of radioactive material management. It was adopted by a Diplomatic Conference in September 1997 and opened for signature on 29 September 1997. The Convention entered into force on 18 June 1998, and to date (May 2006) has been ratified by 41 countries. The Joint Convention applies to spent fuel and radioactive waste resulting from civilian application. Its principal aim is to achieve and maintain a high degree of safety in their management worldwide. The Convention is an incentive instrument, not designed to ensure fulfilment of obligations through control and sanction, but by a volunteer peer review mechanism. The obligations of the Contracting Parties are mainly based on the international safety standards developed by the IAEA in past decades. The Convention is of interest of all countries generating radioactive waste. Therefore it is relevant not only for those using nuclear power, but for any country where application of nuclear energy in education, agriculture, medicine and industry is currently used. Obligations of Contracting Parties include attending a Review Meeting held every three years and prepare National Reports for review by the other Contracting Parties. In the National Reports basic information on inventory and facilities for management of radioactive materials has to be provided. Countries with small nuclear power and/or research programs or countries having radioactive materials only from nuclear application on medicine, agriculture or conventional industry, can benefit from the exchange of information and the technical knowledge gained by the reporting procedure set up by the Convention. The second Review Meeting is to be held at IAEA headquarters from 15 to 26 May 2006. This paper presents the objectives and the implementation status of the Convention, the

  7. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, T.D.; Shaw, P.J.; Williams, I.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical analysis of municipal waste management practices and performance in England. • Trends visualised via innovative ternary plots and changes and reasons explored. • Performance 1996–2013 moved slowly away from landfill dominance. • Large variations in %s of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled/composted. • Progress to resource efficiency slow; affected by poor planning and hostile disputes. - Abstract: European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste

  8. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, T.D.; Shaw, P.J.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Critical analysis of municipal waste management practices and performance in England. • Trends visualised via innovative ternary plots and changes and reasons explored. • Performance 1996–2013 moved slowly away from landfill dominance. • Large variations in %s of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled/composted. • Progress to resource efficiency slow; affected by poor planning and hostile disputes. - Abstract: European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste

  9. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  10. Study of a communication strategy aimed at achieving a possible better understanding of the consequence of radioactive waste management in a well defined group of public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhove, V.

    1993-01-01

    This study is performed and partially funded within the framework of the European Communities (R and D-programme on Management and Disposal of Radioactive Waste). The purpose of this study is to work out an information strategy on radioactive waste management for a selected target public (15-to-18 year old youngsters), with a view to raising public opinion and achieving a better understanding of this matter. The choice of this target public has been inspired among others by the importance of the youngsters as future opinion leaders. The results of an opinion poll, conducted in the autumn of 1991, were used to define the scope of the project and to determine the communication model and plan that will serve as a basis for the further development of the project. The first steps were taken to develop a pedagogical package, the structure, form and content of which have been determined. Preparations were also made to define the concept and the content of an information centre tuned to the pedagogical package and, like the other information, intended to inform 15-to-18 year old students. (author)

  11. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  12. Achieving transparency in the total system performance assessment of a potential high level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Rickertsen, L.; Cotton, T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper has presented an approach to quantitative assessment of the degree of postclosure defense-in-depth provided by the reference system of the VA (Viability Assessment). This approach identifies principal barriers, assesses barriers for common uncertainty and failure mode, conducts barrier neutralization analyses, and evaluates overall defense-in-depth. The neutralization approach of step 3 is particularly useful in untangling the contributions of various barriers to the results calculated by performance assessments. In fact, it provides the only way of assessing the contribution of barriers that are fully redundant with one another. The approach has been applied to the VA reference system. It shows how the natural transport barriers contribute to performance of the system. Since their individual contributions are redundant, uncertainties in those individual contributions are reduced in importance. The analyses also suggest uncertainties common to both of these barriers are important to the safety assessment. Thus, the approach appears to be capable of determining the contribution of the principal barriers to system performance. The ability to use performance assessment to show not only how the repository system is expected to perform, but also how it achieves that performance, should contribute substantially towards providing needed transparency to the safety case for a geologic repository. It is also a valuable tool during the development of the repository design and associated safety case, by identifying areas in which performance would be enhanced by increased redundancy

  13. Buried waste remediation: A new application for in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindle, C.H.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-04-01

    Buried wastes represent a significant environmental concern and a major financial and technological challenge facing many private firms, local and state governments, and federal agencies. Numerous radioactive and hazardous mixed buried waste sites managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) require timely clean up to comply with state or federal environmental regulations. Hazardous wastes, biomedical wastes, and common household wastes disposed at many municipal landfills represent a significant environmental health concern. New programs and regulations that result in a greater reduction of waste via recycling and stricter controls regarding generation and disposal of many wastes will help to stem the environmental consequences of wastes currently being generated. Groundwater contamination, methane generation, and potential exposures to biohazards and chemically hazardous materials from inadvertent intrusion will continue to be potential environmental health consequences until effective and permanent closure is achieved. In situ vitrification (ISV) is being considered by the DOE as a permanent closure option for radioactive buried waste sites. The results of several ISV tests on simulated and actual buried wastes conducted during 1990 are presented here. The test results illustrate the feasibility of the ISV process for permanent remediation and closure of buried waste sites in commercial landfills. The tests were successful in immobilizing or destroying hazardous and radioactive contaminants while providing up to 75 vol % waste reduction. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  15. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  16. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  17. AN In vitro ASSESSMENT OF SUPPLEMENTARY EFFECT OF CONCENTRATES CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF GROUND LINSEED (Linum usitatissimum TO HOUSEHOLD WASTES ON ORGANIC MATTER DEGRADABILITY, SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS, MICROBIAL PROTEIN, METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND RELATIVE FEED VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegene Negesse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to assess effect of level of linseed inclusion in feeds on nutritive value, an in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD, total short chain fatty acids (SCFA:mMol l-1, microbial crude protein (MCP:g kg-1 DM, metabolizable energy (MEruminants:MJ kg-1 DM and relative feed values (RFV of household wastes=HW (Areke-Atela=AA, carrot peels=CaP, cabbage leaf=Cle, cabbage leftover=Clef, onion leaf=OL, onion peels=OP, potato peels=PP, Tela-Atela=TA supplemented with linseed (LS containing concentrates=LSC1…LSC5 (39.32, 37.32, 35.32, 33.32, 31.32% noug cake + 58.99% wheat bran + 1.69% salt + 0, 2, 4, 6, 8% LS, as fed basis were estimated via an in vitro gas trial. HWs were mixed with LSC (LSC-HW at 3:1 ratio. Samples were incubated in-vitro with rumen fluid in duplicate and readings recorded at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. LSC-HW mixtures had higher CP, IVDMD, IVOMD, ME and SCFA, MCP and RFV than those of HWs alone. IVDMD and IVOMD of the LSC-HW improved with increasing LS levels, mostly at 2 and 4%LSC; but at higher concentrations they declined.  AA, TA had high IVOMD. However, IVDMD of AA (with the lowest IVDMD was much more influenced than TA (with highest IVDMD by LS levels. Clef had lowest and AA and TA highest ME. SCFA increased over incubation periods and with increasing levels of LS, in Clef improvement (from 0.25 to 0.61 mMol l-1 was significant but in AA (from 0.69 to 0.72 mMol l-1 moderate. Mixing HWs with LSC gave best results at 2%LSC.

  18. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  19. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  20. Meeting the EU recycling targets by introducing a 2-compartment bin to households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Scheutz, Charlotte; Møller, Jacob

    A Danish municipality has introduced a 2-compartment bin in the waste collection scheme, this bin should increase recycling of dry household recyclables. An excessive waste sorting campaign was conducted and the efficiency of the bin assessed. The waste sorting campaign yielded a full waste...... targets can be fulfilled, there is still room for improvement (increase source separation), especially for hard plastic and metals....

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  2. A total quality management approach to healthcare waste management in Namazi Hospital, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Heidarpoor, Peigham; Assadian, Ojan

    2010-11-01

    Healthcare waste comprises all wastes generated at healthcare facilities, medical research centers and laboratories. Although 75-90% of these wastes are classified as household waste posing no potential risk, 10-25% are deemed to be hazardous, representing a potential threat to healthcare workers, patients, the environment and even the general population, if not disposed of appropriately. If hazardous and non-hazardous waste is mixed and not segregated prior to disposal, costs will increase substantially. Medical waste management is a worldwide issue. In Iran, the majority of problems are associated with an exponential growth in the healthcare sector together with low- or non-compliance with guidelines and recommendations. The aim of this study was to reduce the amounts of infectious waste by clear definition and segregation of waste at the production site in Namazi Hospital in Shiraz, Iran. Namazi Hospital was selected as a study site with an aim to achieving a significant decrease in infectious waste and implementing a total quality management (TQM) method. Infectious and non-infectious waste was weighed at 29 admission wards over a 1-month period. Before the introduction of the new guidelines and the new waste management concept, weight of total waste was 6.67 kg per occupied bed per day (kg/occupied bed/day), of which 73% was infectious and 27% non-infectious waste. After intervention, total waste was reduced to 5.92 kg/occupied bed/day, of which infectious waste represented 61% and non-infectious waste 30%. The implementation of a new waste management concept achieved a 26% reduction in infectious waste. A structured waste management concept together with clear definitions and staff training will result in waste reduction, consequently leading to decreased expenditure in healthcare settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  4. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  5. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  6. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier

  7. Investigations of subterranean microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. Results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

    1997-11-01

    In 1987, microbiology became a part of the Swedish scientific program for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste (HLW). The goal of the microbiology sub-program is to understand how subterranean microorganisms will interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. The Swedish research program on subterranean microbiology has mainly been performed at two sites in granitic rock aquifers at depths ranging from 70 m down to 1240 m; the Stripa research mine in the middle of Sweden and the Aespoe hard rock laboratory (HRL) situated on the south eastern coast of Sweden. Some work has also been performed in co-operation with other national or international research groups in Sweden, Canada and at the natural analogue sites in Oklo in Gabon and Maqarin in Jordan. The most recent report in the SKB technical report series on microbiology and performance assessment, SKB-TR--95-10, gave the state of the art regarding microorganisms and their importance for performance assessment. That report is recommended as a source of knowledge about basic microbiology, microbial ecology of subterranean environments and the nuclear waste disposal concept in a microbiological perspective. The present report summarises results and conclusions achieved during the period 1995 to 1997 and is a continuation of SKB TR 95-10. The report is structured as summary which explains and analyses the obtained results and conclusions in a performance assessment perspective. The scientific basis for the summary is an enclosed series of eleven papers of which eight have gone through an international peer review process for publication in international scientific journals and reports and papers published earlier. 413 refs, 56 figs, 39 tabs.

  8. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  9. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-01-01

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extracti...

  10. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  11. Characterization of domestic and market solid wastes at source in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Waste management is an important element of environmental protection. Proper ... market waste generated from source and also the seasonal composition of household waste. The ..... the recent explosion in packaged water business and the.

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on research and development of high level waste glass utilization system of CO2 emission suppression type; 2000 nendo CO2 haishutsu yokuseigata hai glass kodo riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to establish a waste glass recycling system of low cost and requiring less CO2 emission amount and energy consumption, research and development has been made on classification of waste glasses into particle composition that is required in regenerated commercial products. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research of a waste glass reusing and supplying system designed by using LCA, discussions were given on items required in circulating and recycling waste glass resources, and quality control on raw materials and products. Evaluations of product quality control items were made on crystallized glass, sintered glasswool, automotive window glass, electric bulbs, fluorescent lamp glass, and quartz glass. Utilization tests were carried out for Mashiko porcelain china clay with an intention of expanding the application of waste glass, whereas the relationship between waste glass addition amount and optimal sintering temperature range was verified, disclosing that the limit of the waste glass addition is 10%. In the research on multi-functional hybrid materials, discussions were given on light-weight tiles and water permeating blocks with regard to the manufacturing technology, facility specifications, product quality, effects of the functions, and durability. (NEDO)

  13. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  14. Design of an innovative, ecological portable waste compressor for in-house recycling of paper, plastic and metal packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xevgenos, D; Athanasopoulos, N; Kostazos, P K; Manolakos, D E; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Loizidou, M

    2015-05-01

    Waste management in Greece relies heavily on unsustainable waste practices (mainly landfills and in certain cases uncontrolled dumping of untreated waste). Even though major improvements have been achieved in the recycling of municipal solid waste during recent years, there are some barriers that hinder the achievement of high recycling rates. Source separation of municipal solid waste has been recognised as a promising solution to produce high-quality recycled materials that can be easily directed to secondary materials markets. This article presents an innovative miniature waste separator/compressor that has been designed and developed for the source separation of municipal solid waste at a household level. The design of the system is in line with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), since it allows for the separate collection (and compression) of municipal solid waste, namely: plastic (polyethylene terephthalate and high-density polyethylene), paper (cardboard and Tetrapak) and metal (aluminium and tin cans). It has been designed through the use of suitable software tools (LS-DYNA, INVENTROR and COMSOL). The results from the simulations, as well as the whole design process and philosophy, are discussed in this article. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  16. Households and the Environment. Key figures - 2017 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauche, Melanie; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Carriere, Celine

    2017-10-01

    Households' daily activities and patterns of consumption exert pressures on the environment (greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution, waste generation, etc.). Although these pressures appear insignificant at the individual level, when taken collectively they have profound repercussions for the environment and for natural resources. This publication presents a selection of indicators of the pressures and impacts on the environment associated with households' habits and lifestyles

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of an interim processing technology to re-commercialize mixed waste plastics; 1998 nendo kongo haipura saishohinka no tame no chukan shori system gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The container and package recycling law is fully enforced starting fiscal 2000. Recycling obligation is placed also on plastic containers and packages discharged from households, excepting PET bottles for beverages and soy sauce. Therefore, it is required to establish an interim processing technology to process these materials into shapes easy for re-utilization and transportation, that is a technology to manufacture granules with adequate diameters. The purpose of this research is to develop the interim processing system technology. Design, fabrication and installation were performed on an interim processing system plant (a mixed waste plastic granule manufacturing facility) that can process annually waste plastics of 3,000 tons (0.5 t/h). The plant consists of the following four pieces of equipment: (1) a pulverizer, (2) a PVC sorting device, (3) a granulating device, and (4) a sizer. After the installed interim processing system demonstration plant has been trially operated and adjusted by each device, the whole plant was given the trial operation and adjustment to have verified that all the devices function normally. In addition, in order to evaluate economy of the waste plastics interim processing, the processing cost was calculated and the economic performance was evaluated preliminarily by using the rated electric power setting and trial operation data of each device. (NEDO)

  18. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  19. Agricultural use of household compost in Brazzaville market gardening belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matondo, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available After the finalization of the household filth processing through aerobic fermentation or compostage, which allowed us to get an organic tool, so important in the plant production, the following communication studies the fertilising values of compost from household filth and raw wastes. Conducted in the fields, the study has revelead being successful with positive effects of the burying of compost upon the output of gardenmarket cultivation (in the Brazzaville poor soil. More over, the direct burying of household filth go along with depressive effects mainly on short-cycle vegetative cultivation.

  20. Productive efficiency of public and private solid waste logistics and its implications for waste management policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ichinose

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures the productive efficiency of municipal solid waste (MSW logistics by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA to cross-sectional data of prefectures in Japan. Either through public operations or by outsourcing to private waste collection operators, prefectural governments possess the fundamental authority over waste processing operations in Japan. Therefore, we estimate a multi-input multi-output production efficiency at the prefectural level via DEA, employing several different model settings. Our data classify the MSW into household solid waste (HSW and business solid waste (BSW collected by both private and public operators as separate outputs, while the numbers of trucks and workers used by private and public operators are used as inputs. The results consistently show that geographical characteristics, such as the number of inhabited remote islands, are relatively more dominant factors for determining inefficiency. While the implication that a minimum efficient scale is not achieved in these small islands is in line with the literature suggesting that waste logistics has increasing returns at the municipal level, our results indicate that waste collection efficiency in Japan is well described by CRS technology at the prefectural level. The results also show that prefectures with higher private-sector participation, measured in terms of HSW collection, are more efficient, whereas a higher private–labor ratio negatively affects efficiency. We also provide evidence that prefectures with inefficient MSW logistics have a higher tendency of suffering from the illegal dumping of industrial waste.

  1. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  2. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  3. An investigation of a household size trigeneration running with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaodong; Huang, Ye; Chiremba, Elijah; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Hewitt, Neil; Ding, Yulong; Wu, Dawei; Yu, Hongdong; Chen, Xiangping; Li, Yapeng; Huang, Jincheng; Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi; Xia, Zaizhong; Tan, Chunqing

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the performance and emission characteristics of a household size trigeneration based on a diesel engine generator fuelled with hydrogen comparing to that of single generation, cogeneration using ECLIPSE simulation software. In single generation simulation, the engine genset is used to produce electricity only and the heat from the engine is rejected to the atmosphere. In cogeneration and trigeneration, in addition to the electricity generated from the genset, the waste heat rejected from the hot exhaust gases and engine cooling system, is captured for domestic hot water supply using heat exchangers and hot water tank; and a part of the waste heat is used to drive absorption cooling in trigeneration. Comparisons have been made for the simulated results of these three modes of operation for hydrogen and diesel. The results prove that hydrogen is a potential energy vector in the future which is a key to meeting upcoming stringent greenhouse gases emissions. The study show that hydrogen has very good prospects to achieve a better or equal performance to conventional diesel fuel in terms of energetic performance, and a near zero carbon emission, depending on the life cycle analysis of the way the hydrogen is produced. The results also show enormous potential fuel savings and massive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions per unit of useful energy outputs with cogeneration and trigeneration compared with that of single generation.

  4. UK Household Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James; Smith, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the composition of household portfolios, using both aggregate and micro-data. Among the key findings are that: Most household wealth is held in the form of housing and pensions. Over time, there has been a shift away from housing towards financial assets, driven largely by the growth in life and pension funds. Liquid financial wealth (excluding life and pension funds) is not predominantly held in risky form. By far the most commonly held asset is an ...

  5. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thogersen, John; Gronhoj, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: →A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. →Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. →Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. →Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. →Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  6. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  7. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary and secondary sources were used to achieve the objectives. The analysis of this study was carried out using both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The findings of this study revealed that the present system of MSWM in Gondar town entirely relied on the municipality which provided the full range of waste collection transportation and disposal service. But the provision of this service is not kept in pace with the town solid waste generation. Based on the findings of this study the town households dominantly produced biodegradable solid wastes with generation rate of 0.21kgpersonday. This made the daily total solid waste generation of households to be 8140Kg. Together with other four solid waste sources the total daily solid waste generation of the town is about 11660 kg. So that MSWM of the town is found in very low status and spatial coverage. This poor status of MSWM is also intensified by three critical factors i.e poor institutional structure and capacity of Sanitation and beautification limited participation and contribution of stakeholders and poor households solid waste management practices. This study concluded that there should be sustainable solid waste management systems reuse recycle composting and incineration through awareness creation and training improvement of SB institutional structure and capacity and implementation of integrated MSWM approach which recognizes and comprises all stakeholders in the town.

  8. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  9. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...... domestic animals and for light workshop activities....

  10. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  11. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  12. Composition of municipal solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Data for the composition of municipal solid waste is a critical basis for any assessment of waste technologies and waste management systems. The detailed quantification of waste fractions is absolutely needed for a better technological development of waste treatment. The current waste composition...... comparability to characterize municipal solid waste. This methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1,442 households in three municipalities in Denmark. The main fractions contributing to the residual household waste were food waste and miscellaneous waste. Statistical analysis suggested...... of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterization methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. The purpose of this study was to introduce a consistent methodology that reduces uncertainties and ensures data...

  13. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  14. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  15. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Development of foaming eco-material using magazine waste papers. (The first fiscal year); 1998 nendo zasshi koshi wo mochiita happo seikei eko material no kaihatsu seika hokokusho (dai 1 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Such foaming materials as styro-foam, urethane and polyethylene greatly increase load on the environment when discarded, and are a problem as harmful rubbish. On the other hand, magazine waste papers have limitation as regenerated paper because their pulp fibers are cut off and deteriorated during use and regeneration. They are left unused without a prospect of re-use even if recovered. Under such a background, the present research and development is intended to develop magazine waste papers as a reusable cushioning material, commercialize the cushioning material as a low environment load type material, and promote reutilization of magazine waste papers. Specifically, development is performed on a manufacturing technology and a manufacturing equipment for a cushioning material having excellent biodegradation performance manufactured by mixing magazine waste papers with gelatin as a binder, and further by foaming and forming. The research and development items include: (1) development of a manufacturing technology for a foaming eco-material using magazine waste papers, (2) development of manufacturing equipment for the foaming eco-material, and (3) the market research thereon. This paper reports the achievements in the research and development of each item in fiscal 1998. (NEDO)

  16. The influence of residents' behaviour on waste electrical and electronic equipment collection effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    Government agencies have implemented regulations to reduce the volume of waste electrical and electronic equipment to protect the environment and encourage recycling. The effectiveness of systems through which waste electrical and electronic equipment is collected and recycled depends on (a) the development and operation of new programmes to process this material and (b) on information dissemination programmes aimed at manufacturers, retail sellers, and the consuming public. This study analyses these two elements. The main focus is to better understand household residents' behaviour in regards to the proper methods of handling waste electrical and electronic equipment and possible storage of the obsolete equipment that brings disturbances with collection of the waste equipment. The study explores these issues depending on size of municipality and the household residents' knowledge about legal methods of post-consumer management of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Poland, where the collection rate of that type of waste is about 40% of the total mass of waste electrical and electronic equipment appearing in the market.The research was informed by various sources of information, including non-government organisations, Inspectorate of Environmental Protection and Central Statistics Office in Poland, questionnaires, and interviews with the household residents. The questionnaires were distributed to daytime and vocational students from different universities and the customers of an electronic equipment superstore. The results show that a resident's behaviour in regards to the handling of obsolete waste electrical and electronic equipment can significantly reduce the collection rate, especially when the waste is discarded improperly - mixed with municipal waste or sold in scrapyards. It is possible to identify points that are necessary to be improved to achieve a higher collection rate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Pro-environmental Behaviour of Households in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the positive effects, which are reflected in the relative improvement of the quality of life, the way households satisfy their needs has a direct impact on many environmental problems. Among them are global climatic changes, air, soil and water pollution, excessive usage of natural resources and loss of biodiversity. Sustainable consumption belongs to the key elements of global movement for sustainable development. It can be characterized as consumer behaviour which satisfies the needs of current and future generations. Czech households influence the environment every day by doing their shopping, consuming and using various kinds of products and services, the way they spend their leisure time, by commuting to work and travelling in general and, last but not the least, by producing waste. Both the location and the size of the household significantly influence the environment as well. 30 to 40% of environmental problems are caused by households. Thus, pro-environmental movements warn of the necessity to eliminate negative impacts of households’ behaviour. This paper analyses development tendencies of relevant indicators of household operations which have impact on the environment. The attention is paid primarily to consumption of electrical energy, water and food by households, usage of personal means of transport and production of communal waste. Time series statistical methods were used when assessing development tendencies.

  18. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  19. Local government household battery collection programs: Costs and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapek, Raymond A [Department of Public Administration, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Nearly three billion dry-cell household batteries are discarded in the municipal waste stream annually. While the mercury content of newer batteries has been reduced, older batteries and the accumulated total of mercury and cadmium, as well as other metals in the newer batteries still constitute a potential health risk. Many communities have initiated collection programs to remove this source of contamination from the municipal waste stream, but most have not. Fourteen states have enacted legislation regulating the disposal of household batteries, while nine states require the collection of rechargeable batteries. This article describes the potential health risks associated with continued disposal and incineration of household dry-cell batteries, reviews a sampling of existing municipal collection programs in US communities, and examines the costs and benefits and program options of collection programs

  20. Acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e impactos na saúde de crianças residentes em assentamentos periurbanos de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Santos Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta estudo do acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e o impacto na saúde de crianças, por meio de pesquisa realizada em nove assentamentos humanos localizados em área periurbana da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Como indicadores epidemiológicos foram utilizados, em 1.893 crianças entre 5 e 14 anos, a infecção por nematóides intestinais, expressa pela prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos, e em 1.204 crianças menores de cinco anos, a incidência de diarréia e o estado nutricional, este expresso por indicadores antropométricos. Os resultados apresentam a maior prevalência dos três nematóides nas crianças dos domicílios que não dispõem de acondicionamento adequado e de coleta de resíduos sólidos que naquelas de domicílios com acondicionamento adequado e coleta regular, sendo a diferença encontrada estatisticamente significante, mesmo quando outros fatores de risco sócio-econômicos, culturais, demográficos e ambientais são considerados. Resultado semelhante é também observado com relação aos indicadores epidemiológicos, incidência de diarréia e estado nutricional.This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology to recycle disintegrated waste gypsum boards; 1999 nendo kaitai haisekko board no saishigenka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and researches have been made on disintegrated waste gypsum boards generated in building demolishing sites, with a target of recycling them as a raw material for boards. In the investigations, the actual status of discarding the disintegrated gypsum boards was identified, whereas the harmful substance contents such as of heavy metals were verified to be below the environmental criteria. As a method to remove impurities and foreign materials from the disintegrated waste gypsum boards, the hydration crushing method was established, in which volumetric change when hemihydrate gypsum returns to gypsum dehydrate is utilized, and bond of gypsum particles with each other and with impurities is destructed to separate them into simple substances. Furthermore, discussions were given on the reforming conditions to reform in an energy saving manner the disintegrated waste gypsum boards into high-quality large-size hemihydrate gypsum by using the wet-type process that utilizes the reversible reaction between hemihydrate gypsum and gypsum dehydrate in the disintegrated waste gypsum boards. A manufacturing process to put the recycled gypsum into practical use was also discussed. Prototype board fabrication and tests were performed by using the reformed gypsum board materials, wherein good results were obtained from all of the practical, chemical, and physical tests. (NEDO)

  2. Recovery of biomolecules from food wastes--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta

    2014-09-17

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial), the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  3. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial, the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  4. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  5. Household energy use in Asian cities: Responding to development success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Stephen R.

    In the past 10-15 years, gains in household income and urban development in many countries in Asia have led to significant shifts in household use of fuels away from traditional, biomass-based household fuels to modern, fossil fuels. These results suggest that, while the global atmospheric emissions implications need further analysis, the local air quality effects of urban household fuel use changes have been positive. These changes also demonstrate improvements in living conditions, particularly for poor women and children most affected by indoor air quality. However, for electricity use, where there is evidence of dramatic increases in household consumption, the longer term implications for atmospheric emissions are more troubling. Rapid demand growth in the urban household sector is contributing to huge increases in thermal electric generating capacity needs in Asia. Improving technologies of electricity use in the household sector appears to be easily achievable and could be stimulated through market and policy mechanisms which have been used elsewhere. These measures offer the prospect of real environmental and economic gains without sacrificing lifestyle advantages of electrical appliance use in households.

  6. Air pollution: Household soiling and consumer welfare losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W.D.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper uses demand and supply functions for cleanliness to estimate household benefits from reduced particulate matter soiling. A demand curve for household cleanliness is estimated, based upon the assumption that households prefer more cleanliness to less. Empirical coefficients, related to particulate pollution levels, for shifting the cleanliness supply curve, are taken from available studies. Consumer welfare gains, aggregated across 123 SMSAs, from achieving the Federal primary particulate standard, are estimated to range from $0.9 to $3.2 million per year (1971 dollars). ?? 1982.

  7. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  8. Porous ceramics achievement by soybean and corn agricultural waste insertion; Obtencao de ceramicas porosas pela insercao de residuos agricolas de soja e milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdameri, C.Z.; Ank, A., E-mail: cledison@unipar.br [Universidade Paranaense (UNIPAR), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Civil; Zatta, L. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Pato Branco, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Anaissi, F.J. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Porous ceramic materials are produced by incorporating organic particles and stable foams. Generally it improves low thermal conductivity, which gives thermal comfort for buildings. The southwest region of Parana state is one of the largest producers of grains in Brazil, this causes the disposal of a large amount of waste in the agricultural processing. This paper presents the characterization of porous ceramics produced from clay minerals and agricultural waste (soybeans and corn). The precursor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. For the ceramic materials produced, characterizations about density, water absorption, tensile strength by diametrical compression strength and flexural strength curves was performed. The results showed high possibility of industrial/commercial application because the ceramic materials were produced from low costs precursors leading to ceramic products with properties of interest in construction. (author)

  9. Material recycling of post-consumer polyolefin bulk plastics: Influences on waste sorting and treatment processes in consideration of product qualities achievable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeisinger, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Material recycling of post-consumer bulk plastics made up of polyolefins is well developed. In this article, it is examined which effects on waste sorting and treatment processes influence the qualities of polyolefin-recyclats. It is shown that the properties and their changes during the product life-cycle of a polyolefin are defined by its way of polymerisation, its nature as a thermoplast, additives, other compound and composite materials, but also by the mechanical treatments during the production, its use where contact to foreign materials is possible and the waste sorting and treatment processes. Because of the sum of the effects influencing the quality of polyolefin-recyclats, conclusions are drawn for the material recycling of polyolefins to reach high qualities of their recyclats. Also, legal requirements like the EU regulation 1907/2006 concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restrictions on chemicals are considered.

  10. Domestic Waste: Sources, Effects, and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, A.; Hegazi, N.

    1999-01-01

    Waste is any discarded material. Domestic wastes are those produced by individual activities. In common with other living organisms, humans discharge waste substances to the environment that in turn re-energize the endless cycle of nature. Human activities are closely associated with ambient environment (soil , water, or air) through accumulation of domestic waste. Such household hazardous waste deposit arise from the discharge of domestic activities in the form of municipal solid waste (household, commercial and public street wastes), night soil (human and animal body wastes, excreta, or excrement). In rural areas, night soil is one of several components of the refuse that pollute the land. The surface water may be also directly polluted by domestic wastes or agricultural wastes. But in urbanized areas, household wastes, bathroom and laundry are conveniently flushed away by water as domestic wastewater through sewerage system, and disposed onto land or into receiving water, or in some countries it is treated and re-discharged for domestic usage. Solid waste in the form of kitchen garbage and other household refuse is collected for landfill disposal or for re-industrialization. Many domestic waste influence indoor air quality in urban and rural areas as for example the fuel used for cooking, smoke from cooking and from smoking habits, modern building materials, insulation, fabrics and furniture, cleaning materials, solvents, pesticides, personal care products, organic material or vegetable origin and dander from domestic life

  11. Food availability and livelihood strategies among rural households across Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichern, Jannike; Wijk, van Mark T.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Frelat, Romain; Asten, van Piet J.A.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuing economic growth, Uganda faces persistent challenges to achieve food security. The effectiveness of policy and development strategies to help rural households achieve food security must improve. We present a novel approach to relate spatial patterns of food security to livelihood

  12. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  13. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  14. Nuclear waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition

  15. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  16. Model for future waste generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov; Stenmarck, Aasa; Ekvall, Tomas

    2010-06-15

    The research presented in this report is part of the effort to estimate future Swedish waste quantities in the research programme Towards Sustainable Waste Management. More specifically, we estimate future waste coefficients that are designed to be fed into EMEC, which describes the Swedish economy in terms of 26 industrial sectors, a public sector, and households. Production in the model of industry and public sector requires input of labour, capital, energy, and other commodities. With waste-intensity coefficients added to each production parameter in each sector, EMEC can calculate the future waste quantities generated in different economic scenarios. To produce the waste-intensity coefficients, we make a survey of the current Swedish waste statistics. For each waste category from each sector we estimate whether the quantity depends primarily on the production in the sector, on the inputs of commodities, on the depreciation of capital goods, or on the size of the workforce in the sector. We calculate current waste-intensity coefficients by dividing the waste quantities by the parameter(s) to which they are assigned. We also present five different scenarios to describe how the waste intensity can develop until the year 2030. As far as possible and when deemed to be relevant, we have set the industrial waste generation to depend on the use of a commodity or an energy carrier. The quantity of spent vehicles and most equipment is set to depend on the depreciation of capital goods. Some wastes have been allocated to the staff, for example household waste from business. The quantities of wastes from households have a similar approach where every waste category is assigned to a combination of 26 different commodities

  17. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  18. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites

  19. Utilization of household organic compost in zinc adsorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, Lia; Isvaringga, Nyiayu Dita; Arinda, Yesica Maharani

    2017-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the heavy metals which is polluted to the environment in an amount greater than 15 mg/L [1]. Zinc contamination caused by the disposal of industrial waste such as batteries, electroplating, paint and other industries. One of the Zinc recovery technique that is relatively inexpensive, simple, high effectiveness and efficiency, and can be regenerated is adsorption using compost. This study has been carried out the preparation of compost from organic household waste and cow manure and its application to Zinc recovery. In this research, the raw material of compost is varied. There is an organic household waste (A1) and a mixture of organic household waste and cow manure with ratio 7:6 (A2). Decomposition of A1 and A2 with addition Effective Microorganism (EM4) requires 21 days, with 3 times inversion. Zinc adsorption is done by using a compost variation of 0.5 g, 1 g, and 2 g in every 100 and 200 mg/L Zn concentration solution. The batch process is applied to analyze the capacity of adsorption. Determination of capacity of adsorption based on the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm model. Direct observation and spectrophotometry are applied in research methodology. The results show that compost A1 and A2 have fulfilled Indonesian Standart of compost and have the ability to reduce Zinc concentration to 94-96%. It indicates highly recommended biosorbent that can be applied to Zinc adsorption.

  20. Food waste prevention - effects on greenhouse gas emissions and costs for waste producers and actions to reduce waste volume; Elintarvikejaetteen synnyn ehkaeisy. Vaikutukset kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoeihin ja jaetteen tuottajan kohtaamiin kustannuksiin sekae keinoja maeaeraen vaehentaemiseen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerioja, N.; Anderson, R. [HSY, Helsinki (Finland); Heino, E.; Rasi, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    waste producers. According to the results of the case study, there will be 68 000 tonnes less food waste generated in the prevention case than in the base case in 2020: 32 500 tonnes less in households, 8 500 in public sector, 18 000 in retail and 9 000 in other private sector. There will also be 300 000 tonnes less CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions in 2020 due to food waste prevention, which on average corresponds to an annual reduction of approximately 27 000 t CO{sub 2}-eq. In addition, the waste producers save almost euro 400 million in 2020, expressed in real value year 2010. In conclusion, food waste prevention decreases global warming and saves money for the waste producers. Achieving the target of the prevention case, however, requires concrete actions from the society and waste producers themselves. (orig.)

  1. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  2. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  3. Waste characterisation, determining the energy potential of waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in waste over time • Changes in population – Birth rates – Death rates –Migration • Changes in per capita generation – Socio-economic status – Degree of urbanisation – Household size • Recycling, composting and source reduction initiatives..., determining the energy potential of waste 25 November 2015 by Prof Suzan Oelofse Research Group Leader: Waste for Development Competency Area: Solutions for a Green Economy 2 WtE should consider Fitness for purpose • Feedstock...

  4. The Linkage Mechanism of Japan Municipal Household Waste Disposal and the Important Role of Residents' Council%日本城市生活垃圾处理的联动机制与居民自治会的重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏梦灵; 刘凌旗

    2016-01-01

    城市生活垃圾的迅速积累已经对市民生活产生严重影响.然而,尽管政府出台了一系列法律法规,企业积极将垃圾处理市场商业化,民众的环保节能意识也逐渐提高,我国距离“减量化、资源化”和“循环经济”的政策目标还存在一定距离.文章记录和分析了日本熊本市某自治会对生活垃圾的处理方法,在该案例中,日本政府、企业、民间团体和普通居民在生活垃圾处理问题上形成联动机制,其中,民间团体担任了细化、执行和监督相关法律法规,同时平衡政府、企业和居民之间利益冲突的责任,在推进日本环保事业进程中发挥了重要作用.%The municipal household waste has been accumulating rapidly,which has severely affected the residents' quality of life.Despite the efforts from major stakeholders,including the government who has promulgated a series of laws and regulations,the enterprises have actively participated in the commercialization of waste disposal and the citizens have improved their consciousness of environmental protection and energy saving,there is still a long way to practice the policy goal of "reducing quantity,harmless,reclamation".This work presented and analyzed the practice of an anonymous residents' council in Kumamoto,Japan,in dealing with their municipal household waste.The Japanese government,enterprises,residents,and residents' council formed a linkage system,in which the residents' council played an indispensable role.This council is responsible for specifying,enforcing and monitoring the abstract laws and regulations as well as balancing the conflicting interests among governments,enterprises and residents.

  5. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  7. Supplementing energy demand of rural households in Bangladesh through appropriate biogas technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashekuzzaman, S.M.; Badruzzaman, A.B.M.; Rafiqul Hoque, A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper has sought to show the potential of energy recovery from rurally available agro and household organic wastes and thus, the possible impact on supplementing energy demand, reducing deforestation, and replacing fossil fuel as well as avoided greenhouse gases. Results show that co......-digestion of a wide range of manure, crop residues and household wastes with cow manure was successful to produce increased gas yield than what would be if cow dung is digested separately and the energy value from this can supplement 57–79% of the rural energy demand, depending on the methane yield from organic waste...

  8. Quantification of food waste in public catering services - A case study from a Swedish municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mattias; Persson Osowski, Christine; Malefors, Christopher; Björkman, Jesper; Eriksson, Emelie

    2017-03-01

    Food waste is a major problem that must be reduced in order to achieve a sustainable food supply chain. Since food waste valorisation measures, like energy recovery, have limited possibilities to fully recover the resources invested in food production, there is a need to prevent food waste. Prevention is most important at the end of the value chain, where the largest number of sub-processes have already taken place and occur in vain if the food is not used for its intended purpose, i.e. consumption. Catering facilities and households are at the very end of the food supply chain, and in Sweden the public catering sector serves a large number of meals through municipal organisations, including schools, preschools and elderly care homes. Since the first step in waste reduction is to establish a baseline measurement in order to identify problems, this study sought to quantify food waste in schools, preschools and elderly care homes in one municipality in Sweden. The quantification was conducted during three months, spread out over three semesters, and was performed in all 30 public kitchen units in the municipality of Sala. The kitchen staff used kitchen scales to quantify the mass of wasted and served food divided into serving waste (with sub-categories), plate waste and other food waste. The food waste level was quantified as 75g of food waste per portion served, or 23% of the mass of food served. However, there was great variation between kitchens, with the waste level ranging from 33g waste per portion served (13%) to 131g waste per portion served (34%). Wasted food consisted of 64% serving waste, 33% plate waste and 3% other food waste. Preschools had a lower waste level than schools, possibly due to preschool carers eating together with the children. Kitchens that received warm food prepared in another kitchen (satellite kitchens) had a 42% higher waste level than kitchens preparing all food themselves (production units), possibly due to the latter having higher

  9. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  11. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  12. Environmental impact of household activity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Choliz, Julio; Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo [Department of Economic Analysis University of Zaragoza Gran Via 2, 50005, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-04-20

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the environmental impacts of the Spanish economy by way of water and atmospheric pollution on the basis of a Spanish Accounting Matrix for 1999. Only households were taken as an exogenous account. The pollution measures are estimated for seven categories of pollution: three atmospheric pollutants (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}) and four indicators for water (waste water, nitrogen, metals and biological oxygen demand (BOD)). The environmental data base was obtained from the Spanish Statistical Institute. The analysis reveals that pollution in Spain is closely linked to food production, energy, extractive industries and paper manufacturing. We show that services, taken as a whole, are major polluters, though this is due to the volume of household expenditure they represent rather than their pollution potential as such. We also show that the Spanish economy avoids a great deal of pollution by importing inputs, which pollute where they are produced. Finally, the study also provides per capita pollution values for the aforementioned seven pollutants. (author)

  13. A comprehensive waste collection cost model applied to post-consumer plastic packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.; Bing, X.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Post-consumer plastic packaging waste (PPW) can be collected for recycling via source separation or post-separation. In source separation, households separate plastics from other waste before collection, whereas in post-separation waste is separated at a treatment centre after collection. There are

  14. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO 3 , Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air. Material and substance flow analyses were performed in order to obtain transfer coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred to the biogas, 24% to the compost, 13% to residues and 40% into the atmosphere. For nitrogen, 69% was transferred to the compost, 10% volatilised to the biofilter, 11% directly into the atmosphere and 10% to residues. Finally, a full life cycle inventory was conducted for the combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Rocco, P.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of tritium in tritium-burning devices to be built for large scale research on thermonuclear fusion poses many problems especially in terms of occupational and environmental safety. One of these problems derives from the production of tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. All these wastes need to be adequately processed and conditioned to minimize tritium releases to an acceptably low occupational and environmental level and consequently to protect workers and the public against the risks of unacceptable doses from exposure to tritium. Since all experimental thermonuclear fusion devices of the Tokomak type to be built and operated in the near future as well as all experimental activities undertaken in tritium laboratories like ETHEL will generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need to be defined. Adequate background information is provided through an exhaustive literature survey. In this frame alternative tritiated waste management options so far investigated or currently applied to this end in Europe, USA and Canada have been assessed. The relevance of tritium in waste containing gamma-emitters, originated by the neutron activation of structural materials is assessed in relation to potential final disposal options. Particular importance has been attached to the tritium retention efficiency achievable by the various waste immobilization options. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  17. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  18. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  19. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  20. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  1. Household Financial Contribution to the Health System in Shiraz, Iran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kavosi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One common challenge to social systems is achieving equity in financial contributions and preventing financial loss. Because of the large and unpredictable nature of some costs, achieving this goal in the health system presents important and unique problems. The present study investigated the Household Financial Contributions (HFCs to the health system. Methods The study investigated 800 households in Shiraz. The study sample size was selected using stratified sampling and cluster sampling in the urban and rural regions, respectively. The data was collected using the household section of the World Health Survey (WHS questionnaire. Catastrophic health expenditures were calculated based on the ability of the household to pay and the reasons for the catastrophic health expenditures by a household were specified using logistic regression. Results The results showed that the fairness financial contribution index was 0.6 and that 14.2% of households were faced with catastrophic health expenditures. Logistic regression analysis revealed that household economic status, the basic and supplementary insurance status of the head of the household, existence of individuals in the household who require chronic medical care, use of dental and hospital care, rural location of residences, frequency of use of outpatient services, and Out-of-Pocket (OOP payment for physician visits were effective factors for determining the likelihood of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure. Conclusion It appears that the current method of health financing in Iran does not adequately protect households against catastrophic health expenditure. Consequently, it is essential to reform healthcare financing.

  2. Household MIPS. Natural resource consumption of Finnish households and its reduction; KotiMIPS. Kotitalouksien luonnonvarojen kulutus ja sen pienentaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, E.; Laehteenoja, S.; Lettenmeier, M.

    2008-10-15

    In the study the natural resource consumption of 27 Finnish households was calculated using the MIPS method (Material Input per Service unit). The households monitored their consumption over a 6-week period in seven sub-sectors - housing, mobility, tourism, foodstuffs, household goods and appliances, leisure time activities, and packaging and household wastes. In the consumption monitoring only the households' direct consumption was taken into account and not consumption due to, e.g. public services. MIPS figures were calculated for five natural resource categories: abiotic natural resources, biotic natural resources, water, air and erosion. Service performance was expressed as kilograms per person per year. The calculation of natural resource consumption was based, to a large extent, on previously carried out sub-studies under the main FIN-MIPS study on households. The sub-studies focused on foodstuffs, leisure time activities, tourism, household goods and appliances, and construction. All the people participating in the study were interested in environmental matters to a greater extent than the average Finn. Nevertheless, the difference between the household consuming the most natural resources, and the one consuming the least, was approximately 10-fold. Especially in mobility and tourism there were appreciable differences between the households. The most material-intensive sub-sectors of consumption with reference to the households studied are housing, mobility and tourism. The TMR (total material requirement, i.e. abiotic and biotic natural resources and erosion combined) is approximately 10,000 kg/person per year. In the case of foodstuffs the average TMR per person per year is around 4,000 kg, in relation to household goods, for appliances about 2,000 kg, and for packaging and household waste management approximately 200 kg. The precise definition of each sub-sector in the study has an influence on the results. The ranking of the different sub-sectors of

  3. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  4. Understanding the role of waste prevention in local waste management: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacho, Kristina O; Mosgaard, Mette A

    2016-10-01

    Local waste management has so far been characterised by end-of-pipe solutions, landfilling, incineration, and recycling. End-of-pipe solutions build on a different mind-set than life cycle-based approaches, and for this reason, local waste managers are reluctant to consider strategies for waste prevention. To accelerate the transition of waste and resource management towards a more integrated management, waste prevention needs to play a larger role in the local waste management. In this review article, we collect knowledge from the scientific community on waste prevention of relevance to local waste management. We analyse the trends in the waste prevention literature by organising the literature into four categories. The results indicate an increasing interest in waste prevention, but not much literature specifically concerns the integration of prevention into the local waste management. However, evidence from the literature can inform local waste management on the prevention potential; the environmental and social effects of prevention; how individuals in households can be motivated to reduce waste; and how the effects of prevention measures can be monitored. Nevertheless, knowledge is still lacking on local waste prevention, especially regarding the methods for monitoring and how local waste management systems can be designed to encourage waste reduction in the households. We end the article with recommendations for future research. The literature review can be useful for both practitioners in the waste sector and for academics seeking an overview of previous research on waste prevention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Happiness, Leisure and Tourism vs Household Budget in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to explore how happiness, leisure and tourism play role in modern life, and how they are related to household budget. While in the past household budget was totally allotted to the necessities of food, clothing and shelter, nowadays, some portion of the household budget needs to be allotted to leisure and tourism activities ___ leading to happiness. While in the West it is done so, in the developing countries, there is still a long way to go, to achieve that goal. However, tourism has become a popular global happiness and leisure activity. As reported, in 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide (UNTWO, 2012. Tourism as a way to happiness is important and vital in some cases. It brings large amount of income in payment for goods and services available. The present paper partly investigates happiness, leisure and tourism in Tehran, Iran through assessing household budget. In that, 623 households were empirically studied to find out happiness, leisure and tourism vs household budget in Iran.

  6. The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Francis I

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and affordable energy is critical for the realization of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, or MDGs. In many developing countries, a large proportion of household energy requirements is met by use of non-commercial fuels such as wood, animal dung, crop residues, etc., and the associated health and environmental hazards of these are well documented. In this work, a scenario analysis of energy requirements in Nigeria's households is carried out to compare estimates between 2005 and 2020 under a reference scenario, with estimates under the assumption that Nigeria will meet the millennium goals. Requirements for energy under the MDG scenario are measured by the impacts on energy use, of a reduction by half, in 2015, (a) the number of household without access to electricity for basic services, (b) the number of households without access to modern energy carriers for cooking, and (c) the number of families living in one-room households in Nigeria's overcrowded urban slums. For these to be achieved, household electricity consumption would increase by about 41% over the study period, while the use of modern fuels would more than double. This migration to the use of modern fuels for cooking results in a reduction in the overall fuelwood consumption, from 5 GJ/capita in 2005, to 2.9 GJ/capita in 2015.

  7. Household electricity and gas consumption for heating homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seob Kim, Chang; Lee, Jongsu

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has been drastically changed because of energy source depletion, price fluctuations, development and penetration of alternative energy sources, and government policies. Household energy sources are interrelated, and energy price and household characteristics, such as income level and dwelling size, affect the usage. To supply energy consistently and achieve a balance between production and consumption, stakeholders must understand consumer energy-consumption behavior. Therefore, this study identifies household heating energy usage patterns and the substitutive and/or complementary relationships between electricity and gas. Based on a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, household utility structure is identified from data on gas-heating usage. Results show greater utility and the smallest satiation values for gas boilers than for electric heaters and electric heating beds. The effects of consumer socioeconomic and environmental characteristics on the choice of heating energy sources were analyzed. Also, for further comparison, the respondents were split into high and low categories for income, heating degree days, dwelling size, and gas usage. Gas was found to be the most economical heating choice for households. - Research highlights: → This study investigates household electricity and gas consumption behavior for heating. → It also studied the relationship between two energy sources. → A research framework is suggested by combining the CDA and the MDCEV models. → It provides quantitative data that might be used for designing efficient energy policies.

  8. Electricity saving in households. A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoegersen, John; Groenhoej, Alice [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. (author)

  9. Determinants of consumer food waste behaviour: Two routes to food waste.