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Sample records for achatina fulica mollusca

  1. Chemical composition of Achatina fulica

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    Aboua, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximate composition and mineral content were determined in snail without and with shell and shell atone from Achatina fulica. This snail has high protein (above 40 %, low fat (less than 3 % and is a relatively good source of macrominerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and sodium. Achatina fulica is an excellent source of iron but is poor in copper, zinc and manganese. The snail is very rich in calcium but very poor in phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.

  2. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

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    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases.

  3. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971 Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda como hospedeiro intermediário potencial do Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylus costaricensis, agente etiológico da angiostrongiliase abdominal, mostrando-se susceptíveis ao parasita. Achatina fulica pode representar um risco para a urbanização da angiostrongilíase abdominal devido a sua alta prolificidade contínua dispersão e notável adaptação a ambientes urbanos.

  4. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

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    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  5. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

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    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

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    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure.

  7. Espécie invasora em reservas naturais: caracterização da população de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca - Achatinidae) na Ilha Rasa, Guaraqueçaba, Paraná, Brasil

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    Fischer,Marta Luciane; Colley,Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    O caramujo africano Achatina fulica é uma das cem espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos principalmente em ilhas. Objetivou-se caracterizar a população de A. fulica na Ilha Rasa, Guaraqueçaba, PR, Brasil. Coletas sazonais diurnas da A. fulica e fauna associada foram conduzidas na borda e interior de floresta, restinga, mangue e área urbana das comunidades de Almeida e Rasa. Foram coletados 959 caramujos, com uma média de 66,4 animais vivos por terreno vistoriado, estimando-se que ...

  8. Morfologfa conchffera, crecimiento, reproducción y letargo de los caracoles gigantes africanos : observaciones en laboratorio sobre Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina y Achatina fulica'

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    Stiévenart, C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available hell Shape, Growth, Reproduction and Estivation in Giant African Landsnails : Observations in Laboratory on"Archachatina marginata suturalis, Achatina achatina and Achatina fulica". Commercial frog farms exist in several countries. It seems hopeless believing that frog leg consumption can be prohibited, and the solution is probably a very strict control of the origin of the legs sold and imported. Uncontrolled hunting-poaching of frogs should be replaced by sustainable and rational breeding of frogs for sale. A large frog farm located near Singapore is described with the infrastructure and the management of the production. The two species bred are the American and the Asian bull-frogs Rana catesbeiana and R. tigerina. It is also mentioned that appropriate slaughtering techniques exist for frogs based on same guidelines as for conventional farm animals.

  9. Aspectos macroscópicos da anatomia do sistema reprodutor de escargots: Achatina fulica e Achatina monochromatica

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    Dulcinéa Gonçalves Teixeira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The macro-anatomy of the reproductive system of both Achatina fulica and Achatina monochromatica was studied, by establishing the morphologic parameters of both species. Fifteen samples of each species with nearly twelve years old from the same family were used. The specimens were sacrificed by freezing (-2ºC. The collection of the reproductive system was made after the retreat from the shell and dissection of the animal. It was observed that even if the specimens have been maintained in the same environmental and alimentary conditions, as well as submitted to the same type of selection, the development of their reproductive organs show some variation. In both species, some segments of the reproductive system morphologic aspects differ macroscopically, although the disposition and the location of these segments are identical.

  10. Scientometrics of zoonoses transmitted by the giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822

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    Pavanelli, Gilberto Cezar; Yamaguchi, Mirian Ueda; Calaça, Elaine Alves; Oda, Fabrício Hiroiuki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dissemination of the giant African snail Achatina fulica in several countries has triggered a great number of studies on the mollusk, including those on zoonoses related to health in humans. The current research is a scientific survey on articles published in four databases, namely, PubMed, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs. Results indicate that Brazil has a prominent position in international scientific production on this subject, with focus on Angiostrongylus cantonensis occurrences. PMID:28423090

  11. Antimicrobial proteins of Snail mucus (Achatina fulica against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

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    Herluinus Mafranenda DN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Achasin and mytimacin-AF are proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica which have antimicrobial activity. Snail mucus is suspected to have other proteins which have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the oral pathologic bacteria. Purpose: The study were aimed to characterize the proteins of snail mucus (Achatina fulica that have antimicrobial activities to Streptococcus mutans and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and to compared the antimicrobial effect of achasin and mytimacin-AF. Methods: The sample of study was the mucus of snails which were taken from Yogyakarta Province. The isolation and characterization of protein were conducted by using SDS-PAGE method, electroelution, and dialysis. Nano drop test was conducted to determine protein concentration. The sensitivity test was conducted by using dilution test, and followed by spectrophotometry and paper disc diffusion tests. Results: The study showed that proteins successfully characterized from snail mucus (Achatina fulica were proteins with molecular weights of 83.67 kDa (achasin, 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa (full amino acid sequence of mytimacin-AF and 9.7 kDa (mytimacin-AF. Based on the dilution test, Achasin had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. But the paper disc diffusion test result showed that Achasin had antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, while mytimacin-AF had no antimicrobial activities. Conclusion: The proteins with molecular weights of 50.81 kDa, 15 kDa, 11.45 kDa were considered as new antimicrobial proteins isolated from snail mucus. Achasin, had better antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans, while mytimacin-AF had better antimicrobial activities against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

  12. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

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    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  13. Effect of clove oil on the Albumen gland and reproductive potential of Achatina fulica

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    Yadnya A Parvate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a pestiferous land snail causing extensive agri-horticultural damage across the globe including India. A hermaphroditic land snail Achatina fulica exhibits protandrous reproduction which is one of the major causes of its rapid population explosion. Albumen gland which is a part of the female reproductive organs of the snail enlarges in size during the breeding season and secretes the perivitelline fluid which nourishes the developing embryo. Its quality and quantity determines the number of eggs laid by the snail. This study aimed at exploring the effect of clove oil (essential oil of clove on the histology of albumen gland by subjecting the animals to its subacute doses (20% and 60% of LD 50 value/ 24 hr, by topical application, and comparing it with the control and vehicle treated group. The effect of these doses on the galactogen content, chief component of perivitelline fluid of albumen gland, was also determined by using the technique of immunohistochemistry. The reproductive efficiency of the snails, w.r.to their fecundity, hatchability and survivability of hatchlings up to 72 hrs were also studied across the controls and treated groups. The results revealed alterations in the cyto - architechture of albumen gland of the treated snails, substantial reduction in its galactogen content and also a marked reduction in their reproductive efficiency as compared to the control snails. Thus this study indicated that clove oil severely affects the reproductive potential of the snail and hence can be used as a potential molluscicide in its population control.

  14. Natural infection of the feline lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in the invasive snail Achatina fulica from Argentina.

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    Valente, Romina; Diaz, Julia Ines; Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Navone, Graciela Teresa

    2017-02-15

    The giant African snail Achatina fulica is an invasive mollusk native to Africa, the first record in Argentina was in Puerto Iguazú, in northeastern Argentina in 2010. Recently it was reported in Corrientes Province. This snail can act as an intermediate host of Metastrongyloidea nematodes of importance in public health as: Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum. Taking into account the presence of A. fulica in Argentina, the objectives of this study is to assess the presence of Metastrongyloidea nematodes in this mollusk species in Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, close to the international border with Brazil and Paraguay. A total of 451 samples were collected from February 2014 to November 2015. The snails were processed using a digestion technique to recover the parasites. A total of 206 nematodes larvae were founded in the digestion solution of 10 hosts (P=2%; MA=0.5; MI=21). Third larval stage (L3) nematodes identified as Aelurostrongylus abstrusus were founded parasitizing the snails. No other larval stage was observed. This species has veterinary importance because it causes 'aelurostrongilosis', also known as feline strongyloidosis. This study constitutes the first record of a Metastrongyloidea nematode in A. fulica in Argentina and also highlights the susceptibility of this mollusk as intermediate host of other helminthes of health importance. The present study suggests that there is a need to establish an epidemiological monitoring system in order to prevent the possible installation of an infected mollusks focus.

  15. Assessment of acute toxicity of thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG to Achatina fulica and its potential ecological applications

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    Maria Kim Feliz N. Abog

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is considered as one of the world’s worst invasive species and is known to cause ecological disruption as well as agricultural and health problems in the Philippines. The study evaluated the use of the insecticide thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG in the control of A. fulica populations. This was done by performing an acute toxicity test of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. Six individuals each were exposedto thiamethoxam concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L for 72 hours. The percent mortality was then determined after the exposure period. Probit analysis was used to determine the LD50 of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. The LD50 was found to be 662.95 ± 172.98 μg/L. Using the mean body weight of the snails, the LD50 per body weight of A. fulica was determined to be 90.09 ± 23.60 μg/kg. This is 70 times lower than the recommended application of thiamethoxam on field. Thus, normal application would eliminate A. fulica. However, because the LD50 to A. fulica is higher than that for other beneficial non-target species such as honey bees (0.03 μg/bee, the use of thiamethoxam in the control of A. fulica populations is only recommended when in conjunction with the control of target pest insects.

  16. Ocorrência de Achatina fulica no Vale do Paraíba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Vasconcellos Maurício Carvalho de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Registrou-se no município de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a primeira ocorrência do molusco Achatina fulica hospedeiro intermediário de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causador da angiostrongilíase meningoencefálica. Em cinco bairros visitados, foram encontrados moluscos vivendo livremente, e nenhum dos animais coletados apresentava a forma larvar do parasito. A presença de A. fulica pode estar relacionada à comercialização desse molusco como alimento, e representa possibilidade de instalação dessa zoonose na região.

  17. Assessment of toxic effects of triclosan on the terrestrial snail (Achatina fulica).

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    Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Zhengtao; Wang, Wanhua; Yan, Zhenguang; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Weili; Chen, Lihong

    2014-08-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in personal care products, and as a result, is widespread in the environment. Toxicity tests of TCS on aquatic organisms have been reported, but limited toxicity data on terrestrial species are available. In this study, the 28-d chronic toxicity of TCS on the biomass, shell diameter growth, and total food intake of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica were tested. Moreover, biochemical responses, including changes in the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), were examined after 14-d and 28-d exposure. Results showed that TCS had toxic effects on the biomass, shell diameter growth, and total food intake of A. fulica with no observed effect concentration (NOEC) values of 24 mg kg(-1). As for the antioxidant enzymes, TCS caused significant oxidative stress even at the low concentration of 24 mg kg(-1). The CAT and POD activities at the high concentrations of 200 and 340 mg kg(-1), respectively, were significantly inhibited. The SOD and CAT activity in treatments below 118 mg kg(-1) and the MDA content in all treatments showed dose-effect relationships. This study demonstrated that TCS caused adverse effects on terrestrial invertebrates, and provided valuable information for the risk assessment imposed by TCS in the terrestrial environment.

  18. Low susceptibility of Achatina fulica from Brazil to infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis

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    Erli Neuhauss

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Achatina fulica in Brazil has led to serious concerns about its role as vector for metaIylid worms: AngioIylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis. Experimental infection with both parasites was performed to evaluate the potential risk for their transmission by the giant African snail. Groups of 5 animals, both wild and bred at captivity were exposed at different inocula: 1, 5, and 10 ´ 10³ L1 of A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis. In all groups, few snails got infected and parasitic burden was low. Two different ways of infection were tested: ingestion produced higher numbers of L3 than the inoculation through an artificial hole in the shell. We also report the parasitological examination of 6 batches of wild A. fulica from Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil: only 1 out of 244 animals were infected with metaIylid larvae. Taken together these data indicate that the giant African snail occurring in Southern Brazil is not a permissive host for both AngioIylus species and does not represent a significant risk for transmission of these parasites.

  19. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

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    Guilherme L. Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG, p-nitrophenyl-b-D-cellobioside (pNPC, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-cellobioside (MUC and 4-methylumbelliferyl-b-D-xylopyranoside (MUX. Our results indicate that the snail Achatina fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes.

  20. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata no nordeste do Brasil

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    FS. Albuquerque

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.O objetivo deste estudo foi documentar a distribuição e o estabelecimento de Achatina fulica, assim como sua preferência alimentar e aspectos comportamentais in situ. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na cidade de Lauro de Freitas, Estado da Bahia, Brasil, durante os meses de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Usamos o método de esforço de captura determinado por homem/hora para calcular a abundância e distribuição, habitats preferidos, além de preferência alimentar. Vimos que a abundância e distribuição de A. fulica foram mais representativas em áreas urbanas, sobretudo cerca da linha de costa. Os terrenos e jardins de casas foram os locais preferidos pelos caracóis quando estavam em atividade. Os resultados indicaram que os caracóis A. fulica iniciam sua atividade no final da tarde e hibernam

  1. Caracterización físico-química y actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica

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    Andrés E Pereira P; Arley Rey P; Jenny P López R; Jennifer P Castro O; Nelson Uribe D

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El caracol gigante africano Achatina fulica es reconocido como una plaga que afecta la biodiversidad, la Salud Pública y la productividad. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que su secreción mucosa tiene propiedades cosméticas, cicatrizantes y antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Determinar las características físico-químicas y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica. Metodología: Se hicieron pruebas bioquímicas para la determinación cualitativa y cuantita...

  2. PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica) E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica) e aruá (Pomacea lineata). Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado): triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborado...

  3. Development of ten microsatellite loci in the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822

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    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Springmann, Marcus J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Wade, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed for the invasive giant African land snail, Achatina (=Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, from Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing data. Ten of the 96 primer sets tested amplified consistently in 30 snails from Miami, Florida, plus 12 individuals representative of their native East Africa, Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 5.6 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 42 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and detect phylogeographic structuring among regional samples. The invasive A. fulica can cause extensive damage to important food crops and natural resources, including native flora and fauna. The loci characterized here will be useful for determining the origins and tracking the spread of invasions, detecting fine-scale spatial structuring and estimating demographic parameters.

  4. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

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    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  5. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the vector snails Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Langui; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Zi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao

    2016-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease induced by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, and has been recognized as the main cause leading to human eosinophilic meningitis. Humans usually acquire infection by digestion of infected Pomacea canaliculata and Achatina fulica, the most predominant intermediate hosts found in China. This meta-analysis was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection among these two snails in China in the past 10 years. Data were systematically collected in electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CNKI, SinoMed, VIP, CSCD, and Wanfang from 2005 to 2015. Thirty-eight studies with a total of 41,299 P. canaliculata and 21,138 Ac. fulica were included in the present study. The overall infection rate of A. cantonensis in China was estimated to be 7.6 % (95 % confidential interval (CI) = 0.063 to 0.090) in P. canaliculata and 21.5 % in Ac. fulica (95 % CI = 0.184 to 0.245), respectively. No significant difference was observed in prevalence rates among publication year and sample size for both snails. Also, it was found that the prevalence in Ac. fulica is significantly higher than that in P. canaliculata (odds ratio (OR) = 3.946, 95 % CI = 3.070 to 5.073). The present study reveals that snail infection with A. cantonensis is clearly prevalent in China. Further studies are required to improve strategies for control of infections of snails, particularly those of Ac. fulica, and to detect further factors and conditions such as geographic region, temperatures, and diagnosis method.

  6. Isolation of aerobic cultivable cellulolytic bacteria from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract of giant land snail Achatina fulica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L.; Correa, Raquel F.; Cunha, Raquel S.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Chaia, Catia; Clementino, Maysa M.; Garcia, Eloi S.; de Souza, Wanderley; Frasés, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases is one of the major limiting steps in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to yield bioethanol. To overcome this hindrance, significant efforts are underway to identify novel cellulases. The snail Achatina fulica is a gastropod with high cellulolytic activity, mainly due to the abundance of glycoside hydrolases produced by both the animal and its resident microbiota. In this study, we partially assessed the cellulolytic aerobic bacterial diversity inside the gastrointestinal tract of A. fulica by culture-dependent methods and evaluated the hydrolytic repertoire of the isolates. Forty bacterial isolates were recovered from distinct segments of the snail gut and identified to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Additional phenotypic characterization was performed using biochemical tests provided by the Vitek2 identification system. The overall enzymatic repertoire of the isolated strains was investigated by enzymatic plate assays, containing the following substrates: powdered sugarcane bagasse, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG), p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (MUG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-cellobioside (MUC), and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-xylopyranoside (MUX). Our results indicate that the snail A. fulica is an attractive source of cultivable bacteria that showed to be valuable resources for the production of different types of biomass-degrading enzymes. PMID:26347735

  7. Popular knowledge: impacts and methods for controlling Achatina fulica in Valença – RJ, Brazil

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    Evelyn Durço

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to check the incidence of the African snail Achatina fulica in the Cambota neighborhood, Valença, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and investigate control strategies adopted by the population. Epidemiological questionnaires applied to 105 inhabitants evaluated the existence of their contact to the animal, the risk of infection by parasites, due to hygiene behaviors, and the control methods adopted. The presence of mollusks was reported in 52.5% of visited households. Out of these, 51.4% had rodents. Collected mollusks were analyzed with regard to the presence of nematodes. In the households with a positive result for the presence of A. fulica, direct contact to the mollusks was reported (21.9% by handling (often inappropriate or intake. All respondents said to use some technique for food hygiene and 67.6% said to know angiostrongyliasis. All respondents said to practice extermination of mollusks, 28.5% of them by breaking the shell. Despite the high incidence of A. fulica, larvae of Angiostrongylus sp. or other nematodes of medico-veterinary importance weren’t found in the analyzed specimens.

  8. Alimentation à base de produits du papayer et maturation ovocytaire chez Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1820 en Côte d'Ivoire

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    N'Da, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diets Based on Papaya and Oocyte Ripening by Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1820 in Ivory Coast. The gardens snail, Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1820 is a species recently introduced in Ivory Coast but of which the crop (the collection and consequently, its consumption is growing within the population. Its breeding becomes imperative. In experimental breeding condition out of the ground diets based on papaya (R1: leave; R2: fruit; R3: leave + fruit are (quantity of laid eggs and tiny (presence in more or less larger number of ripe oocytes in the ovotestis observations show that R3 regime is the most appropriate. It could be then recommended as diet to those who would like to breed this species.

  9. Low susceptibility of Achatina fulica from Brazil to infection with AngioIylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauss, Erli; Fitarelli, Monaliza; Romanzini, Juliano; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    Introduction of Achatina fulica in Brazil has led to serious concerns about its role as vector for metaIylid worms: AngioIylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis. Experimental infection with both parasites was performed to evaluate the potential risk for their transmission by the giant African snail. Groups of 5 animals, both wild and bred at captivity were exposed at different inocula: 1, 5, and 10 x 10(3) L1 of A. costaricensis and A. cantonensis. In all groups, few snails got infected and parasitic burden was low. Two different ways of infection were tested: ingestion produced higher numbers of L3 than the inoculation through an artificial hole in the shell. We also report the parasitological examination of 6 batches of wild A. fulica from Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil: only 1 out of 244 animals were infected with metaIylid larvae. Taken together these data indicate that the giant African snail occurring in Southern Brazil is not a permissive host for both AngioIylus species and does not represent a significant risk for transmission of these parasites.

  10. Effect of Climate Change on Invasion Risk of Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica Férussac, 1821: Achatinidae) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Roshmi Rekha; Munsi, Madhushree; Ananthram, Aravind Neelavara

    2015-01-01

    The Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) is considered to be one the world's 100 worst invasive alien species. The snail has an impact on native biodiversity, and on agricultural and horticultural crops. In India, it is known to feed on more than fifty species of native plants and agricultural crops and also outcompetes the native snails. It was introduced into India in 1847 and since then it has spread all across the country. In this paper, we use ecological niche modeling (ENM) to assess the distribution pattern of Giant African Snail (GAS) under different climate change scenarios. The niche modeling results indicate that under the current climate scenario, Eastern India, peninsular India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at high risk of invasion. The three different future climate scenarios show that there is no significant change in the geographical distribution of invasion prone areas. However, certain currently invaded areas will be more prone to invasion in the future. These regions include parts of Bihar, Southern Karnataka, parts of Gujarat and Assam. The Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands are highly vulnerable to invasion under changed climate. The Central Indian region is at low risk due to high temperature and low rainfall. An understanding of the invasion pattern can help in better management of this invasive species and also in formulating policies for its control.

  11. Effects of penicillin on procaine-elicited bursts of potential in central neuron of snail, Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Lu, Kuan-Ling; Hsiao, Ru-Wan; Lee, Ya-Ling; Tsai, Hong-Chieh; Lin, Chia Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2008-08-01

    Effects of penicillin on changes in procaine-elicited bursts of potential (BoP) were studied in a central neuron (RP4) of snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. Procaine elicited BoP in the RP4 neuron while penicillin elicited depolarization of the neuron. Penicillin decreased the BoP elicited by procaine in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was not altered in the preparations treated with ascorbate or L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). However, the inhibitory effect of penicillin on the procaine-elicited BoP was enhanced with a decrease in extracellular sodium ion. Sodium ion was one of the important ions contributing to the action potential of the neuron. Two-electrode voltage-clamp studies revealed that penicillin decreased the fast sodium inward current of the neuron. It is concluded that penicillin inhibited the BoP elicited by procaine and sodium ion altered the effect of penicillin on procaine-elicited BoP.

  12. The Giant Snail Achatina fulica as a Candidate Species for Advanced Bioregenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Olga; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Maintenance of crew health is of paramount importance for long duration space missions. Weight loss, bone and calcium loss, increased exposure to radiation and oxidative stress are critical concerns that need to be alleviated. Rational nutrition is a resource for mitigating the influence of unfavorable conditions. The insufficiency of vegetarian diet has been examined by the Japanese, Chinese and U.S. developers of bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). Hence, inclusion of animals such as silkworm in BLSS looks justified. The giant snail is currently under studying as a source of animal food and a species of reducing waste in BLSS. An experimental system to conduct cultivation of giant snail was developed. It was established that there are some reasons to use the giant snails in BLSS. It could be a source of delicious meat. A. fulica is capable of consuming a wide range of feedstuffs including plant residues. Cultivation of snail in the limited volume does not demand the big expenditures of labor. The production of crude edible biomass and protein of A. fulica was 60±15 g and 7±1.8 g respectively per 1 kg of consumed forage (fresh salad leaves, root and leafy tops of carrot). To satisfy daily animal protein needs (30-35 g) a crewman has to consume 260-300 g of snail meat. To produce such amount of snail protein it takes to use 4.3-5.0 kg of plant forage daily. The nutritional composition of A. fulica whole bodies (without shell) and a meal prepared in various ways was quantitatively determined. Protein, carbohydrate, fat acid and ash content percentages were different among samples prepared in various ways. The protein content was highest (68 %) in the dry sample washed with CH3 COOH solution. Taking into consideration the experimental results a conceptual configuration of BLSS with inclusion of giant snail was developed and mass flow rates between compartments were calculated. Keywords: animal food; protein; giant snail; BLSS; conceptual configuration.

  13. Philippine Survey of Nematode Parasite Infection and Load in the Giant African Snail Achatina fulica indicate Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Mindanao

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    Daisy May A. Constantino-Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a ubiquitous land snail commonly found throughout the Philippines. As a generalist feeder and being able to survive in a wide range of habitat types and conditions, the snail can easily establish itself in a new area after introduction. It also acts as host to a variety of parasites, including nematodes, which may accidentally infect humans. In this study, A. fulica individuals from 13 areas in the Philippines were sampled and analyzed for nematode infection rate and load. Of the 393 individuals sampled, 80 (20% were found to be infected, with 5049 nematodes isolated. The infection rates and parasite load were highly variable. Overall, the parasite load ranges from 1 to 867 per snail. Representative nematodes from A. fulica from Plaridel (n=8 and Davao City (n=26 in Mindanao were subjected to DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene, which is the universal barcode for nematodes. Sequences successfully matched with the dog lungworm Oslerus osleri for the Plaridel nematodes and the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis for the Davao City nematodes, respectively. The latter is known to infect humans and can cause eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. This study presents the first report of A. cantonensis in A. fulica from Mindanao and raises a public health concern.

  14. Caracterización físico-química y actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica

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    Andrés E Pereira P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El caracol gigante africano Achatina fulica es reconocido como una plaga que afecta la biodiversidad, la Salud Pública y la productividad. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que su secreción mucosa tiene propiedades cosméticas, cicatrizantes y antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Determinar las características físico-químicas y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica. Metodología: Se hicieron pruebas bioquímicas para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de glúcidos, proteínas y lípidos. Se determinó el contenido de Calcio, Potasio, cloruros, Sodio y Magnesio. Se midieron los parámetros de conductividad eléctrica, potencial óxido-reducción, saturación de oxígeno, oxígeno total disuelto, pH, sólidos disueltos totales. Se realizó un ensayo de actividad antibacteriana por la técnica de microdilución en caldo. Resultados: Se encontraron glúcidos en concentraciones de 582 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 62.1 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas, y proteínas en concentraciones de 836 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 1413 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana frente a las tres cepas ensayadas. Streptococcus agalactiae alcanzó un MIC90 a una concentración de 3,6 mg/mL con la fracción de mucinas; Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina tuvo un MIC50 de 3,3 mg/mL y Escherichia coli un MIC 70 de 3.8 mg/mL. Conclusiones: Se reportan por primera vez las características físicas y los oligoelementos presente en la secreción de Achatina fulica. La actividad antibacteriana obtenida frente a cepas Gram positivas y Gram negativas plantea la necesidad de realizar estudios para purificar las moléculas con dicha actividad, conocer los mecanismos de acción y establecer la inocuidad, entre otros.

  15. Histological Observation on the Liver and Kidney of Achatina fulica%褐云玛瑙螺肝及肾的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑杰; 曹谨玲; 古少鹏; 李晓丽; 张国柱

    2014-01-01

    The organizational structure of the liver and kidney of Achatina fulica was observed with microscopy by using conventional slicing technology. The results showed that the liver surface of A. fulica was covered with fibrous connectivetissue. And its outside was serosa and there were more visible adipose tissue in the submucosa. Connective tissues existed among hepatic lobules. And hepatic vein was observed and obvious liver cell cord wasn′t found. The fiber membrane coated on the kidney surface was close to the cortex and smooth muscle was in the underneath. And visible kidney tubules were seen and the lumen of kidney tubules was narrow.%利用常规切片技术对褐云玛瑙螺肝及肾的组织结构进行了显微方面的观察。结果发现,褐云玛瑙螺的肝脏表面被纤维性结缔组织覆盖,它的外面是浆膜,在黏膜下层存在较多的脂肪组织,肝小叶之间存在结缔组织,能观察到肝脏静脉,没有很明显的肝细胞索;肾脏表面包着的纤维膜紧贴在皮质上,其下面为平滑肌,可见肾小管和肾小球,肾小管管腔较窄。

  16. Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in molluscs in the municipality of São Gonçalo, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: role of the invasive species Achatina fulica in parasite transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana P M; Gentile, Rosana; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Lopes Torres, Eduardo J; Thiengo, Silvana C

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similaris was the most abundant, followed by Achatina fulica, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformis and Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulica and B. similaris were parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica was more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulica and the prevalence of A. cantonensis and abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensis in B. similaris was 24.6%. A. fulica was the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensis in the studied area and B. similaris was secondary in importance for A. cantonensis transmission dynamics.

  17. PROCESSAMENTO E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DA CARNE DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata

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    S. H. R. BARBOZA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar sensorialmente os produtos do processamento da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica e aruá (Pomacea lineata. Foram realizados dois processamentos em conserva (enlatado: triturada e defumada. Na avaliação sensorial da carne triturada observou-se diferença significativa entre os produtos, favorável ao escargot com valor médio de aceitação igual a 5,35 e 4,76 para o aruá. Para os produtos elaborados defumados observou-se uma aceitação igual para as duas espécies (escargot = 4,82 e aruá = 4,49. Esses resultados de aceitação nos permitem admitir que os produtos são tecnicamente e sensorialmente viáveis para consumo (aceitação acima de 60% para os dois casos, mas com tendências ligeiramente favoráveis de preferência para os produtos elaborados com carne de escargot.

  18. Considerações estatísticas sobre os valores métricos dos segmentos corpóreos do sistema reprodutor dos escargots das espécies Achatina fulica e Monochromatica

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    Dulcinéa Gonçalves Teixeira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to perform a metric study of the reproductive system of the species Achantina fulica and Achatina monochromatica , establishing comparative parameters between both, to improve the knowledge of the species. After the selective process, weighting and measures of the shell, the specimens were frozen in freezer to -2(0C for approximately 10min as a sacrificing form. For each segments the measures proceeded after the retrieval of the reproductive system through a longitudinal incision. The statistical analysis showed that, in spite of the specimens be maintained under the same environmental and alimentary conditions and submitted to the same selection type, variations happened in the development and size of the reproductive organs. The morphologic aspect of the reproductive system in both species differs macroscopically in several segments; however, the disposition and the location of those segments are identical.

  19. AKTIVITAS ENZIM KOMERSIAL, EKSTRAK KASAR ENZIM DARI VISCERA KEONG MAS (Pila polita, ABALON (Haliotis asinina, DAN BEKICOT (Achatina fulica UNTUK LISIS JARINGAN RUMPUT LAUT Kappaphycus alvarezii PADA KULTUR PROTOPLAS

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    Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam usaha perbaikan kualitas bibit rumput laut Kappaphycus alvarezii dilakukan kultur protoplas dengan isolasi protoplas menggunakan enzim. Untuk mendapatkan sumber enzim yang ekonomis sebagai alternatif pengganti enzim komersial dan untuk mengetahui perbandingan konsentrasi enzim komersial yang optimum agar menghasilkan jumlah protoplas yang maksimum, dilakukan karakterisasi terhadap enzim dari berbagai sumber. Aktivitas ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera bekicot (Achatina fulica tidak berbeda nyata dengan enzim komersial (P>0,05 dengan aktivitas sebesar 0,729 unit/mL; enzim komersial 0,354 unit/mL; ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera keong mas (Pila polita 0,048 unit/mL; dan ekstrak kasar enzim dari viscera abalon (Haliotis asinina 0,014 unit/mL. Perbandingan enzim komersial yang optimum adalah 2:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 1,26 x 108 sel/mL; kemudian 1:2 dengan jumlah protoplas 1,22 x 108 sel/mL; perbandingan 1:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 8,36 x 107 sel/mL; perbandingan 0:1 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 6,33 x 107 sel/mL; dan perbandingan 1:0 menghasilkan protoplas sebanyak 9,55 x 106 sel/mL. Rumput laut asal Takalar memiliki protoplas dengan kepadatan tertinggi sebesar 3,7 x 108 sel/mL. Effort to improve the quality of seaweed seed Kappaphycus alvarezii has been done by protoplast culture with protoplast isolation using enzyme. To find out economical enzyme sources as alternatives to substitute the expensive commercial enzyme and to determine the optimum concentration ratio of commercial enzyme to produce maximum amount of protoplast, characterization was executed to several potential sources. Activity of crude extract enzyme from viscera of garden snail (Achatina fulica was not significantly different with commercial enzyme (P>0.05 it was 0.729 unit/mL, commercial enzyme 0.354 unit/mL activity; crude extract enzyme from viscera of golden snail (Pila polita 0.048 unit/mL activity and crude extract enzyme from viscera of abalone

  20. Utilization of Snail (Achatina fulica Shell Waste for Synthesis of Calcium Tartrate Tetrahydrate (CaC4H4O6.4H2O Single Crystals in Silica Gel

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    Imam Sakdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail (Achatina fulica shell waste is massively produced by many home industries in Indonesia, especially in East Java. The snail shell is known for high calcium; therefore it is potential to be used as calcium source of supernatant in the synthesis of piezoeletric material, such as single crystal of calcium tartrate tetrahydrate (CaTT. The aim of this research is to study the synthesis and characterization of CaTT or CaC4H4O6.4H2O from snail shell waste in silica gel. Supernatant solution of CaCl2 was prepared from CaO, which previously made by calcinating the shell at 1000°C, and then reacted with HCl 1,5M. Synthesis of CaTT was conducted in a single-tube reaction at room temperature in which silica gel was used as growth medium with gelling time of 10 days and growth time of 2 weeks. The pH of gel and CaCl2 concentration were varied, 3.00; 3.50; 4.00; 4.50; 5.00; and 0.27; 0.36; 0.45; 0.54 M respectively, in order to obtain optimum condition of the synthesis, which is indicated from crystal yields. The synthesized crystals were characterized by atomic adsorption spectrophotometry (AAS, infrared spectroscopy (IR and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD. Experimental data shows that optimum condition was obtained at pH of 3.50 and [CaCl2] of 0.45M with yield of 69.37%. The obtained single crystal has clear color and octahedral-like shape with size ranged between 4 – 9 mm. Analysis data by FTIR and powder XRD confirmed that the obtained crystal was CaTT single crystals with crystal system of orthorhombic.

  1. The δ18O study of the laboratory-cultured Achatina fulica snail shell and its environmental implications%蜗牛Achatina fulica壳体δ18O环境指示意义的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍睿; 盛雪芬

    2015-01-01

    陆生蜗牛化石氧同位素组成能够记录古降水和古温度信息,但古环境因子影响蜗牛壳体氧同位素组成的机理仍不明确,因此越来越多的研究侧重于对现代蜗牛壳体的环境效应进行探讨,而野外采样研究很难分离出单独环境因素的贡献,研究基于控制变量法的原理设计了两套实验方案,以Achatina fulica蜗牛为实验对象进行实验室培养,结果表明:(1)在相同的温湿度下,不同来源的环境水所饲养的结果均有一定的差异,并且得到分馏值与环境水δ18O值的相关性方程分别为:y=-0.4571x+1.4749,R2=0.9794(生菜叶组),y=-0.2179x+4.1566,R2=0.6821(玉米粉组);(2)在环境水来源单一、温度区间较小的情况下,温度与壳体氧同位素关系的经验方程为103lnα(Aragonite-H2O)=-1.2439×106T-2+48.033(R2=0.5666),这与无机碳酸盐分馏的相关实验结果趋势相反.实验结果表明,温度恒定的条件下,环境水是影响蜗牛壳体氧同位素组成的主导因素;在温度区间较小的条件下,温度对壳体氧同位素分馏的影响并不明显;研究结果还说明外加碳酸盐对壳体文石氧同位素组成几乎没有影响,但食物中所含的水分对蜗牛壳体δ18O值产生了不可忽视的影响.

  2. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

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    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  3. FRACTIONATION OF FATTY ACID OMEGA 3, 6 AND 9 FROM SNAIL (Achatina fulica) USING COLOUM CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Haryadi, Winarto; Triono, Sugeng

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of fat from snail has been carried out by Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether solvent. Fatty product from extraction was transesterificated in BF3/methanol solvent for an hour by reflux procedure, then extracted by n-hexane to produce methyl ester fatty acid. Free water fatty acid methyl ester was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Fatty acid ester was separated from its fractions use column chromatography in n-hexane, n-hexane:dietil eter (2:1 v/v), d...

  4. Anti-bacterial activity of Achatina CRP and its mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sandip; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan Chandra; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-07-01

    The physiological role of C-reactive protein (CRP), the classical acute-phase protein, is not well documented, despite many reports on biological effects of CRP in vitro and in model systems in vivo. It has been suggested that CRP protects mice against lethal toxicity of bacterial infections by implementing immunological responses. In Achatina fulica CRP is a constitutive multifunctional protein in haemolymph and considered responsible for their survival in the environment for millions of years. The efficacy of Achatina CRP (ACRP) was tested against both Salmonella typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis infections in mice where endogenous CRP level is negligible even after inflammatory stimulus. Further, growth curves of the bacteria revealed that ACRP (50 microg/mL) is bacteriostatic against gram negative salmonellae and bactericidal against gram positive bacilli. ACRP induced energy crises in bacterial cells, inhibited key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes such as phosphofructokinase in glycolysis, isocitrate dehydrogenase in TCA cycle, isocitrate lyase in glyoxylate cycle and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in gluconeogenesis. ACRP disturbed the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status, which is accompanied by an enhanced rate of lipid peroxidation. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining clearly showed ACRP induced apoptosis-like death in bacterial cell population. Moreover, immunoblot analyses also indicated apoptosis-like death in ACRP treated bacterial cells, where activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) and caspase-3 was noteworthy. It is concluded that metabolic impairment by ACRP in bacterial cells is primarily due to generation of reactive oxygen species and ACRP induced anti-bacterial effect is mediated by metabolic impairment leading to apoptosis-like death in bacterial cells.

  5. Trace Elements Composition of Achatina achatina Samples from the Madina Market in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Anim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to assess the composition and sources of trace elements in seventeen Achatina achatina samples obtained from the Madina Market. The trace elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (VARIAN AA 240 FS and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA. The highest mean Concentration, 2240.5 mg/kg was measured for chlorine while the least mean concentration, 0.13 mg/kg was measured for Magnessium. The mean elemental Concentrations were in the order Cl>Ca>Na>Al>Fe>Cu>Zn>Ni>Mn>K>V>Mg. Pearson Correlation matrix, Principal Component(PC Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA shows varying sources of the trace elements, however there is great interrelationships regarding their sources. The correlation matrix at 99% confidence level loaded the components Al-Fe-Mn, Ca-Cl-Mg, Cl-Mg-Na, Fe-V, and Ni-V. PC1 which loaded Ca, Cl, Mg, Na, Ni, and V agrees very well with CA1. A similar trend is shown in CA2 and PC2 with Al, Fe and Mn loadings. The geology of the original habitat of the samples which is characterized by Shales, Quartzite and Feldsphalthic sandstone together with anthropogenic inputs from fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides have been identified as the possible sources of the elements. All the elements analysed in the samples were essential elements.

  6. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment.

  7. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  8. Eco-physiological adaptation of the land snail Achatina achatina (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in tropical agro-ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian O. Chukwuka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of land snails in an adverse environmental condition depends on the integral physiological, morphological and behavioural adaptations. These adaptations are essential in understanding the species-specific habitat requirements and in predicting their environmental responses. In this study, the monthly and the periodic patterns of eco-physiological adaptation of land snail, Achatina achatina in Nsukka tropical agro-ecosystem were assessed from December 2012 to July 2013. Standard methods were employed in sampling the land snail and determination of the water content, biochemical fuel reserves and enzyme concentrations of the samples. The present results showed that lipids were high at the beginning of aestivation and depleted as the aestivation progressed. Glycogen was significantly low throughout the aestivation months (December–March and increased in the active months (April–July. Protein content recorded a definite pattern all through the months studied. Catabolism of lactate and a decrease in activity of LDH during aestivation and substantial increase upon activation were observed. Data showed that transaminase and aspartate enzymes depleted during the aestivation months indicating that the snails may have developed potential cell injury due to oxidative stress and thermal heat. A disassociation between the physiological responses and climatic data was recorded. The physiological adaptation of A. achatina ensures regular adjustment under extreme conditions and compensates for its metabolic regulation in the tropics. It is concluded that survival of A. achatina is not environmentally predicted; rather it depends on the species-specific inherent process in predicting responses for survival.

  9. Comparative evaluation of haemagglutination potential of haemolymph from two species of giant African land snails (Archachatina marginata and Achatina achatina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiona, John Adesanya; Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Oyekunle, Mufutao Atanda; Osinowo, Olusegun Ayodeji; Onagbesan, A Okanlawon Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted to evaluate haemagglutination potential in the haemolymph of two species of giant African land snails (Archachatina marginata and Achatina achatina). Three liveweight groups of snails (150 g) were used with 4 replicates per liveweight per species for haemagglutination assay (HA). The effect of aestivation on haemagglutination potential was also evaluated. Erythrocytes (2%) from cattle, sheep, goat and chicken were used for HA assay. Results showed that agglutinin-like substances that agglutinate erythrocytes of sheep, goat, cattle and chicken were present in the haemolymph of the two species of giant African land snails. Effect of species was found to be significant (P Snail liveweight had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on agglutinin content of the haemolymph in both species. Agglutination level depended on the source of erythrocyte used. Sheep erythrocyte recorded the highest haemagglutination titre, followed by goat, cattle, and chicken in that order. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that Giant African land snails (GALS) haemolymph contain agglutinins as previously reported for Helix species. This evidence may be the basis for its survivability in the wild and thus establish the use of GALS for African herbal medicinal applications.

  10. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  11. ESTUDO DO APROVEITAMENTO DAS VÍSCERAS DOS MOLUSCOS ESCARGOT (Achatina fulica E ARUÁ (Pomacea lineata PARA INCORPORAÇÃO EM RAÇÃO ANIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. R. BARBOZA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o aproveitamento das vísceras - subprodutos, dos moluscos escargot e aruá. As vísceras foram processadas na forma de farinha e suas características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, cálcio, fósforo, digestibilidade em pepsina, índice de acidez e microbiológicas (Salmonella sp foram comparadas aos padrões de qualidades exigidas pela Legislação (6.198, de 26/12/74, e o Decreto 76.986, de 06/01/76 do Ministério da Agricultura e Abastecimento para a comercialização de produtos destinados à alimentação animal. Os resultados obtidos permitiram verificar que as farinhas de vísceras de ambas espécies podem ser utilizadas como matérias primas, constituindo ótimas fontes de nutrientes para a incorporação em rações animais.

  12. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Rafael; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbiculafluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  13. Territory and territorial behavior of migrating Common Coot (Fulica atra)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; LIU Wei; MA Jian-zhang

    2011-01-01

    Territory and territorial behavior of the Common Coot (Fulica atra) were studied in two breeding sites, Anbanghe Nature Reserve and Daqing Longfeng wetland, in Heilongjiang Province, China from April to October in 2008 and 2009.In the breeding season, the breeding pairs occupied an area and protected it throughout the reproduction, and both interspecific and intraspecific conflicts were observed.Territory activities became severe since early May, the peak of territory behaviors appeared at late May, and then declined gradually.The territorial activities level was higher than that in the nest building period than in the laying and incubation periods.The most adopted behavioral model was expelling,which was the least energy cost.The degree of territorial behavior tended to be descended since the development of breeding phase.The territory size differed from 1 333 m2 to above 5 000 m2.Wintering population was observed in Poyang Lake of Jiangxi Province.The coots gathered in the open water; however, there was no territory behavior both in the interspecies and intraspecies in wintering sites.The hypotheses why there was territory behaviors for coots both in the interspecies and intraspecies were also discussed.

  14. De tweekleppigen van het Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaren, van T.; Tempelman, D.

    2006-01-01

    The bivalves of the Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In recent years, the macrobenthos of the Noordzeekanaal area, west of Amsterdam, has been surveyed intensively. The area consists of a main, brackish channel and a set of deep sea harbours. It was discovered that several bivalve species were pr

  15. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat. I

  16. FMRFamide and related peptides in the phylum mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B; Heimer de la Cotera, Edgar P

    2008-02-01

    FMRFamide is one of the well-known peptides studied within the phylum Mollusca. It was first isolated from the clam Macrocallista nimbosa during the end of the 1960s. Since then, a number of reports related to FMRFamide have been published from different experimental approaches, revealing that it and its related peptides (FaRPs) are implicated in a variety of physiological processes. As this year is the 30th anniversary since its discovery, this review focuses on diverse findings related to both FMRFamide and FaRPs in the phylum Mollusca.

  17. Aspectos estructurales y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata (Aves: Rallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Bulfon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los aspectos morfohistológicos y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal. Se utilizaron 5 hembras adultas. El análisis morfohistológico reveló la presencia de numerosos folículos en diferentes estadios de desarrollo y regresión. El epitelio simple de células granulosas caracterizó a los ovocitos primordiales y el pseudoestratificado a los folículos previtelogénicos, ambos tipos foliculares exhibieron un notorio cuerpo de Balbiani. En los folículos vitelogénicos blancos y amarillos (> de 1 mm se evidenció una compleja pared folicular formada por la zona radiada, el epitelio folicular estratificado y las envolturas tecales bien delimitadas, mientras que, en los vitelogénicos amarillos (> de 3 mm fue observado un epitelio simple con células cúbicas muy basófilas. Se identificaron dos tipos de atresia folicular: 1 pared folicular intacta o no bursting, la involución se realiza en el interior del folículo, comprende a la atresia lipoidal (Ovocitos primordiales y lipoglandular (folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos pequeños y 2 atresia por ruptura de la pared o bursting con extrusión del contenido ovoplásmico (folículos vitelogénicos > 1 mm. El análisis cuantitativo reveló una diferencia significativa (p <0,05, entre los folículos en desarrollo (< de 2 mm y los folículos mayores e idéntica diferencia entre lo folículos atrésicos pequeños (lipoidales y lipoglandulares y los folículos bursting. Los procesos de crecimiento y diferenciación (foliculogénesis y vitelogénesis y el de atresia folicular se desarrollan normalmente durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal, contribuyendo a la homeostasis del ovario de esta ave.

  18. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior

  19. The Holocene and Recent marine Bivalve Mollusca of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1968-01-01

    As the preparation of an annotated check list of the marine Mollusca of Surinam (Dutch Guiana) will take some more years, it was thought appropriate to publish a preliminary report on the bivalves. This report consists of a list of 126 species with a few notes containing, i.a., the description of se

  20. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  1. Spread of the Rat Lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) in Giant African Land Snails (Lissachatina fulica) in Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Sanders, Lakyn R; Schill, W Bane; Xayavong, Maniphet V; da Silva, Alexandre J; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Smith, Trevor

    2015-07-01

    The rat lungworm (Angiostrongylus cantonensis) is a parasitic nematode that causes rat lungworm disease. It is the leading cause of eosinophilic meningitis and is a zoonotic health risk. We confirmed the presence of A. cantonensis using species-specific, quantitative PCR in 18 of 50 (36%) giant African land snails (Lissachatina fulica) collected from Miami, Florida, US in May 2013. These snails were collected from seven of 21 core areas that the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services monitor weekly. Rat lungworms have not previously been identified in these areas. Duplicate DNA extractions of foot muscle tissue from each snail were tested. Of the seven core areas we examined, six were positive for A. cantonensis and prevalence of infection ranged from 27% to 100%. Of the 18 positive snails, only five were positive in both extractions. Our results confirm an increase in the range and prevalence of rat lungworm infection in Miami. We also emphasize the importance of extracting sufficient host tissue to minimize false negatives.

  2. Primeros registros de helmintos parásitos en Fulica ardesiaca (Aves: Rallidae para el Perú : Pantanos de Villa – Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Guillén

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se registran por primera vez para el Perú, los parásitos de un ejemplar de Fulica ardesiaca «gallareta andina» colectada en los Pantanos de Villa. Se colectaron un total de 698 especimenes: los tremátodos Notocotylus pacifera y Psilostomum sp. con 529 y 149 individuos respectivamente y el céstodo Diorchis americana, con 20. El presente trabajo constituye el primer reporte para el Perú de helmintos en F. ardesiaca y Psilostomum sp. y D. americana son primeros registros para la helmintofauna peruana.

  3. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  4. Epizootic vacuolar myelinopathy of the central nervous system of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Meteyer, C.U.; Sileo, L.

    1998-01-01

    Unprecedented mortality occurred in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at DeGray Lake, Arkansas, during the winters of 1994-1995 and 1996-1997. The first eagles were found dead during November, soon after arrival from fall migration, and deaths continued into January during both episodes. In total, 29 eagles died at or near DeGray Lake in the winter of 1994-1995 and 26 died in the winter of 1996-1997; no eagle mortality was noted during the same months of the intervening winter or in the earlier history of the lake. During the mortality events, sick eagles were observed overflying perches or colliding with rock walls. Signs of incoordination and limb paresis were also observed in American coots (Fulica americana) during the episodes of eagle mortality, but mortality in coots was minimal. No consistent abnormalities were seen on gross necropsy of either species. No microscopic findings in organs other than the central nervous system (CNS) could explain the cause of death. By light microscopy, all 26 eagles examined and 62/77 (81%) coots had striking, diffuse, spongy degeneration of the white matter of the CNS. Vacuolation occurred in all myelinated CNS tissue, including the cerebellar folia and medulla oblongata, but was most prominent in the optic tectum. In the spinal cord, vacuoles were concentrated near the gray matter, and occasional swollen axons were seen. Vacuoles were uniformly present in optic nerves but were not evident in the retina or peripheral or autonomic nerves. Cellular inflammatory response to the lesion was distinctly lacking. Vacuoles were 8-50 microns in diameter and occurred individually, in clusters, or in rows. In sections stained by luxol fast blue/periodic acid-Schiff stain, the vacuoles were delimited and transected by myelin strands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed intramyelinic vacuoles formed in the myelin sheaths by splitting of one or more myelin lamellae at the intraperiodic line. This lesion is characteristic of

  5. A national checklist of marine Mollusca in Spanish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Gofas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of marine Mollusca recorded in Spanish jurisdictional waters is presented, based on a thorough literature search and a limited input of recent field work. The list is detailed according to the five demarcations of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (NOR, Spanish north coast; SUR, Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cádiz; ESAL, Strait of Gibraltar and Alboran Sea; LEBA, East coast of Spain and Balearic Islands; CAN, the Canary Islands. The list differentiates coastal species living from the supralittoral zone to the shelf break, deep-sea benthic or demersal species, and holoplanktonic species, and also distinguishes between non-indigenous species and species endemic to a particular demarcation. A total of 2466 marine Mollusca species have been reported from Spanish waters, of which 1126 are recorded only from waters surrounding the Iberian Peninsula, 498 are recorded from the Canaries only, and 842 are shared. That total number represents around 5.5% of the global marine molluscan richness. Shore and shelf species are the most numerous (1837, followed by deep-sea benthic species (490 and pelagic species (139, but the contribution of the deep-sea species is most noteworthy in NOR. All eight molluscan classes were represented, but solenogastres and scaphopods were notably more represented than usual in NOR. Species richness in SUR and ESAL was higher than would be expected from their areas, supporting the claim that Andalusian waters have an exceptionally diverse molluscan fauna. Thirteen species collected from INDEMARES cruises are here reported for the first time in Spanish waters. The species recorded in Spanish seas represent more than half of the 4340 species of Mollusca recorded within the scope of the European Register of Marine Species, making this the highest species count in European seas. The Canary Islands demarcation holds by far the largest number of endemic species (127, but special mention is needed regarding the ca. 20

  6. Mitogenomics reveals two subspecies in Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xueping; Shen, Xin; Zhao, Nana; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Dong, Zhiguo; Zhu, Xiaoling

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Zhangzhou (zz-mtDNA) was fully sequenced and compared with that in Rizhao (rz-mtDNA) in this study. A tRNA (tRNA (Met) ) located between tRNA (Ala) and cox1 genes was identified in zz-mtDNA but not in rz-mtDNA. The largest non-coding region (NCR; MNR) contained 11 copies 99nt tandem repeat sequences exclusively in rz-mtDNA, while the second largest NCR with 400 bp between tRNA (Ala) and tRNA (Met) in zz-mtDNA was absent in rz-mtDNA. Secondary structures of ZZ and RZ C. antiquata rRNAs are significantly different. The mitochondrial genomic characteristics clearly indicate that there are at least two subspecies in C. antiquata.

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Hawaiian coot, Fulica alai, and Hawaiian gallinule, Gallinula galeata sandvicensis, through next-generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Wilson, Robert E.; Underwood, Jared G.

    2014-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop novel microsatellite markers for two endangered waterbirds; the Hawaiian coot (Fulica alai) and Hawaiian gallinule (Gallinula galeata sandvicensis). The 20 loci polymorphic in the Hawaiian coot displayed moderate allelic diversity (average 3.8 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 59.5 %). The 12 loci variable for the Hawaiian gallinule exhibited lower levels of allelic diversity (average 2.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 47.5 %). Loci were in linkage equilibrium and only one locus deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These loci are sufficiently variable to assess levels of genetic diversity and will be useful for conservation genetic studies to aid in the management of these endangered waterbirds.

  8. Descriptions of three new species of Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baoquan; ZHANG Suping; LI Xinzheng

    2005-01-01

    Three new species of Family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the South China Sea are described in the present paper. They are Ziba aglais sp. nov. B. LI & S. ZHANG, Neocancilla daidaleosa sp.nov. B. LI & X. LI, and Mitra holkosa sp. nov. B. LI. Their systematic positions are also discussed.

  9. Holoplanktonic Mollusca: development in the Mediterranean Basin during the last 30 million years and their future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.W.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Goffredo, S.; Dubinsky, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the systematics and morphology of pelagic Gastropoda (Mollusca: Heteropoda and Pteropoda), also explaining some details of the animals’ particular way of life. The fossil record of these invertebrates is discussed briefly, followed by an overview of existing literatu

  10. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering.

  11. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  12. Anti-ulcer potentials of phylum mollusca (tropical snail) slime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwodo NJ; Okonta J M; Ezugwu CO; Attama AA

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The effectiveness of the slimy substance in snail to regenerate and repair damaged areas on its body/shell lead to this investigation.Methods:The anti-ulcer'property of snail slime extracted from phylum mollusca (tropical snail)from the giant African snail Archachatina marginata (Fam.Arionidae)was investi-gated using histamine,stress and indomethacin-induced ulcers.The solubility profile of extract was investiga-ted in different solvents and at different temperatures.Chemical analysis was carried out to determine the types of constituents present in the slim,while acute toxicity test was carried out to evaluate its profile of toxicity. The effect of the snail slim on gastrointestinal motility was investigated in mice,while the guinea pig ileum was used to study the effect of the extract on contraction produced by acetylcholine and histamine.The snail slime contained copious quantity of protein,with varying amounts of simple sugars,carbohydrates and fats.The slime was not soluble in most common solvents and increases in temperature,did not appear to increase its sol-ubility.Results:The result further indicated that although the snail slime exhibited significant (P <0.05)an-ti-ulcer induced by stress and histamine,it was most potent against ulcer induced by indomethacin.The snail slime potently inhibited gastrointestinal movement in mice in a dose-dependent manner;however,it was not a-ble to inhibit contraction induced by acetylcholine and histamine in guinea pig ileum.Conclusion:The snail mucin possesses potent antiulcer properties without any toxic effect.The mechanism responsible for the anti-ul-cer property may not be postulated with certainty but cytoprotective and anti-spasmodic activities are most likely to be involved.

  13. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  14. Inventarisatie van de landslakken van de Zeeuwse kust, met de nadruk op de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, A.

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the land snails of the province of Zeeland, with special emphasis on Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In 2005 the land snail fauna of the coast of the province of Zeeland was mapped. In total 98 soil and litter samples were taken and on 54 localities records were gathered

  15. Cenozoic Molluscan types from Java (Indonesia) in the Martin Collection (Division of Cenozoic Mollusca), National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Winkler Prins, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory of type material in the ‘Martin Collection’ at the Division of Cenozoic Mollusca of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands has been made. In total 1842 lots containing over 5700 type specimens of 912 species were encountered. The status of the types is outlined.

  16. Systematic notes on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia), and descriptions of a new species and a new subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1972-01-01

    In 1959, Mr. A. Hoogerwerf obtained a number of small Mollusca from the gizzard of a godwit (Limosa spec.) shot near Koerik, West Irian, New Guinea, that eventually came into my hands for identification. Though the specimens clearly belonged to a species of the genus Mesodesma (Mactracea, fam. Mesod

  17. Babosas terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda de la Región de Murcia (SE España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borredà, V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda from Murcia (SE Spain This study examines the few citations about terrestrial slugs from Murcia (SE Spain and adds data from our own surveys. We provide a systematic checklist of the species of terrestrial slugs known from Murcia (SE Spain and comment on the most significant species: Deroceras nitidum, Arion gilvus and A. lusitanicus s. l.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  19. An assessment of the contamination of Achatina achatina by toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otherwise, it is in this environment watered by the Okpara River, ... and can be considered therefore like a bioindicator of pollution, whose consumption will be a risk for health. Keywords: Environment pollution, snail quality, bioaccumulation, ...

  20. Structure and composition of the septal nacreous layer of Nautilus macromphalus L. (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke

    2006-01-01

    The nacreous layer of Mollusca is the best-known aragonitic structure and is the usual model for biomineralization. However, data are based on less than 10 species. In situ observations of the septal nacreous layer of the cephalopod Nautilus shell has revealed that the tablets are composed of acicular laths. These laths are composed of round nanograins surrounded by an organic sheet. No hole has been observed in the decalcified interlamellar membranes. A set of combined analytical data shows that the organic matrices extracted from the nacreous layer are glycoproteins. In both soluble and insoluble matrices, S amino acids are rare and the soluble organic matrices have a higher sulfated sugar content than the insoluble matrices. It is possible that the observed differences in the structure and composition of the nacreous layers of the outer wall and septa of the Nautilus shell have a dual origin: evolution and functional adaptation. However, we have no appropriate data as yet to answer this question.

  1. Catalogue of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Alexandre Dias; Monteiro, Júlio César; Barbosa, André Favaretto; Salgado, Norma Campos; Coelho, Arnaldo Campos Dos Santos

    2014-03-20

    A curatorial revision of the type specimens deposited in the Mollusca Collection of the Museu Nacional / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) revealed the existence of 518 lots of type specimens (holotypes, neotypes, syntypes and paratypes) for 285 names of molluscan taxa from 88 families, including 247 gastropods, 30 bivalves, three cephalopods and five scaphopods. A total of 106 holotypes and one neotype are deposited in the MNRJ. Type material for ten nominal taxa described as being deposited in the MNRJ was not located; the probable reasons are discussed. Some previously published erroneous information about types in the MNRJ is rectified. A total of 37 type specimens are illustrated.

  2. The effects of mercury exposure on the surface morphology of gill filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia) M. A. GREGORY *, R. C. GEORGE , D. J. MARSHALL , A. ANANDRAJ and T. P. MCCLURG? Electron Microscope Unit and Department of Zoology, University of Durban... 259, 51?60. Grace A. L.,Ganey, L. F. Jr. (1987) The eC128ects of copper on the heart rate and ?ltration rate of M. edulis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18, 87?91. 120 Marine Pollution Bulletin Gregory, M. A., George, R. C. and McClurg. (1996...

  3. Recovery of marine Conus (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) from imposex at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, over a quarter of a century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Fred E; Keesing, John K; Brearley, Anne

    2017-09-04

    Imposex is a reproductive abnormality in which female snails begin to transform to males, but do not become functional. It was caused by tributyltin (TBT) used as an antifoulant in boat paints. Imposex was first recorded marine snails (Conus) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, in January 1991, where 88% of individuals at the west end were affected. Most were at moderate Stages 3 and 4 on a scale of 0 (no affect) to 6 (death). TBT was banned on boats 25m in September 2013. In February 2017 only 4% of Conus had imposex, at Stage 1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evolutionary relationships among squids of the family Gonatidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from three mitochondrial loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, A R; Katugin, O N; Amezquita, E; Nishiguchi, M K

    2005-07-01

    The oceanic squid family Gonatidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) is widely distributed in subpolar and temperate waters, exhibiting behavioral and physiological specializations associated with reproduction. Females of several species undergo muscular degeneration upon maturation; origins of this complex morphogenic change are unknown, hindering our understanding of ecological and morpho-physiological adaptations within the family. To provide further information regarding the evolutionary relationships within Gonatidae, three mitochondrial loci (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) were analyzed for 39 individuals representing fourteen gonatid and six outgroup cephalopod species. In addition to elucidating relationships among gonatids, molecular data provided more information than morphological data for problematic specimens. Although some data sets are incongruent or have low nodal support values, combined molecular analysis confirms the presence of gonatid groups previously established by morphological characteristics (i.e., possessing radular teeth in seven longitudinal rows and muscular mantle tissue). These characteristics are basal to taxa possessing radular teeth in five longitudinal rows and less muscular mantle tissue, indicating that the derived forms are those species exhibiting physiological adaptation such as tissue degeneration upon maturation and egg brooding.

  5. Hard and soft anatomy in two genera of Dondersiidae (Mollusca, Aplacophora, Solenogastres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Schander, Christoffer; Kocot, Kevin M

    2012-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships and identifications in the aplacophoran taxon Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) are in flux largely because descriptions of hard parts--sclerites, radulae, copulatory spicules--and body shape have often not been adequately illustrated or utilized. With easily recognizable and accessible hard parts, descriptions of Solenogastres are of greater use, not just to solenogaster taxonomists, but also to ecologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists. Phylogenetic studies of Aplacophora, Mollusca, and the Lophotrochozoa as a whole, whether morphological or molecular, would be enhanced. As an example, morphologic characters, both isolated hard parts and internal anatomy, are provided for two genera in the Dondersiidae. Five species are described or redescribed and earlier descriptions corrected and enhanced. Three belong to Dondersia: D. festiva Hubrecht, D. incali (Scheltema), and D. namibiensis n. sp., the latter differentiated unambiguously from D. incali only by sclerites and copulatory spicules. Two species belong to Lyratoherpia: L. carinata Salvini-Plawen and L. californica (Heath). Notes are given for other species in Dondersiidae: L. bracteata Salvini-Plawen, Ichthyomenia ichthyodes (Pruvot), and Heathia porosa (Heath). D. indica Stork is synonymized with D. annulata. A cladistic morphological analysis was conducted to examine the utility of hard parts for reconstructing solenogaster phylogeny. Results indicate monophyly of Dondersia and Lyratoherpia as described here.

  6. Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca ,Gastropoda) from the coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suping

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca,Gastropoda) collected from the coast of China are described:Cryptonaitca huanghaien- sis sp.nov.and Sinum vittatum sp.nov.The morphological characteristics between the new species were described and the relat- ed information was provided.The similarities and differences between the new species and related species were also compared and discussed.The new species Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis differed from Cryptonaitca hirasei and Cryptonaitca andoi in outer shape, operculum and radula.The new species Sinum vittatum is similar to Sinum japonicum (Lischke,1869),but the shell of the for- mer is flat-elliptical in shape,spire very small,slightly convex.While the latter is flat-globular in shape,apex light brown in col- or,without a brown band on the body whorl.The comparison results revealed that Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis and Sinum vittatum were two new species from the coast of China.Specimens studied were obtained from collections in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  8. Mollusca: Bivalvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-05

    Jun 5, 1987 ... membrane of which is thickened, connect the spermatids. (Figure 2) . As the ... vesicle, which is of uniform electron opacity (0,5 f1m diameter) .... macerophyl/a and Spisula solidissima the outer electron- opaque region of the ...

  9. The complete sequence and gene organization of the mitochondrial genome of the gadilid scaphopod Siphonondentalium lobatum (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    Comparisons of mitochondrial gene sequences and gene arrangements can be informative for reconstructing high-level phylogenetic relationships. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Siphonodentalium lobatum, (Mollusca, Scaphopoda). With only 13,932 bases, it is the shortest molluscan mitochondrial genome reported so far. The genome contains the usual 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The ATPase subunit 8 gene is exceptionally short. Several transfer RNAs show truncated TpsiC arms or DHU arms. The gene arrangement of S. lobatum is markedly different from all other known molluscan mitochondrial genomes and shows low similarity even to an unpublished gene order of a dentaliid scaphopod. Phylogenetic analyses of all available complete molluscan mitochondrial genomes based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein-coding genes yield trees with low support for the basal branches. None of the traditionally accepted molluscan taxa and phylogenies are recovered in all analyses, except for the euthyneuran Gastropoda. S. lobatum appears as the sister taxon to two of the three bivalve species. We conclude that the deep molluscan phylogeny is probably beyond the resolution of mitochondrial protein sequences. Moreover, assessing the phylogenetic signal in gene order data requires a much larger taxon sample than is currently available, given the exceptional diversity of this character set in the Mollusca.

  10. Comparative mitogenomic analysis reveals cryptic species: A case study in Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xue Ping; Chu, Ka Hou; Zhao, Na Na; Tian, Mei; Liang, Meng; Hao, Jue

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis Philippi, 1846 is a commercially important marine bivalve belonging to the family Mactridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia). In this study, the M. chinensis mitochondrial genomic features are analyzed. The genome has 34 genes on the same strand, lacking atp8 and both trnS (trnS1 and trnS2) as compared with the typical gene content of metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The A+T content of M. chinensis mitochondrial genome is 63.72%, which is slightly lower than that of M. veneriformis (67.59%) and Coelomactra antiquata (64.33% and 64.14% for the samples from Ri Zhao, Shandong Province, and Zhang Zhou, Fujian Province, China, respectively) in the same family. There are 22 NCRs in the M. chinensis mitochondrial genome, accounting for 12.91% of the genome length. The longest NCR (1,075bp in length) is located between trnT and trnQ. A TRS (127bp×8.15) accounts for 96.3% (1,035/1,075) of this NCR. The occurrence of TRS in NCR is shared by the two Mactra mitochondrial genomes, but is not found in the two Coelomactra mitochondrial genomes. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 12 PCGs of 25 bivalve mitochondrial genomes shows that all seven genera (Mactra, Coelomactra, Paphia, Meretrix, Solen, Mytilus, and Crassostrea) constitute monophyletic groups with very high support values. Pairwise genetic distance analyses indicate that the genetic distance of C. antiquata from the two localities is 0.084, which is greater than values between congeneric species, such as those in Mactra, Mytilus, Meretrix, and Crassostrea. The results show that the C. antiquata from the two localities represent cryptic species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  12. Purification and characterization of two endo-beta-1,4-glucanases from mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Guo, Rui; Yin, Qiu-Yu; Ding, Ming; Zhang, Si-Liang; Xu, Gen-Jun; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2005-10-01

    Two novel endo-beta-1,4-glucanases, EG45 and EG27, were isolated from the gastric juice of mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, by anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration and a second round of anion exchange chromatography. The purified proteins EG45 and EG27 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 45 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. The optimum pH for CMC activity was 5.5 for EG45 and 4.4-4.8 for EG27. The optimum temperature range for EG27 was broad, between 50 degrees and 60 degrees; for EG45 it was 50 degrees. The analysis on the stability of these two endo-beta-1,4-glucanases showed that EG27 was acceptably stable at pH 3.0-11.0 even when the incubation time was prolonged to 24 h at 30 degrees, whereas EG45 remained relatively stable at pH 5.0-8.0. About 85% of the activity of EG27 could be retained upon incubation at 60 degrees for 24 h. However, less than 10% residual activity of EG45 was detected at 50 degrees. Among different kinds of substrates, both enzymes showed a high preference for carboxymethyl cellulose. EG45, in particular, showed a carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolytic activity of 146.5 IU/mg protein. Both enzymes showed low activities to xylan (from oat spelt) and Sigmacell 101, and they were inactive to p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside, salicin and starch.

  13. pH-Dependent Stability of EGX, A Multi-functional Cellulase from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ying LI; Ji WANG; Yan-Hong LI; Ming DING; Gen-Jun XU; Lan-Ying LIU; Fu-Kun ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    The cellulase activity and stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase previously purified from the mollusca Ampullaria crossean, was systematically studied under different pH. The pH induced conformation and stability change of EGX have been investigated by using the intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and CD spectrum. It has been found that the conformation and activity of this cellulase were strongly dependent on the pH. EGX was stable for both the enzyme activity and the conformation from pH 5.6 to pH 7.4. As shown by intrinsic and ANS fluorescence, no red shift of emission maximum occurred and a negligible intensity change was observed at pH 5.6-7.4. The activity of EGX remained about 80% in pH 5.6-7.4 and obviously decreased out of side the pH range. Urea-induced changes in EGX at pH 5.4 and pH 8.0 were measured by intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectrum. At pH 5.4, a significantly red shift of emission maximum occurred when the concentration of urea was 5 M compared to the concentration was 3 M at pH 8.0. The α-helix at pH 5.4 was 40.51% in the absence of urea and 31.04% in the presence of 4 M urea. At pH 8.0 the α-helix was 7.23% in the presence of 4 M urea. The data indicated that EGX was much susceptible to urea-induced unfolding at pH 8.0 and much stable at pH 5.4. The greater pH dependent stability of EGX may allow the enzyme to adequately catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials under natural or industrial extreme conditions.

  14. Nacre and false nacre (foliated aragonite) in extant monoplacophorans (=Tryblidiida: Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Antonio G.; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; González-Segura, Alicia; Sánchez-Navas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Extant monoplacophorans (Tryblidiida, Mollusca) have traditionally been reported as having an internal nacreous layer, thus representing the ancestral molluscan condition. The examination of this layer in three species of Neopilinidae ( Rokopella euglypta, Veleropilina zografi, and Micropilina arntzi) reveals that only V. zografi secretes an internal layer of true nacre, which occupies only part of the internal shell surface. The rest of the internal surface of V. zografi and the whole internal surfaces of the other two species examined are covered by a material consisting of lath-like, instead of brick-like, crystals, which are arranged into lamellae. In all cases examined, the crystallographic c-axis in this lamellar material is perpendicular to the surface of laths and the a-axis is parallel to their long dimension. The differences between taxa relate to the frequency of twins, which is much higher in Micropilina. In general, the material is well ordered, particularly towards the margin, where lamellae pile up at a small step size, which is most likely due to processes of crystal competition. Given its morphological resemblance to the foliated calcite of bivalves, we propose the name foliated aragonite for this previously undescribed biomaterial secreted by monoplacophorans. We conclude that the foliated aragonite probably lacks preformed interlamellar membranes and is therefore not a variant of nacre. A review of the existing literature reveals that previous reports of nacre in the group were instead of the aragonitic foliated layer and that our report of nacre in V. zografi is the first undisputed evidence of nacre in monoplacophorans. From the evolutionary viewpoint, the foliated aragonite could easily have been derived from nacre. Assuming that nacre represents the ancestral condition, as in other molluscan classes, it has been replaced by foliated aragonite along the tryblidiidan lineage, although the fossil record does not presently provide evidence as to

  15. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores

  16. An SCD gene from the Mollusca and its upregulation in carotenoid-enriched scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Dou, Jinzhuang; Yu, Qian; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-06-10

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of red, orange, and yellow pigments that act as vitamin A precursors and antioxidants. Animals can only obtain carotenoids through their diets. Amongst the carotenoids identified in nature, over one third are of marine origin, but current research on carotenoid absorption in marine species is limited. Bivalves possess an adductor muscle, which is normally white in scallops. However, a new variety of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), the 'Haida golden scallop', can be distinguished by its adductor muscle's orange colour, which is caused by carotenoid accumulation. Studying the genes related to carotenoid accumulation in this scallop could benefit our understanding of the mechanisms underlying carotenoid absorption in marine organisms, and it could further improve scallop breeding for carotenoid content. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids, which enhance carotenoid absorption. Here, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of the SCD gene from the Yesso scallop (PySCD) were obtained. The PySCD gene consisted of four exons and three introns, and it contained a 990-bp open reading frame encoding 329 amino acids. It was ubiquitously expressed in adult tissues, embryos and larvae of both white Yesso scallops and 'Haida golden' scallops. Although the expression pattern of PySCD in both types of scallops was similar, significantly more PySCD transcripts were detected in the 'Haida golden' scallops than in the white scallops. Elevated PySCD expression was found in tissues including the adductor muscle, digestive gland, and gonad, as well as in veliger larvae. This study represents the first characterisation of an SCD gene from the Mollusca. Our data imply that PySCD functions in multiple biological processes, and it might be involved in carotenoid accumulation.

  17. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M.; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L.; Gunaratne, Charuni A.; Katz, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left–right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal–ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  18. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  19. Purification and Characterization of Two Endo-β-1,4-glucanases from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hong LI; Rui GUO; Qiu-Yu YIN; Ming DING; Si-Liang ZHANG; Gen-Jun XU; Fu-Kun ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    Two novel endo-β-1,4-glucanases, EG45 and EG27, were isolated from the gastric juice of mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, by anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration and a second round of anion exchange chromatography. The purified proteins EG45 and EG27 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular mass of 45 kDa and 27 kDa,respectively. The optimum pH for CMC activity was 5.5 for EG45 and 4.4-4.8 for EG27. The optimum temperature range for EG27 was broad, between 50 ℃ and 60 ℃; for EG45 it was 50 ℃. The analysis on the stability of these two endo-β-1,4-glucanases showed that EG27 was acceptably stable at pH 3.0-11.0 even when the incubation time was prolonged to 24 h at 30 ℃, whereas EG45 remained relatively stable at pH 5.0-8.0. About 85% of the activity of EG27 could be retained upon incubation at 60 ℃ for 24 h. However,less than 10% residual activity of EG45 was detected at 50 ℃. Among different kinds of substrates, both enzymes showed a high preference for carboxymethyl cellulose. EG45, in particular, showed a carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolytic activity of 146.5 IU/mg protein. Both enzymes showed low activities to xylan (from oat spelt) and Sigmacell 101, and they were inactive to p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside, salicin and starch.

  20. Thecosomata e Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda da cadeia Fernando de Noronha, Brasil

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    Larrazábal Maria Eduarda de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mollusca Pteropoda from Fernando de Noronha Chain Northeastern Brazil were studied in order to know their taxonomy and distribution. Collections were carried out during the I Oceanographical Expedition of the REVIZEE Program (Live Resources of the Economical Exclusive Zone from August to September 1995. The studied area is located between 03°04'S-04°23'S and 32°19'W-36°26'W, comprising 35 stations. Sampling was performed through oblique hauls from 50m depth to surface and from 100 m depth to surface, with a Bongo net (300 and 500 µm mesh size, net diameter: 60 cm, that was equipped with a flow meter. Samples in a total of 99 were preserved, immediately, in buffered 4% formaldehyde. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were performed based on total sample. The samples were analysed on a counting plate "Bogorov" type under a stereo microscope. A total of 8,258 organisms were identified belonging to: 8 families, 16 genera and 27 species. Limacina inflata (d´Orbigny, 1836 and Creseis virgula (Rang, 1828 were frequent and very frequent in the area outranking among the studied Pteropoda. The total density varied from 2.5 to 3,012.05 org.m-³. Highest richness was registered at the Continental Shelf and Slope with 1two species. The Pteropoda association showed higher differences between day and night collections. Limacina inflata caused this difference due to its higher density at night collections and it was independent of the depth, mesh size and temperature. Creseis virgula had its occurrence, mainly, during day time.

  1. [原著]An epidemiological survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis and angiostrongyliasis in the Southwest Islands, Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato,Yoshiya; Otsuru, Masamitsu; Asato, Ryuji; Yamashita, Takao; Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Okinawa Prefectural Institute of Public Health; Department of Parasitology, Yamagata University School of Medicine

    1981-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, primarilly a parasite of rodents, has attracted notice as an important agent of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis on many Pacific islands and in Southeast Asia. It is generally speculated in the pacific and Asian tropical and subtropical zones that the parasite has extended its geographic range to adjacent regions by introduction of the infected intermediate hosts, mainly Achatina fulica, or by the stowaway rats. The Southwest Islands are in an unique...

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, J. A.; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie

    1992-01-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and b...

  3. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia

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    Klussmann-Kolb Annette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM. Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring. On the one hand

  4. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nautilus macromphalus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

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    Boore Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, a cephalopod mollusk, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5% A+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains the 37 genes that are almost universally found in animal mtDNAs, with 15 on one DNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can be derived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes and transpositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in the distribution of nucleotides between the two strands, and analysis of this yields insight into modes of transcription and replication. There is an unusual number of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known; however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew, and there are several identical sequence elements at these junctions, suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication. One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-like sequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand, but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at the beginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of the product of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure. Conclusion Nautilus macromphalus mtDNA contains an expected gene content that has experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split between cephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an

  5. Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City%上海市医学贝类物种组成及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云海; 吕山; 顾文彪; 刘和香; 吴缨; 张仪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. Methods From August 2012 to October 2013,all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City,namely Jiading,Qingpu, Baoshan,Minhang,Songjiang,Jinshan,Chongming,Pudong,were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system,and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classi⁃fied by morphological identification. Meanwhile,the species composition,habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. Results A total of 5 211 specimens were collected,which belonged to 2 classes,14 families,18 gen⁃era and 25 species,including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis,Pomacea canaliculata,Parafossarulus striatulus,Alocinma longicornis,Physa acuta,Galba pervia,Hippeutis cantori,etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming,Jin⁃shan,Pudong new area and Qingpu districts(counties)were 22,22,21 and 20,respectively,which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most,both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. Conclusions The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City,but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail⁃related parasitic diseases,so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.%目的:调查上海市医学贝类物种多样性及其分布。方法于2012年8月至2013年10月,根据水系分布特点,对上海市嘉定、青浦、宝山、闵行、松江、金山、崇明岛和浦东新区等8个区(县)各类生境进行现场抽样调查,采集医学贝类标本。所获标本经形态学鉴定分类,并对物种组成、生境及区系分布等进行

  6. Identification of several cytoplasmic HSP70 genes from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and their long-term evolution in Mollusca and Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Drosopoulou, Elena; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chintiroglou, Chariton C; Scouras, Zacharias G

    2006-04-01

    The HSP70 protein family consists one of the most conserved and important systems for cellular homeostasis under both stress and physiological conditions. The genes of this family are poorly studied in Mollusca, which is the second largest metazoan phylum. To study these genes in Mollusca, we have isolated and identified five HSP70 genes from Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) and investigated their short-term evolution within Mollusca and their long-term evolution within Metazoa. Both sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the isolated genes belong to the cytoplasmic (CYT) group of the HSP70 genes. Two of these genes probably represent cognates, whereas the remaining probably represent heat-inducible genes. Phylogenetic analysis including several molluscan CYT HSP70s reveals that the cognate genes in two species have very similar sequences and form intraspecies phylogenetic clades, differently from most metazoan cognate genes studied thus far, implying either recent gene duplications or concerted evolution. The M. galloprovincialis heat-inducible genes show intraspecies phylogenetic clustering, which in combination with the higher amino acid than nucleotide identity suggests that both gene conversion and purifying selection should be responsible for their sequence homogenization. Phylogenetic analysis including several metazoan HSP70s suggests that at least two types of CYT genes were present in the common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates, the first giving birth to the heat-inducible genes of invertebrates, whereas the other to both the heat-inducible genes of vertebrates and the cognate genes of all metazoans. These analyses also suggest that inducible and cognate genes seem to undergo divergent evolution.

  7. Species Composition and Fauna of Mollusca in Seven Star Islands%七星列岛软体动物种类组成与区系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余海; 阙伟伟; 陆京明; 周化斌; 张永普

    2016-01-01

    The resources of mollusca in Seven Star islands are investigated during November 2012 to November 2013 and a total of 102 species of Mollusca are collected. Among them, 61 belong to Gastropods, 25 to Bivalves, 9 to Cephalopda, 6 to Polyplacophora and 1 to Scaphopoda. The mollusca is divided into the following four groups as far as the fauna:34 hiroatsu and widespread species are distributed from the coastal China;56 sub-tropical species in the East China Sea and South China Sea; 9 tropical species in the South China Sea; 2 warm temperate species in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and Northern East China Sea and 1 species is undefined. The faunal character pertains to Chinese-Japanese sub-region, subordinating to Indo-Western-Pacific realm.%2012年11月至2013年11月期间,对七星列岛的软体动物种类进行调查,共发现软体动物102种,其中腹足纲61种,双壳纲25种,头足纲9种,多板纲6种,掘足纲1种。就区系而言,分布于我国沿岸的广温广布种34种,分布于东海和南海的亚热带种56种,南海的热带种9种,渤、黄海延伸到东海北部的暖温带种2种,1种未确定。区系性质属于印度-西太平洋区的中国-日本亚区。

  8. Contribució a l’estudi dels mol·luscs terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda del Parc de la Serralada Litoral (Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bros, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to the study of terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda Serralada LitoralPark (BarcelonaThe population of molluscs in Serralada Litoral Park (Barcelona, NE Iberian peninsula was assessed, contributing to the conservation plan. A wildlife inventory was conducted based on fieldwork and literature. Gastropod communities in various natural environments and conchological species of interest for conservation are also described. Several environmental aspects that determine the distribution and abundance of snails are discussed and management measures to meet their ecological requirements are suggested.

  9. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae: Pisces and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae: Pisces as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatili9s, Diptera: Culicidae and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca: Planorbidae, in the presence or absence of non-living food and laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha=1,05; M. operculatis, an exotic species, preyed well on immature mosquitoes, but small snails and snail egg-masses were ingested only irregulary. Both fish species seemed to prefer live to non-living food.

  10. Molecular inference of phylogenetic relationships among Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) with special focus on the squid order Oegopsida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Annie R

    2010-07-01

    Squids, cuttlefish and bobtail squids comprise the molluscan superorder Decapodiformes (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). Although these animals exemplify the morphological and ecological diversity seen in Cephalopoda, no previous study has focused resolving decapodiform relationships, particularly within Oegopsida, a large order comprised of pelagic squid. To further clarify the phylogenetic history of Decapodiformes, and Oegopsida in particular, molecular data for five genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, Histone H3, 16S rRNA, COI) was collected for 90 taxa representing all major lineages and families and evaluated using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analysis. Although ordinal relationships were sensitive to analytical method, several conclusions can be inferred: the pelagic order Myopsida is closely related to the benthic sepioids, whose relationships were ambiguous, and Bathyteuthoidea is distinct from Oegopsida. Within Oegopsida several clades are consistently recovered, some with previous morphological support (e.g. chiroteuthid, lepidoteuthid, histioteuthid families) while others suggest novel relationships (e.g. Architeuthidae+Neoteuthidae). This study, with its broad coverage of taxa, provides the first in-depth analysis of Decapodiformes with special focus on the morphologically and biogeographically diverse Oegopsida, confirms several sister-taxon relationships, and provides new hypotheses of cephalopod evolution in the open ocean.

  11. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent.

  12. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  13. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, E; Figueroa, L; Takeda, A M; Manetta, G I

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  14. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  15. Caracterización molecular de diferentes morfos de Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae mediante microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available M. tuberculataes un molusco asiático invasor de ecosistemas tropicales y subtropicales. En Amé-rica, su uso como control biológico ha sido probado en el desplazamiento de poblaciones deBiomphalaria spp. (Mollusca: Planorbidae, hospedadores intermediarios de Schistosoma mansoni(Trematoda: Digenea. A su vez, M. tuberculataes una especie que presenta gran plasticidad feno-típica, reconociéndose varias entidades morfológicas (morfos a lo largo de su rango de distribu-ción. Este trabajo pretende identificar la combinación de alelos microsatelitales característicos de10 morfos americanos. En este orden de ideas, se realizó una extracción de ADN con bufferValsecchi y baño María 90-95ºC (5-15’; se hizo una PCR utilizando primers específicos para M.tuberculata, y finalmente un análisis de secuencias microsatelitales con un secuenciador automá-tico.

  16. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  17. ON THE PALEOFAUNA INVERTEBRATES (MOLLUSCA, ARTROPODA; INSECTA OF DIATOMITE DEPOSITS OF SHAMB–1 LOCALITY (SISIAN SUITE, EARLY PLEISTOCENE, ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. A. Маrjanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study of fossil insects from diatomaceous sediments of Shamb-1 locality of Sisian Suite (Early Pleistocene. The collection of fossils plants and animals of Institute of Botany of NAS RA and authors' findings served as material for study.Methods. The material is processed and prepared for study by conventional methods in paleontology for prints and fossils of insects from diatomaceous sediments. There are 654 samples studied: 2 samples were with mollusks’ imprints and 652 samples with imprints of insects, from which preserved marks on 291samples allowed to identify them up to order, family, genus and species.Results. The studied material refers to the Mollusca and Arthropoda (Insecta types. Insects are represented by species of orders Orthoptera (2 fam., Homoptera (1 fam., Heteroptera (2 fam., Coleoptera (15 fam., Hymenoptera (2 fam., Diptera (1 fam.. Coleopteras dominate among them and are presented with following species of the family – Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Silphidae, Elateridae, Buprestidae, Lampyridae, Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Tenebrionidae, Coccinellidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae.Main conclusions. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of paleofauna was done, which corresponds to the recent fauna and with considering modern ecological characteristics of systematical groups and species. In the investigated location of Shamb-1 a version is suggested about the palaeolandscapes and palaeoclimate in the Early Pleistocene.

  18. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided.

  19. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  20. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Gupta; Muthuvel Arumugam; Raj Vardhan Azad; Rohit Saxena; Supriyo Ghose; Nihar Ranjan Biswas; Thirumurthy Velpandian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India.Methods:Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups.Results:In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursacrumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization.Conclusions:The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases.

  1. 软体动物门起源和进化中的模糊问题研究%Research on Some Fuzzy Problems of the Origin and Evolution of Mollusca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎锡海

    2012-01-01

    软体动物进化是生物进化重要组成部分之一,是生物进化论、动物学研究重要内容之一。根据古生物学、现代生物进化论研究成就,就软体动物起源、进化及一些类群兴盛、绝灭原因中的模糊问题进行了研究。%Mollusca evolution is an important part of biological evolution and zoology.Based on the achievements of paleontology and modern biological evolution,the paper researches some fuzzy problems of the origin and evolution and prosperity and extinction of of mollusca.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of chemoautotrophic bacterial symbionts of Solemya velum say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, J A; Smith, S W; Cavanaugh, C M

    1992-05-01

    The protobranch bivalve Solemya velum Say (Mollusca: Bivalvia) houses chemoautotrophic symbionts intracellularly within its gills. These symbionts were characterized through sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA coding regions and hybridization of an Escherichia coli gene probe to S. velum genomic DNA restriction fragments. The symbionts appeared to have only one copy of the 16S rRNA gene. The lack of variability in the 16S sequence and hybridization patterns within and between individual S. velum organisms suggested that one species of symbiont is dominant within and specific for this host species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S sequences of the symbionts indicates that they lie within the chemoautotrophic cluster of the gamma subdivision of the eubacterial group Proteobacteria.

  3. Spatial patterns of Pisidium chilense (Mollusca Bivalvia and Hyalella patagonica (Crustacea, Amphipoda in an unpolluted stream in Navarino island (54° S, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De Los Ríos Escalante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The southern South American inland waters have many endemic species and some of them are considered as endangered for IUCN, that inhabits in unpolluted ecosystems, one of these ecosystems are the sub-Antarctic perennial forests located in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve at 54° S. The aim of the present study is to analyze the spatial patterns of Pisidium chilense Ituarte, 1999 (Mollusca Bivalvia and Hyalella patagonica (Cunningham, 1871 (Crustacea, Amphipoda in an unpolluted stream. Both species had aggregated spatial distribution, both have a negative binomial distribution pattern, and both are associated. The present results would agree with similar patterns in Patagonian rivers where both species coexist.

  4. A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-10-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radulae (teeth or rasping tongues) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron-bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radulae might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radulae collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Values of δ56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00 ‰ (±0.05‰ (2σ) uncertainty in δ56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae in the sublittoral zone, has a mean δ56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2σ, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds on both green and red algae in the eulittoral zone, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean δ56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2σ, 5 specimens). Three possible pathways are proposed to account for the different isotopic signatures: (i) physiologically controlled processes within the chitons that lead to species-dependent fractionation; (ii) diet-controlled variability due to different Fe isotope fractionation in the red and green algal food sources; and (iii) environmentally controlled fractionation that causes variation in the isotopic signatures of bioavailable Fe in the different

  5. Investigation of the Diversity of Mollusca and Evaluation of Water Quality in Hengyang Reach of Xiangjiang River%湘江衡阳段软体动物多样性调查和水质生物学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 吴彦琼; 李静; 胡劲松; 李鹏; 刘运莲

    2011-01-01

    The species and diversity and faunal and distribution of molluscas in Hengyang reach of Xiangjiang River were studied after many years of dayuandu hydropower station built; and in virtue of diversity indexes of molluscas, water quality were evaluated. The result of the research showed that there were 45 species of mollusca in Hengyang reaches of Xiang River, which belong to 2 classes and 9 families and 18 genera. 30 species belonging to 11 genera in 6 families of Gastropoda were found, 15 specieses belonging to 7 genera in 3 families of Bivalvia were found. The mollusca was in Oriental realm. 26 species were endemic species in China, and Mekonia hunanensis was in endangered status (It has been listed in China Species Red List as an extinct species). Shannon index was used to evaluate water quality of Hengyang reaches of Xiang River. The result showed that the water quality in Dongzhou ialand and Hengshan county town belonged to clean water, the other 8 sampling sites water had been polluted slightly.%对衡山大源渡电站蓄水多年后的湘江衡阳段软体动物的种类组成、区系分布以及多样性进行了调查,并用生物多样性指数对湘江衡阳段水质进行了评价.调查结果表明,湘江衡阳段计有软体动物45种,分别隶属于2纲9科18属,其中腹足纲6科11属30种,双壳纲3科7属15种,其区系成分主要为东洋界类型;其中26种为中国特有种,且湖南湄公螺为濒危物种(被定为灭绝的物种).用软体动物的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')对湘江衡阳段进行水质生物学评价,研究结果表明,湘江衡阳段的水质除东洲岛和衡山县城为清洁水外,其余8个采样点的水质均受到了轻度污染.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia): The first representative from the family Mactridae with novel gene order and unusual tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xueping; Zhao, Nana; Shen, Xin; Hao, Jue; Liang, Meng; Zhu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Hanliang; Yan, Binlun; Liu, Zhaopu

    2012-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome plays an important role in the accurate inference of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. Mactridae, also known as trough shells or duck clams, is an important family of marine bivalve clams in the order Veneroida. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xishishe Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Bivalvia), which is the first representative from the family Mactridae. The mitochondrial genome of C. antiquata is of 17,384bp in length, and encodes 35 genes, including 12 protein-coding, 21 transfer RNA, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. Compared with the typical gene content of animal mitochondrial genomes, atp8 and tRNAS(2) are missing. Gene order of the mitochondrial genome of C. antiquata is unique compared with others from Veneroida. In the mitochondrial genome of the C. antiquata, a total of 2189bp of non-coding nucleotides are scattered among 26 non-coding regions. The largest non-coding region contains one section of tandem repeats (99 bp×11), which is the second largest tandem repeats found in the mitochondrial genomes from Veneroida. The phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial genomes support the monophyly of Veneridae and Lucinidae, and the relationship at the family level: ((Veneridae+Mactridae)+(Cardiidae+Solecurtidae))+Lucinidae. The phylogenetic result is consistent with the morphological classification. Meanwhile, bootstrap values are very high (BP=94-100), suggesting that the evolutionary relationship based on mitochondrial genomes is very reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  8. (Born, 1778) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-27

    May 27, 1988 ... Most populations had a unimodal size distribution in which small individuals ... exploited areas, suggesting that size distribution was unrelated to human explOitation. ... abundant on the east coast of southern Africa, where it.

  9. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, R.; de Jong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  10. Survey of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and giant African land snails in Phitsanulok province, Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apichat Vitta; Raxsina polseela; Seangchai Nateeworanart; Muncharee Tattiyapong

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To survey theAngiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) or the rat lungworm in a rat, definitive host, and in a giant African land snail (Achatina fulica), the intermediate host, in Phitsanulok, Thailand.Methods:Rats and giant African land snails were captured from Tha Pho sub-district, Phitsanulok, Thailand. Rats were killed and examined for adultA. cantonensis. The artificial digestion method following Baermann technique were used for isolation third stage larvae ofA. cantonensis.Results: Sixty-two rats were captured and they were identified as Rattus argentiventer,Rattus rattus (R. rattus), Bandicota savilei, andBandicota indicabut only one animal (R. rattus) of62rats (1.61%)was positive with adult worm ofA. cantonensis. The third stage larvae ofA. cantonensis were examined on307Angiostrongylus fulica snails. It was found that the overall infection rate was12.38%(38 infected out of307Achatina snails).Conclusions:This study demonstrates thatA. cantonensis is available in the natural hosts of Phitsanulok. This suggests that the transmissions of this parasite to human may occur in this region.

  11. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  12. Community benthic paleoecology from high-resolution climate records: Mollusca and foraminifera in post-glacial environments of the California margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Sarah E.; Kroeker, Kristy J.; Hill, Tessa M.; Roopnarine, Peter; Kennett, James P.

    2017-01-01

    Paleoecological reconstructions of past climate are often based on a single taxonomic group with a consistent presence. Less is known about the relationship between multi-taxon community-wide change and climate variability. Here we reconstruct paleoecological change in a Late Quaternary (16.1-3.4 ka) sediment core from the California margin (418 m below sea level) of Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), USA, using Mollusca (Animalia) and Foraminifera (Rhizaria) microfossils. Building upon previous investigations, we use multivariate ordination and cluster analyses to interpret community-scale changes in these distinctly different taxonomic groups across discrete climate episodes. The strongest differences between seafloor biological communities occurred between glacial (prior to Termination IA, 14.7 ka) and interglacial climate episodes. Holocene communities were well partitioned, indicating that sub-millennial oceanographic variability was recorded by these microfossils. We document strong evidence of chemosynthetic trophic webs and sulfidic environments (from gastropod Alia permodesta and bivalve Lucinoma aequizonata), which characterized restricted intervals previously interpreted as well oxygenated (such as the Pre-Bølling Warming). Mollusc records indicate first-order trophic energetic shifts between detrital and chemosynthetically-fixed carbon. Molluscs associated with widely different physiological preferences occur here within single, decadal intervals of sediment, and as such mollusc assemblages may reflect significant inter-decadal oceanographic variability. Foraminifera assemblages provide exceptional records of the sequential, chronological progression of the deglacial climatic and oceanographic events, whereas mollusc assemblages reflect non-chronological similarities in reoccurring communities. Foraminifera taxa that drive community similarity here are also independently recognized as marker species for seafloor hypoxia regimes, which provides support for the

  13. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONAL PATTERNS OF MOLLUSCA IN A TYPICAL AQUACULTURAL LAKE -- DATONG LAKE%典型养殖湖泊大通湖软体动物的时空分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德亮; 张婷; 余建波; 毛小伟; 王红权; 陈开健; 刘安民; 李祖军; 肖调义

    2011-01-01

    研究于 2008 年 12 月至 2009 年 10 月按季度对大通湖水质及软体动物资源监测,并通过纵向比较,探讨了集约化养殖对大通湖水域环境及软体动物群落的影响,以期为其渔业可持续发展提供理论依据.结果显示,大通湖水质全年呈碱性 (8.62 ± 0.07),具有较高的还原性 [(-88.40 ± 9.10) mv],属富营养水体.软体动物共计 5 科 15 种,梨形环棱螺(Bellamya purificata)、河蚬(Corbicula fluminea)和圆顶珠蚌(Uniodoug lasiae)是主要优势种.软体动物平均密度和生物量具有明显的时空差异,时间上呈现由春夏季到秋冬季逐渐升高的趋势,空间上整体呈现由东北向西南逐渐递减的趋势.典范对应分析表明氧化还原电位、pH、溶氧、水深、电导率和水温与大通湖软体动物时空变化的关系最显著.与 1960 年相比,大通湖水体碱性显著增强 (7.0-7.5 vs 8.4-8.8),电导率增加了 9 倍 (0.25-0.27 vs 2.17-2.56 mS/cm),环境类型由氧化型转变为还原型.湖区喜好水草 (白旋螺、光亮隔扁螺、萝卜螺) 与流水生境 (德氏狭口螺、湖沼股蛤、橄榄蛏蚌) 的物种消失,软体动物优势种群呈现由双壳类向腹足类演替的特征.生境破坏和过度捕捞是大通湖软体动物资源面临的最大威胁,也是湖区渔业可持续发展所面临的核心问题.%The environmental characteristics and Mollusca community in Datong Lake were investigated seasonally from December 2008 to October 2009. Potential effects of intensive aquaculture on water quality and Mollusca in Datong Lake were studied by comparing the current sampling with the historical data in 1960, to provide theoretical support for sustainable fishery of the freshwater lakes. The results showed that Datong Lake was eutrophic and the water was alkaline (8.62 ± 0.07), with higher reducibility (-88.40 ± 9.10 mv). Fifteen Mollusca species were recorded, belonging to 5 families. Bellamya purificata, Corbicula

  14. The Diversity of Molluscas Was Applied to Monitor the Heavy Metals in the Huayuan River%软体动物多样性在花垣河水体重金属监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊; 郑济芳; 胡南; 胡劲松; 朱允华; 刘运莲; 殷杰

    2009-01-01

    对湘西花垣河软体动物多样性与重金属污染状况进行了调查.在花垣河8个监测断面中,除S1、S3、S8的软体动物丰富度指数(DMA)与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)分别介于0.264 3-2.493 7和0.676 5-2.412 3外,S2、S4、S5、S7、S8五个断面的软体动物丰富度和多样性指数均为零.Mn、Cd、Pb、Cu、Zn在花垣河8个监测断面的河水中都能检测到,其中Mn、Cd含量严重超出GB的Ⅴ类水标准.软体动物多样性监测与理化监测的结果均表明,花垣河水体已经受到严重重金属污染.%The diversities of molluscas and the pollution of heavy metals in the Xiangxi Huayuan River were investigated.The species richness indexes (DMA) and Shannon-Wiener diversity indexes (H′) of mollusca at S1,S3,S8 were 0.264 3-2.493 7 and 0.676 5-2.412 3,respectively.The DMA and H′ at the other 5 sections were zero.Mn、Cd、Pb、Cu、Zn were identified in the water,the concentrantions of Mn and Cd were severe exceed the standard of limits of Ⅴ class water of GB.The results of the diversities of molluscas and the physico-chemical monitoring suggested that the water of the Huayuan River had been polluted by heavy metals severity.

  15. 山东潍坊地区医学贝类种类及分布调查研究%The Species and Ecological Distribution of Medical Mollusca in Weifang, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭云海; 李娜; 胡玲; 张仪; 周晓农

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查山东潍坊地区医学贝类种类及分布. 方法 选择山东潍坊地区的潍坊市区、寿光、安丘和昌邑等地,现场采集医学贝类标本,进行形态学鉴定和分类定种. 结果 共获得标本1 791个,经形态学鉴定,隶属于2纲9科14种,包括重要医学贝类的纹沼螺(Parafsaruluss triatulus)383个、长角涵螺(Alocinma longicornis)34个、小土蜗(Galba pervia) 63个、椭圆萝卜螺(Radix swinhoei)137个、耳萝卜螺(R.auricularia)95个、尖膀胱螺(Physa acuta) 677个和尖口圆扁螺(Hippeutis cantori)22个.其中纹沼螺和尖膀胱螺为优势物种. 结论 山东潍坊地区可传播寄生虫的医学贝类种类较多.%Objective To investigate the species and distribution of mollusca with medical importance in Weifang,Shandong Province.Methods Species identification and quantitative statistics analysis was studied based on field-collected snails from the districts of Weifang,Shouguang,Anqiu and Changyi,Shandong Province.Results A total of 1 791 medical mollusca specimens were collected,belonging to two Classes,9 families and 14 species.Some important species were discovered including Parafossarulus striatuluis(383),A locinma longicornis(34),Galba pervia (63),Radix swinhoei (137),R.auricularia (95),Physa acuta(677) and Hippeutis cantori(22).The dominant species were P.acuta and P.striatulus.Conclusion There remains a higher diversity of medical mollusca in Weifang,Shandong Province.

  16. Introducción al estudio de los gasterópodos (Mollusca de la laguna de Montcortès (Pallars Sobirà, Cataluña, NE de la península ibérica

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    V. Bros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the study of gastropods (Mollusca on the Montcortés lake (Pallars Sobirà, Catlonia, NE of the Iberian peninsulaThe check-list of 50 species of terrestrial gastro­pod and freshwater molluscs in the Montcortès lake (Catalonia, Spain and its environs, pertaining to 24 different families, is shown. Thirty-three species are cited for the first time in the area of study. The unpublished data on their distribution and ecological requirements are contributed. The preliminary results indicate us that the communities of molluscs that accompany to the helofitic vegetation and the higrofits well are formed with elements of high faunistic and ecological interest. Simultaneously, some recommendations for the protection of the malacological fauna of the lake are commented.

  17. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age

  18. Reproducción, dieta y pesquería del pulpo Octopus (Octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda en la costa de Oaxaca, México

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    Maria del Carmen Alejo-Plata

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan algunos aspectos de la biología y pesquería de Octopus hubbsorum capturado por pesca artesanal en Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, México. Las muestras se obtuvieron de enero 2002 a noviembre 2003 con una periodicidad quincenal. A cada uno de los organismos se les registró la longitud dorsal del manto (LDM, peso total, sexo y estado de madurez gonádica. Asímismo se obtuvo el Índice Gonadosomático (IGS. Para el análisis del contenido estomacal se utilizaron los índices de frecuencia de presencia y vaciado. Se analizaron 352 organismos, con un intervalo de tallas de 4 a 19 cm LDM; la proporción de sexos fue diferente de 1 (.2= 24.2, pReproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953 ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two weeks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (X² = 24.2, p<0.05 throughout the year. The maximum values of the GSI appeared in May (4.1917 for females; 1.2675 in males. LDM for first sexual maturity (LDM50% was 16 cm (females and 14 cm (males. Octopus hubbsorum moves from deep waters to the coast, probably in search of better conditions, and lays masses of eggs on rocky substrata. They are fished from March to October, with higher intensity in April and May. Fishing effort was related to the oceanographic characteristics and the atmospheric conditions of the area. From April to September the CPUE monthly mean was 20-10 kg/divers/day. Using the CPUE and environmental condition relationship, the estimated adequate

  19. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

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    Alvaro Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may contribute to the successful overland translocation of this species. We conducted a laboratory experiment with four levels of air exposure (9, 18, 24 and 36 hours in a controlled climatic chamber. Snails were placed for 60 seconds in a laboratory paper filter to remove surface snail water. Then they were placed back in empty vessels during the four periods of air exposure, except the control group, which was immediately returned to water. At the end of each period of air exposure all vessels were filled with water and the cumulative mortality was monitored after 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours of rehydration. The calculated Lethal Times (i.e. the time of air exposure (in hours necessary to cause the death of 50% (LT50 or 99% (LT99 of the population and their 95% confidence limits at 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours were 28.1 (25.2–31.9, 26.9 (24.2–30.1, 25.9 (23.4–28.9 and 25.9 (23.4–28.9 hours, respectively for LT50, and 49.6 (42.7–63.3, 45.6 (39.9–56.5, 43.2 (38.0–53.0 and 43.2 (38.0–53.0 hours, respectively for LT99. Therefore an air exposure time over 43 hours caused the death of all studied individuals during all monitoring periods. Extending the monitoring period beyond 24 hours did not significantly change lethal times. Therefore, we recommend exposing fishing tools or boats at open air during at least 53 hours as a low cost measure to control mudsnail spread in early stages of invasion.

  20. Angiostrongylus infections in rats and snails in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipitgool, V; Sithithaworn, P; Pongmuttasaya, P; Hinz, E

    1997-01-01

    A survey of Angiostrongylus infections in rats and snails was carried out in the provinces of Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani. Kalasin, Chaiyaphum and Khon Kaen in northeast Thailand. Only two Rattus norvegicus (3.8%) and one Bandicota indica (1.4%) out of 151 R. rattus, 52 R. norvegicus and 69 B. indica examined were infected with adult lung worms. All worms recovered were A. cantonensis. Prevalence of infection in 423 Pila polita was 0.9% while all of 77 P. ampullacea were negative for larvae. In contrast to this 36.4% of 500 Achatina fulica harbored L3 of Angiostrongylus (with variations of between 29% and 46% in the five provinces). The average infection intensity in A. fulica was 13.6 L3 (1 to 441). Experimental infection of Wistar rats with L3 (isolated from A. fulica resulted in a recovery rate of 48.3% of adult worms of which 91.7% and 8.3% were identified as A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis, respectively. This is the first proven finding of A. malaysiensis in northeast Thailand.

  1. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

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    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina. Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas and dry forest (Chaco areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2 were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the

  2. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

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    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  3. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  4. Reproductive ecology of the giant African snail in South Florida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, Amy; Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Weihman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Giant African snail (Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)), an important invasive snail, was recently found in South Florida, USA. An extensive eradication effort was initiated consisting of pesticide applications, debris removal and hand collections. We studied the reproduction capacity and population...... dynamics of snails collected from 22 populations for two years to help evaluate the likely success of the eradication program. A total of 23,890 snails, ranging from 25-131 mm, were measured, dissected and the number of eggs in each snail counted. Gravid snails ranged from 48-128 mm. Only 5% of snails had...... eggs, which were found year round. As the snails increased in size, they were more likely to include reproducing individuals. However, the percentage of gravid snails peaked when snails were approximately 90 mm. Although more prevalent, small (

  5. The Trade in Medicinal Animals in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Silva Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the centuries, a significant part of the Brazilian fauna is widely sold, more specifically in retail stores or street markets. The objective was to characterize the sale of medicinal animals in five large northeast cities. Information about the sale of zootherapeutic items was obtained in the cities of Aracaju-SE, Fortaleza-CE, Maceio-AL, Recife-PE, and Salvador-BA. A total of 68 animal species were sold for medicinal purposes in the cities studied; these are the first results on the use and sale of zootherapeutics in the markets of Aracaju, Fortaleza, and Salvador and first recorded on the medicinal use of the Achatina fulica, Trachycardium muricatum, Philodryas olfersii, Desmodus rotundus, and Leptodactylus vastus. Knowledge of the fauna utilized popular medicine is indispensable for conservation, demonstrating that research on this subject is necessary to determine appropriate practices for the management of the fauna.

  6. A novel approach for the characterisation of proteoglycans and biosynthetic enzymes in a snail model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteira, Tarsis F; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien Jane; Ogata, Fernando T; Farias, Eduardo H C; Cavalheiro, Renan P; de Lima, Marcelo A; Cunha, Gabriel L A; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Toma, Leny; Nader, Helena B

    2011-12-01

    Proteoglycans encompass a heterogeneous group of glycoconjugates where proteins are substituted with linear, highly negatively charged glycosaminoglycan chains. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans are ubiquitous to the animal kingdom of the Eukarya domain. Information on the distribution and characterisation of proteoglycans in invertebrate tissues is limited and restricted to a few species. By the use of multidimensional protein identification technology and immunohistochemistry, this study shows for the first time the presence and tissue localisation of different proteoglycans, such as perlecan, aggrecan, and heparan sulphate proteoglycan, amongst others, in organs of the gastropoda Achatina fulica. Through a proteomic analysis of Golgi proteins and immunohistochemistry of tissue sections, we detected the machinery involved in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, related to polymer formation (polymerases), as well as secondary modifications (sulphation and uronic acid epimerization). Therefore, this work not only identifies both the proteoglycan core proteins and glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic enzymes in invertebrates but also provides a novel method for the study of glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan evolution.

  7. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  8. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  9. Levels of infection with the lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis in terrestrial snails from Thailand, with Cryptozona siamensis as a new intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, A; Polsut, W; Fukruksa, C; Yimthin, T; Thanwisai, A; Dekumyoy, P

    2016-11-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is primarily considered an emerging infectious agent of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis with a worldwide distribution. Rodents and snails are important invasive hosts for transmission and expansion of A. cantonensis. The objective of this study was to investigate infection levels of A. cantonensis in snails, the most important natural intermediate host. Our study location was Mueang Kamphaeng Phet district, Kamphaeng Phet Province, and was undertaken between October and December 2012. A total of 2228 freshwater and terrestrial snails were collected, comprising 1119 Filopaludina spp., 409 Pomacea caniculata, 275 Achatina fulica and 425 Cryptozona siamensis. Angiostrongylus larvae were isolated by artificial digestion methods following Baermann's techniques. A low prevalence and intensity of A. cantonensis were observed in A. fulica, while higher numbers were found in C. siamensis. None of the Filopaludina spp. and Pomacea caniculata were infected with A. cantonensis. Molecular characterization was performed by analysing the 264 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Three COI sequences of Angiostrongylus were identical to A. cantonensis with 91-99% identity. Cryptozona siamensis has not previously been recorded as an intermediate host for A. cantonensis in Thailand. The infection of A. cantonensis identified in the natural intermediate hosts is new and important information to assist in the prevention and control of human angiostrongyliasis.

  10. Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae in the control of slug and snail pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panigrahi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76 min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63 - 321.33 (± SD 4.14 and 271.20 (± SD 17.54 - 298.26 (± SD 16.69 min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods.

  11. EFEITO ALELOPÁTICO E MOLUSCICIDA DE AMORA (Morus rubra L.

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    ANA CRISTINA MENDES MIRANDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite produced in some plants can provoke alterations in the development of other plants or even other organisms. The aim of this paper was to identify possible allelopathic effects and biologic control of Achatina fulica Bowdich with aqueous extracts of Morus rubra L. leaves. For obtaining the aqueous extract, we used previously dried leaves in concentration of 1g 10 mL-1. Five concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100% and compared to control (0.0%, distilled water. The aqueous extracts of Morus rubra showed up allelopathic potentialities on the seed germination and in the growth of the shoot and the root system of the tested species, considering that the reduction in the germination and initial growth increased with the rising of the aqueous extracts concentrations used and, in the biologic control, only in the final mass of A. fulica. The results indicated the existence of allelopathic effect, but not molluscicide of M. rubra.

  12. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE OF BENTHIC MOLLUSCA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN THE MAINSTREAM OF HUAIHE RIVER%淮河干流软体动物群落结构及其与环境因子的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建华; 周立志; 邓道贵; 金显文

    2013-01-01

    2011年3月、6月、9月和12月对淮河干流11个采集点的底栖软体类动物群落结构进行了调查研究,共记录了软体类动物9科26种,其中位于最上游的桐柏金庄种类最少,仅有3种分布,而位于中下游的新城口种类达到15种.总体上看,自上游至下游,软体动物种类的数量呈现一定的增多趋势.Pearson相关性检验结果表明软体动物种类数量和生物密度与河道深度间分别存在显著的正相关(r = 0.617,P = 0.043,n = 11)和负相关关系(r = -0.654,P = 0.029,n = 11).方差分析(One-way ANOVA)结果表明,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数[F(3,40) = 0.225,P = 0.879]、Margalef丰富度指数[F(3,40) = 0.902,P = 0.449]、Pielou均匀性指数[F(3,40) = 0.841,P = 0.479]这3种指数以及生物量[F(3,40) = 1.931,P = 0.14]不存在显著的季节性变化,但生物密度[F(3,40) = 5.45,P = 0.003]却存在极显著的季节性变化.其中,生物密度在6月份出现峰值[(90.13 ± 36.31) ind./m2],最低值出现在12月份[(14.42 ± 2.78) ind./m2];生物量的变化不与生物密度变化同步,其峰值出现在9月份[(155.08 ± 50.43) g/m2],最低值则出现在3月份[(39.15 ± 14.08) g/m2].相似性分析(One-way ANOSIM)结果表明,软体类动物群落在生物密度和生物量方面的优势物种组成上均无显著的季节性差异,其P值分别为0.082和0.514.生物密度在不同月份间的不相似百分比变化幅度从53.87%至59.12%,而生物量的不相似百分比变化幅度则从58.76%至68.58%.冗余分析(Redundancy Analysis RDA)结果表明,河宽、水深和砂质型底质为影响淮河干流底栖软体类动物分布的主要环境因子.%The benthic mollusca community structure at eleven sampling sites in Huaihe River was investigated in March, June, September and December 2011. A total of 26 species from 9 families were recorded. Thereinto, only 3 species occurred in the first upriver site: Tongbaijinzhuang, and 15 species occurred in the downriver

  13. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  14. Cloning and Functional Expression of a Multi-Functional Cellulase Gene egx from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean in vitro%福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx的克隆及其体外功能性表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄妙容; 刘德武; 吴珍芳

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the study is to clone the multi-functional cellulase gene from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, and analyze its expression in vitro. [Method] The cDNA fragment was amplified by RT-PCR from the stomach of Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, and then cloned into pMD18-T vector. Following sequencing, the gene was subcloned into the expression vector pET-32a (+) and pcDNA3.1 (+) using EcoR I and Not I restriction sites, and the enzymatic activity was determined by DNS. [Result] Sequence analysis showed that the 1 326 bp amplicon consists of 1 185 bp coding sequence and part of flanking sequence. The DNA sequence and the putative amino acid sequence shared 99% and 100% identity with the reported sequence, respectively. The purified product from E.coli BL-21 (DE3) showed hydrolytic activities to various substrates including carboxylmethyl cellulose sodium salt (CMC-Na), 2-hydroxyethyl-cellulose, hydroxyethyl-cellulose, sigmacell and xylan with specific activities of 24.78, 15.67, 18.42, 600.91 and 175.43 U·mg-1, respectiviely, while the recombination protein expressed in PK15 showed hydrolytic activities of 0.84, 0.78, 1.01, 14.62 and 4.23 U·mL-1, respectively. [Conclusion] The multi-functional cellulase from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean, was cloned, functional expressed in pro- and eukaryotic cells, and this could provide a foundation for further research and application of the multi-functional cellulase gene from Mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.%[目的]克隆福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx,并在大肠杆菌和哺乳动物细胞中进行表达分析.[方法]通过RT-PCR的方法,从福寿螺胃组织总RNA中克隆福寿螺多功能纤维素酶基因egx序列,连接克隆载体pMD18-T,再通过EcoR Ⅰ和NotⅠ两个酶切位点分别与表达载体pET-32a(+)及pcDNA3.1(+)连接,构建原核、真核表达载体,并在E.coli BL-21 (DE3)和猪肾细胞PK15中进行表达,最后采用DNS法测定表达产物酶

  15. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  16. 湛江红树林保护区软体动物群落结构与生态位分析%The Structure of the Mollusca Community and Niche Analysis in Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐以杰; 陈康; 刘金苓

    2015-01-01

    对广东湛江红树林保护区高桥核心区软体动物进行采样调查,共采集软体动物20种,隶属1门2纲13科.其中桐花树+红海榄(Acgiceras corniculatum + Rhizophora stylosa )群落10种,桐花树+秋茄(Acgiceras corniculatum + Kandelia candel )群落6种,桐花树+白骨壤(Acgiceras corniculatum + Avicennia marina )群落13种,白骨壤+桐花树群落(Avicennia marina + Acgiceras corniculatum )16种.对软体动物密度数据进行季节和红树植物群落类型进行无重复双因素方差分析,结果显示软体动物栖息密度主要受红树植物群落类型而不是季节的影响.对定量取样中获得的20个物种以 Shannon-Wiener 指数为基础进行了生态位宽度测定,以 Pianka重叠指数为基础进行了生态位重叠值分析,结果表明琵琶拟沼螺(Assiminea lutea )、黑口滨螺(Littoraria melanostoma )和粗糙滨螺(Littorina scaber )的生态位较宽,均为2.0以上,它们之间的生态重叠值也较高,均为0.70以上.以密度数据4次开方为基础,利用欧氏距离进行群落物种的系统聚类分析,结果表明物种的聚类可以反映群落中物种生态位重叠值,但是生态位宽度的研究,要针对不同物种来分析.非度量多维标度排序分析也支持以上结果.研究表明,物种生态宽度、物种之间的生态位重叠值与物种的分布与数量密切相关,反映了软体动物群落中各物种对生境资源利用能力的强弱.%This study was conducted to explore the structure of the mollusca community and niche in Zhangjiang Mangrove Nature Reserves.The mollusks community in the four kinds of mangrove communities in the core region of Gaoqiao town were studies.A total of 20 species in the investigation, belonging to 13 families,2 classes and 1 phyla were collected.The numbers of species found in the Acgiceras corniculatum + Rhizophora stylosa ,Acgiceras corniculatum + Kandelia

  17. [Microbiologic depuration of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Arcidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, E; Antillón, F; Glenn, E; González, M I

    1997-12-01

    In Costa Rica the mollusk Anadara tuberculosa represents a risk for human health due to the contamination of the growing waters and the fact that its is consumed raw. The families depending on the income obtained through commercialization of these animals have a low education and economic status. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop and evaluate simple methods of depuration that could be easily used by these families to make these mollusks safe for consumption. Bottles containing 11 of saline solution (25g/l) were prepared in duplicates to test the bactericidal effect of acetic acid. The solution in each bottle was adjusted to ph 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5 or held at ph of 7.0 or 8.0 for the controls. The solution in each bottle was then inoculated with approximately 1 X 104 cfu/ml of coliforms. Counts of coliforms were determined for each bottle 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after inoculation. For the depuration studies, specimens with diameters ranging from 4.0 to 4.5 cm were collected from a harvester at the estuary of Puntarenas, Gulf of Nicoya. Fifty specimens each were depurated in separate tanks containing 25 1 of oxygenated saline solution adjusted with acetic acid to an initial ph of 4.5 (treatment) or non adjusted ph of 8.0 (control). Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were determined, in duplicates, every 12 hr for 48 hr. An additional fifty animals were depurated using the defined method and tested to determine if they met international standards of microbiological quality for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Escherichia coli count and presence of Salmonella. A sensory evaluation using a triangle test was performed to compare a typical dish prepared with depurated or non-depurated animals. A significant coliform reduction was determined in a saline solution (25 g/l) at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. This reduction, during 8 hr, was higher in the acid treatments compared to the controls. During depuration, the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was faster when acetic was used (initial ph = 4.5) than when it was not. This elimination was more important the first 24 hr, time defined as adequate for the application of the method. The method has the advantage of transforming the bivalve in a product that is safe for human consumption, since it guarantees that the international standards of microbiological quality, for raw and depurated mollusks, are reached. On the other hand, the sensory qualities of a typical dish prepared with depurated animals are not affected by the method, which can be easily implemented and applied by the people that work in the extraction of this mollusk.

  18. Four new African turriform gastropods (Mollusca: Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Mauro; Bonfitto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, belonging to four distinct conoidean families, are described from east Africa and Mozambique Channel. Iredalea adenensis sp. nov. (Drilliidae Olsson, 1964), from Gulf of Aden, and Buchema shearmani sp. nov. (Horaiclavidae Bouchet et al., 2011), from off Mogadishu (Somalia), both trawled by local fishermen, represent the first record of their respective genera in eastern Africa. Crassispira somalica sp. nov. (Pseudomelatomidae Morrison, 1965), also collected offshore from Modagishu (Somalia), represents the first eastern Africa species bearing "typical" Crassispira features. Tropidoturris vizcondei sp. nov. (Borsoniidae Bellardi, 1875), from the Mozambique Channel, increases the knowledge of a genus considered endemic to southeastern Africa.

  19. Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.; Knudsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper deals with an important Danish paper on the Polyplacophora, published in 1797 by Lorentz Spengler: Udförlig Beskrivelse over det mangeskallede Konkylie-Slaegt, af Linnaeus kaldet Chiton; med endeel nye Arter og Varieteter. -Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, 4e Bind, Ie Hefte, VI

  20. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  1. Four alien medical mollusk found in Dapeng Peninsula,Shenzhen City%深圳大鹏半岛4种入侵医学贝类的发现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹世奎; 庄馨; 胡观冠

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the alien snails in Dapeng Peninsula Shenzhen City. Methods The survey on the snail diversity in Dapeng Peninsula was carried out from August 2012 to Jan 2013 and the species of the alien snails were iden⁃tified according to the shell morphology. Results Four species of alien snails including Achatina fulica Pomacea canalicula⁃ta Physa acuta and Biomphalaria straminea were found in Dapeng Peninsula P. acuta was found in all of the collected sites A. fulica and P. canaliculata were distributed in five regions except Yangmeikeng area and B. straminea was just found in Dapeng Town. Conclusion Four species of important alien snails invade widely in Dapeng Peninsula Shenzhen City. As their potential risk to the disease transmission and agriculture production the relative departments should strengthen the control and prevention.%目的:了解深圳大鹏半岛入侵螺类物种。方法于2012年8月至2013年1月对深圳大鹏半岛进行软体动物资源调查,通过贝壳形态学观察等鉴定入侵螺种。结果大鹏半岛境内发现4种入侵螺类,均为医学贝类,分别为褐云玛瑙螺(Achatina fulica)、小管福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)、尖膀胱螺(Physa acuta)和藁杆双脐螺(Biomphalaria stra⁃minea)。其中尖膀胱螺在全部采集地点均有发现,褐云玛瑙螺和小管福寿螺在除杨梅坑外的调查点均有分布,藁杆双脐螺仅分布于大鹏镇。结论4种重要外来螺类在深圳大鹏半岛广泛入侵,鉴于其在疾病传播和农业生产上具有的潜在危害,需加强预防控制。

  2. Shell utilization pattern of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Crustacea, Anomura in an estuary at São Vicente, State of São Paulo, Brazil Padrão de utilização de conchas do ermitão Clibanarius vittatus (Crustacea, Anomura, no Estuário de São Vicente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the gastropod shell utilization pattern of the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 at Pescadores Beach in São Vicente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly from May 2001 through April 2003, in the intertidal zone at low tide. The crabs were weighed and their carapace shield length measured. All gastropod shells were identified and had their shell biometric parameters (total length and aperture length measured (mm and weighed (g. A total of 2,344 hermit crabs (644 males, 1,594 females, 45 ovigerous females and 61 individuals in intersex, using 13 species of gastropod shells, were collected. Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767, Cymatium parthenopeum (Von Salis, 1793 and Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 comprised over 98% of all the shells. Male and intersex crabs were significantly larger than the females. This size difference strongly influenced the shell utilization pattern, principally in A. fulica, which has the largest shell size, that was only used by males and intersexual individuals of C. vittatus. Cymatium parthenopeum was the only shell species that showed a high determinant coefficient in all the biometric correlations evaluated. The high abundance of S. haemastoma shells and a strong correlation between crab size and shell aperture length established by a significant determination coefficient, indicated that C. vittatus uses this species as the principal resource for shell occupation at Pescadores Beach.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a utilização de conchas de gastrópodes por Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802, na Praia dos Pescadores, em São Vicente (SP, Brasil. Foram realizadas amostras mensais no período de maio de 2001 a abril de 2003, na região intertidal durante a maré baixa. Todos os animais foram pesados e tiveram o comprimento de seu escudo cefalotorácico mensurados, suas conchas identificadas e medidas quanto ao comprimento (mm, abertura (mm e peso (g

  3. Condições microbiológicas e de ocorrência do caramujo terrestre africano na cidade de Araguaína no Estado do Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilyan Luizaga Monteiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base na grande incidência da espécie invasora de caramujo africano, Achatina fulica, na cidade de Araguaína, objetivamos investigar a relação existente entre as condições microbiológicas do caramujo e a ocorrência deste nas hortas domésticas na cidade. Foram seguidas metodologias laboratoriais na determinação de presença/ausência de microrganismos na superfície do caramujo, assim como de fungos filamentosos. Para complementar o trabalho foram entrevistados cento e um (101 moradores domiciliados em dezenove setores de Araguaína. Os resultados microbiológicos da superfície do caramujo apresentam valores acima de 1,2x105 UFC/g de bactérias heterotróficas, foram também isolados fungos dos gêneros Aspergillus, Penicillum, Trichophyton e Cryptococcus. No levantamento por entrevista, 86% dos entrevistados relataram uma alta incidência do caramujo nos seus domicílios no período chuvoso e 50% deles afirmaram ter algum tipo de canteiro em casa, porém 85% desconhecem as doenças que poderiam ser transmitidas por este caramujo. Concluímos que existe uma elevada contaminação microbiológica na superfície dos caramujos analisados, o que combinado com a preferencia pelos produtos de hortas domesticas desconhecendo os riscos que a invasão por caramujos pode acarretar, indicam a necessidade de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a determinação das condições de risco inerentes a A. fulica, assim como sua divulgação na sociedade araguaínense sobre seus efeitos, não somente na saúde das pessoas mas também na produtividade da agricultura artesanal.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the cellulolytic system reveals its potential for deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass in a novel Streptomyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Guilherme L; de Azevedo-Martins, Allan C; Albano, Rodolpho M; de Souza, Wanderley; Frases, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The giant snail Achatina fulica is considered an invasive species in most territories in which it was introduced, due to its ability to process a large amount of lignocellulose as a consequence of the presence of a cellulolytic-associated microflora. Streptomyces are well known as crucial agents in the decomposition of complex polymers in soil environments and also as cellulolytic symbionts commonly associated with herbivore insects. Here, we employed a combination of genomic and biochemical tools for a detailed evaluation of the cellulolytic potential of Streptomyces sp. I1.2, an aerobic bacterium isolated from the intestinal lumen of A. fulica in a screening for cellulolytic bacteria. Genomic analysis revealed that the ratio and diversity of CAZy domains and GH families coded by Streptomyces sp. I1.2 are comparable to those present in other highly cellulolytic bacteria. After growth on crystalline cellulose or sugarcane bagasse as sole carbon sources, the functionality of several genes encoding endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, xylanases, CBMs, and one β-glucosidase were confirmed by the combination of enzymatic activity measurements, zymography, TLC, and cellulose-binding assays. The endoglucanases secreted by this isolate were stable at 50 °C and exhibited activity over a broad pH range between 4.0 and 8.0. The endoglucanases and cellobiohydrolases secreted by Streptomyces sp. I1.2 exhibited specific activities that were similar to the levels present in a commercial cellulase preparation from Trichoderma reesei, while I1.2 xylanase levels were even 350 % higher. The results presented here show that Streptomyces sp. I1.2 is promising for future biotechnological applications, since it is able to produce endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, and xylanases in appreciable amounts when grown on a low-cost residue such as sugarcane bagasse.

  5. [Energy metabolism and body mass ratio in bivalves mollusca (Mollusca: Bivalvia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of experimental and published data, the interspecific and intraspecific (ontogenetic) dependence of energy metabolism on body weight in bivalves was calculated. Changes in the parameters of intraspecific allometric dependence under the effect of environmental factors were analyzed. The rate of comparable standard metabolism (coefficient a at k = 0.76) was shown to vary in different taxonomic and zoogeographic groups of bivalves.

  6. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  7. Modulation of in vivo neuronal sprouting by serotonin in the adult CNS of the snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M W; Croll, R P

    1996-10-01

    1. During in situ recovery from a lesion to the cerebrobuccal connective (CBC) in the snail Achatina fulica, neurons of the buccal ganglia undergo extensive regeneration and sprouting as assessed by axonal dye-fillings of the CBC. 2. These changes are preceded by the distal degeneration of severed fibres from the serotonergic metacerebral giant neuron (MCG), which results in the depletion of serotonin (5-HT) in the ipsilateral buccal ganglion. We have investigated the potential role of this depletion in causing some of the ensuing neuroplastic events. 3. Pharmacological depletion of 5-HT using either 5,7-dihydroxtryptamine or p-chlorophenylalanine in normal, unlesioned animals was found to produce supernumerary neuronal labelling similar to that seen following a lesion. 4. Systemic daily injections of 5-HT were found to partly suppress the sprouting response following the CBC lesion. For example, the contralateral, uninjured MCG which is normally induced by the lesion to sprout novel projections into the denervated ganglion, is suppressed from doing so by the 5-HT treatment. 5. These growth inhibiting effects of 5-HT upon the contralateral MCG could be antagonized by the prior administration of the 5-HT receptor blocker cyproheptadine, suggesting a specific receptor mediated action. 6. We suggest that 5-HT may play a role in governing the state of neuronal outgrowth in vivo in the CNS of the adult snail, as has been suggested by early development and neuronal cultural studies.

  8. Angiostrongylus malaysiensis from Tuaran, Sabah, with reference to the distribution of the parasite in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liat, L B; Wah, L T; Cheah, W; Cheah, W; Fong, Y L; Fong, Y L

    1976-09-01

    A survey of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis among wild rodent and molluscan hosts was made in the Tuaran Central Agricultural Research Station and within the vicinity of Tuaran, Sabah. Three of 19 Rattus rattus diardii, one of 2 R. exulans and one R. argentiventer were found naturally infected with the parasite. In this survey 56 of 382 molluscs comprising of Pila scutata, Achatina fulica and two species of land slugs, Laevicaulis alte and Microparmarion malayanus, were found naturally infected with the parasite. Samples of larvae from each of these molluscs were experimentally transferred to laboratory albino rats and adult worms consistent with A. malaysiensis were recovered. Comparison of the rat hosts and the molluscan intermediate hosts of the parasite in Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and Sabah was made, and the finding of A. malaysiensis in Tuaran is the first report of the parasite from Sabah. The distribution of the parasite throughout Malaysia is discussed. Observation on the human consumption of the freshwater snail, P. scutata, was made. Although the infection rate of this snail is low compared with other molluscan hosts examined. The importance of this mollusc as a potential source of human infection should not be overlooked. Hospital records for 1974 and 1975 were examined and clinical human angiostrongyliasis was rarely recorded in Sabah.

  9. PHYLOGENY OF ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS IN THAILAND BASED ON CYTOCHROME C OXIDASE SUBUNIT I GENE SEQUENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichat, Vitta; Narongrit, Srisongcram; Jittranuch, Thiproaj; Anucha, Wongma; Wilaiwan, Polsut; Chamaiporn, Fukruksa; Thatcha, Yimthin; Bandid, Mangkit; Aunchalee, Thanwisai; Paron, Dekumyoy

    2016-05-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious agent causing eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis in humans with clinical manifestation of severe headache. Molecular genetic studies on classification and phylogeny of A. cantonensis in Thailand are limited. This study surveyed A. cantonensis larvae prevalence in natural intermediate hosts across Thailand and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 14,032 freshwater and land snails were collected from 19 provinces of Thailand. None of Filopaludina sp, Pomacea sp, and Cyclophorus sp were infected with Angiostrongylus larvae, whereas Achatina fulica, Cryptozona siamensis, and Megaustenia siamensis collected from Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok, and Tak Provinces were infected, with C. siamensis being the common intermediate host. Based on morphology, larvae isolated from 11 samples of these naturally infected snails preliminarily were identified as A. cantonensis. Comparison of partial nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene revealed that four sequences are identical to A. cantonensis haplotype ac4 from Bangkok and the other seven to that of A. cantonensis isolate AC Thai, indicating two independent lineages of A. cantonensis in Thailand.

  10. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.

  11. CHILDHOOD RISK ESTIMATION OF LEAD METAL POISOINING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-28

    Oct 28, 2011 ... This study should fast track industrial environmental audits of existing (including abandoned) industrial projects ... contaminated edible land snail (Achatina achatina) .... of chemical(s) and the exposure assessment helps to.

  12. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835, B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835, B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909, Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835.

  13. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gómez, Adriana; Ortigosa, Deneb; Simões, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area.

  14. Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The buccinid gastropods (family Buccinidae) are a species-rich clade of mostly North Pacific taxa with an abundant fossil record that dates to the Cretaceous. Here, the evolution, systematics, and biology of fossil and extant members of this family are treated using a variety of analytical and methodological approaches. In chapter one, a new fossil species of Bruclarkia, an endemic eastern Pacific buccinid from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene, is described from the Astoria Formation of the...

  15. Notes on a few Opisthobranch Mollusca from Surinam (Guianas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen-Meyer, J.

    1965-01-01

    The Opisthobranchs dealt with in this paper were entrusted to me by Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, and belong to that museum. They are part of a large collection of marine molluscs from Surinam of which Dr. van Regteren Altena intends to publish an annot

  16. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1972-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  17. p63 gene structure in the phylum mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baričević, Ana; Štifanić, Mauro; Hamer, Bojan; Batel, Renato

    2015-08-01

    Roles of p53 family ancestor (p63) in the organisms' response to stressful environmental conditions (mainly pollution) have been studied among molluscs, especially in the genus Mytilus, within the last 15 years. Nevertheless, information about gene structure of this regulatory gene in molluscs is scarce. Here we report the first complete genomic structure of the p53 family orthologue in the mollusc Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and confirm its similarity to vertebrate p63 gene. Our searches within the available molluscan genomes (Aplysia californica, Lottia gigantea, Crassostrea gigas and Biomphalaria glabrata), found only one p53 family member present in a single copy per haploid genome. Comparative analysis of those orthologues, additionally confirmed the conserved p63 gene structure. Conserved p63 gene structure can be a helpful tool to complement or/and revise gene annotations of any future p63 genomic sequence records in molluscs, but also in other animal phyla. Knowledge of the correct gene structure will enable better prediction of possible protein isoforms and their functions. Our analyses also pointed out possible mis-annotations of the p63 gene in sequenced molluscan genomes and stressed the value of manual inspection (based on alignments of cDNA and protein onto the genome sequence) for a reliable and complete gene annotation.

  18. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojeta, J.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

  19. Two new species of Enidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pupillacea) from Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1986-01-01

    Two new species of Enidae, viz. Zebrina (Ramusculus) mienisi spec. nov. and Turanena tuccari spec. nov., are described from the Turkish provinces of Erzurum and Antalya, respectively. The former species is unknown anatomically and, therefore, its (sub)generic assignment is uncertain. The latter new

  20. Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clarke, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    For many decades molluscan data have been critical to the establishment of the concept of a global-scale increase in species richness from the poles to the equator. Low polar diversity is key to this latitudinal cline in diversity. Here we investigate richness patterns in the two largest classes of molluscs at both local and regional scales throughout the Southern Ocean. We show that biodiversity is very patchy in the Southern Ocean (at the 1000-km scale) and test the validity of historical biogeographic sub-regions and provinces. We used multivariate analysis of biodiversity patterns at species, genus and family levels to define richness hotspots within the Southern Ocean and transition areas. This process identified the following distinct sub-regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea, East Antarctic—Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic—Enderby Land, East Antarctic—Wilkes Land, Ross Sea, and the independent Scotia arc and sub Antarctic islands. Patterns of endemism were very different between the bivalves and gastropods. On the basis of distributional ranges and radiation centres of evolutionarily successful families and genera we define three biogeographic provinces in the Southern Ocean: (1) the continental high Antarctic province excluding the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) the Scotia Sea province including the Antarctic Peninsula, and (3) the sub Antarctic province comprising the islands in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  1. Notes on Cancellaria minima Reeve (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Cancellariacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhecken, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cancellaria minima Reeve, 1856, is redescribed after three syntypes and 59 shells recently collected near Madeira and off Morocco. The few literature data concerning this poorly known species are summarized. Its range appears to be situated between 27° and 37°N and 5° and 17°W, as far as known mainl

  2. A new dicyemid from octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Gómez, M. Carmen; Hochberg, F. G.; Gestal, C.; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from Octopus hubbsorum Berry, 1953, collected in the south of Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Me´xico. Dicyema guaycurense n. sp. is a medium-size species that reaches about 1,600 mm in length. It occurs in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized as having 22 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the base of the propolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells;...

  3. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two

  4. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  5. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  6. Miscellaneous notes on Southern African Gastropoda Euthyneura (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1967-01-01

    SUMMARY The following new distribution records of southern African terrestrial molluscs seem to be of particular interest: Pupilla fontana (Krss.), Rachis jejuna (M. & P.), Guppya rumrutiensis (Prest.), Xerocerastus burchelli (Gray) (all four new for Rhodesia), Euonyma damarica Jaeck. (new for Cape

  7. Variation in foraging activity of Acanthochitona garnoti (Mollusca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At all sites, chitons spent a significantly greater (p < 0,00 I; multi factor analysis of ... groups mean groups. Aeolean pi

  8. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  9. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Ecuador (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lobato Paraense

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a trip to Ecuador I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of the following nominal species of pulmonate molluscs: Biomphalaria cousini Paraense, 1966; Planorbis equatorius Cousin, 1887; P. canonicus Cousin, 1887; Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 and P. boetzkesi Miller, 1879. Additional findings were: Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny 1835, Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, D. lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839, D. surinamense (Clessin, 1884, Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 and Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1805. P. boetzkesi and P. canonicus are considered junior synonyms of Gyraulus hindsianus (Dunker, 1848 and Biomphalaria peregrina (Orbigny, 1835, respectively.

  10. First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

  11. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gómez, Adriana; Ortigosa, Deneb; Simões, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area. PMID:28769624

  12. New records of Protobranchia (Mollusca: Bivalvia in the Peruvian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The following species of Bivalvia have been recorded for the first time for Peruvian waters: Nucula (Nucula iphigenia (Dall, 1908; Ennucula cardara (Dall, 1916; Nuculana (Nuculana extenuata (Dall, 1897; Orthoyoldia panamensis (Dall, 1908. These bivalves were collected in the platform and continental slope down to depths of 864 meters.

  13. Mollusca (terrestrial and marine Gastropods et Bivalvia from Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Irikov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen samples with molluscs are collected from various habitats and regions of Morocco, located in the seashore zone, as well as the central and the eastern parts of the country. We recorded 21 terrestrial and 15 marine species of molluscs. New localities and new species for the fauna of Morocco and the African continent are reported for the first time.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana K Jannotti-Passos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA. In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

  15. Description of the ootheca of Turbinella laevigata (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbinella laevigata is found since the intertidal zone up to 40 m depth, being endemic of Brazil where it occurs from the state of Amapá to the state of Espirito Santo. The objective of this study was to describe the ootheca of this species. Fifteen samples collected in the Olho d'Água Beach, City of Icapuí and Fleixeiras Beach, City of Trairí, both in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil, were studied. The spawns were composed by 15 +/- 1.4 SD capsules and had 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm of length with 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm of width. They had a convex and a concave surface, and plaited edges that drew out until the basal membrane, to which they joined forming a medial ridge. This species apparently produced a high amount of nurse eggs. The early juveniles measured 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm of length and they presented a protoconch with three whorls.Turbinella laevigata é encontrada desde a zona entre marés até 40 m de profundidade, sendo endêmica do Brasil onde ocorre desde o Estado do Amapá até o Espírito Santo. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ooteca de Turbinella laevigata. Quinze amostras foram coletadas na Praia de Olho d'Água, Município de Icapuí e na Praia de Flexeiras, Município do Trairí, ambos no Estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, foram estudadas. As desovas de T. laevigata foram compostas por 15 +/- 1.4 SD cápsulas e mediram 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm de comprimento e 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm de largura. Todas as cápsulas estavam fixadas pela membrana basal, a qual tinha a extremidade modificada para se prender ao substrato. Elas possuem uma superfície concava e outra convexa, apresentando margens pregueadas, que se prolongavam até a membrana basal, à qual se uniam formando uma prega. Esta espécie aparentemente produz uma grande quantidade de ovos nutritivos. A concha dos juvenis mediu 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm de comprimento e apresentou uma protoconcha com 3 voltas.

  16. Protandric hermaphroditism in the bivalve Arca noae (Mollusca: Arcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BELLO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the histological analysis of Arca noae samples from the south-western Adriatic Sea, five hermaphroditic specimens were found out of 168 sexed individuals (3.0%. The hermaphrodite gonads showed the co-occurrence of male and female germ cells within the same acini, i.e. both spermatozoa in the lumen and oogonia lining its wall. Oogonia increased in size through winter, thus suggesting that the direction of sex change is from male to female. Both the biometrical analyses and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that A. noae is an obligate protandric species.

  17. Loss of trematode parthenitae in Planorbella trivolvis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, B F; Rohr, J R

    2013-08-01

    Infection by trematode parthenitae (larval, asexual trematodes) has severe consequences for molluscan hosts, resulting in cessation of reproduction and early mortality. Here we present evidence that the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis can lose infections by trematode parthenitae. Of 8 P. trivolvis infected by reniferin parthenitae, 6 died within 2 wk, whereas the remaining 2 snails lost their infections within 82 days after initial examination. This phenomenon might suggest that molluscs can resist established trematode infections (i.e., "self-cure") or at least out-survive some trematode parthenitae.

  18. Morphological and molecular diversity of Unionidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Portugal

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    Reis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater mussels from the family Unionidae are known to exhibit a high level of ecological phenotypic plasticity that is reflected in their shell shape. This variation has caused uncertainty on systematics and taxonomy of the group. Several naiad populations from nine river basins from Portugal were analyzed genetically, using two mitochondrial gene fragments (16SrRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I and morphologically, using ANOVA analyses of shell dimmensions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to revise the systematics and to infer an evolutionary hypothesis for the family at the western-most Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Genetic and morphological data were in agreement and supported the occurrence of 5 species in the region: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis and Unio delphinus. The differentiation of all these species, except A. cygnea, is thought to have taken place during the isolation of the Iberian Peninsula and formation of the current river basins in the Tertiary. The possibility of A. cygnea being a relatively recent introduction is discussed. Basic morphometric measures of the shell proved to be useful to separate Unio species, but also seem to be strongly affected by environmental conditions. The high intra-specific morphologic variation was partially related to the species’ high level of phenotypic plasticity, but seems to have an important role in evolutionary processes.Las náyades de la familia Unionidae tienen gran plasticidad fenotípica, lo que se refleja en la forma de su concha. Esta variabilidad morfológica ha sido causa de gran confusión en la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Se han estudiado, genética y morfológicamente, numerosas poblaciones de náyades provenientes de nueve cuencas hidrográficas portuguesas. Para ello se han analizando dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (ARNr 16S y Citocromo Oxidasa I así como diferentes variables morfológicas de la concha. Se han realizado además análisis filogenéticos para conocer la sistemática de la familia e inferir una hipótesis evolutiva de su distribución en el oeste de la península Ibérica. Los datos genéticos y morfológicos sugieren la existencia de cinco especies: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis y Unio delphinus. La diferenciación de estas especies, con la excepción de A. cygnea, ha ocurrido durante el aislamiento de la península Ibérica y posterior formación de las actuales cuencas hidrográficas en el Terciario. Se discute la posibilidad de que la presencia de A. cygnea se deba a una introducción reciente. Los datos morfométricos analizados pueden ser útiles para separar las especies del género Unio, pero son también dependientes de las condiciones ambientales. La elevada variabilidad morfológica dentro de cada especie está relacionada con su plasticidad fenotípica, pero tiene a su vez un importante papel en el proceso evolutivo.

  19. New records of opisthobranchs from Lakshadweep, India (Mollusca: Heterobranchia

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    D. Apte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All India Coordinated Project on Taxonomy (AICOPTAX, an initiative of Ministry of Environment and Forests allowed the authors to study opisthobranch fauna of the west coast of India. During the present study, nine species of opisthobranchs are reported for the first time from Lakshadweep of which six are new records to India.

  20. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  1. Recharacterization of Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Subulinidae

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    Norma Campos Salgado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Synapterpes (S. hanleyi (Pfeiffer, 1846 is characterized by anatomy, synonymy and geographical distribution. Shell and soft parts were studied and important taxonomic characters evaluated and illustrated. These studies give conditions to characterize the species and include it in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896 and distinguish S. hanleyi from the other species of Synapterpes s.s. known only by their shells, respectively from Brazil and Colombia: S.(S. coronatus (Pfeiffer, 1846 and S.(S. wallisi (Mousson, 1869.

  2. A new species of Anna (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae from Brazil

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    José Coltro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Anna capixaba, a new species found in depths of 45-60 m off the coast of the state of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil, is herein described. The new species is mainly characterized by a teleoconch of 4.5 whorls, weakly demarcated from the protoconch; sculptured by rounded, prominent, narrowly-separated, spiral threads; outer lip with 5-6 teeth, posterior tooth stronger; columella with two plicae, smooth.

  3. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the southernmo

  4. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae

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    Meire Silva Pena

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie.

  5. Protandric hermaphroditism in the bivalve Arca noae (Mollusca: Arcidae

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    G. BELLO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the histological analysis of Arca noae samples from the south-western Adriatic Sea, five hermaphroditic specimens were found out of 168 sexed individuals (3.0%. The hermaphrodite gonads showed the co-occurrence of male and female germ cells within the same acini, i.e. both spermatozoa in the lumen and oogonia lining its wall. Oogonia increased in size through winter, thus suggesting that the direction of sex change is from male to female. Both the biometrical analyses and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that A. noae is an obligate protandric species.

  6. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection on Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean, 2007-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Blondé, Renaud; Chamouine, Abdourahim; Chrisment, Alexandra; Diancourt, Laure; Villemant, Nicolas; Atale, Agnès; Cadix, Claire; Caro, Valérie; Malvy, Denis; Collet, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human angiostrongyliasis (HA) is a neurological helminthic disease caused by the lung worm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is suspected in the combination of travel or a residence in an endemic area and eosinophilic meningitis. In Mayotte, an island in the Indian Ocean, cases are rare but regular. The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and diagnosis clues of HA in Mayotte. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the contribution of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT- PCR) for the diagnosis of HA, delineate the characteristics of the local transmission and ascertain the presence of A. cantonensis in Achatina fulica, the potential vector of the disease. Materials and Methods Between 2007 and 2012, all cases of eosinophilic meningitis were retrospectively included and investigated by RT- PCR in the CSF. Descriptive analysis was conducted for clinical, biological and radiological features, and were analyzed for all patients together with the search for prognostic factors for mortality. Concurrently, geolocalization and temporal parameters were studied to correlate the occurrence of the cases with rainfall seasons and snails were collected to enhance a parasitic carriage with real time PCR. Results During the 6-year period of the study, 14 cases were identified (2.3 cases/year) and 9 among 10 remaining CSF were positive in PCR. Among 14 cases of EM, 13 were less than 2 year-old children. The 1 year mortality rate was 5/14 (35.7%). Among survivors, 3/7 (42.8%) presented neurological sequelae. Factors associated with mortality were dysfunction of cranial nerves, abnormal brain imaging, and CSF glucose level inferior to 2 mmol/l. Occurrence of cases was temporarily and spatially correlated to the rainy season. Among the 64 collected giant snails, 6 (9.4%) were positive with A. cantonensis PCR. The likely main route of transmission was the children licking snails, carriers of the parasite. Conclusion In Mayotte, HA was mainly

  7. THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MOLLUSCS OF INDONESIA

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    Machfudz Djajasasmita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present in Indonesia 32 species of non-marine molluscs which belong to IS families have been known to be potentially of medicalor veterinary importance, since they are suspected to be capable in transmitting human and animal diseases. The brackish water family Potamididae comprises of 1 species; whereas the freshwater snails are : Viviparidae (3 sp., Ampullariidae (3 sp., Bythiniidae (1 sp.. Pomatiopsidae (1 sp., Thiaridae (7 sp., Lymnaeidae(l sp. and Planorbidae (5 sp.; freshwater bivalve are: Corbiculidae (4 sp.; land snails are: Subulinidae (2 sp., Achatinidae (1 sp. and Bradybaenidae (1 sp.; land slug: Veronicelidae (2 sp. Philomycidae (1 sp. and Limacidae (1 sp.. All are common species which can be found in the vicinity of human habitation (ponds, rice-field, ditches, gardens etc. The parasitological studies on these molluscs are rather limited, only 9 species have been studied and confirmed to be the intermediate host of parasitic nematodes and nematodes; i.e. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonica in Central Sulawesi: Pila suctata, Achatina fulica and Laevicaulis alte from several places in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Flores have been found to be harbouring the larvae of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; Bellamy a rudipelis, Gyraulus sarasinorum and Corbicula lindoensis were recorded as the intermediate host of the intestinal fluke Echinostoma lindoensis in Central Sulawesi; Lymnaea rubiginosa plays an important role in the life-cycle of the cattle liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and F.hepatica, which may reduce the national meat production; and Digoniostoma truncatum from Bali has been recorded naturally infected with radiae and cercariae of Paramphistoma sp., the causative agent of the fatal paramphistomiasis of cattle. Gyraulus convexiusculus is considered to be the most likely first intermediate host of

  8. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

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    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  9. Metagenomic analysis of the microbiota from the crop of an invasive snail reveals a rich reservoir of novel genes.

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    Alexander M Cardoso

    Full Text Available The shortage of petroleum reserves and the increase in CO(2 emissions have raised global concerns and highlighted the importance of adopting sustainable energy sources. Second-generation ethanol made from lignocellulosic materials is considered to be one of the most promising fuels for vehicles. The giant snail Achatina fulica is an agricultural pest whose biotechnological potential has been largely untested. Here, the composition of the microbial population within the crop of this invasive land snail, as well as key genes involved in various biochemical pathways, have been explored for the first time. In a high-throughput approach, 318 Mbp of 454-Titanium shotgun metagenomic sequencing data were obtained. The predominant bacterial phylum found was Proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Viruses, Fungi, and Archaea were present to lesser extents. The functional analysis reveals a variety of microbial genes that could assist the host in the degradation of recalcitrant lignocellulose, detoxification of xenobiotics, and synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins, contributing to the adaptability and wide-ranging diet of this snail. More than 2,700 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase (GH domains and carbohydrate-binding modules were detected. When we compared GH profiles, we found an abundance of sequences coding for oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes (36%, very similar to those from wallabies and giant pandas, as well as many novel cellulase and hemicellulase coding sequences, which points to this model as a remarkable potential source of enzymes for the biofuel industry. Furthermore, this work is a major step toward the understanding of the unique genetic profile of the land snail holobiont.

  10. Study on the epidemiological characteristics and natural infectious focus of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Shenzhen area of Zhujiang Delta in China%深圳市广州管圆线虫疫源地调查及流行特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仁利; 张起文; 吴泰顺; 马智超; 陈戊生; 黎大林; 高世同; 耿艺介; 黄达娜; 陈木新; 刘建平; 吴元良; 甄茵; 戴传文

    2008-01-01

    Objective To delimit the natural infectious focus, including the distribution of wildlife,species, ecology of intermediate hosts and final host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, as well as the routes of transmission and epidemiological characteristics and wildlife of human Angiostrongylus cantonensis, based on human diverging cases identified in Shenzhen, southern area of China. Methods Data including rate of infection and density of Angiostrongylus cantonensis among different hosts in 12 different areas in Shenzhen was collected, using microscope to inspect homogenate liquids of snails. Wild mice were captured with mouse cage to examine the adult Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Using larva isolated from wild-snails-infected rats to observe the life cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Results Wild life of Angiostrongylus cantonensis existed in the southwest part of Shenzhen with its majority intermediate hosts as Achatina fulica. The overall rate of infection was 31% in wildlife and final host was found to be Rattus andersoni, Achatina fulica which were extensively distributed in the shrub region of Shenzhen because of suitable climate,humidity and vegetation for generating the life cycle of Achatina fulica. Human infected Angiostrongylus cantonensis was mainly due to eating raw snails or vegetables contaminated by larva of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.The peak of infection was seen from April to November in Shenzhen area.Conclusion Wildlife of Angiostrongylus cantonensis existed in the southwest part of Shenzhen with major wildlife reservoir including fresh water snail and wild mouse. The existence of natural focus Angiostrongylus cantonensis was now recognized as an important source of human angiostrongliasis in Shenzhen area.%目的 了解深圳市散发的广州管圆线虫病患者和疫源地分布,及其主要传播途径和流行特征.方法 在深圳市12个不同生态环境地点调查广州管圆线虫不同宿主分布和感染情况,采用匀浆沉淀

  11. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J; Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna; Szarek, Józef; Strzyżewska, Emilia; Felsmann, Mariusz

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n=60) and Coot (n=50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006-2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n=5) and high concentrations (Mallards n=18 and Coots n=17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions.

  12. Histopathology of liver and kidneys of wild living Mallards Anas platyrhynchos and Coots Fulica atra with considerable concentrations of lead and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J., E-mail: ljbinkowski@gmail.com [Institute of Biology, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Podbrzezie 3, 31-054 Cracow (Poland); Sawicka-Kapusta, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.sawicka-kapusta@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Cracow (Poland); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Strzyżewska, Emilia, E-mail: emijel@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Felsmann, Mariusz, E-mail: felsmann.mariusz@wp.pl [Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Concentrations of cadmium and lead were measured in liver and kidneys of Mallard (n = 60) and Coot (n = 50). Free living birds were collected by hunters in years 2006–2008 in the area of fishponds near Zator in southern Poland. Age group was determined according to the appearance of the plumage (Mallards) and iris color (Coot). Concentrations of metals were measured with ET-AA spectrometer. Among all birds specimens with negligible (n = 5) and high concentrations (Mallards n = 18 and Coots n = 17) of cadmium and lead were chosen for further analysis. Histopathological alterations were observed, ranging from circulatory disturbances, retrogressive changes, inflammations to leukocytic infiltration in liver and kidney. They dominated among birds with the highest concentrations of metals. The control group of birds was characterized by a very small number of mentioned lesions. Probably the higher cadmium and lead concentrations in tissues are co-factors in the development of lesions. - Highlights: ► High levels of Cd and Pb were found in liver and kidneys of Mallard and Coot. ► Lower concentrations were found in young birds. ► Amount of metals exceeded the safety threshold established for edible poultry. ► Histopathological alterations were found in studied tissues. ► Lesions in birds with the highest concentrations of metals were numerous.

  13. Two new species of dicyemid (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from two Australian cephalopod species: Sepioteuthis australis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) and Sepioloidea lineolata (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Sepiadariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Sarah R; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2013-04-01

    Two new species of dicyemid parasites from Dicyema are described from 2 species of Australian cephalopods, i.e., Dicyema calamaroceum n. sp. from Sepioteuthis australis Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 (southern calamary) collected from Spencer Gulf (SG) and Gulf St Vincent (GSV), South Australia (SA), Australia, and Dicyema pyjamaceum n. sp. from Sepioloidea lineolata Quoy and Gaimard, 1832 (striped pyjama squid), collected from SG, SA, Australia. Dicyema calamaroceum is a medium sized species that reaches approximately 2,400 μm in length. The vermiform stages are characterized by having 31-34 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the propolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos, and verruciform cells were not observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell, and the refringent bodies are solid. Dicyema pyjamaceum is smaller than D. calamaroceum, with a body length that reaches approximately 1,950 μm. The vermiform stages are characterized by having 20-23 peripheral cells, a cap-shaped calotte that forms a cephalic swelling together with the parapolar cells, and an axial cell that extends to the propolar cells. An anterior abortive axial cell is absent in vermiform embryos. Verruciform cells and granules in propolar cells were observed in nematogens and rhombogens. Infusoriform embryos consist of 37 cells; 2 nuclei are present in each urn cell, and the refringent bodies are solid. This represents the first description of dicyemid parasites from Australia.

  14. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G; Santos, J J B

    2010-02-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 microm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE). By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4%) in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2%) in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.

  15. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

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    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  16. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

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    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  17. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  18. 广州管圆线虫动物感染实验研究%Infection of laboratory animals with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓梅; 李富华; 李彦忠; 陶洪

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in laboratory animals was determined to provide an experimental basis for further investigation of Angiostrongyliusis cantonensis in Yunnan. Methods Four types of laboratory animals - SD rats. Kunming mice, guinea pigs and rabbits - were artificially infected with the third-stage larvae of A. Cantonensis isolated from Achatina fulica and the prevalence of infection was observed. Results Mice were not infected with A. Cantonensis. Adult A. Cantonensis were not obtained from guinea pigs and rabbits infected with A. Cantonensis, and a few larvae were found. Worms were found in the liver, heart, lungs, and cerebrum of rats after different periods of infection with A. Cantonensis. Conclusion Mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits are not suitable as final hosts of A. Cantonensis. SD rats are an ideal for a laboratory animal model of A. Cantonensis infection.%目的 观察不同动物实验感染广州管圆线虫情况,为进一步研究云南省广州管圆线虫病提供实验依据. 方法 从褐云玛瑙螺中分离广州管圆线虫第Ⅲ期幼虫,人工感染SD大鼠、昆明小鼠、豚鼠和家兔,观察感染情况. 结果 小鼠未能感染广州管圆线虫;豚鼠、家兔在感染广州管圆线虫后未获得成虫,仅发现少量幼虫寄生;感染不同时间后可在大鼠脊髓、脑、心和肺等部位发现各期广州管圆线虫. 结论 动物实验证明小鼠、豚鼠和家兔不是广州管圆线虫的适宜终末宿主,大鼠可作为广州管圆线虫感染理想的实验动物.

  19. Analysis on Harmful Organism Conditions Intercepted from Entering Forest Seedlings in China in 2011%2011年我国进境种苗截获的有害生物状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯兵; 李海林; 谈珺; 王祥; 刘海军; 马骏; 胡学难

    2013-01-01

    为有效控制检疫性有害生物随引进种苗进入我国,提高口岸的检疫把关能力,在对2011年全国48个种苗指定口岸进境种苗截获的有害生物状况进行统计的基础上,对进境种苗的风险进行了研究.结果表明:检疫性有害生物截获率较高的口岸包括广东高明港、江苏连云港、北京朝阳口岸、宁波北仑港、顺德勒流港、顺德北(涳)港、南京禄口国际机场;中国台湾、泰国、意大利进境种苗携带的检疫性有害生物截获率较高;携带有害生物较多的种苗有拟香桃木(Myrciaria cauli flora Berg)、真柏(Juniperus communis var.nipponica)、罗汉松[Podocarpus macrophyllu(Thunb.) D.Don]、加拿大海枣(Murraya exotica L)、百合(Lilium brownii var.Viridulum Baker)、九里香(Phoenix canariensis Hort ex Chab)、茶花(Camellia japonicaL.)、枫港柿(Diospyros vaccinioides Lindl.);截获机率较高的检疫性有害生物有穿刺根腐线虫(Pratylenchus penetrans)、非洲大蜗牛(Achatina fulica)、根结线虫(非中国种)(Meloidogyne Goeldi)、红火蚁(Solenopsis invicta Buren)、短体线虫(非中国种)(Pratylenchus Filipjev)、菜豆荚斑驳病毒(Bean pod mottle virus).上述口岸、来源地、种苗和有害生物检疫风险较大,应特别予以关注.

  20. Effet de l'amendement au carbonate de calcium (mikhart) de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 janv. 2017 ... pondent un nombre élevé d'œufs par ponte entre 252 œufs sur SCa10 et 312 œufs sur SCa40, des œufs plus gros ..... substrat acquiert une structure compacte et un aspect ... biologiques d'Achatina achatina (Linné, 1750) en.

  1. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  2. Relationship between bioenergetics responses and organic pollutants in the giant mussel, Choromytilus chorus (Mollusca: Mytilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Beatriz; Navarro, Jorge M; Palma-Fleming, Hernán

    2003-05-08

    Samples of Choromytilus chorus (giant mussel) were collected at three sampling stations exposed to different degrees of pollution along the south-central portion of the Chilean coast in spring 1998 and summer 1999. Measurements were carried out on clearance rate, absorption efficiency, and oxygen consumption of the mussels under controlled laboratory conditions, and related to analytical data on organic pollutants in their tissues. Scope for growth (SFG) was employed as a physiological index to evaluate stress produced by pollutants existing at each sampling site. Individuals from San Vicente bay (highly polluted) showed negative SFG values in spring (-4.6 J/h per g) and summer (-3.5 J/h per g). These results indicated severe stress related to the accumulation of toxic compounds in their tissues. Specimens from Corral bay (medium level of pollution) gave a SFG of 15.5 J/h per g in spring and 6.5 J/h per g in summer, while those from Yaldad bay (low pollution) presented an inverse situation was observed with SFG values of 6.2 J/h per g in spring which was lower than the summer value of 25.7 J/h per g. There was a significant negative correlation between the SFG of the different populations of C. chorus and the concentrations of organochlorines (OChs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their tissues.

  3. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  4. Invertebrate shells (mollusca, foraminifera) as pollution indicators, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; Madkour, Hashem; Mansour, Abbas; Alharbi, Wedad; El-Taher, Atef

    2017-09-01

    To assess the degree of pollution and its impact on the environment along the Red Sea Coast, the most abundant nine species of recent benthic foraminifera and three species of molluscan shells have been selected for the analysis of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cd concentrations. The selected foraminiferal species are: Textularia agglutinans, Amphispsorus hemprichii, Sorites marginalis, Peneroplis planatus, Borelis schlumbergeri, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii, Operculina gaimairdi, and Operculinella cumingii. The selected molluscan shells are: Lambis truncata and Strombus tricornis (gastropods) and Tridacana gigas (bivalves). The inorganic material analysis of foraminifera and molluscs from the Quseir and Safaga harbors indicates that foraminifera tests include higher concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn than molluscan shells. These results are supported by the black tests of porcelaneous foraminifera and reflect iron selectivity. The Cd and Pb concentrations in molluscan shells are high in the El Esh Area because of oil pollution at this site. The Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the studied invertebrates are high at Quseir Harbor and in the El Esh Area because of the strong influence of terrigenous materials that are rich in these metals. The heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

  5. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  6. Nanostructure and crystallography of aberrant columnar vaterite in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Max; Harrison, Richard J; Harper, Elizabeth M

    2012-04-01

    Both the crystallographic and nanostructural organisation of aberrant columnar vaterite occurring in Corbicula fluminea were characterised in detail for the first time using electron microscopic and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. At the millimetre scale, only a confinement of the otherwise randomly oriented c-axis to the growth surface is observed. Domains of 100 or more individual vaterite columns with common c-axis orientation exist within this disordered material. Each column behaves as a single crystal on the scale of EBSD measurements, but is internally composed of smaller irregularly shaped and slightly misaligned crystalline units (0.3-1.3μm in dimension). These are in turn partitioned by porous boundaries into rounded nanodomains, up to 600nm in size. The geometry of the nanodomains and their respective boundaries might suggest formation by the accretion of vesicles. In addition to crystallographic textures, this observation indicates formation under significant biological control with wider implications for possible causes of the condition.

  7. The genus Alvania on the Canary Islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Micromolluscs of the family Rissoidae and belonging to the genus Alvania s.l. from the Canary Islands and the Madeira archipelago are revised. For several species the type locality is restricted and lectotypes are designated for Rissoa canadensis d’Orbigny, 1839, R. euchila Watson, 1886, R.

  8. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  9. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO2), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO2). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  10. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian

  11. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  12. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon . Part 10. Mollusca, Gastropoda, Naticidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990 Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (Indonesia) made 44 collecting stations. Twenty-seven species representing 11 genera of the Naticidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) were collected at 29 stations. This paper provides keys to the genera and species, along with diagnoses and short sy

  13. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  14. Vitrinellidae (Marine Mollusca Gastropoda) from Holocene deposits in Surinam (Dutch Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1966-01-01

    Five species of Vitrinellidae have been found in the Holocene shell ridges of Surinam. Of these, Vitrinella (Striovitrinella) cupidinensis,Cochliolepis surinamensis, and Solariorbis guianensis are new species, while Cyclostremiscus caraboboensis Weisbord is known from Pliocene beds in Venezuela and

  15. The Marine Mollusca of St. Martin, Lesser Antilles, collected by H.J. Krebs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1963-01-01

    In 1864 an anonymous list of species of the West Indian marine mollusks was published in Denmark. There were only twenty copies printed, seven of which were lost during transportation to the West Indies (CLENCH et al., 1947—1948, p. 23). The author was HENDRIK JOHANNES KREBS (1821—1907), Fig. 117, a

  16. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  17. Effects of salinity on biomarker responses in Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) exposed to diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Angela Zaccaron; Zanette, Juliano; Fernando Ferreira, Jaime; Guzenski, João; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2005-11-01

    Crassostrea rhizophorae is a euryhaline oyster that inhabits mangrove areas, which are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salinity (9, 15, 25, and 35ppt) on the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the digestive gland of this species after exposure to diesel oil for 7 days at nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1mlL(-1) and after depuration for 24h and 7 days. GST activity increased in a diesel oil concentration-dependent manner at salinities 25 and 15ppt and remained slightly elevated even after depuration periods of 24h and 7 days. No changes were observed in the activities of G6PDH, CAT, and AChE in the oysters exposed to diesel and depurated. Based on these results, GST activity in the digestive gland of C. rhizophorae might be used as a biomarker of exposure to diesel oil in sites where the salinity is between 15 and 25ppt, values usually observed in mangrove ecosystems.

  18. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  19. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gomes Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta menor número de ocelos quando comparada a esquerda.

  20. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  1. Caracoles terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda) de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Sandoval, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Catorce especies de caracoles terrestres son informadas del municipio de Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. El tipo de vegetación más rico en moluscos (11 especies) es el bosque de galería de Populus-Quercus-Juglans, con cobertura vegetal total y escasa pendiente. La distribución panamericana es el principal componente zoogeográfico Fourteen species of land snails are reported from the municipality of Iturbide, Nuevo León, México. The vegetation type with more species ( 1 1) is the Populus-Quer...

  2. The cytoskeleton of chondrocytes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda: an immunocytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Leone

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our previous electron microscope study showed that chondrocytes from cephalopod cartilage possess a highly developed cytoskeleton and numerous cytoplasmic processes that ramify extensively through the tissue. We have now carried out a light microscope immunocytochemical study of chondrocytes from the orbital cartilage of Sepia officinalis to obtain indications as to the nature of the cytoskeletal components. We found clear positivity to antibodies against mammalian tubulin, vimentin, GFAP, and actin, but not keratin. The simultaneous presence of several cytoskeletal components is consistent with the hypothesis that cephalopod chondrocytes have the characteristics of both chondrocytes and osteocytes of vertebrates, which endow the tissue as a whole with some of the properties of vertebrate bone. We confirm, therefore, the presence in molluscs of the ubiquitous cytoskeletal proteins of metazoan cells that have remained highly conserved throughout phylogenetic evolution.

  3. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis.

  4. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  5. Caracterização da microbiota bacteriana de Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)(Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tatiana Maria da

    2012-01-01

    Devido a grande importância da microbiota no desenvolvimento de parasitas nos invertebrados, muitos estudos vêm sendo desenvolvidos para o melhor entendimento desta interação. Desta forma, a associação entre microrganismos e seus hospedeiros invertebrados, vetores de doenças, está se tornando cada vez mais evidente. Com base nisto, o objetivo do presente estudo foi caracterizar a microbiota bacteriana de caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata, principal hospedeiro interm...

  6. Severnsia strombeulima n. gen. & sp. from Hawaii (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Eulimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Daniel L

    2016-02-29

    The malacofauna of Hawaii is rather well-known, owing to Kay (1979) and Severns (2011). Both works stand out because they include a large number of the generally under-represented micromollusks (<5 mm). Here a striking new genus and species of a microsnail is reported from that region.

  7. A contribution to the knowledge of non-marine Mollusca of South West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1970-01-01

    The moment to collate scattered notes on South West African non-marine molluscs arrived last year when Mr. B. H. Lamoral of the Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg (South Africa), entrusted the present author with the study of material obtained during a Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.

  8. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles, um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táxons são 2 bivalves lamelibrânquios [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; ambos publicados em artigos a parte]; Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda e (11 Nautilus, Cephalopoda basal, baseados em táxons basais. Os outgroups efetivos são (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora e (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. A análise filogenética baseada na morfologia revelou que o táxon Diasoma é suportado por 14 sinapomorfias, sendo separada de Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Embora não sendo o principal enfoque do presente artigo, os táxons Scaphopoda e Bivalvia são suportados por 8 e por 7 sinapomorfias respectivamente. O táxon Protobranchia resultou parafilético. O cladograma obtido é: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.

  9. Three new species of Pruvotinidae (Mollusca: Solenogastres) from Antarctica and NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarro, Maria; García-Álvarez, Oscar; Urgorri, Victoriano

    2013-09-01

    The family Pruvotinidae (Solenogastres, Cavibelonia) includes thirty species of fifteen genera grouped in five subfamilies. These subfamilies are defined by the combination of the presence or absence of hollow hook-shaped sclerites, the presence or absence of a dorsopharyngeal gland and the type of ventrolateral foregut glandular organs: type A, type C or circumpharyngeal. In this paper, three new species of the family Pruvotinidae are described: Pruvotina artabra n. sp. and Gephyroherpia impar n. sp. from NW Spain, and Pruvotina manifesta n. sp. from Antarctic Peninsula. These new descriptions increase the global knowledge of Solenogastres biodiversity.

  10. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-10-29

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data.

  11. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs.

  12. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  13. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods.

  14. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  15. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  16. Unusual micrometric calcite-aragonite interface in the abalone shell Haliotis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Meibom, Anders

    2014-02-01

    Species of Haliotis (abalone) show high variety in structure and mineralogy of the shell. One of the European species (Haliotis tuberculata) in particular has an unusual shell structure in which calcite and aragonite coexist at a microscale with small patches of aragonite embedded in larger calcitic zones. A detailed examination of the boundary between calcite and aragonite using analytical microscopies shows that the organic contents of calcite and aragonite differ. Moreover, changes in the chemical composition of the two minerals seem to be gradual and define a micrometric zone of transition between the two main layers. A similar transition zone has been observed between the layers in more classical and regularly structured mollusk shells. The imbrication of microscopic patches of aragonite within a calcitic zone suggests the occurrence of very fast physiological changes in these taxa.

  17. Family matters: The first molecular phylogeny of the Onchidorididae Gray, 1827 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Joshua M; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2015-07-01

    Recent investigations into the evolution of the Onchidorididae using morphological based methods have resulted in low support for relationships among genera. This study aims to determine if molecular data corroborates recent morphological interpretations of the evolution of Onchidorididae. Five genetic markers: 16S, 18S, 28S, cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and histone 3 (H3), were sequenced from 32 species comprising Onchidorididae and five other families, three from Phanerobranchia and two from Cryptobranchia. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses; with both yielding similar topologies. Molecular analyses resulted in high support for the monophyly of the suctorian clade and the placement of the genera within Onchidorididae. However, the Onchidorididae forms a paraphyletic grouping due to the recovery of the Goniodorididae and the Akiodorididae nested within family. In addition, the placement of Corambe as the most derived member of Onchidorididae is contradicted by the present study. Rather it is sister to a large clade that includes Acanthodoris and the species traditionally placed in Onchidoris and Adalaria, now defined as Onchidorididae. We have chosen to maintain Corambidae as a distinct taxon (including Corambe and Loy), sister to Onchidorididae. We also maintain Goniodorididae, Akiodorididae and Calycidoridae (including Calycidoris and Diaphorodoris), which along with the Onchidorididae and Corambidae comprise the suctorian superfamily Onchidoridoidea. Ancestral character reconstruction also suggests that the formation of a gill pocket, a character that currently defines the Cryptobranchia, may have evolved multiple times from an ancestor that lacked the ability to retract its gills into a fully formed gill pocket. The diversity of gill morphology displayed by the Onchidoridoidea will help give new insight into the evolution of this complex character within the Nudibranchia.

  18. External morphology of spermatozoa and spermatozeugmata of the freshwater mussel Truncilla truncata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Lasee, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Truncilla truncata males release spherical aggregates of spermatozoa, called spermatozeugmata, at spawning. Sperm aggregates from other bivalve species have been described, but few detailed studies exist of the morphology of unionid spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa. We provide the first description of the external morphology of spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa of T. Truncata. The spermatozeugmata had an inside diameter of 76 mu m and contained 8000-9000 spermatozoa. Heads of spermatozoa were directed toward the center of the sphere into a translucent shell; tails were arranged radially and caused the spermatozeugmata to rotate. Spermatozoa of T. Truncata measured 3.3 mu m in length (excluding tail) and each had a head, a midpiece and a flagellum. We also documented the release of spermatozeugmata in two additional unionid species, Lampsilis cardium and Amblema plicata plicata.

  19. The continuing debate on deep molluscan phylogeny: evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, I; Sigwart, J D; Kano, Y; Knebelsberger, T; Marshall, B A; Schwabe, E; Schrödl, M

    2013-01-01

    Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons), and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU) test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages.

  20. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V

    2015-05-25

    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance.

  1. Taxonomic implications of molecular studies on Northern Brazilian Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lima Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of the Teredinidae (shipworms is wholly based on morphology and up to now no molecular studies of the phylogeny of this group have been published. In the present study the relationships between four genera of the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae were established and the efficiency of the 16S rRNA gene in characterizing four Teredinidae species was tested. Phylogenetic trees support the grouping of Bankia fimbriatula with Nausitora fusticula and of Neoteredo reynei with Psiloteredo healdi, but the genetic distances do not justify the classification of these species into two distinct subfamilies. The results show that B. fimbriatula, N. reynei and P. healdi specimens from the coast of the Brazilian state of Pará have five distinct 16S rRNA haplotypes, with one N. reynei haplotype differing from the other haplotypes in respect to at least seven sequences sites, indicating the existence of two very distinct sympatric lineages.

  2. Recovery of the biogenic nest habitat of Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea) following anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigg, Colin; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-04-01

    The rate of regrowth of Limaria hians nest material, following a simulated dredging impact, was examined on an extensive L. hians bed off the west coast of Scotland. Within an area of complete coverage of the sea bed by a turf of L. hians nest material, the turf was cleared by diver from 10 × 0.25 m 2 plots and the sediment subsequently raked to simulate the passage of a scallop dredge. The areal extent and pattern of nest regrowth were recorded after 6 and 12 months. Control plots showed no significant change in 100% nest cover over the year. In the treated plots regrowth generally occurred from extension of peripheral nest material. Over the initial 6 autumn and winter months treatment plots displayed a mean regrowth of 9.2% of the cleared area, increasing to 15% in the second 6-month spring and summer period. However, no significant difference in growth was found between these periods. After 12 months half the treatment plots exhibited <25% nest cover and none of them contained nest of a thickness comparable to the surrounding bed. Conversion of regrowth rates within the treated plots to the rate of nest advance along a linear front, gave a value of 3.2 cm per year, highlighting the susceptibility of this species-rich biotope to scallop dredging.

  3. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  4. Clarifying phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the bivalve order Arcida (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combosch, David J; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The systematics of the bivalve order Arcida constitutes an unresolved conundrum in bivalve systematics. The current definition of Arcida encompasses two superfamilies: Limopsoidea, which includes the recent families Philobryidae and Limopsidae, and Arcoidea, which encompasses the families Arcidae, Cucullaeidae, Noetiidae, Glycymerididae and Parallelodontidae. This classification, however, is controversial particularly with respect to the position and taxonomic status of Glycymerididae. Previous molecular phylogenies were limited either by the use of only a single molecular marker or by including only a few limopsoid and glycymeridid taxa. The challenging nature of Arcida taxonomy and the controversial results of some of the previous studies, prompted us to use a broad range of taxa (55 species), three nuclear markers (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) and a wide range of algorithmic approaches. This broad but stringent approach led to a number of results that differ significantly from previous studies. We provide the first molecular evidence that supports the separation of Arcoidea from Limopsoidea, although the exact position of Glycymerididae remains unresolved, and the monophyly of Limopsoidea is algorithm-dependent. In addition, we present the first time-calibrated evolutionary tree of Arcida relationships, indicating a significant increase in the diversification of arcidan lineages at the beginning of the Cretaceous, around 140Ma. The monophyly of Arcida, which has been supported previously, was confirmed in all our analyses. Although relationships among families remain somehow unresolved we found support for the monophyly of most arcidan families, at least under some analytical conditions (i.e., Glycymerididae, Noetiidae, Philobryidae, and Limopsidae). However, Arcidae, and particularly Arcinae, remain a major source of inconsistency in the current system of Arcida classification and are in dire need of taxonomic revision.

  5. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.

  6. Novas ocorrências de gastrópodes e bivalves marinhos no Brasil (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absalão Ricardo Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastropods Costaclis egregia (Dall, 1889, Thaleia nisonis (Dall, 1889, Tjaernoeia michaeli Engl, 2001 and the bivalves Bathyarca sp., Myonera aff. ruginosa (Jeffreys, 1882 are recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters. This paper presents a brief description of these species and also include ilustrations.

  7. Structure and formation of the unusual sperm of Patelloida latistrigata (Mollusca : Patellogastropoda): implications for fertilization biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Alan N; Hodgson, Valerie; Eckelbarger, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    The structure of the spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of the lottiid limpet Patelloida latistrigata is described by transmission electron microscopy. Although the lengths of the spermatozoa (about 60 μm) and their head region (about 12 μm) are similar to those of other patellogastropods, the structure of the sperm head and midpiece are very different. The head consists of an unusually large acrosome (about 11-μm long) with a broad posterior invagination that houses the relatively small nucleus. The midpiece mitochondria, which are rather elongate with large folded tubular cristae, are housed in a cytoplasmic sheath posterior to the nucleus. The proximal centriole is unusually elongate (about 2-μm long). The axoneme that emerges from the distal centriole is surrounded anteriorly by the cytoplasmic sheath in which the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane has electron-dense material. The flagellum is enlarged at its terminal end. Spermatogenesis is similar to that described for other patellogastropods. Patelloida latistrigata, therefore, has spermatozoa that seem to meet the morphological criteria of ent-aquasperm, which raises the question of whether fertilization is truly external in this limpet. However, it is also possible that the modifications to the sperm are linked to unknown specializations of the egg or egg envelope.

  8. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of Nembrothinae (Mollusca: Doridacea: Polyceridae) inferred from morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pola, Marta; Cervera, J Lucas; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2007-06-01

    Within the Polyceridae, Nembrothinae includes some of the most striking and conspicuous sea slugs known, although several features of their biology and phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. This paper reports a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA) and morphology for most species included in Nembrothinae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using both molecular and combined morphological and molecular data support the taxonomic splitting of Nembrothinae into several taxa. Excluding one species (Tambja tentaculata), the monophyly of Roboastra was supported by all the phylogenetic analyses of the combined molecular data. Nembrotha was monophyletic both in the morphological and molecular analyses, always with high support. However, Tambja was recovered as para- or polyphyletic, depending on the analysis performed. Our study also rejects the monophyly of "phanerobranch" dorids based on molecular data.

  10. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C.; Apte, Deepak; Bhave, Vishal; Joseph Comendador; Qua,ng, Ngô Xuân; Tan, Siong Kiat; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species Onchidium typhae Buchannan, 1800, Onchidium stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883), and Onchidium reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850). With the exception of a re-description of Onchidium typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935) and Onchidium nigrum (Plate, 1893) are regarded as junior synonyms of Onchidium stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species. PMID:27917062

  11. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF FIVE FRESHWATER MUSSELS IN GENUS ANODONTA (MOLLUSCA: BIVALVIA) REVEALED BY RAPD ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unionidae(Bivalvia)are distributed infreshwaters,and represent a significanttaxonof benthic community[1].In China,freshwater mussels are abundant resources[2].Since1949,substantial investigations onthe unionidfau-na had been undertakenin China[3—8].Withreference tooverseas research[9,10],a preliminary reorganization onthe Unionidae was performed accordingtosome classifica-tion characteristics such as shell shape,larvae character-istics,and breeding habit[11].Due tothe serious conver-gence of freshwater muss...

  12. Gastropoda(Mollusca) of Huaibei Region%淮北市的螺类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓道贵; 金宏; 陈海峰

    2002-01-01

    报道了淮北市螺类共17种,其中淡水螺类15种,陆生螺类2种,分别隶属于腹足纲的6科、10属,有3种为安徽省首次记录.作者还阐述了17种螺类的生态分布、区域分布及优势种等情况.并根据淮北市的特点,对它们的开发与利用进行了初步探讨.

  13. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events.

  14. Random walk, zonation and the food searching strategy of Terebralia palustris (Mollusca, Potamididae) in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mrabu, Elisha; Rorandelli, Rocco; Fratini, Sara

    2008-12-01

    Terebralia palustris is a common mud-whelk present at a particularly high density in all Indo-West Pacific mangroves. Young snails feed on nothing but mud while larger specimens are able to feed on fallen leaves too. In Kenya (Mida Creek) under the canopy, competition for mangrove leaves can be very high due to the high density of Sesarmidae crabs. On open exposed muddy platforms, no Sesarmidae occur but the leaf density is very low because the leaves are only randomly present as they are deposited and removed twice a day by the tide. However, the snail density is always very high, raising the question as to whether the snails use a special searching strategy to optimize their resource finding rather than a purely random movement. By analyzing the snails' movements on a uniform area at different levels and comparing them with simulated random paths, we could show that the snails' movements are not purely random. The distribution of different size classes of T. palustris in Mida Creek was known to be quite odd: the same simulation approach suggests that the zonation asymmetry could reasonably be due to the stochastic recruitment of juveniles in space and time and maintained by a substantial long-lasting spatial inertia.

  15. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan, a...

  16. A new Taheitia species (Mollusca: Gastropoda Prosobranchia: Truncatellidae) from Irian Jaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1989-01-01

    Shells and an operculum of Taheitia heinrichi spec. nov. are described from the Vogelkop area in western Irian Jaya. This new species, dedicated to the late Heinrich C. Kavelaars, is somewhat similar to T. orrae, known from the island of Biak.

  17. Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Michiko; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Dongsheng; Pan, Songqin; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kisailus, David

    2012-09-01

    The biomineralized radular teeth of chitons are known to consist of iron-based magnetic crystals, associated with the maximum hardness and stiffness of any biomineral. Based on our transmission electron microscopy analysis of partially mineralized teeth, we suggest that the organic matrix within the teeth controls the iron oxide nucleation. Thus, we used Nano-LC-MS to perform a proteomic analysis of the organic matrix in radular teeth of the chiton Cryptochiton stelleri in order to identify the proteins involved in the biomineralization process. Since the genome sequence of C. stelleri is not available, cross-species similarity searching and de novo peptide sequencing were used to screen the proteins. Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process.

  18. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon : Part 6. Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    During the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition (1990) to Ambon 17 Pectinidae species were collected, nine of which were described by Rumphius (1705) and five illustrated by Rumphius. One species, viz. Decatopecten plica (Linnaeus, 1758), illustrated in Rumphius (1705: pl. 44, fig. O), has not been ref

  20. [Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca) in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, María José; Cuezzo, María Gabriela

    2010-09-01

    Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas) and dry forest (Chaco) areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2) were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens), was higher than other published studies.

  1. Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., eine neue Nacktschneckenart aus Griechenland (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1986-01-01

    Deroceras saronicum spec. nov., probably belonging to the subgenus Deroceras s.str., is described. The species is known from the islands of Aegina and Moni (Saronic Gulf) and from the adjacent NE. Peloponnesus, Greece. It is compared with Deroceras maltzani (SIMROTH), a similar species from southern

  2. Dating and biogeographical patterns in the sea slug genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Joshua M; Simison, W Brian; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies investigating vicariance and dispersal have been focused on correlating major geological events with instances of taxonomic expansion by incorporating the fossil record with molecular clock analyses. However, this approach becomes problematic for soft-bodied organisms that are poorly represented in the fossil record. Here, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the nudibranch genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 using three molecular markers (16S, COI, H3), and then test two alternative geologically calibrated molecular clock scenarios in BEAST and their effect on ancestral area reconstruction (AAR) estimates employed in LAGRANGE. The global temperate distribution of Acanthodoris spans multiple geological barriers, including the Bering Strait (∼5.32 Mya) and the Baja Peninsula (∼5.5 Mya), both of which are used in our dating estimates. The expansion of the Atlantic Ocean (∼95-105 Mya) is also used to calibrate the relationship between A. falklandica Eliot, 1905 and A. planca Fahey and Valdés, 2005, which are distributed in southern Chile and South Africa respectively. Phylogenetic analyses recovered strong biogeographical signal and recovered two major clades representing northern and southern hemispheric distributions of Acanthodoris. When all three geological events are applied to the calibration analyses, the age for Acanthodoris is estimated to be mid-Cretaceous. When the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean is excluded from our analyses, however, Acanthodoris is estimated to be much younger, with a divergence time estimate during the Miocene. Regardless of divergence estimates, our AAR suggests that Acanthodoris may have origins in the Atlantic Ocean with the Atlantic acting as a dispersal point to the northeastern Pacific. These results suggest that Acanthodoris exhibits a rare instance of western trans-arctic expansion. This study also shows that northeast Pacific specimens of A. pilosa should be regarded as A. atrogriseata and that A. serpentinotus should be regarded as a synonym of A. pina.

  3. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  4. Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Balić, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skejić, Sanda; Ninčević-Gladan, Živana; Matijević, Slavica

    2011-04-01

    The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

    2008-09-01

    Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg.

  6. Phylogeny and evolution of ontogeny of the family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutikov, O. A.; Temkin, I. E.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2010-08-01

    We described ontogenies and reconstructed morphogeneses of hinges in some supraspecific taxa of the bivalve family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 from the Mesozoic of Russia. The phylogeny of the family is reconstructed using evolutionary and cladistic methods. The appearance of the endemic genus Arctotis Bodylevsky, 1960 in the epicontinental seas of Siberia can be explained in terms of gradual transformations of the ligament and byssal apparatus in the Northern Siberian members of Praemeleagrinella Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009 and Praearctotis Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009.

  7. A Pyrenean Monacha species Monacha (Metatheba) Atacis spec. nov. (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Winter, de A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Monacha (Metatheba) atacis spec. nov. is described from the French NE Pyrenees. The status of Metatheba, hitherto known from Caucasia and Asia Minor only, as well as that of other Monacha "subgenera" is discussed.

  8. Histochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the posterior esophagus of Bulla striata (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Oliveira, Elsa; Ferreira, Iris; Coelho, Rita; Calado, Gonçalo

    2010-12-01

    The posterior esophagus of Bulla striata, running from the gizzard to the stomach, was investigated with light and electron microscopy to obtain new data for a comparative analysis of the digestive system in cephalaspidean opisthobranchs. In this species, the posterior esophagus can be divided into two regions. In the first, the epithelium is formed by columnar cells with apical microvilli embedded in a cuticle. Many epithelial and subepithelial secretory cells are present in this region. In both, electron-lucent secretory vesicles containing filaments and a peripheral round mass of secretory material fill the cytoplasm. These acid mucus-secreting cells may also contain a few dense secretory vesicles. In the second part of the posterior esophagus, the cuticle is absent and the epithelium is ciliated. In this region, epithelial cells may contain larger lipid droplets and glycogen reserves. Subepithelial secretory cells are not present, and in epithelial secretory cells the number of dense vesicles increases, but most secretory cells still contain some electron-lucent vesicles. These cells secrete a mixture of proteins and acid polysaccharides and should be considered seromucous. The secretory cells of the posterior esophagus are significantly different from those previously reported in the anterior esophagus of this herbivorous species.

  9. Rich and rare—First insights into species diversity and abundance of Antarctic abyssal Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Michael Bohn, Jens; Engl, Winfried; Linse, Katrin; Schrödl, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194 m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750 m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidae and Buccinidae (with 10 and 11 species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750 m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited, and all these 84 species seem endemic to Antarctica south of the Polar Front. Comparing diversity and abundances based on epibenthic sledge samples, there is no clear relationship between Antarctic deep-sea gastropod abundance and species richness with depth. However, both Antarctic and adjacent deep-sea areas are still far from being adequately sampled to allow more comprehensive conclusions.

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in mollusca species and assessment of potential risks to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Along the Alexandria coast of the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea, five edible species of bivalve molluscs and one gastropoda species (Mactra coralline, Ruditapes decussates, Paphia undulate, Venerupis rhomboids, Crista pectinata and Coralliophila meyendorffi) were analyzed for content of metals (Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Cobalt and Nickel) in the muscle and in the sediments where they live. The potential health risks of metals to humans via consumption of seafood were assessed by estimated daily intake and target hazard quotient. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.05) were obtained between tissue concentrations for all pairs of metals, with the exception of Cadmium. Significant positive correlations were also obtained for the concentrations of Cd and Ni in tissues of all studied species relative to their concentrations in surface sediments. However, correlations between tissue and sediment concentrations for Chromium, Lead and Cobalt were negative. Ruditapes decussates and C. meyendorffi had the highest values for the summed target hazard quotient and may pose a potential risk to local inhabitants through their consumption in the diet. The potential risk would arise from exposure to high tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb, which exceeded published guidelines for safety of seafood products in some cases. Chromium contributed a considerable fraction of the total target hazard quotient for all metals combined, but did not exceed the published guidelines. Cobalt and Ni did not contribute greatly overall to the target hazard quotient, except in the case of Ni in V. rhomboids.

  11. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  12. Comparative analysis of chromosome counts infers three paleopolyploidies in the mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Nathaniel M; Lindberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    The study of paleopolyploidies requires the comparison of multiple whole genome sequences. If the branches of a phylogeny on which a whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred could be identified before genome sequencing, taxa could be selected that provided a better assessment of that genome duplication. Here, we describe a likelihood model in which the number of chromosomes in a genome evolves according to a Markov process with one rate of chromosome duplication and loss that is proportional to the number of chromosomes in the genome and another stochastic rate at which every chromosome in the genome could duplicate in a single event. We compare the maximum likelihoods of a model in which the genome duplication rate varies to one in which it is fixed at zero using the Akaike information criterion, to determine if a model with WGDs is a good fit for the data. Once it has been determined that the data does fit the WGD model, we infer the phylogenetic position of paleopolyploidies by calculating the posterior probability that a WGD occurred on each branch of the taxon tree. Here, we apply this model to a molluscan tree represented by 124 taxa and infer three putative WGD events. In the Gastropoda, we identify a single branch within the Hypsogastropoda and one of two branches at the base of the Stylommatophora. We also identify one or two branches near the base of the Cephalopoda.

  13. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  14. Prestonellinae-validation of the name as a new subfamily of Bothriembryontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggen, A C Van; Herbert, David G; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-02-29

    The affinities of the enigmatic South African land snail genus Prestonella Connolly, 1929 were discussed by Herbert (2007) and Herbert & Mitchell (2009), who showed, on the basis of morphological and molecular data, that the genus is referable to the superfamily Orthalicoidea. Currently, the three described species of Prestonella are the only known African representatives of this diverse superfamily. Earlier, van Bruggen (1978) had recognized that these species formed a distinct group and had placed them in the (new) family Prestonellidae. However, as noted by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005: 140), no diagnosis was provided by van Bruggen; the name Prestonellidae thus does not meet the requirements of ICZN Art. 13.1, and is not an available name. In this paper we will redress this issue, also taking into account more recent research which has shed light on the systematic position of this genus within the Orthalicoidea.

  15. Brazilian species of Gadila (Mollusca: Scaphopoda: Gadilidae): rediscovery of Gadila elongata comb. nov. and shell morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano,Carlos H. S.; Victor Scarabino; Ricardo S. Absalão

    2010-01-01

    Gadila elongata comb. nov. was described in 1920 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Until recently, it was only known from the type locality. Herein we present the first record of G. elongata from Brazil (Northeast coast, Ceará state, collected at 177 m) and a morphometrics analysis of the Brazilian species of Gadila. A multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis, based on nine shell morphometric variables (length, maximum diameter, length to maximum diameter ratio, distance of point of maximu...

  16. Holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Gulf of California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo Campillo, Orso; Aceves Medina, Gerardo; Avendaño Ibarra, Raymundo

    2011-01-01

    We compiled a checklist of holoplanktonic mollusks obtained from seven oceanographic surveys performed between 2005 and 2007 in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The checklist comprises five orders,15 families, 28 genera and 62 species, including 39 new records and two range extensions within the Gulf.

  17. Brazilian species of Gadila (Mollusca: Scaphopoda: Gadilidae: rediscovery of Gadila elongata comb. nov. and shell morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. S. Caetano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gadila elongata comb. nov. was described in 1920 from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Until recently, it was only known from the type locality. Herein we present the first record of G. elongata from Brazil (Northeast coast, Ceará state, collected at 177 m and a morphometrics analysis of the Brazilian species of Gadila. A multivariate Discriminant Function Analysis, based on nine shell morphometric variables (length, maximum diameter, length to maximum diameter ratio, distance of point of maximum diameter from anterior aperture, maximum curvature, anterior aperture height to anterior aperture width ratio, apical aperture height, apical aperture width and apical aperture height to apical aperture width ratio enabled the distinction between all species studied. Comparisons of shell morphometrics show that length and length to maximum diameter ratio are the most important variables in the differentiation of Gadila species.

  18. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1980-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  19. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C.

  20. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  1. p63 in Mytilus galloprovincialis and p53 family members in the phylum Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifanić, Mauro; Micić, Milena; Ramsak, Andreja; Blasković, Sanja; Ruso, Ana; Zahn, Rudolf K; Batel, Renato

    2009-11-01

    Genes of the p53 family are known to be critical regulators of the cell cycle. They have already been established as possible biomarkers. Elaborate regulation mechanisms result in numerous cDNA and protein isoforms being expressed from each gene of the p53 family. Their similarity caused an often misleading nomenclature in non-vertebrate species. The aim of the present work is a clarification of the nomenclature of molluscan p53 family sequences, an essential prerequisite for reliable interpretation of gene expression and protein function studies. Here, we report five partial cDNA and one partial genomic p63 sequences, all originating from two Mytilus galloprovincialis individuals. DNA, deduced protein sequences, and the exon/intron architecture were analyzed and compared to p53, p63 and p73 sequences from other organisms. Along with our sequences, we analyzed all similar molluscan sequences found in the GenBank database. The analysis showed our cDNA sequences code for the TAp63gamma isoform of the p63 protein, and identified all other molluscan p53 family sequences as p63 genes or their expression isoforms. Our results also indicate p63 as the ancestral gene of the p53 family as well as the only gene of the family present in non-chordate metazoan species.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships and evolution of pulmonate gastropods (Mollusca): new insights from increased taxon sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Conrad, Michele; Balayan, Shaina; White, Tracy R; Albrecht, Christian; Golding, Rosemary; Gomes, Suzete R; Harasewych, M G; Martins, António Manuel de Frias

    2011-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among higher clades of pulmonate gastropods are reconstructed based on a data set including one nuclear marker (complete ribosomal 18S) and two mitochondrial markers (partial ribosomal 16S and Cytochrome oxidase I) for a total of 96 species. Sequences for 66 of these species are new to science, with a special emphasis on sampling the Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae. Important results include the monophyly of Systellommatophora (Onchidiidae and Veronicellidae) as well as the monophyly of Ellobiidae (including Trimusculus, Otina, and Smeagol). Relationships within Ellobiidae, Onchidiidae, and Veronicellidae are evaluated here for the first time using molecular data. Present results are compared with those from the recent literature, and the current knowledge of phylogenetic relationships among pulmonate gastropods is reviewed: despite many efforts, deep nodes are still uncertain. Identification uncertainties about early fossils of pulmonates are reviewed. Impacts of those phylogenetic and fossil record uncertainties on our understanding of the macro-evolutionary history of pulmonates, especially transitions between aquatic and terrestrial habitats, are discussed.

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of the terrestrial gastropods (Mollusca:Gastropoda from Vrachanska Planina Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVAILO K. DEDOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastropods fauna from the Vrachanska Planina Mountains (= Vrachanska Planina, Northwest Bulgaria, as well it presents the up to now unpublished results of several research trips of the authors and further collectors in the region. In total 90 terrestrial gastropods species are now known from this mountain area. 78 species were published from the beginning of research in this area up to recently. 56 species were confirmed with new findings and 22 species were not found again while the courses of our investigations. 12 gastropod species are newly recorded for the range.

  4. The phylogenetic position of Neritimorpha based on the mitochondrial genome of Nerita melanotragus (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lyda R; Colgan, D J

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report of the mitochondrial gene order and almost-complete DNA sequence of a representative of the Neritimorpha, the highest-ranking gastropod clade lacking such data. Mitochondrial gene order in Nerita is largely plesiomorphic. Its only difference from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is a tRNA transposition shared by Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Genome arrangements were not informative enough to resolve the evolutionary relationships of Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. The sister-group taxon of Neritimorpha varied in sequence-based analyses. Some suggested that Neritimorpha is the sister group of Caenogastropoda plus Heterobranchia and some that Neritimorpha and Caenogastropoda are sister groups. No analysis significantly supported the hypothesis that Vetigastroda is more closely related to Caenogastropoda than is Neritimorpha.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hy...

  6. 18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda.

  7. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  8. On a collection of non-marine Mollusca from Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem Jutting, van Tera

    1925-01-01

    About ten years ago Dr. J. H. VERNHOUT, at that time curator at the National Museum of Natural History at Leiden, gave a commentary on the present state of our knowledge about the “Land- & Freshwater-Molluscs of the Dutch West-Indian Islands” (Notes Leyden Museum, Vol. XXXVI, pag. 177—189, 1914). Af

  9. Deep-water Drilliinae, Cochlespirinae and Oenopotinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a soft-bottom community from the continental slope of Campos Basin, off southeast Brazil, were obtained between 2001 and 2003 by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge. A total of 177 samples were taken at depths ranging from 700 to 1950 m. Mollusks were present at all of the stations and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Within the family Cochlespirinae we found: Leucosyrinx tenoceras (Dall, 1889, L. verrillii (Dall, 1881, expanding the known distribution of the latter species farther south, and L.? subgrundifera (Dall, 1888, which is the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and the shallowest depth at which it has ever been found. Within the family Drilliinae we found Splendrillia centimata (Dall, 1889, also the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and its shallowest depth. Within the subfamily Oenopotinae we describe here three new species in the genus Oenopota Mörch, 1852: O. seraphina n. sp., O. diabula n. sp. and O. carioca n. sp.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  11. Variaciones bioquimicas e histologicas asociadas al evento reproductivo de la hembra de Octopus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamora C., Mauricio; Olivares P., Alberto

    2004-01-01

    ... en especial de las fibras colagenas. Las proteinas, glucidos y lipidos de la glandula digestiva y el musculo decrecen en el periodo comprendido entre la puesta y la eclosion de los huevos. Las drasticas alteraciones bioquimicas y el deterioro estructural irreversible del musculo y glandula digestiva, disminuyen las expectativas de vida, relacio...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Hardy, Olivier J.; Jordaens, Kurt; de Frias Martins, António Manuel; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001), high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001), and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677). Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation), whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495) probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated. PMID:27761337

  13. A new record of marine wood-borer (Mollusca: Teredinidae) from waters off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.

    The occurrence of Teredona princesae (Sivickis) has been reported for the first time from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Bombay. A brief description of the pallet and distribution of this species is presented...

  14. Caribbean Bulimulus revisited: physical moves and molecular traces (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of Bulimulus species are studied, partly from localities within their known distribution range, partly based on interceptions where the material originates from localities where the species seem to be recently introduced and non-native. Molecular study of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1 reveals the origin of some of these introductions, but is less conclusive for others. Four different methods for species delimitation were applied, which did not result in unambiguous species hypotheses. For a rapid identification of morphologically indistinct species, a more comprehensive database of sequences is needed.

  15. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the

  16. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition - a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak's terrestrial malacofauna.

  17. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

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    M. GONZALEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  18. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P; Noya, O; Alarcón de Noya, B; Théron, A

    2009-08-01

    An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  19. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata, intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

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    JP Pointier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  20. Kadmium in Valsbaai: moniteringspotensiaal van die mariene slak, Oxystele tigrina (Mollusca

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    Koot Reinecke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available n Opname is onderneem van die kadmiumvlakke in die tussengetygebied van Valsbaai, Suid-Afrika. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is seisoenaal bepaal in die water en sediment in verskillende lokaliteite. Die metings is oor ’n periode van een jaar gedoen deur seisoenaal monsters te versamel by ses verskillende versamelpunte in en een buite die baai. Dit is met behulp van atoom-absorpsiespektrofotometrie ontleed vir kadmium en die hoogste kontaminasievlakke is by die noordelike kusstreek gevind tussen Strand en Muizenberg waar die digsbevolkte gebiede en die eeste industriële aktiwiteit voorkom. Betekenisvolle variasie in konsentrasies van kadmium het seisoenaal en ruimtelik voorgekom. Die gemiddelde konsentrasies in die water en sediment was in sommige gevalle effens hoër as die vlakke wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse waterkwalitetis-riglyne aanbeveel is. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is ook in versamelde eksemplare van die mariene slak Oxystele tigrina vir verskillende seisoene vir drie lokaliteite bepaal. Laboratoriumeksperimente is uitgevoer om die opname, akkumulasie en verlies van kadmium in verskillende organe van die tussen-getyslak, Oxystele tigrina te ondersoek. Weefselspesifi eke kadmiumkonsentrasies in kontrole- sowel as blootgestelde lewende eksemplare is vergelyk oor ’n blootstellingsperiode van veertien dae. Die eksperimentele slakke is aan twee subletale konsentrasies van onderskeidelik 0.20 en 0.40 µg/ml watergedraagde kadmium in die vorm van CdCl 2 blootgestel. Die proefdiere is gereeld gemonitor en kadmiumkonsentrasies is in verskillende organe, na suurvertering, atoomabsorpsie-spektrofotometries bepaal. Die resultate het ’n algemene toename van kadmium in die liggame van die slakke uitgewys. Kadmium is in variërende konsentrasies in alle weefsel gevind. ’n Ongeveer liniêre patroon van akkumulasie het aangetoon dat die metaal waarskynlik nie deur O. tigrina gereguleer is nie. Die metaal se teenwoordigheid het verskil tussen die sagteweefsel en skulp op so ’n wyse dat die sagteweefsel normaalweg ’n hoër opnamekoers van die kadmium weerspieël het. Nadat die blootgestelde organismes in kadmiumvrye seewater oorgeplaas is, het gedeeltelike kadmiumverlies wel plaasgevind. Die variasie in kadmiumverlies van die verskillende organe dui moontlik daarop dat slegs ’n gedeelte van die geakkumuleerde kadmium sterk gebind was in sekere weefsels of organe. Die behoud van kadmium in beide sediment en diereliggame was sodanig dat afgelei kan word dat kadmium teen huidige omgewingskonsentrasies in sekere dele van Valsbaai, wat algemeen as laag beskou word, steeds met verloop van tyd in hierdie tussengetydiere kan akkumuleer tot vlakke wat nadelig is vir die spesies self, maar ook vir hulle redatore. Dit sal veral kan gebeur indien fi siese toestande verander om die biobeskikbaarheid te verhoog.

  1. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  2. Anesthesia of Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda: sodium pentobarbital is the drug of choice

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    RL Martins-Sousa

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The anesthetic effect of some water-soluble anesthesic or narcotic drugs currently used in mice was tested in molluscs of the Biomphalaria genus. Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested. Cetamine base, at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of water, resulted in partial snail anesthesia (40% of snails were anesthetized only after 20 h of exposition. The association of Cetamine base with Tiazine chloridrate did not improve the anesthesic effect, and higher concentrations of these drugs were toxic to the snails. Sodium pentobarbital at 0.4 mg/ml in water for 8 h was the best treatment schedule to anesthetize Biomphalaria snails. In this schedule, the snails were anesthetized without any toxic effect. The procedure provides a powerful tool for in vivo studies that demande a complete state of snail anesthesia.

  3. Anesthesia of Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda): sodium pentobarbital is the drug of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Sousa, R; Negrão-Corrêa, D; Bezerra, F; Coelho, P

    2001-04-01

    The anesthetic effect of some water-soluble anesthesic or narcotic drugs currently used in mice was tested in molluscs of the Biomphalaria genus. Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested. Cetamine base, at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of water, resulted in partial snail anesthesia (40% of snails were anesthetized) only after 20 h of exposition. The association of Cetamine base with Tiazine chloridrate did not improve the anesthesic effect, and higher concentrations of these drugs were toxic to the snails. Sodium pentobarbital at 0.4 mg/ml in water for 8 h was the best treatment schedule to anesthetize Biomphalaria snails. In this schedule, the snails were anesthetized without any toxic effect. The procedure provides a powerful tool for in vivo studies that demande a complete state of snail anesthesia.

  4. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  5. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the CANCAP I-VII expeditions, 1976-86

    OpenAIRE

    Kaas, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 327 specimens of chitons captured during six out of seven CANCAP Expeditions have been examined. They belong to 26 species, including two recently described ones: Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) substriatus Kaas & Van Belle, 1990 and Ischnochiton (Ischnochiton nicklesi Kaas & Van Belle, 1990. Callistochiton pachylasmae (Di Monterosato, 1878) has been found off the coast of Morocco.

  6. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) procured by the CANCAP I-VII expeditions, 1976-86

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 327 specimens of chitons captured during six out of seven CANCAP Expeditions have been examined. They belong to 26 species, including two recently described ones: Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) substriatus Kaas & Van Belle, 1990 and Ischnochiton (Ischnochiton nicklesi Kaas & Van Belle, 1990. Callisto

  7. ACUTE TOXICITY OF MERCURY TO EMBRYOS OF Helisoma trivolvis (SAY, 1817 (MOLLUSCA: PLANORBIDAE

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    Passuni, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a metal very employed at industry and mining in Peru. The aim of current research was to determine embryotoxic lethal acute toxicity of Hg2+, in form of chloride of mercury (HgCl on 2 Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 at 24 h exposure. Concentrations assayed were 514, 51.4, 5.14 and 0.51 ug Hg2+ L-1, since salt on base of HgCl using dechlorined water as diluents. Snail embryos 2 were considered dead when none rotation movement during since 30 seconds. Percentage of mortality of embryonic stages of H. trivolvis increased with each of concentrations crescents of Hg2+ at 24 h exposure. At a concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 was observed significantly differences in relation to control. Moreover, concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 showed differences with relation to other three treatments. LC was 2.49 ug Hg2+ L-1. Embryos of H. trivolvis were 50 higher sensible to Hg2+ in comparison to other freshwater snail species was concluded.

  8. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  9. A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae

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    Erika Espinoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melibe is described based on two specimens collected in Florida. This new species is well differentiated morphologically and genetically from other species of Melibe studied to date. The four residue deletions in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 protein found in all previously sequenced tropical species of Melibe sequenced (and Melibe rosea are also present in this new species. These deletions do not appear to affect important structural components of this protein but might have fitness implications. This paper provides the first confirmed record of Melibe in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean.

  10. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  11. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

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    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  12. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1991-01-01

    Our fragmentary knowledge concerning the Cyprian Helicellinae is revised and summarized, while new data are added. "Helicella (Xerotricha) conspurcata distinguenda" Haas, 1936, is a Helicopsis species that has to be called H. cypriola (Westerlund, 1889) as a consequence of the selection of a neotype

  13. A revision of Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) cingulata (Gmelin) and some related species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1940-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Engaged in the study of fossil shells belonging to Thiele's sectio Cerithideopsilla of the genus Cerithidea Swainson and deriving from plio-pleistocene beds in East Java, I failed to find a satisfying account on the recent species of this group. Therefore I resolved to examine as large

  14. What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, A.; Castro-Diez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the

  15. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  16. The land Mollusca of Dominica (Lesser Antilles), with notes on some enigmatic or rare species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, D.G.; Hovestadt, A.; Fields, A.; Breure, A.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the land-snail fauna of the Lesser Antillean island of Dominica is given, based on data from literature and four recent surveys. There are 42 taxa listed, of which the following species are recorded for the first time from the island: Allopeas gracile (Hutt on, 1834), A. micra (d’Orbi

  17. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

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    M. ANTIT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrences of non-indigenous marine molluscs in Tunisia are reviewed, based booth on a literature survey and on original material. Species are accepted as established if there are two independent reports, either geographically separate or at least one month apart in time. On these grounds, 14 species are accepted (12 alien and 2 expanding their range from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, 3 aliens need confirmation but are likely to meet the standards for acceptation on a short future, and 5 records are rebutted or questioned. Two more species may be considered as cryptogenic, the reports are reliable but it is not clear indication that they are not indigenous. Two of the alien species are reported for the first time in Tunisian waters: the nudibranch Polycerella emertoni qualifies as established, and the bivalve Anadara transversa is tentatively identified from a juvenile live-taken specimen, which awaits further confirmation.The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  18. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

    2008-12-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

  19. On the identity of broad-shelled mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilus) from the Dutch delta region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Rajagopal, S.; Jansen, J.M.; Bos, M.M.; Velde, van der G.; Gittenberger, E.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Raad, H.; Hummel, H.

    2011-01-01

    Late Quaternary (Eemian) deposits of the Netherlands contain shells that resemble those of living Mytilus galloprovincialis. Similar broad-shelled mytilids also occur in estuaries of the southwestern Netherlands together with slender individuals typical of M. edulis. We sampled living mussels along

  20. Embryonic development of nudibranch species (Mollusca:Opisthobranchia) in the Gulf of Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pattira Kasamesiri; Shettapong Meksumpun; Charumas Meksumpun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find the possible way to predict the mode of embryonic development of nudibranchs, focusing on egg mass characteristics, embryonic development, and shell patterns of the veligers.Methods:The specimens were allowed to copulate and lay their egg masses under laboratory conditions. Embryonic development was monitored under a light microscope with a digital camera every day until hatching.Results:Eight species of nudibranch were collected in the eastern part of the Gulf of Thailand. that developed, except for Jorunna funebris, which had 1-4 larvae in each egg capsule. All the specimens had the same pattern of cell division and hatching into the water column during the veliger form. However, the species developed at different rates in each stage. Most of the species of nudibranch collected had a single larva in each egg capsule Conclusions: All species in the current study had planktotrophic development except Doriprismatica atromarginata, which showed lecithotrophic development. Based on embryonic development among the nudibranchs that showed planktotrophic development, Jorunna funebris appeared to be the most advantageous species for culture development with regard to utilization and conservation in the future.

  1. Verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae in Suid-Afrika

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    K. N. de Kock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel handel oor die geografiese verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis soos weerspieël deur die 1 797 monsters wat tans in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswater- slakversameling (NVWSV opgeneem is. Hierdie spesie is in al 14 verskillende waterliggaamtipes wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word, aangetref. Die grootste getal monsters was afkomstig van damme, spruite en riviere. Habitats met standhoudende, stilstaande en varswater waarvan die substratum oorwegend uit modder bestaan het, was die beste verteenwoordig. Die resultate van ’n geïntegreerde besluitnemingsboom- en effekgrootte-analise het getoon dat temperatuur, hoogte bo seevlak en waterliggame as sodanig, ’n deurslaggewende rol in die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in Suid-Afrika gespeel het. ’n Temperatuurindeks wat bereken is, het getoon dat C. natalensis ook goed toegerus is om habitats in die koeler streke van Suid-Afrika te bevolk. Gesien in die lig van die wye geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in hierdie land en dat dit elders in Afrika bevind is dat dit serkarieë van verskeie helmintspesies onder natuurlike toestande kan vrystel, word dit aanbeveel dat sy rol as tussengasheer in Suid-Afrika deeglik ondersoek behoort te word.

  2. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  3. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p95 Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  4. Thyasira ockelmanni (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneroidea, A new species of Thyasiridae from the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozemarijn Keuning

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A new species of Thyasiridae, Thyasira ockelmanni n.sp. is described from the abyssal depths of the Norwegian Sea. The generic assignment is tentative and possible alternatives are discussed. The new species has some resemblance to Thyasira subovata (Jeffreys, 1881 and Adontorhina similis Barry & McCormack, 2007, but the posterior outline is rounded and not angulate or truncate as in these species.

  5. Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae: Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Iulia Iorgu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

  6. Toxicological aspects associated with the ecology of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in a polluted environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishelson, L.; Manelis, R. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bresler, V.; Zuk-Rimon, Z.; Dotan, A.; Yawetz, A. [Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hornung, H. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Institute of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

    1999-02-09

    This study provides data on the ecology and toxicology observed in the population of Donax trunculus, a sand dwelling mussel, in the shallow subtidal of Haifa Bay (Mediterranean Sea, Israel). The studied population of the mussel forms a dominant fraction in a community of sand-dwelling molluscs in a zone located 5-25 m from the shoreline, and at depths of 20-120 cm, numbering up to 2000 per m{sup 2}. Samples of the mussel were collected from three sites, located within 9 km of shore in Haifa Bay. These included a clean site (Akko), a site polluted by a chemical PVC-polymer industry (Frutarom), and a site polluted with oil and waste from the petrochemical industry (Qiryat Yam). Metal analysis indicated site-dependent variations in levels of cadmium, lead, copper and mercury in the mussel soft tissues. Copper levels were similar in the bivalves collected from all the sites. Levels of mercury were significantly higher in specimens from the PVC-polluted site (Frutarom) while levels of cadmium were higher in Akko and Qiryat Yam compared to Frutarom. Lead residues were found only in Donax from Akko. The residual contents of mercury, copper and cadmium were relatively high in the young and noticeably low in Donax of medium body size. The main site of deposition of metals was in the soft tissues of the bivalve, but bioaccumulation of metals was also found in the shells. A marked increase in permeability of gills and mantle to the fluorescent anionic dye-fluorescein (FLU) was detected in Donax from Qiryat Yam and especially Frutarom, compared to the bivalves sampled from Akko. Multiple foci of enhanced permeability (multiple fluorescent spots) were detected in all the individuals sampled from Frutarom but none in the bivalve samples from Akko. Lysosomal accumulation of the metachromatic fluorescent cationic probe, acridine orange - (AO), was significantly decreased in the tissues of D. trunculus from polluted sites, especially polluted by the PVC factory. This decrease correlated with lysosomal enlargement and the formation of secondary lysosomes. D. trunculus appears to possess the most effective biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms enabling it to survive in habitats of polluted shallow waters, where other sand dwelling mollusc species were absent or found only in waters deeper then 2.5 m. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  8. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GONZALEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  9. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception.

  10. The Continuing Debate on Deep Molluscan Phylogeny: Evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stöger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons, and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages.

  11. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas;

    2002-01-01

    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four...... symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various...... sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas...

  12. [Morphobiochemical adaptations of Mediterranean Littorina punctata (Gmelin, 1790) (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to survival under supralittoral conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakrinskaia, I O

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and morphobiochemical adaptations of Littorina punctata to dwelling under supralittoral condi- tions are analyzed. A quantitative estimation of the hemoglobin content in the radular tissues of the mollusk is given.

  13. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dorigo Correia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  14. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Dijkstra; B.A. Marshall

    2008-01-01

    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  15. The anatomy and functional morphology of Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca Bivalvia, Hyriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEP. Avelar

    Full Text Available Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus (Orbigny, 1835, belongs to the family Hyriidae Swainson 1840, the distribution of which is restricted to South America and Australasia. This species, endemic to Brazil, occurs in the central-southern geographical region, Upper Paraná Basin and Atlantic Microbasins Espirito Santo to Paraná states. The mollusk lives buried in muddy substrata, has similar sized adductor muscles, and is dioecious, lacking sexual dimorphism. The apertures are simple (type AII of Yonge, 1948, 1957 as in Diplodon rotundus gratus, Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa and mantle fusion is present only in the base of the exalant aperture. The inhalant aperture exhibits tentacles originating from the inner fold while the exhalant aperture has no tentacles. The ctenidia are type D (of Atkins, 1937. A well-developed marsupium is present in the inner demibranch. The association between the ctenidia and the labial palps belongs to category I (of Stasek, 1963. The stomach constitutes a type IV structure (of Purchon, 1958. The posterior sorting area (psa presents two pouches in Diplodon rhombeus fontainianus. Among the Hyriidae, the presence of these pouches has also been described in several species of Hyriidae from South America. The organization of the gut in the visceral mass follows the same pattern seen in the Hyriidae already studied: Castalia undosa martensi, Castalia undosa undosa, Diplodon.rotundus gratus,Diplodon charruanus and Diplodon pilsbryi.

  16. Food intake and growth in Macoma balthica (mollusca) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H.

    Groups of Macoma balthica were kept during 4-week periods in an experimental set up at a constant temperature and food concentration. Food concentrations (expressed in particulate organic carbon) for the different groups ranged from 0 to 16 mg C·I -1. The experiment was repeated 6 times, viz. in different months, and the temperatures were changed accordingly to correspond with levels found in the field. The rates of food intake, water clearance and growth were followed throughout the experiment. The flagellate Isochrysis galbana served as food. With increasing food concentration all 3 rates (food intake, water clearance and growth) increased up to maximum to decrease again at high food concentrations. Such bell-shaped relationships were observed in all seasons. The dependence of growth on food concentration was similar in all seasons. Zero growth or weight losses were observed at food concentrations below 1.3 mg C·I -1, and maximum growth rates were reached at food concentrations between 5 and 7 mg C·I -1. The daily maintenance ration amounted to about 1.2% of the body weight. Seasonal differences were observed in the relationships of the rates of both water clearance and food intake with food concentration. During the winter and spring the optimum curves for these relationships reached their maximum at food concentrations of 8 to 10 mg C·I -1. During summer and early autumn the optimum curves were shifted to lower food concentrations, around 2 to 4 mg C·I -1, probably as an adaptation to low food concentrations observed in the field during these periods.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Fourdrilis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758, the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001, high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001, and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677. Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation, whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495 probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated.

  18. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  19. A new alien gastropod Pseudorhaphitoma iodolabiata (Hornung & Mermod, 1928 (Mangeliidae, Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. OZTURK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study documents the occurrence of a new alien gastropod Pseudorhaphitoma iodolabiata in the Mediterranean Sea, collected inIskenderun Bay, Turkey, on September 2011. This record increases to 213 the number of alien molluscs in the Mediterranean.

  20. Pectinoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Propeamussiidae, Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., Entoliidae and Pectinidae) from the Vanuatu Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Maestrati, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the species of Pectinoidea Rafinesque, 1815 collected in Vanuatu during the SANTO 2006 expedition. A total of 49 species (13 Propeamussiidae Abbott, 1954, 4 Cyclochlamydidae n. fam., 1 Entoliidae Teppner, 1922, and 31 Pectinidae Rafinesque, 1815) are represented, of which 70% ar

  1. Bibliography of Cuban terrestrial Mollusca, including related and biohistorical papers on Cuban malacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; González Guillén, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of literature on Cuban terrestrial molluscs since the 18th century. It currently cites approximately 1000 references, dealing with a) primary and secondary sources directly treating Cuban taxa or relevant for the study of the Cuban malacofauna; b) abstrac

  2. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian mus

  3. Annotated type catalogue of the Amphibulimidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in the Natural History Museum, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Ablett, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    The type status is described of 39 taxa classified within the family Amphibulimidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea) and kept in the London museum. One taxon, Bulimus elaeodes Pfeiffer, 1853, is removed to the Strophocheilidae. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus adoptus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus (Eurytus) eros Angas, 1878; Helix onca d'Orbigny, 1835; Amphibulima pardalina Guppy, 1868. The type status of the following taxon is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Strophocheilus (Dryptus) jubeus Fulton, 1908.As general introduction to this and following papers on Orthalicoid types in the Natural History Museum, a brief history of the London collection is given and several examples of handwriting from different authors are presented.

  4. Morfología del aparato digestivo de Enteroctopus megalocyathus y Loligo sanpaulensis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Garri Rosana; Ré María Edith

    2002-01-01

    A detailed description of the morphology of the digestive organs of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852) and Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 is given. The mandibles, the crop diverticulum, a doubly coiled caecum, the loop of the medium intestine and the appendages of the digestive gland are first described for E. megalocyathus. The most outstanding finding in L. sanpaulensis is the location of the single posterior salivary gland, wholly embedded in the digestive gland.

  5. Morfología del aparato digestivo de Enteroctopus megalocyathus y Loligo sanpaulensis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garri Rosana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the morphology of the digestive organs of Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 and Loligo sanpaulensis Brakoniecki, 1984 is given. The mandibles, the crop diverticulum, a doubly coiled caecum, the loop of the medium intestine and the appendages of the digestive gland are first described for E. megalocyathus. The most outstanding finding in L. sanpaulensis is the location of the single posterior salivary gland, wholly embedded in the digestive gland.

  6. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C. bitru

  7. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  8. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

    2007-10-01

    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and α-tubulin ( α-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and α-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive α-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  9. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

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    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also influenced the energetic metabolism pathways, indicating an aerobic or partially anaerobic functioning.

  10. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  11. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

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    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. 

  12. Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.

    2009-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.

  13. Present distribution of Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Slovak Republic

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    Tomáš Čejka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available All published and known unpublished data on Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843 from the Slovak Republic are summarised. The Slovak distribution is restricted to the southern parts of the country close to the Danube, Morava, and Hron Rivers. Geographic and vertical distribution is described. The most of the localities are placed between 100 and 140 m a.s.l., the highest situated known record was in 277 m a.s.l. P. antipodarum inhabits slowly flowing rivers and different types of standing waters in Slovakia.

  14. Immunological and biochemical responses in Mya arenaria (Mollusca Bivalvia) exposed in vivo to estradiol-17beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier-Clerc, S; Pellerin, J; Fournier, M; Amiard, J-C

    2006-11-01

    Soft-shell clams Mya arenaria were injected with 10, 20 or 40 nmol of estradiol 17beta (E2). We observed a significant inhibiting effect of E2 on phagocytic activity of hemocytes from clams exposed to 10 and 20 nmol. A dose-response increase of the glycogen phosphorylase in the gonad tended to show a remobilisation of glycogen reserves involved in vitellogenesis although the exposure time must have been too short to observe a decrease in glycogen reserves or an increase in RNA concentration. Both results corroborate those of other studies about estrogen involvement in controlling immune capacity and energy metabolism related to vitellogenesis in bivalves. We can assume that immune parameters should now be taken into consideration in assessing endocrine disruption in bivalves. Nevertheless further studies are needed to understand the controlling pathways of E2 with a special regard on its interactions with other effectors involved in bivalve immunity and reproduction as well.

  15. [Reproductive cycle and index of condition used for Melongena corona (Mollusca: Gastropoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetina Zárate, A I; Aldana Aranda, D; Brule, T; Baqueiro Cárdenas, E

    2000-12-01

    Melongena corona bispinosa was studied in Yucatán, México (21 degrees 16' N, 89 degrees 49' W) for a year. Males have reproductive peaks in February and December, and a post-copulation peak in June. Female peaks are in March and May, plus oviposition peaks in April and January. Males and females differ in the mean gonadosom ic index (F=13.79, p<0.05) but not in the dry tissue/shell weight (F=0.0902, p<0.05), dry tissue and total weight (F=0.2466, p<0.05) and dry tissue weight/internal shell volume (F=1.0565, p<0.05).

  16. [Reproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus) hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo-Plata, Maria del Carmen; Gómez-Márquez, José Luis; Carrillo, Samuel Ramos; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953) ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two weeks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM) and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (chi2 = 24.2, p<0.05) throughout the year. The maximum values of the GSI appeared in May (4.1917 for females; 1.2675 in males). LDM for first sexual maturity (LDM50%) was 16 cm (females) and 14 cm (males). Octopus hubbsorum moves from deep waters to the coast, probably in search of better conditions, and lays masses of eggs on rocky substrata. They are fished from March to October, with higher intensity in April and May. Fishing effort was related to the oceanographic characteristics and the atmospheric conditions of the area. From April to September the CPUE monthly mean was 20-10 kg/divers/day. Using the CPUE and environmental condition relationship, the estimated adequate superficial temperature for fishing is 29.5 degrees C.

  17. An energy budget for the subtidal bivalve Modiolus barbatus (Mollusca) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezgeta-Balić, D; Rinaldi, A; Peharda, M; Prusina, I; Montalto, V; Niceta, N; Sarà, G

    2011-02-01

    Clearance rates, respiration rates and food absorption efficiencies of the commercially interesting subtidal bivalve Modiolus barbatus were measured at different temperatures under laboratory conditions and scope for growth calculated. Clearance rates were highest at temperatures from 20 °C to 28 °C, whereas respiration rate was maximal at 9 °C and minimal at 26 °C. Highest mean values of absorbed energy occurred at 20 °C and 26 °C. Scope for growth trend had negative values at 9 °C, 15 °C and 28 °C and positive values at temperatures 20 °C and 26 °C. The profitable thermal window for M. barbatus to have energy sufficient for growth and reproduction corresponded to <5 months per year. Seawater temperature increases will potentially impact the eco-physiological responses of subtidal M. barbatus causing life history traits to change with important repercussions for subtidal biodiversity in the Mediterranean. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The end of a long controversy: systematics of the genus Limenandra (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Limenandra Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 is a small genus within the Aeolidiidae with, until this paper, only two species: Limenandra nodosa Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 and Limenandra fusiformis Baba 1949. Although most recent authors have regarded Limenandra as a junior synonym of Baeolidia Bergh 1888, recent molecular studies have demonstrated its monophyletic status and have rejected the circumtropical distribution attributed to the type species, L. nodosa. The present paper reviews the previously known species of Limenandra with additional morphological data and describes three new species: Limenandra barnosii sp. nov. and Limenandra rosanae sp. nov. from the Indo-Pacific are easily distinguished from all other Limenandra species by their vivid and bright colour patterns, while Limenandra confusa sp. nov., also from the Indo-Pacific, is very similar to the Atlantic and Mediterranean L. nodosa. The five species differ in colouration, the size and ornamentation of the cerata, the rhinophorial papillae, details of the reproductive system and the number of salivary glands. Additionally, Limenandra can be easily distinguished from other Aeolidiidae based on differences in the radular and receptaculum seminis morphology.

  19. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  20. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

  1. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

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    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.

  2. Reproduction in Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844) (Mollusca : Cephalopoda): a sepiolid reproductive adaptation to an oceanic lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, H. J. T.; Laptikhovsky, V.; Piatkowski, U.; Onsoy, B.; Oensoy, B.

    Small cephalopods of the genus Heteroteuthis are the most pelagic members in the family Sepiolidae. This study examines the reproductive biology of Heteroteuthis dispar (Ruppell, 1844), the first such study on any member of the genus, based on 46 specimens (27 females and 19 males) collected during

  3. Reproductive Features of Indigenous and the Invasive Chinese Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Anodontinae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanovych L. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Процессы размножения аборигенных видов беззубок из водоемов и водотоков Украины протекают неполноценно. Среди Anodonta anatinа (Linnaeus, 1758 примерно только в 60 % пунктов сбора размножаются 100 % самок, в остальных пунктах «беременными» оказываются лишь 17-90 % самок, у A. cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758 - 50 % самок. Примерно в 70 % пунктов сбора самки A. cygnea и Pseudanodonta complanata Rossmassler, 1835 имеют не полностью (от . до . заполненные половыми продуктами марсупии. Зато вид-вселенец китайская беззубка, Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, имеет многократные кладки в течение всего года. Полужабры половыми продуктами заполнены полностью.

  4. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  5. Reproductive cycle of Glycymeris nummaria (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Mali Ston Bay, Adriatic Sea, Croatia

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    Marija Crnčević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the dog cockle, Glycymeris nummaria (Glycymerididae, was studied using specimens collected monthly from Mali Ston Bay, southeastern Adriatic Sea over the period from January to December 2010. We analysed sex ratios, gonad developmental stages, and oocyte diameters using standard histological techniques. There were no differences in the overall sex ratio and no difference in shell length with respect to sex. Results of a size-frequency analysis of oocyte diameters agreed with a qualitative analysis of gonadal developmental stages, confirming the occurrence of one annual spawning peak from May to July. A significant correlation was identified between mean gonad indices of males and females and condition index. This study provides the first data on the reproductive characteristics of G. nummaria, providing necessary information for the future sustainable management of its potential fishery.

  6. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  7. The antimicrobial agents triclocarban and triclosan as potent modulators of reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiß, Cornelia; Ruppert, Katharina; Heidelbach, Tanja; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-11-09

    In this study, we assessed the chronic effects of the two antimicrobial substances triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) on reproduction of a mollusk species by using the reproduction test with the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Snails coming from a laboratory culture were exposed for 28 days to nominal concentrations ranging from 0.1 up to 10 µg/L for both chemicals (measured 0.082-8.85 µg TCC/L; 0.068-6.26 µg TCS/L). At the end of the experiment, snails were dissected and embryos in the brood pouch were counted to assess the individualized reproductive success of adult snails. Exposure to TCC resulted in an inverted u-shaped concentration-response relationship, with a stimulation of reproduction at low concentrations followed by an inhibition at higher concentrations. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) were 0.082 and 0.287 µg/L, respectively. TCS caused significantly increased embryo numbers at all tested concentrations, except in the group of 0.170 µg/L. Therefore, the NOEC for TCS was 0.170 µg/L and the LOEC was 0.660 µg/L. These results indicate that TCC and TCS may cause reproductive effects at environmentally relevant concentrations indicating a potential risk for aquatic organisms in the environment.

  8. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    KAUST Repository

    Byron, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    Although the Red Sea presents a unique environment with high temperature and salinity, it remains an area that is understudied. This lack of information is reflected in many areas, one which is biodiversity. Despite increasing work on biodiversity throughout the Red Sea and an increase in Cephalopoda studies, Cephalopoda in the Red Sea remain underrepresented, which is especially pronounced in molecular analyses. Members of the class Cephalopoda are considered to be major contributors to coral reef ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25 reef locations between 17°N and 28°N latitude, as well as from the largest fish market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Taxonomic identification of specimens was determined using morphological comparisons with previously reported species in the Red Sea and the molecular barcoding region Cytochrome Oxidase I. 84 Red Sea sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and analyzed using a complement of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood, and Bayesian inference trees. Species complexes were also investigated for Sepia pharaonis and Sepioteuthis lessoniana, which had been previously reported. From 17 cuttlefish, our study yielded three species, two of which matched previously reported species in GenBank. In addition, two distinct clades of Sepia pharaonis were identified. Of 35 squid collected, four species were identified, one of which did not match any other accepted species in literature, while Sepioteuthis lessoniana in the Red Sea formed a distinct clade. From 30 different specimens a total of five genera of Octopoda were present, forming six distinct species. Five Octopoda species collected did not match previously reported species, although many specimens were paralarvae or juveniles, so morphologically we could not compare to previously described species in the Red Sea. Cephalopoda fisheries in the Red Sea is low, and as their populations increase worldwide, this could be a viable fishery for Saudi Arabia. As such, further investigation into the role which cephalopods play in supporting biodiversity in the Red Sea is essential.

  9. The Genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean (Oregonian and Californian Provinces)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eernisse, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The systematics of the northeastern Pacific Lepidochitona from the Californian and Oregonian Provinces (western continental United States) is presented and discussed. Three new species are described: L. caverna spec. nov. and L. berryana spec. nov. from California, and L. fernaldi spec. nov. from Wa

  10. A new genus and species of cavernicolous Pomatiopsidae (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiripockia punctatais a new genus and species of Pomatiopsidae found in a cave from Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brazil. The taxon is troglobiont (restricted to subterranean realm, and is characterized by the shell weakly elongated, fragile, translucent, normally sculptured by pustules with periostracum hair on tip of pustules; peristome highly expanded; umbilicus opened; radular rachidian with 6 apical and 3 pairs of lateral cusps; osphradium short, arched; gill filaments with rounded tip; prostate flattened, with vas deferens inserting subterminally; penis duct narrow and weakly sinuous; pallial oviduct simple anteriorly, possessing convoluted bypass connecting base of bulged portion of transition between visceral and pallial oviducts with base of seminal receptacle; spermathecal duct complete, originated from albumen gland. The description of this endemic species may raise protective environmental actions to that cave and to the Serra Ramalho Karst area.

  11. New insights into diversity and evolution of deep-sea Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Julien; Buge, Barbara; Cruaud, Corinne; Samadi, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    Bathymodiolinae mussels have been used as a biological model to better understand the evolutionary origin of faunas associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Most studies to date, however, have sampled with a strong bias towards vent and seep species, mainly because of a lack of knowledge of closely related species from organic falls. Here we reassess the species diversity of deep-sea mussels using two genes and a large taxon sample from the South-Western Pacific. This new taxonomic framework serves as a basis for a phylogenetic investigation of their evolutionary history. We first highlight an unexpected allopatric pattern and suggest that mussels usually reported from organic falls are in fact poorly specialized with regard to their environment. This challenges the adaptive scenarios proposed to explain the diversification of the group. Second, we confirm that deep-sea mussels arose from organic falls and then colonized hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in multiple events. Overall, this study constitutes a new basis for further phylogenetic investigations and a global systematic revision of deep-sea mussels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morfologia y biologia de Bostryx conspersus (Sowerby (Mollusca, Bulimulidae en las lomas costeras del Peru Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Ramírez

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and biological observations on populations of the land snail Bostryx conspersus, in three "Lomas"of the Central Coast of Peru, were carried out between 1979 and 1982. Three shell color varieties of B. conspersus are reponed herein, as well as its aestivation, activity and reproduction strategies. The possible interactions of B. conspersus with a dipteron (Scaptomyza sp.; Drosophilidae and a nematode species are also discussed.

  13. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  14. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls.

  15. Results of the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon. Part 9. The Nassariidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, H.H.; Strack, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper lists all species of the family Nassariidae collected during the Rumphius Biohistorical Expedition to Ambon (1990). Altogether 47 species are reported, of which two, Nassarius maccauslandi and N. rotundus, are new for Indonesia. Four additional species from Ambon are known from collection

  16. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Nelson A F; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named "Assiminea" aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  17. The phylogeny and taxonomy of austral monodontine topshells (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trochidae), inferred from DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Kennedy, Martyn; Spencer, Hamish G

    2005-11-01

    The systematics of topshells (family Trochidae) is currently unresolved: at present even the generic boundaries within this group are poorly defined. In this study, we used sequence data of two mitochondrial genes (16S and cytochrome oxidase 1, COI) and one nuclear gene (actin) to resolve the phylogeny of a closely related subgroup of the Trochidae, 30 species of largely Southern Hemisphere monodontine topshells. The phylogenies constructed revealed five well-supported generic clades: a South African clade (genus Oxystele Philippi, 1847), which lay basally to four internal Pacific clades (genera Chlorodiloma Pilsbry, 1889; Monodonta Lamarck, 1799; Austrocochlea Fischer, 1885; and Diloma Philippi, 1845). The molecular phylogenies constructed in this study shed light on previously unresolved relationships between different groups of topshells, allowing for the first time assignation (based on DNA sequence) of clearly defined, well-supported taxonomic and nomenclatural classification of monodontine topshells species. Austrocochlea crinita (Philippi, 1849), A. odontis (Wood, 1828), A. adelaidae (Philippi, 1849), and A. millelineata (Bonnet, 1864) are placed in the genus Chlorodiloma, which we resurrect from synonymy with Austrocochlea. The Japanese M. confusa Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 is treated as a separate species from M. labio (Linné, 1758). Melagraphia Gray, 1847 is synonymised with Diloma and its sole member, M. aethiops (Gmelin, 1791), along with A. concamerata (Wood, 1828), is transferred to that genus. The Juan Fernandez endemic D. crusoeana (Pilsbry, 1889) is synonymised with D. nigerrima (Gmelin, 1791). We find that morphologically cryptic species are not necessarily close genetically.

  18. Taxonomy of some Galeommatoidea (Mollusca, Bivalvia associated with deep-sea echinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Oliver

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The type species of Axinodon ellipticus Verrill & Bush, 1898 and Kellia symmetros Jeffreys, 1876 are re-described. It is concluded that the two species are not conspecific and that K. symmetros cannot be placed in the genus Axinodon. The family affinity of Axinodon is not resolved, although it is probable that this genus belongs to the Thyasiridae. Kellia symmetros is the type species of Kelliola and is placed in the Montacutidae. Kelliola symmetros is most probably associated with the echinoid Aeropsis rostrata and is not the species previously recorded from North Atlantic Pourtalesia echinoids under the name of Axinodon symmetros. This commensal associated with the North Atlantic Pourtalesia is here described as new and placed in the new genus as Syssitomya pourtalesium gen. nov. sp. nov., Syssitomya gen. nov. differs from all other genera in the Montacutidae by having laminar gill filaments modified for harbouring symbiotic bacteria and it is thus assumed to be chemosymbiotic. A montacutid associated with the hadal Pourtalesia heptneri is described as Ptilomyax hadalis gen. nov. sp. nov.

  19. Redescription of Hiatella meridionalis d'Orbigny, 1846 (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hiatellidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The redescription of Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 is provided as first attempt to improve the systematics of the genus in the regions of Atlantic and western Pacific. This reanalysis is based on specimens collected in the vicinity of the type localities and is based on detailed morphology of samples that some researches consider a single, wide ranging species. From the morphological characters, the more interesting are: a high quantity of papillae at incurrent siphon; the retractor muscles of siphon divided in two bundles; the small size of the palps; the muscular ring in the stomach; and the zigzag fashion of the short intestinal loops. These characters distinguish the species from the other hiatellids so far examined. Type material of the species was examined, by first time illustrated, and the lectotype is designated.A redescrição de Hiatella meridionalis (d’Orbigny, 1846 é realizada como primeiro passo na melhoria da sistemática do gênero das regiões atlântica e pacífica oeste. Esta re-análise é baseada em espécimes coletados nas vizinhanças da localidade tipo e em morfologia detalhada de amostras que alguns pesquisadores consideram pertencer a uma única espécie de ampla distribuição. Dos caracteres anatômicos, os mais interessantes são: uma grande quantidade de papilas no sifão inalante; o músculo retrator dos sifões dividido em duas porções; o tamanho pequeno dos palpos; um anel muscular transversal no estomago; e um padrão em zigzag no curto intestino. Estes caracteres distinguem a espécie dos demais hiatelídeos até então examinados. Os sintipos da espécie foram também examinados e pela primeira vez ilustrados; o lectótipo é designado.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among the family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) inferred from two mitochondrial DNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, N; Sakai, M; Ichii, T; Chow, S

    2012-09-01

    Squids of the family Ommastrephidae are distributed worldwide, and the family includes many species of commercial importance. To investigate phylogenetic relationships among squid species of the family Ommastrephidae, partial nucleotide sequences of two mitochondrial gene loci (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [1277bp] and 16S rRNA [443bp]) of 15 ommastrephid species and two outgroup species from the families Loliginidae and Enoploteuthidae were determined and used to construct parsimony and distance based phylogenetic trees. The molecular data provided several new phylogenetic inferences. The monophyletic status of three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae and Ommastrephinae) was well supported, although phylogenetic relationships between the subfamilies were not resolved. Inclusion of a problematic species, Ornithoteuthis volatilis, to Todarodinae was indicated. Within Todarodinae, the Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus was observed to have much closer relationship to the species of the genus Nototodarus than to its congener (Todarodes filippovae). These results indicate that re-evaluation of several morphological key characters for ommastrephid taxonomy may be necessary.

  1. Late Paleozoic subulitacea (mollusca:gastropoda), mass extinctions and the replacement of evolutionary faunas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwin, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Mesogastropod subulitaceans possess characteristics typical of active carnivores and occupied a trophic regime typical of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic evolutionary fauna. Despite occupying a vacant niche, subulitaceans are low in both diversity and abundance in late Paleozoic gastropod faunas. In addition, Paleozoic Archaeogastropoda and Mesogastropoda are taxonomically and functionally distinct from Mesozoic groups and display diversity dynamics typical of the Paleozoic evolutionary fauna, not the Mesozoic-Cenozoic fauna with which they were grouped by Sepkoski. Late Paleozoic gastropods are different from pre-Carboniferous taxa, but there is no preferential expansion of the major Mesozoic taxa, nor is there any pattern of exploitation of a major niche utilized by later groups but under-used by Paleozoic taxa. The high taxonomic level used Sepkoski's factor analysis neglects the finer scale of replacement and diversification. This distinct evolutionary behavior of Paleozoic gastropods may be typical of other taxa as well. It weakens the assertions of Kitchell and Carr and Sepkoksi and Miller that the replacement of evolutionary Fauna II by Fauna III began in the late Paleozoic and would have occurred even without the Guadelupian-Dzulfian mass extinction. Thus for gastropods at last, the Late Permian mass extinction did not merely speed up on ongoing process, but probably determined the evolutionary outcome.

  2. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dayrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  3. Freshwater bivalve mollusca (unionidae, sphaeriidae, corbiculidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, J.C.; Fuller, S.L.H.

    1980-11-01

    A guide to freshwater bivalve molluscs found at the Savannah River Plant is presented. A dichotomous taxonomic key is provided to common forms and to unreported species whose geographic distributions include nearby localities. Discussions of ecology, life history, larval hosts, and other pertinent information is provided. (ACR)

  4. Streptaxidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of the Seychelles Islands, Western Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, J.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The taxonomy of the species of the terrestrial carnivorous snail family Streptaxidae of the Seychelles archipelago is reviewed with the exception of the three species of the genus Priodiscus (vide Gerlach, 1995). All 18 species are restricted to the northern, granitic islands. This paper describes 1

  5. Finer sculptures in euthecosomatous shells, and their value for taxonomy (Mollusca, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1976-01-01

    The protoconch in Limacina helicoides, Peraclis moluccensis, Styliola subula, Cavolinia globulosa, C. gibbosa, C. inflexa and C. longirostris are described; finer structures of the shell in these species and Hyalocylis striata, Diacra quadridentata and Cavolinia tridentata are described. The occurre

  6. Anatomia comparada do gênero Doris (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Dorididae) do litoral brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O gênero Doris está representado no Brasil por quatro espécies: Doris verrucosa, Doris bovena, Doris ilo e Doris kyolis, a maioria delas com um histórico taxonômico confuso. Através da revisão taxonômica do gênero Doris, do estudo da anatomia comparada entre as espécies e com dados da literatura foi possível separar D. verrucosa em duas espécies, mantendo D. verrucosa como a espécie com distribuição para a Europa e Mar Mediterrâneo e Doris januarii, um sinônimo revalidado, com distribuição pa...

  7. Aspectos taxon??micos y biol??gicos de los doridoidea (mollusca :nudibranchia) del litoral granadino

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Se han colectado ejemplares pertenecientes a 62 especies de doriodideos, de los cuales 18 son fanerobranquios y 44 criptobranquios. Entre los fanerobranquios 5 pertenecen a la familia Goniodorididae, 3 a la familia Onchidorididae, 1 a la familia Aegiretidae, 1 a la familia Triophidae y 8 a la familia Polyceridade. Dentro de los criptobranquios se distinguen dos clados, los labiostomados y los porostomados. Entre las especies adscritas al primero de estos clados, 13 pertenecen a la familia Chr...

  8. A survey of locally endemic mollusca of Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a culmination of field, laboratory, and bibliographic work begun in August, 1974. The project as originally contracted called for a survey of Utah and...

  9. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  10. The National Water-Quality Assessment Program Invertebrate Data Analysis System (IDAS) Software: Version 3 (User’s Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Reach CollectionDate SampleID SMCOD Phylum Class Order SubOrder Family SubFamily Tribe Genus Platyhelminthes Turbellaria Nemertea Enopla Hoplonemertea...Monostilifera Tetrastemmatidae Prostom Nemertea Enopla Hoplonemertea Monostilifera Tetrastemmatidae Prostom Nematoda Mollusca Gastropoda Mollusca

  11. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida commensal of Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae from Misiones, Argentina Una especie nueva de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida comensal de Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Damborenea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., a commensal of Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, is described herein from specimens collected at Arroyo Yabotí-Miní (Misiones province, Argentina. Juveniles and adults were removed from the mantle cavity by host relaxation. Distinctive characters of the new species are: non-partitioned intestine; conical cirrus with 1 face flat and another concave; distal area with spines, as evidenced by a strong, oblique sclerotized ring, and 2 rows of long spines, an internal one with long spines arising from base of introvert and an external one arising from distal end of the introvert. The closest species are T. iheringi, T. rochensis and T. haswelli, which are also commensals of mollusc species. The presence of this new species of Temnocephala, and its similarity to the other species that are commensals of molluscan species, suggest the existence of a morphologically homogeneous group.Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., comensal de Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, se describe para el arroyo Yabotí-Miní, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se extrajeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos de la cavidad paleal, por relajación de los hospederos. Las características distintivas de la nueva especie son: intestino no septado, cirro de forma cónica, con una cara plana y otra cóncava, zona distal con espinas evidente por un fuerte anillo oblicuo esclerosado. Dos hileras de espinas se reconocen en el extremo distal, 1 interna de espinas largas, que surge desde la base del introverso, y 1 externa, que surge del extremo distal del mismo. Las especies más semejantes son T. iheringi, T. rochensis y T. haswelli, especies comensales de moluscos con las que es comparada. El hallazgo de esta nueva especie de Temnocephala y sus características semejantes a las restantes especies del género comensales de moluscos, sugieren que las especies conocidas hasta la fecha formen un grupo morfológicamente homogéneo.

  12. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID VELIZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

  13. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Digestive gland

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    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in groups of two or three, are triangular shaped and have distinct apical granules, and yet calcic histochemical detected granules. In addition, there is a third cell type, without characteristic cytoplasmic granules and which correspond to the undifferentiated cells. The excretory duets system are represented by anterior and posterior vestibules, which branche to form the duets, that communicate with the secretory tubules. These excretory duets are lined with a simple epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, followed by a layer of connective tissue with circular and longitudinal muscular fibers. Subepithelial mucous cells are present only in the vestibules.

  14. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  15. Applying weight gain in Pomacea lineata (Spix 1824 (Mollusca: Prosobranchia as a measure of herbicide toxicity Aplicando o ganho de peso em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1824 (Mollusca: Prosobranchia como uma medida de toxicidade a herbicida

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    R. A. Coler

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea lineata, an extremely ubiquitous snail and pest to rice farmers throughout Asia, holds promise as a valuable resource for monitoring water quality in northeast Brazil. In this paper, we present data demonstrating the rate of weight gain in P. lineata neonates as a consistent measure of the stress imposed by sublethal concentrations of the herbicides Paraquat and Round-up. Our secondary agenda is to demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating bioassay into the standard municipal and state procedure of monitoring water quality. Growth data to assess chronic toxicity were generated in experiments of four and four, eight, twelve and sixteen days for Paraquat and Round-up, respectively. We estimated a 96 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC for Paraquat of 0.12 and 0.25 mg/L. The 96 h Round-up data yielded NOEC and LOEC values, respectively, of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/L. All concentrations of Round-up tested for the 192 h exposure yielded significantly lower growth than the control. Consequently, no NOEC could be derived. The LOEC was Pomacea lineata, um molusco amplamente distribuído e considerado como peste em plantações de arroz no Oriente, pode ser considerado como um valioso recurso para monitorar a qualidade da água no Nordeste do Brasil. Neste trabalho, apresentamos dados que demonstram que o incremento de peso em moluscos neonatos é uma medida consistente que responde eficientemente ao estresse imposto por concentrações tóxicas subletais dos herbicidas Paraquat e Round-up. Os resultados de crescimento para avaliar a toxicidade crônica foram obtidos em experimentos de quatro e quatro, oito, doze e dezesseis dias para Paraquat e Round-up, respectivamente. A maior concentração de efeito não observado (NOEC e a menor concentração de efeito observado (LOEC para Paraquat, após 96 horas, foram respectivamente de 0,12 e 0,25 mg/L. Para o Round-up, os valores de NOEC e LOEC estimados foram respectivamente de 0,25 e 0,5 mg/L. Todas as concentrações de Round-up testadas após 192 horas de exposição provocaram diminuições nas taxas de crescimento, sendo significativamente diferentes do controle. Conseqüentemente não pode ser estimado o valor de NOEC. O valor de LOEC foi menor do que 0,12 mg/L. Além disso, não houve nenhuma mortalidade durante o teste. Por conseguinte, nenhum NOEC pôde ser derivado e o LOEC era < 0,12 mg/L. Para as mais baixas concentrações de Paraquat testadas (0,005 mg/L, houve um aumento do crescimento que foi significativamente maior que o controle, sugerindo a ocorrência de um efeito hormético.

  16. Prosobrânquios terrestres do Brasil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda Land prosobranchs of Brazil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda

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    Arnaldo C. dos Santos Coelho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on specimens from Brazil (States of Pernambuco and Alagoas were carried out in order to relate data about morphology of hard and soft parts o Nocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsh & Morrison, 1942.

  17. Gloquídio de Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae e seu ciclo parasitário The glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae and its parasitic cycle

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    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Conchological and anatomical studies of the glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering, 1893 were performed on samples collected in a small river, tributary from the Caí River, that belong to the Jacuí River sub-basin in south-eastern Brazil. The parasitic development of the glochidium was observed in laboratory on a small cichlid fish Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870.

  18. Sobre Ischnoplax pectinatus (Sowerby, 1840 e sua ocorrência no litoral sul do Brasil (Mollusca, Polyplacophora On Ischnoplax pectinatus (Sowerby, 1840 and its records in the south coast of Brazil (Mollusca, Polyplacophora

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    Orlando Guerra Júnior

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available São indicadas novas localizações geográficas para Ischnoplax pectinatus (sowerby, 1840 no litoral sul do Brasil. Além disso são estudados sua morfologia e alguns aspectos biogeográficos.New geographic records of Ischnoplax pectinatus (Sowerby, 1840 are pointed out on the south coast of Brazil; its morphology and some biogeographic aspects are also studied.

  19. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

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    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried out the histological and morphological characterization of the reproductive system of P. patula catemacensis under laboratory conditions. We found that the reproductive development of this snail depended more on the size than on the age the animals, and identified four development main stages, both for males and females. The main stages and their mean lengths ± confidence interval at P < 0.05 were (1 immature or not differenced (from 0.72 to 7 mm, (2 early maturation (from 18.95 ± 1.96 mm, (3 intermediate maturation (from 29.29 ± 4.9 mm, and (4 full maturity (from 35.89 ± 3.92 mm. This species is ovoviviparous, both sexes are separated, and fertilization is internal. Albumin and calcium carbonate secretion in females are performed through the albumin gland, a trait that distinguishes this species from others, such as P. paludosa and P. canaliculata. The stage of development can be identified by means of using anatomical traits, such as the albumin gland (in the case of females, or the intromittent organ (in males

  20. Primeiro registro de Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Planorbidae para a Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro First record of Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Planorbidae to Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro

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    Sônia Barbosa dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A malacological survey has been done by the sênior author in Ilha Grande, State of Rio de Janeiro, since 1996. Up to this date the only freshwater gastropods found were specimens of Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954. The snails were collected at a swampy area situated behind the late Penal Colony Cândido Mendes (Ilha Grande Prison.

  1. Shell morphometrics in four species of Gadilidae (Mollusca, Scaphopoda in Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, Brazil Morfometria da concha de quatro espécies de Gadilidae (Mollusca, Scaphopoda no Brasil, sudoeste do Oceano Atlântico

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    Ricardo Silva Absalão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Six morphometric shell direct measurements of the Gadilidae species Gadila acus (Dall, 1889, Cadulus braziliensis Henderson, 1920, Cadulus parvus Henderson, 1920 and Polyschides tetraschistus (Watson, 1879 were carried out and used to build three morphometric indices in according to the proposition of SHIMEK (1989: LI, relating total shell length to length from the dorsal aperture to the maximum width; WI, relating maximum shell diameter to apertural diameter; and Ws, whorl expansion rate (sensu RAUP 1966. Direct measurements and morphometric indices were tested as discriminating tools among the four species. None of the morphometric indices, alone, were able to discriminate among all species. Among then, Ws is not an effective discriminating morphometric index because it fails in all pairwise comparisons, LI and WI are fairly efficient ones, since they have got effective discriminations in three out six pairwise comparisons. The combined use of direct measurements ones was more efficient than the indices ones when dealing with relatively small samples, as ours. Although both descriptors can be combiningly used; since the direct measurements descriptors are easier to obtain and understand than the more complex indices, they should be recommended as main tools.Seis medidas morfométricas tomadas diretamente da concha dos seguintes gadilideos: Gadila acus (Dall, 1889, Cadulus braziliensis Henderson, 1920, Cadulus parvus Henderson, 1920 e Polyschides tetraschistus (Watson, 1879 foram realizadas e utilizadas na construção de índices morfométricos em concordância com Shimek (1989: LI, razão entre o comprimento total da concha e o comprimento entre a abertura dorsal até o ponto de máximo diâmetro; WI, razão entre o diâmetro máximo da concha e o diâmetro da abertura; e Ws, taxa de expansão dos anfractos (sensu Raup 1966. Tanto as medidas tomadas diretamente das conchas como os índices morfométricos foram testados como instrumentos de discriminação entre as quatro espécies. Nenhum índice morfométrico, quando considerado isoladamente, foi capaz de discriminar entre todas as espécies. Ws teve o pior desempenho, falhando na discriminação de todas as comparações par-a-par, LI e WI se saíram melhor, desde que discriminaram, corretamente, três das seis comparações par-a-par. A utilização combinada das medidas diretas da concha foi mais eficiente que os índices morfométricos, ao menos ao se tratar de amostras pequenas como as nossas. Embora ambos tipos de descritores possam ser utilizados, a maior simplicidade e facilidade de obtenção das medidas diretas as habilitam como os principais instrumentos de discriminação conquiliológica.

  2. Drepanotrema kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Planorbidae, hospedeiro de um paranfistomídeo (Trematoda, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Drepanotrema kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Planorbidae, host of a paramphistomid (Trematoda, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Inga Ludmila Veitenheimer-Mendes

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustrradas rédia, cercária imatura e cercária madura e metacercária de um paranfistomídeo, provavelmente do gênero Paramphistomum (Fischoeder, 1901. Estas formas evolutivas foram obtidas de um exemplar de Drepanotrema kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835 coletado, em maio de 1983, no arroio Chico Lumã (29º56'03"S e 50º35'59"W, município de Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.Morphological descriptions and illustrations of the redia, the imature cercaria and mature cercaria, and encysted metacercaria, found in a infected specimen of Drepanotrema kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835 are presented. The infected mollusk was found in Chico Lumã creek (29º56'03"S and 50º35'59"W, Santo Antônio County, Rio Grande do Sul State, in May of 1983. These larval stages probably are part of a cycle of a rumen parasite of the genus Paramphistomum (Fischoeder, 1901.

  3. The interference of methods in the collection of teredinids (Mollusca, Bivalvia in mangrove habitats Interferência de métodos na coleta de teredinídios (Mollusca, Bivalvia em habitats de manguezais

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    Rosa M. V. Leonel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the estuary of the Mamanguape River (Paraíba, Brazil, a new collection technique was developed and applied with virgin poles of mangrove trees Avicennia schaueriana (Verbenaceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, taking into account wood preference, water salinity and depth influence during teredinid larval settlement. Sets of poles were vertically fixed in the riverbed at three sites along a decreasing salinity gradient, where they stayed for four months. The poles were collected and divided into upper, median, and lower segments, in agreement with different immersion regimes. An increase of 239% was obtained in the number of individuals when compared to a previous study in the same area using a different methodology. The species Teredo bartschi (Clapp, 1923, Nausitora fusticula (Jeffreys, 1860 and Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931 were registered in both studies, and the species Psiloteredo healdi (Bartsch, 1931 is here registered for the first time as occurring in that estuary. The species Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, previously registered on tree branches of the mangrove habitat, was not found in the present work. Bankia fimbriatula, the most abundant species, did not show preference for any substratum but occurred significantly on the lower segment of the poles. N. fusticula, second in abundance, preferred to settle on poles of A. schaueriana and on any of the three segments. Aiming to assess the habitat variations, a more accurate study on teredinids diversity in mangrove ecosystems should be performed through a concomitant analysis from tree branches of the mangrove habitat, as well as from poles of mangrove trees or panels made of pine wood or mangrove trees wood. These collection devices should be maintained along a decreasing salinity gradient exposed to different tide levels.Contemplando a preferência pelo tipo de madeira, a influência da profundidade e da salinidade durante assentamento larval de teredinídeos, uma nova técnica de coleta foi aplicada e desenvolvida no estuário do rio Mamanguape (Paraíba, Brasil, utilizando varas virgens de três espécies de árvores do manguezal: Avicennia schaueriana (Verbenaceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae. Em três estações demarcadas ao longo do gradiente decrescente de salinidade, conjuntos de varas foram verticalmente fixados nas margens do rio. Após quatro meses, as varas eram coletadas e divididas em três segmentos (superior, médio e inferior, de acordo com os regimes de imersão a que foram submetidas. Comparativamente aos dados obtidos por um estudo anterior na mesma área, com outras metodologias de coleta, foi obtido um aumento de 239% no número de indivíduos coletados com a nova técnica. Embora as espécies Teredo bartschi (Clapp, 1923, Nausitora fusticula (Jeffreys, 1860 e Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931 tenham ocorrido nos dois estudos, o teredinídeo Psiloteredo healdi (Bartsch, 1931 tem sua presença registrada pela primeira vez neste estuário. Tendo sido previamente registrada em ramos de árvores do manguezal, Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920 não foi coletada no presente trabalho. Sendo a espécie mais abundante, B. fimbriatula não mostrou preferência de assentamento em nenhum dos substratos, ocorrendo significativamente associada ao segmento inferior das varas. Como segunda espécie mais abundante, N. fusticula mostrou preferência significativa de assentamento em A. schaueriana, ocorrendo indistintamente nos três segmentos das varas. Visando contemplar as variações do habitat e obter maior precisão de resultados, é recomendável que em estudos sobre a diversidade de teredinídeos, sejam incluídas análises concomitantes de troncos e ramos das árvores, com o uso de varas de árvores do manguezal ou de coletores artificiais feitos com pinho ou madeira de árvores do manguezal. Os coletores devem ser mantidos ao longo do gradiente de salinidade e expostos aos diferentes níveis das marés.

  4. Anatomia e microanatomia do sistema reprodutor de Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: complexo fálico Anatomy and microanatomy of the reproductive system of Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: the phallus complex

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    Mônica Picoral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the anatomy and microanatomy of the phallus complex of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868. The complex is composed by a phallus, a diverticle of the phallus and an epiphallus, where the deferens duct is thrown in: the retractor muscle is splitted in two parts, inserted into the region of the epiphallus through a smaller branch, and at the extremity of the diverticle, through a longer and thiner branch. The lumen of the phallus, epiphallus and diverticle have corrugations and thorns. On the phallus the thorns are arranged in a protuberance and disposed alternately in rows, ali with an aculeus form and with a chestnut collor point and a yellow basis.

  5. Development and reproduction in Bulimulus tenuissimus (Mollusca: Bulimulidae in laboratory Padrão de desenvolvimento e aspectos reprodutivos de Bulimulus tenuissimus (Mollusca: Bulimulidae em condições de laboratório

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    Lidiane C. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Bulimulus tenuissimus (d'Orbigny, 1835 is a land snail of parasitological importance with a poorly understood biology. The goal of this laboratory study was to determine development and reproductive patterns in B. tenuissimus. Recently hatched individuals in seven groups of 10 were maintained in the laboratory for two years. To test for self-fertilization, 73 additional individuals were isolated. After 180 days the isolated snails showed no signs of reproduction. Subsequently, 30 of these snails were paired to test fertility. We noted the date and time of egg-laying, the number of eggs produced, the number of egg-layings per individual, the incubation period and hatch success. This species shows indeterminate growth. Individuals that were maintained with others, as compared to isolated individuals, laid eggs sooner, laid more eggs and had a greater hatching success. This species can self-fertilize, however, with lower reproductive success. Bulimulus tenuissimus has a well-defined reproductive period that is apparently characteristic for this species.Apesar de ser uma espécie de importância parasitológica, não existem estudos sobre a biologia de Bulimulus tenuissimus (d'Orbigny, 1835. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o padrão de crescimento e aspectos reprodutivos dessa espécie em laboratório. Assim, 70 animais recém-eclodidos foram distribuídos em sete grupos, com 10 moluscos cada, por um período de dois anos. Para estes animais foi verificado o padrão de crescimento. A ocorrência de autofecundação foi observada através do isolamento de 73 animais. Por não ter sido verificado autofecundação em um período de 180 dias, 30 animais que estavam em isolamento foram pareados de modo a confirmar a fertilidade destes. Registrou-se o tempo para início da oviposição, número de ovos e de posturas, intervalo entre posturas e taxa de eclosão. Foi verificado um padrão de crescimento indeterminado para a espécie. Os animais mantidos agrupados iniciaram a oviposição mais cedo, produziram mais ovos e apresentaram maior eclodibilidade do que os demais grupos. A espécie é capaz de realizar autofecundação, porém um menor sucesso reprodutivo é obtido nesse processo. Os indivíduos de B. tenuissimus apresentaram um período reprodutivo bem definido que parece ser característico para a espécie.

  6. Estudo do crescimento e da reprodução de Leptinaria unilamellata (D'orbigny (Mollusca, Subulinidae em laboratório Growth and reproduction of Leptinaria unilamellata (d'Orbigny (Mollusca, Subulinidae in laboratory conditions

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    Marcelo Nocelle de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Leptinaria unlamellata (d'Orbigny, 1835 were studied, such as: onset of sexual maturity, occurrence of self-fertilization and shell length measurement at different stages of development. In isolated specimens of L. unilamellata, sexual maturity was reached at 74 days (minimum time and 104 days (maximum time. For the grouped specimens, the minimum time was 71 days. The occurrence of self-fertilization was observed in both species, 100% of specimens. The total numberof young per birth varied from one to 22 (average: 7,35 ± 5,78, the total number of offsprings per mollusc varied from two to eight (average: 4,1 ± 1,41 and total number of young per mollusc varied from five to 46 (average: 30,21 ± 8,08. As to the shell length in different growth stages, it was observed that in L. unilamellata, growth rhythm was similar until 15 days for age. After this period grouped specimens showed a high growth rhythm until 105 days after which the growth rhythm of grouped specimens became constant and the growth rhythm isolated specimens became greater. Grouped and isolated specimens reached a maximum size of 18,7 mm and 20,6 mm respectively. In the moment of the sexual maturity, the length of the shell in the individuals that were kept grouped was smaller than the isolated ones for L. unilamellata. In this specie individuals that were kept isolated reach larger length of shell.

  7. Estudo do crescimento e da reprodução de Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Mollusca, Xanthonychidae em laboratório Growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Mollusca, Xanthonychidae in laboratory conditions

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    Marcelo Nocelle de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 were studied, such as: onset of sexual maturity, occurrence of self-fertilization, oviposition, incubation period, eclosion rate and shell length measurement at different stages of development. It was noted that in isolated B. similaris the minimum and maximum time for reaching sexual maturity were 109 and 180 days, respectively. When kept in groups, the minimum time was 78 days. The occurrence of self-fertilization was observed in 18.4% of specimens. The total number of eggs per oviposition varied from one to 38 (average: 3,5 ± 7,15, the total number of eggs per mollusc varied from one to 39 (average: 7,0 ± 10,21 and the total number of oviposition per mollusc varied form one to six (averege: 2,0 ± 1,27. Thirty ovipositions (894 eggs were followed and the minimum eclosion time of the young was 14 days, the maximum eclosion time was 35 days and the average 23,69 days. The eclosion average percent was 81,22. As to the shell length in different growth stages, it was observed that in B. similaris the length of the shell was similar until 30 days for age. After this period isolated specimens acquired a greater growth rhythm when compared to that of grouped specimens. The maximum shell length of isolated specimens was 17,4 mm whereas grouped specimens reached 14,5 mm. In this specie, individuals that were kept grouped became sexually mature earlier than isolated ones. Individuals kept isolated reach larger length of shell. In the moment of the sexual maturity, the length of the shell in the individuals tha were kept isolated was smaller than the grouped.

  8. Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae in Brazil Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae como hospedeiro intermediário de Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil.Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca emergidas de Melanoides tuberculata naturalmente infectados coletados na represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram utilizadas para a infecção experimental de Poecilia reticulata criados em laboratório. Metacercárias maduras foram obtidas nas brânquias dos peixes e administradas por via oral a Mus musculus. Parasitos adultos recuperados no intestino delgado dos camundongos foram identificados como Centrocestus formosanus. Este é o primeiro relato de M. tuberculata como hospedeiro intermediário deste parasito no Brasil.

  9. New species of Thaumastus from Lagoa Santa region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea Nova espécie de Thaumastus da região de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brasil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Silva Pena

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus Martens, 1860, from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is described and illustrated, based on the morphology of the shell, jaw, radula and soft parts.Uma nova espécie de Thaumastus (Thaumastus Martens, 1860, do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, é descrita e ilustrada, com base na morfologia da concha, mandíbula, rádula e partes moles.

  10. Lista comentada e ilustrada dos Caecidae (Mollusca, Prosobranchia, Mesogastropoda da Operação Oceanográfica Geomar XII Commented and illustrated list of the Caecidae (Mollusca, Prosobranchia, Mesogastropoda from Oceanographic Operation Geomar XII

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    Renata dos Santos Gomes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Caecidae deserved special attention, among mollusks, because they occurred in more than 50% of studied stations in Oceanographic Operation Geomar XII, which was carried out in northern and southern coasts of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States (Brazil, respectively. At the time, Caecum brasilicum Folin, 1874, C. aff condylum Moore, 1969, C. circumvolutum Folin, 1867, C. johnsoni Winkley, 1908, C. someri Folin, 1867, C. striatum Folin, 1868, C. venosum Folin, 1867, C. floridanum Stimpson, 1851, C. massambabensis Absalão, 1994, C. butoti Jong & Coomans, 1989, C. ryssotitum Folin, 1867, C. nitidum (Stimpson., 1851 e C. cubitatum (Folin, 1868 were identitíed. C. venosum is reported, for the first time, since its original description, enlarging its occurrence area from Pernambuco to Rio de Janeiro; C. buloti as well, primarily restricted to Dutch Antilles, begins to make part of the Brazilian malacofauna. C. someri and C. butoti were pointed out for being largely non-sintopic with other congeneric species, suggesting that subtile differences in sediment can be responsable for this segregation.

  11. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  12. Polidorídeos (Polychaeta: spionidae) em Crassostrea rhizophorae (Mollusca: bivalvia) de cinco rios da costa pernambucana

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique de Oliveira Bonifácio, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    A ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae ocorre ao longo da costa do Brasil servindo como alimento para comunidades litorâneas e sua produção ajuda no desenvolvimento sócio-econômico local. Polidiariose é uma das diversas doenças presentes em ostreiculturas do mundo. É causada por poliquetas da família Spionidae que perfuram a concha e habitam uma bolha de lodo no interior da ostra, causando perda de valor comercial considerável. Oito gêneros de espionídeos podem ser responsáveis por...

  13. The first mitochondrial genome of Coelomactra antiquata (Mollusca: Veneroida: Mactridae) from Guangxi (China) and potential molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Meng, Xueping; Tian, Mei; Yan, Binlun; Cheng, Hanliang; Lu, Wei; Chai, Yuling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Coelomactra antiquata (Guangxi, in China, GX) was determined. It is 16 801 bp in length and is the first representative from this province. The mitochondrial genome encodes 35 genes, including 12 PCGs, two ribosomal RNA, and 21 transfer RNA genes. Atp8 and trnSer(UCN) genes are missing, compared with the typical gene content of animal mitochondrial genomes. Three (cob, nad1, nad4, and nad6) of the 12 PCGs in the mitochondrial genome initiate with the ATA, while other PCGs start with ATG. Two PCGs (atp6 and nad4L) end with incomplete stop codons (T-), and the remaining ones have complete stop codons (TAA or TAG). The largest non-coding region of the C. antiquata (GX) contains one section of tandem repeats (5 × 99 bp). Among all PCGs and rRNAs, the nad5 gene contains the maximum polymorphic sites (430), followed by nad4 (261) and cox2 (240). Two ribosomal RNA genes (srRNA and lrRNA) and cox1 are most conservative. The proportions of polymorphic sites in six genes (nad4, nad2, nad6, nad5, cox2, and nad3) are more than 20% (ranging from 20.25% to 25.21%). These high variable genes can be used as molecular markers in the population genetic analysis of the species.

  14. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  15. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  16. Phytochemical and molluscicidal activity of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae in different lifestages of Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade

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    Bruna Aparecida de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata on the land snail Subulina octona and to assess the changes caused on the snail's fecundity, growth, hatchability and the offspring produced after exposure. Eggs, newly hatched and 30 day old snails were exposed to the sublethal concentration of M. glomerata extract for 24 and 48 h and the observations were made for 120 days. The presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins were shown by phytochemical tests. The extract reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from the exposed eggs. The eggs exposed for 48 h presented lower hatchability rates. There was a reduction on survival and growth of newly hatched and 30-days old snails exposed to the extract. These results indicated that the aqueous extract of M. glomerata could be applied as an alternative molluscicide for the control of this snail species efficiently.

  17. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  18. Neosataria, replacement name for Sataria Annandale, 1920 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Bithyniidae), preoccupied by Sataria Roewer, 1915 (Arachnida: Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Khot, Rahul

    2015-06-24

    The family Bithyniidae is represented in tropical Asia by the following genera, Bithynia, Digonistoma, Mysorella, Parabithynia, Emmericiopsis, Hydrobioides, Parafossarulus, Pseudovivipara, Sataria and Wattebladia (Dudgeon 1999; Pyron & Brown 2015).

  19. Diversidad de diatomeas en la dieta in situ de Chiton virgulatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) de Baja California Sur, México

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Siqueiros Beltrones; Uri Argumedo Hernández

    2012-01-01

    En Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, se han registrado quince especies de quitones pero, en general, se descono- cen sus aspectos ecológicos básicos. Son principalmente herbívoros y observaciones preliminares sugieren que las diatomeas forman parte esencial de su alimentación por lo que el objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad de especies de diatomeas que son consumidas por Chiton virgulatus Sowerby, 1840 y si exhiben algún tipo de prefe- rencia alimentaria. Para ello se r...

  20. Differences in the rDNA-bearing chromosome divide the Asian-Pacific and Atlantic species of Crassostrea (Bivalvia, Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongping; Xu, Zhe; Guo, Ximing

    2004-02-01

    Karyotype and chromosomal location of the major ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in five species of CRASSOSTREA: three Asian-Pacific species (C. gigas, C. plicatula, and C. ariakensis) and two Atlantic species (C. virginica and C. rhizophorae). FISH probes were made by PCR amplification of the intergenic transcribed spacer between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, and labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP. All five species had a haploid number of 10 chromosomes. The Atlantic species had 1-2 submetacentric chromosomes, while the three Pacific species had none. FISH with metaphase chromosomes detected a single telomeric locus for rDNA in all five species without any variation. In all three Pacific species, rDNA was located on the long arm of Chromosome 10 (10q)--the smallest chromosome. In the two Atlantic species, rDNA was located on the short arm of Chromosome 2 (2p)--the second longest chromosome. A review of other studies reveals the same distribution of NOR sites (putative rDNA loci) in three other species: on 10q in C. sikamea and C. angulata from the Pacific Ocean and on 2p in C. gasar from the western Atlantic. All data support the conclusion that differences in size and shape of the rDNA-bearing chromosome represent a major divide between Asian-Pacific and Atlantic species of CRASSOSTREA: This finding suggests that chromosomal divergence can occur under seemingly conserved karyotypes and may play a role in reproductive isolation and speciation.

  1. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada, 1 desses aquários foi considerado como controle e os animas do mesmo alimentados com ostras obtidas de locais onde não se verificou a ocorrência de imposex em neogastrópodes nativos. Os animais nos outros 6 aquários foram alimentados com ostras obtidas em local onde a incidência de imposex entre os gastrópodes nativos revelou-se muito alta. A cada 15 dias, por um período total de 90 dias, os animais de um dos tanques eram retirados e analisados quanto à presença de imposex. Os níveis de imposex foram quantificados através da % de imposex e dos índices: RPLI, RPSI e VDSI. Observou-se a indução de imposex em S. haemastoma floridana através da dieta a partir de Crassostrea rhizophora e um aumento significativo dos índices com o decorrer do tempo de exposição. Os animais do aquário controle foram analisados ao fim do experimento não revelando qualquer indício de imposex.

  2. [Abundance and morphometry of tuberculosa Anadara and A. similis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Manglar de Purruja, Dulce Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Benavides, A M; Bonilla Carrión, R

    2001-12-01

    The density, population, length, yield and sex proportion of the mollusks Anadara tuberculosa and A. similis were studied in Bahía de Golfito, Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica from February 1998 to February 1999. A. tuberculosa was more abundant (0.9 units m(-2)), than A. similis (0.2 units m(-2)); the highest abundance was found at the canal mouths. The average lengths were 43.3 mm for A. tuberculosa and 42.8 mm for A. similis (both under the Costa Rican legal minimal length for exploitation: 47 mm). Maximum lengths were measured in the middle and upstream Canal Mayor, respectively: 43.0 mm and 43.4 mm. The correlation between length and fresh weight was 0.81 (Pearson). The average total weights were 26.2 g for A. tuberculosa and 19.1 g for A. similis. The condition index (a meat yield measurement) was higher in A. similis (21.2%) than in A. tuberculosa (17.2%). The maximum yield for both species lies in the 31-35 mm range. The male ratio was 43.7%. A species recovery plan is urgent because these results suggest both a decrease in density and illegal exploitation.

  3. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  4. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  5. Evidence for accumulation of Synechococcus elongatus (Cyanobacteria: Cyanophyceae) in the tissues of the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Torres-Ariño, Alejandra; Girón-Cruz, Diego Ademir; Cuevas-Aguirre, Angel

    2014-10-01

    Cyanobacteria appear to have direct relations with mollusks in several aspects. This is the first time, distinguishing Gram-negative cyanoprokaryotic Synechococcus elongatus as bright yellow-gold autofluorescence by Lillie's and Hiss' staining methods on paraffin-embedded tissues of Crassostrea gigas. Three diets: cyanoprokaryotes, cyanoprokaryotes with microalgae, and only microalgae were evaluated. Cyanoprokaryotes were intact, densely bundled, and immersed in the cytosol of the digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad of C. gigas, revealing an accumulation systemic without tissue damage observed by histology. Unexpectedly, cyanoprokaryotes were slightly most accumulated with microalgae diet by each of the tissues of the C. gigas than with any other diets. Cyanoprokaryotes tend to be in mean slightly higher in the digestive gland than in any other tissues respectively for each diet, although these values are closely similar to connective tissue. A possible order of exposure of the oyster tissues to accumulation of cyanoprokaryotes was digestive gland, connective tissue, mantle, and gonad. Thereby, the digestive gland could be the major target tissue for the accumulation. Our observations provide a valuable insight regarding the ability of cyanoprokaryotes to penetrate, spread, and remain inside the oyster tissues, suggesting for S. elongatus: (1) a pre-accumulation in oyster tissues from the natural environment, (2) a phagocytosis and/or endocytosis process rather than ingestion and extracellular digestion, (3) an apparent cellular division in the cytosol of oyster tissues, (4) an apparent inter-tissue movement, and (5) a possible endosymbiosis between C. gigas and S. elongatus. Hereby, it is possible that S. elongatus have a well-developed host-endobiont relationship with oysters, and thereby support future work toward a description of the escape and spreading mechanisms of S. elongatus inside the tissues of mollusks, and put forward questions as why it is there? and are the cells active or inactive?

  6. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia : Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Abbott, Marilyn S.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP2Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large

  7. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  8. A new genus and species of Thyasiridae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from deep-water, Beaufort Sea, northern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Valentich-Scott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve mollusk shells were collected in 2350 m depth in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean off northern Alaska. Initial identification suggested the specimens were a member of the bivalve family Thyasiridae, but no known eastern Pacific or Arctic living or fossil thyasirid resembled these deep-water specimens. Comparisons were made with the type of the genera Maorithyas Fleming, 1950, Spinaxinus Oliver & Holmes, 2006, Axinus Sowerby, 1821, and Parathyasira Iredale, 1930. We determined the Beaufort Sea species represents a new genus, herein described as Wallerconcha. These specimens also represent a new species, herein named Wallerconcha sarae. These new taxa are compared with known modern and fossil genera and species of thyasirds.

  9. Differences in absolute and relative growth between two shell forms of Pinna nobilis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) along the Tunisian coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaoui, Lotfi; Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Belgacem, Walid; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the absolute and relative growth patterns of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis along the Tunisian coastline, taking into consideration both the variability among different areas and between the two shell forms "combed" and "straight and wide". Five subpopulations of the species were sampled, one from northern, two from eastern and two from southern Tunisia. Various assumptions on the growth patterns were tested based on an information theory approach and multi-model inference. For absolute growth, the assumption of different growth patterns between the two shell forms of P. nobilis and no difference among subpopulations was the most supported by the data. For the same age, "straight and wide" individuals gained on average greater lengths than the "combed" individuals. The absolute growth of the species was found to be asymptotic and the logistic model was the one most supported by the data. As for the relative growth, apart from the classical allometric model Y = aXb, more complicated models of the form ln Y = f(ln X) that either assumed non-linearities or breakpoints were tested in combination with assumptions for possible differences between the two forms and among subpopulations. Among the eight studied relationships between morphometric characters, the classical allometric model was supported in only two cases, while in all other cases more complicated models were supported. Moreover, the assumption of different growth patterns between the two forms was supported in three cases and the assumption of different growth patterns among subpopulations in four cases. Although precise relationships between the morphometric plasticity of the fan mussel and environmental factors have not been proven in this paper, local small scale constraints might be responsible of the different growth patterns observed in the same locality. A possible co-action of genetic factors should be evaluated in the future.

  10. Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821 and other Pliocene mussels (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Southern North Sea Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoenen, M.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Nieulande, van F.A.D.

    2000-01-01

    Mytilus antiquorum J. Sowerby, 1821, is recorded from the Coralline Crag Formation of East Anglia (UK) and the Lillo Formation (Oorderen, Kruisschans and Merksem members) of the Antwerp area (Belgium). The species is diagnosed on the basis of newly collected material and differentiated from modern E

  11. The Genus Lepidochitona Gray, 1821 (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean, The Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.; Belle, van R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nine species of Lepidochitona from the NE Atlantic and adjacent seas are described, two of which are new to science: L. monterosatoi from the Mediterranean Sea, and L. iberica from Ria de Arosa, NW Spain. The taxa Middendorffia Dall, 1882, and Mopaliella Thiele, 1909, are rejected and synonymized

  12. Molecular cytogenetic study of three common Mediterranean limpets, Patella caerulea, P. rustica and P. ulyssiponensis (Archaeogastropoda, Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccioli, Agnese; Guarino, Fabio Maria; Maio, Nicola; Odierna, Gaetano

    2010-02-01

    The present paper shows the results of chromosome banding and rDNA-FISH study performed on several specimens of different populations of Patella caerulea, Patella rustica and Patella ulyssiponensis. The taxonomic attribution of specimens was ascertained by the molecular phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. P. caerulea and P. rustica had 2n = 18 chromosomes with first seven of biarmed pairs and the remaining two uniarmed pairs. P. ulyssiponensis had 2n = 16 with all biarmed chromosomes. Ag-NOR loci were on the short arms of the first metacentric pair in the three studied limpets, whereas they showed a different pattern of heterochromatin distribution and composition. A chromosome mosaicism was observed in several P. caerulea specimens, which exhibited an unpaired metacentric element and loss of a telocentric pair. The obtained results suggest that in the genus Patella specific diversification was accompanied by variations in heterochromatin distribution and composition and reduction of chromosome number by Robertsonian centric fusion.

  13. Differential toxic effects of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) on the herbivorous gastropods, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckol, Paulette; Putnam, Alysha B

    2017-04-01

    Members of the genus Ulva are widespread and abundant in intertidal and shallow subtidal areas but there are conflicting data regarding susceptibility to herbivory. While some studies have documented that Ulva spp. were favored by a diversity of marine herbivores, other work has revealed herbivore deterrence. We investigated grazing and growth rates of the littorinid species, Littorina littorea and L. obtusata, when offered Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Ulva lactuca, and Chondrus crispus, highlighting distinctive vulnerabilities to toxic effects of U. lactuca. Ulva lactuca was the preferred food of L. littorea, while L. obtusata showed no grazing on this ephemeral algal species. In contrast, F. vesiculosus was highly preferred by L. obtusata. Although L. littorea demonstrated a grazing preference for U. lactuca, growth rate of this gastropod species was nearly 3× greater when fed F. vesiculosus, suggesting a non-lethal, negative effect of U. lactuca on L. littorea with long-term exposure. Mortality of L. obtusata ranged from 0% to 100% when held in the presence of various Ulva densities for 1 week, and Ulva exudate depressed herbivory of this gastropod. We conclude that the water-soluble, toxic exudate produced by U. lactuca in response to herbivory had allelochemical properties, and may contain a cleavage product (acrylic acid) of dimethylsulfoniopropionate or reactive oxygen species (i.e., H2 O2 ). Observed differences in susceptibility to Ulva toxicity by the littorinid species may be related to generalist versus specialist feeding and habitat strategies. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Acute physiological responses of the freshwater snail Elimia flava (Mollusca: Pleuroceridae) to environmental pH and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Mary Lou; Feminella, Jack W; Lenertz, Kristin K; Henry, Raymond P

    2009-08-01

    The individual and interactive effects of environmental pH (7 [control], 6, 5, and 4) and calcium (0, 5, and 50 mg/L) were studied on hemolymph ions (pH, Ca(2+), total CO(2), Na(+), K(+)) and osmolality in the freshwater snail, Elimia flava, over a 72-h exposure. All hemolymph factors strongly differed with environmental pH. Snails exposed to pH 4 were inactive and experienced more dramatic ionic disturbances than snails at pH 5, 6, and 7, including reduced hemolymph pH, depressed Na(+) concentrations, and increased Ca(2+) and total CO(2) concentrations. There was an initial but transient increase in hemolymph K(+) over the 72 h exposure period. Environmental calcium ameliorated effects of acidification on hemolymph pH and Na(+), reducing the degree of depression in both variables irrespective of environmental pH or exposure time. In a separate experiment, effects of acidification on snail respiration were examined in which VO(2) was measured over 24 h in snails exposed to pH 7 and 4. Exposure to pH 4 caused a 64% reduction in oxygen uptake at 2 h and a maximum reduction (81%) at 11 h. Our results suggest that snails exposed to pH 4 cease interacting with the surrounding medium and use internal stores of CaCO(3) to buffer hemolymph acidification, whereas snails at pH 5 and higher appear to use environmental calcium as a buffer source. These results suggest an important role of environmental calcium in ameliorating the impacts of short-term, sublethal acidification.

  15. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (K. gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857; Kuschelenia (K. tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus aquilus (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus caliginosus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus purpuratus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus quechuarum (Crawford, 1939; Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849; Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863; Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838; Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846; Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871; Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889.Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.

  16. Taxonomic study on the family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) from the China's seas. Subfamilies: Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ninteen species of subfamilies Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae, family Mitridae, are recorded from the China's seas. Of which, one genus and six species are recorded for the first time from China' s seas, i.e., genus Ziba Adams H and Adams A, Cancilla (Cancilla)carnicolor, Ziba duplilirata, Z. insculpta, Neocancilla circula, Scabricola (Scabricola) desetangsii, Scabricola (Swainsonia) ocellata ocellata.

  17. Integrative study of a new cold-seep mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) associated with chemosynthetic symbionts in the Marmara Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Bénédicte; Duperron, Sébastien; Lorion, Julien; Sara Lazar, Cassandre; Sarrazin, Jozée

    2012-09-01

    Recently, small Idas-like mussels have been discovered living on carbonate crusts associated with cold-seeps in the Marmara Sea. These mussels, here referred to as Idas-like nov. sp., differ morphologically and genetically from another species identified as Idas aff. modiolaeformis, living in the same type of ecosystem in the Nile Deep-Sea Fan (eastern Mediterranean Sea). A phylogenetic analysis confirms the distinction between the two species, which belong to highly divergent lineages. Carbon stable isotope values, as well as the detection of thiotroph-related bacteria in the gill tissue, support the presence of a symbiotic, thiotroph-derived nutrition. In contrast, Idas aff. modiolaeformis displays six different types of symbionts. Finally our size-frequency data suggest that the recruitment is continuous in the examined area. The present study extends the documented distribution of symbiont-bearing mussels to the Marmara Sea, and contributes to the characterisation of biological communities in this recently explored area.

  18. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca; Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADLVC. Jorge

    Full Text Available The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 and benzene (C6H6. When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.

  19. Bivalvia (Mollusca) of Nansha Islands, China%中国南沙群岛的双壳纲贝类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡英亚; 刘桂茂

    2004-01-01

    报道了中国南沙群岛的双壳纲贝类141种,分隶于5亚纲8目36科77属.从种类的组成中,帘蛤科有18种,蚶科15种,扇贝科11种,鸟蛤科10种,锉蛤科8种,贻贝科、海菊蛤科和樱蛤科各7种,砗磲科6种,其他各科的种类均在5种以内.按种的性质而论,大多数属于和珊瑚礁有密切联系的热带种或亚热带种,区系性质为印度-西太平洋区的印尼-马来亚区.

  20. Mortality of unionid bivalves (Mollusca) associated with Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Masteller, Edwin C.

    1999-01-01

    Two exotic species of dreissenid mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis) began to colonize bottom substrates in Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie in 1990. By 1991, all native unionid (Unionidae) shells were infested by dreissenids. In 1990 and 1991, about 500 individual unionids of 15 species were collected: in 1992, 246 individuals of 12 species were collected; in 1993, 64 individuals of 6 species; in 1994, three individuals of three species; and in 1995, no unionids were found. In general, infestation indices of unionids were relatively low in 1990 and 1991, increased in 1992, and decreased in 1993. Mortality of unionids associated with infestation in the bay occurred in a shorter period of time (ca. two to three years) than has been documented in other water bodies. Observations in an area of Presque Isle not included in the present study, indicate that a small remnant population of unionids exists in the presence of heavily-colonized substrates by dreissenid mussels. Since other shallow-water areas of Lake Erie support infestation-free unionids in the presence of dreissenid mussels, it is hoped that some unionids will survive in Presque Isle Bay of Lake Erie.

  1. Deep-water Thyasiridae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Oman Margin, Arabian Sea, new species and examples of endemism and cosmopolitanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, P Graham

    2015-08-05

    Seven species of Thyasiridae are reported from the Oman Margin of the Arabian Sea at depths between 688 m and 3356 m. Hypoxic conditions exist at depths between 400 and 1200 m and three species are restricted to this zone and to the Arabian Sea. Leptaxinus indusarium has also been recorded from the Indus Fan and Channelaxinus investigatoris from off Sri Lanka. A new species Thyasira anassa sp. nov. is described from the hypoxic zone. Another four species are recorded from the abyssal zone where oxygen levels are typical for the deep ocean. Here another new species is described, Parathyasira bamberi sp. nov. but the other species could not be conclusively identified because of close affinity with populations from other oceans.  Deep water Atlantic species Axinulus croulinensis and Mendicula ferruginosa are apparently present in the abyssal Indian Ocean while another thyasirid shell is very close to Channelaxinus excavatus from the Eastern Pacific and C. perplicata from the Atlantic. Accompanying these abyssal thyasirids were other bivalve species, Deminucula atacellana, Limopsis pelagica and Bentharca asperula that cannot be distinguished by morphology from their Atlantic populations. It is concluded that using morphology alone that the abyssal species may well be cosmopolitan in distribution.

  2. Phylogeography of the Rock Shell Thais clavigera (Mollusca): Evidence for Long-Distance Dispersal in the Northwestern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Zhao, Dan; Jung, Daewui; Li, Qi; Kong, Ling-Feng; Ni, Gang; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Matsukuma, Akihiko; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Chungoo; Lee, Hyuk Je; Park, Joong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The present-day genetic structure of a species reflects both historical demography and patterns of contemporary gene flow among populations. To precisely understand how these factors shape current population structure of the northwestern (NW) Pacific marine gastropod, Thais clavigera, we determined the partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene for 602 individuals sampled from 29 localities spanning almost the whole distribution of T. clavigera in the NW Pacific Ocean (~3,700 km). Results from population genetic and demographic analyses (AMOVA, ΦST-statistics, haplotype networks, Tajima's D, Fu's FS, mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots) revealed a lack of genealogical branches or geographical clusters, and a high level of genetic (haplotype) diversity within each of studied population. Nevertheless, low but significant genetic structuring was detected among some geographical populations separated by the Changjiang River, suggesting the presence of geographical barriers to larval dispersal around this region. Several lines of evidence including significant negative Tajima's D and Fu's FS statistics values, the unimodally shaped mismatch distribution, and Bayesian skyline plots suggest a population expansion at marine isotope stage 11 (MIS 11; 400 ka), the longest and warmest interglacial interval during the Pleistocene epoch. The lack of genetic structure among the great majority of the NW Pacific T. clavigera populations may be attributable to high gene flow by current-driven long-distance dispersal of prolonged planktonic larval phase of this species.

  3. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-07-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmission electron microscopy. Within the scope of the present study we investigated the myogenesis of premetamorphic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages of the anaspidean opisthobranch Aplysia californica using fluorescence F-actin-labeling in conjunction with modern confocal laser scanning microscopy. We categorized muscles with respect to their differentiation and degeneration and found three true larval muscles that differentiate during the embryonic and veliger phase and degenerate during or slightly after metamorphosis. These are the larval retractor, the accessory larval retractor, and the metapodial retractor muscle. While the pedal retractor muscle, some transversal mantle fibers and major portions of the cephalopedal musculature are continued and elaborated during juvenile and adult life, the buccal musculature and the anterior retractor muscle constitute juvenile/adult muscles which differentiate during or after metamorphosis. The metapodial retractor muscle has never been reported for any other gastropod taxon. Our findings indicate that the late veliger larva of A. californica shares some common traits with veligers of other gastropods, such as a larval retractor muscle. However, the postmetamorphic stages exhibit only few congruencies with other gastropod taxa investigated to date, which is probably due to common larval but different adult life styles within gastropods. Accordingly, this study provides further evidence for morphological plasticity in gastropod myogenesis and stresses the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns.

  4. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini.

  5. Repertoire and evolution of TNF superfamily in Crassostrea gigas: implications for expansion and diversification of this superfamily in Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dahai; Qiu, Limei; Gao, Qiang; Hou, Zhanhui; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2015-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members represent a group of cytokines participating in diverse immunological, pathological and developmental pathways. However, compared with deuterostomia and cnidaia, the composition and evolution of TNF homologous in protostomia are still not well understood. In the present study, a total of 81 TNF superfamily (TNFSF) genes from 15 mollusk species, including 23 TNFSF genes from Crassostrea gigas, were surveyed by genome-wide bioinformatics analysis. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 out of 23 C. gigas TNFSF genes in five clades exhibited orthologous relationships with Pinctada fucata TNFSF genes. Moreover, there were 15 C. gigas TNFSF genes located in oyster-specific clusters, which were contributed by small-scaled tandem and/or segmental duplication events in oyster. By comparing the sequences of duplicated TNFSF pairs, exon loss and variant in exon/intron length were revealed as the major modes of divergence in gene structure. Most of the duplicated C. gigas TNFSF pairs were evolved under purifying selection with consistent tissue expression patterns, implying functional constraint shaped diversification. This study demonstrated the expansion and early divergence of TNF superfamily in C. gigas, which provides potential insight into revealing the evolution and function of this superfamily in mollusk.

  6. A new species of Pulvinites (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the upper Paleocene Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Virginia ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L.W.; Waller, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvinites lawrencei n.sp. is described from the upper Paleocene (Landenian Stage) Paspotansa Member of the Aquia Formation in Stafford County, Virginia. This is the first report of a member of the pteriacean family Pulvinitidae in the Tertiary on either side of the Atlantic, the only other post-Mesozoic records of Pulvinites being in the Paleocene of California and the present-day Pacific off southeast Australia. The stratigraphic setting and co-occurring molluscan assemblage of the new species indicate shallow-shelf, open-marine conditions with near normal salinities. -Authors

  7. A natural history of the deep-sea aplacophoran Prochaetoderma yongei and its relationship to confamilials (Mollusca, Prochaetodermatidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Amélie H.; Ivanov, Dmitry L.

    2009-09-01

    Previously published studies are woven together into a natural history of a deep-sea aplacophoran mollusc species, Prochaetoderma yongei Scheltema, 1985, and its confamilial species in the Prochaetodermatidae. This amphi-Atlantic species occurs sometimes in great numbers at upper bathyal depths, rivaling polychaetes in numerical dominance. It appears to be an opportunist, with wide geographic and depth distribution, rapid development from lecithotrophic larva to settlement and maturity, and omnivory. A short illustrated morphological description using characters useful for identifying all prochaetodermatid species should prove useful to nontaxonomists whose business is the deep-sea benthic fauna.

  8. An annotated catalogue and bibliography of the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the Recent Vetigastropoda of South Africa (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, David G

    2015-11-30

    A complete inventory of the known Recent vetigastropod fauna of South Africa is provided. Bibliographic citations to works discussing the taxonomy, synonymy and distribution of the species in a southern African or south-western Indian Ocean context are provided. Additional explanatory notes are given where pertinent. New genus records for South Africa: Acremodontina B.A. Marshall, 1995; Choristella Bush, 1879; Cocculinella Thiele, 1909; Conjectura Finlay, 1926; Crosseola Iredale, 1924; Falsimargarita Powell, 1951; Lepetella Verrill, 1880; Profundisepta McLean & Geiger, 1998; Stomatella Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina Iredale, 1937; Synaptocochlea Pilsbry, 1890; Tibatrochus Nomura, 1940; Visayaseguenzia Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Zetela Finlay, 1926. New species records for South Africa: Acremodontina aff. carinata Powell, 1940; Anatoma finlayi (Powell, 1937); Anatoma munieri (P. Fischer, 1862); Calliotropis acherontis B.A. Marshall, 1979; Calliotropis bucina Vilvens, 2006; Cocculinella minutissima (E.A. Smith, 1904); Diodora ruppellii (G.B. Sowerby (I), 1835); Emarginula costulata Deshayes, 1863; Emarginula decorata Deshayes, 1863; Jujubinus hubrechti Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006; Lepetella sp.; Seguenzia orientalis Thiele, 1925; Stomatella auricula Lamarck, 1816; Stomatia phymotis Helbling, 1779; Stomatolina angulata (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina cf. calliostoma (A. Adams, 1850); Stomatolina aff. danblumi Singer & Mienis, 1999; Stomatolina cf. rubra (Lamarck, 1822); Stomatolina sp.; Synaptocochlea concinna (Gould, 1845); Tectus mauritianus (Gmelin, 1791); Tibatrochus cf. incertus (Schepman, 1908); Turbo imperialis Gmelin, 1791; Turbo tursicus Reeve, 1848; Visayaseguenzia compsa (Melvill, 1904).New species: Spectamen martensi, replacement name for Spectamen semisculptum sensu Herbert (1987) (non Martens, 1904). New name: Oxystele antoni is proposed as a new name for Trochus (Turbo) variegatus (non Gmelin, 1791 =Heliacus) Anton, 1838. Revised taxonomy: Cyclostrema semisculptum Martens, 1904 is an earlier name for Solariella intermissa Thiele, 1925, and is referable to the genus Zetela Finlay, 1926; Margarita bicarinata A. Adams & Reeve, 1850 is considered to be a senior synonym of Solariella undata G.B. Sowerby (II), 1870, and is referable to the genus Ilanga Herbert, 1987. Validation of the name Trochus tigrinus Chemnitz, 1781 is credited to Dillwyn (1817) rather than Anton (1838). New synonyms: Clanculus exquisita Turton, 1932 =Calliostoma africanum Bartsch, 1915; Cyclostrema alfredensis Bartsch, 1915 =Parviturbo alfredensis (Bartsch, 1915); Cynisca gloriosa Bartsch, 1915 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861); Herbertina hayesi Herbert, 1995 =Bruceina chenoderma (Barnard, 1963); Ilanga millardi Herbert, 1987 =Ilanga humillima (Thiele, 1925); Leptothyra africana Bartsch, 1915 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861); Leptothyra albocincta Turton, 1932 =Tricolia striolata (Turton, 1932); Solariella undata G.B. Sowerby (II), 1870, S. gratiosa Thiele, 1925 and S. valdiviae Thiele, 1925 =Ilanga bicarinata bicarinata (A. Adams & Reeve, 1850); Solariella chuni Thiele, 1925, S. intermissa Thiele, 1925, S. gilchristi Barnard, 1963 and S. macleari Barnard, 1963 =Zetela semisculpta (Martens, 1904); Turbo (Collonia) armillatus G.B. Sowerby (III), 1886 =Cinysca spuria (Gould, 1861). New combinations: Basilissa (Ancistrobasis) compsa Melvill, 1904 is transferred to Visayaseguenzia; Calcar rhysopoma Barnard, 1964 is transferred to Bothropoma; Calliostoma glaucophaos Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Falsimargarita; Calliotropis chenoderma Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Bruceina; Collonia bicarinata Martens, 1902 is transferred to Cinysca; Crossea agulhasensis Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Conjectura; Cyclostrema semisculptum Martens, 1904 is transferred to Zetela; Cyclostremella farica Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Dikoleps; Cynisca africana Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Homalopoma; Leptogyra africana: Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Cirsonella; Leptothyra agulhasensis Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Homalopoma; Leptothyra alfredensis Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Parviturbo; Leptothyra sola Barnard, 1963 is transferred to a Parviturbo; Liotia (Cynisca) semiclausa Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Cinysca; Monilea spuria Gould, 1861 is transferred to Cinysca; Monodonta gibbula Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Cantrainea; Puncturella voraginosa Herbert & Kilburn, 1986 is transferred to Profundisepta; Solariella fuscomaculata G.B. Sowerby (III), 1892 is transferred to Skenea; Solariella turbynei Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Zetela; Turbo boswellae Barnard, 1969 is transferred to Cantrainea; Turbo foveolatus Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Crosseola; Turbo ponsonbyi G.B. Sowerby (III), 1897 is transferred to Bothropoma; Vitrinella agulhasensis Thiele, 1925 is transferred to Parviturbo; Vitrinella (Docomphala) arifca Bartsch, 1915 is transferred to Lodderena; Vitrinella inclinans Barnard, 1963 is transferred to Skenea.

  9. Complete female mitochondrial genome of Anodonta anatina (Mollusca: Unionidae): confirmation of a novel protein-coding gene (F ORF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Marianna; Burzyński, Artur

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater mussels are among animals having two different, gender-specific mitochondrial genomes. We sequenced complete female mitochondrial genomes from five individuals of Anodonta anatina, a bivalve species common in palearctic ecozone. The length of the genome was variable: 15,637-15,653 bp. This variation was almost entirely confined to the non-coding parts, which constituted approximately 5% of the genome. Nucleotide diversity was moderate, at 0.3%. Nucleotide composition was typically biased towards AT (66.0%). All genes normally seen in animal mtDNA were identified, as well as the ORF characteristic for unionid mitochondrial genomes, bringing the total number of genes present to 38. If this additional ORF does encode a protein, it must evolve under a very relaxed selection since all substitutions within this gene were non-synonymous. The gene order and structure of the genome were identical to those of all female mitochondrial genomes described in unionid bivalves except the Gonideini.

  10. Behavioral thermoregulation and critical thermal limits of giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata(Sowerby 1825) (Mollusca; Vetigastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Fernando; Denisse Re, Ana; Salas, Alfredo; Galindo-Sanchez, Clara E; Gonzalez, Marco A; Sanchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The thermoregulatory behavior of the giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata was determined in a horizontal thermal gradient during the day at 18.9 °C and 18.3 °C for the night. The final preferendum determined for giant keyhole limpets was of 18.6±1.2 °C. Limpets' displacement velocity was 10.0±3.9 cm h(-1) during the light phase and 8.4±1.6 cm h(-1) during the dark phase. The thermotolerance (measured as CTMax at 50%) was determined in a keyhole limpet in three acclimation temperatures 17, 20, and 23 °C. Limpets were subjected to water increasing temperatures at a rate of 1 °C every 30 min, until they detached from the substrate. The critical thermal maximum at 50% was 27.2, 27.9 and 28.3 °C respectively.

  11. Cytogenetic characterisation of the razor shells Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) and E. minor (Chenu, 1843) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tizón, Ana M.; Rojo, Verónica; Vierna, Joaquín; Jensen, K. Thomas; Egea, Emilie; Martínez-Lage, Andrés

    2013-03-01

    The European razor shell Ensis minor (Chenu 1843) and the American E. directus (Conrad 1843) have a diploid chromosome number of 38 and remarkable differences in their karyotypes: E. minor has four metacentric, one metacentric-submetacentric, five submetacentric, one subtelocentric and eight telocentric chromosome pairs, whereas E. directus has three metacentric, two metacentric-submetacentric, six submetacentric, six subtelocentric and two telocentric pairs. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a major ribosomal DNA probe located the major ribosomal genes on one submetacentric chromosome pair in both species; FISH with a 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) probe rendered one chromosomal (weak) signal for E. minor and no signal for E. directus, supporting a more dispersed organisation of 5S rDNA compared to the major ribosomal genes. The vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG) n was located on both ends of each chromosome, and no interstitial signals were detected. In this work, a comparative karyological analysis was also performed between the four Ensis species analysed revealing that the three European species studied so far, namely E. minor, E. siliqua (Linné 1758) and E. magnus Schumacher 1817 show more similarities among them than compared to the American species E. directus. In addition, clear karyotype differences were found between the morphologically similar species E. minor and E. siliqua.

  12. Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2010-04-01

    The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

  13. Numerical Quantification of Perkinsus Marinus in the American Oyster Crassostrea virginicata (Gmelin 1791) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) by Modern Stereology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Perkinsus are responsible for high mortalities of bivalve molluscs world-wide. Techniques to accurately estimate parasites in tissues are required to improve understanding of perkinsosis. This study quantifies the number and tissue distribution of Perkinsus marinus in ...

  14. Ocean barriers and glaciation: evidence for explosive radiation of mitochondrial lineages in the Antarctic sea slug Doris kerguelenensis (Mollusca, Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nerida G; Schrödl, M; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    Strong currents and deep passages of water can be barriers for larval dispersal of continental marine animals, but potential effects on direct developers are under-investigated. We examined the genetic structure of Doris kerguelenensis, a directly developing sea slug that occurs across the Drake Passage, the body of water separating Antarctica from South America. We found deep mitochondrial divergences within populations on both sides of the Drake Passage, and South American animals formed multiple sister-group relationships with Antarctic animals. A generalised molecular clock suggested these trans-Drake pairs diverged during the Pliocene–Pleistocene, after the formation of the Drake Passage. Statistical parsimony methods recovered 29 separate haplotype networks (many sympatric) that likely correlate with allopatric events caused by repeated glacial cycles. Data from 16S were congruent but more conserved than COI, and the estimated ancestral 16S haplotype was widespread. The marked difference in the substitution rates between these two mitochondrial genes results in different estimates of connectivity. Demographic analyses on networks revealed some evidence for selection and expanding populations. Contrasting with the Northern Hemisphere, glaciation in Antarctica appears to have increased rather than reduced genetic diversity. This suggests orbitally forced range dynamics based on Northern Hemisphere phylogeography do not hold for Antarctica. The diverse lineages found in D. kerguelenensis point towards a recent, explosive radiation, likely reflecting multiple refuges during glaciation events, combined with limited subsequent dispersal. Whether recognised as cryptic species or not, genetic diversity in Antarctic marine invertebrates appears higher than expected from morphological analyses, and supports the Antarctic biodiversity pump phenomenon.

  15. Recent expansion and relic survival: Phylogeography of the land snail genus Helix (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from south to north Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, V; Manganelli, G; Giusti, F; Ketmaier, V

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the evolutionary history of Helix, despite the fact that it includes the largest land snails in the western Palaearctic, some of which (e.g. H. pomatia Linnaeus, 1758) are valuable human food. We compared two groups of Helix with apparently contrasting evolutionary histories: the widespread species H. pomatia and the group distributed along the Italian Apennine chain, a relatively unknown set of species with a restricted distribution over a range of altitudes. To reconstruct the evolutionary trajectories of these two groups, we analysed morphological (shell and genitalia) and molecular characters (mitochondrial and nuclear markers) in a total of 59 populations from northern and central Europe (H. pomatia) and along the Apennine chain (various species). We also reconstructed the phylogeny and the evolutionary history of the genus by combining our data with that currently available in the literature. We found that spatial changes did not merely imply fragmentation of populations, but also implied environmental changes (woodlands vs. grasslands) that may have triggered the observed phenotypic diversification. We also found that Anatolia is the ancestral range of Helix and is therefore an important area for the Palaearctic diversity. The results provide insights into the evolutionary history of species richness and more generally into the processes that may have shaped the distribution and diversification of these organisms across Europe and the peri-Mediterranean area.

  16. Life cycle, population dynamics, growth and production of Abra segmentum (Mollusca, Bivalvia) at low salinities in a Mediterranean lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, Theodoros; Kasapis, K.; Kalpia, V.

    2009-12-01

    Aspects of the biology of Abra segmentum were investigated at low salinities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Monolimni Lagoon, Northern Aegean Sea). Monthly samples were collected during the period from February 1998 to January 1999. Recruitment occurred from mid-spring to early autumn (0.3-5.7 psu) and recruits grew during summer and autumn (1.2-5.7 psu), while a major part vanished during next autumn, displaying a maximum life span of about 20 months. A positive correlation was found between the percentage of individuals having a shell length of ≤3.5 mm and temperature; age group 0 showed a growth rate of 0.97 mm per month, and the largest individual collected had a 19.76 mm shell length. The population density sharply increased during late spring (0.3-1.2 psu); this increase was followed by a decline during summer and, afterwards, a gradual increase up to late autumn. Secondary production calculated by the size-frequency method gave a mean annual density ( n) of 3,357 individuals m-2, a mean annual biomass ( B) of 21.98 g DW m-2, an annual production ( P) of 73.72 g DW m-2 and a P: B ratio of 3.35. A comparison of the present data with available data of A. segmentum populations from higher salinity habitats revealed that this bivalve in the study area showed a life history pattern similar to that of other populations of the species and a comparatively high growth rate, maximum body size, n, B, P and P: B ratio. Our findings suggest that the studied aspects of A. segmentum biology could not be markedly affected by low salinities.

  17. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Pupillacea. X. Eine Chondrula der Untergattung Eubrephulus auf dem Peloponnes (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Enidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1984-01-01

    A new Chondrula species is described, most probably belonging to the subgenus Eubrephulus, viz. Chondrula (Eubrephulus) peloponnesica spec. nov. The species is known from a single locality only, situated on the SE. Peloponnesus, Greece. Shells of the other two Eubrephulus species known are figured f

  18. Spermatophoric reaction reappraised: novel insights into the functioning of the loliginid spermatophore based on Doryteuthis plei (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, José Eduardo A R

    2012-03-01

    During copulation, spermatophores produced by male coleoid cephalopods undergo the spermatophoric reaction, a complex process of evagination that culminates in the attachment of the spermatangium (everted spermatophore containing the sperm mass) on the female's body. To better understand this complicated phenomenon, the present study investigated the functional morphology of the spermatophore of the squid Doryteuthis plei applying in vitro analysis of the reaction, as well as light and electron microscopy investigation of spermatangia obtained either in vitro, or naturally attached on females. Hitherto unnoticed functional features of the loliginid spermatophore require a reappraisal of some important processes involved in the spermatophoric reaction. The most striking findings concern the attachment mechanism, which is not carried out solely by cement adhesive material, as previously believed, but rather by an autonomous, complex process performed by multiple structures during the spermatophoric reaction. During evagination, the ejaculatory apparatus provides anchorage on the targeted tissue, presumably due to the minute stellate particles present in the exposed spiral filament. Consequently, the ejaculatory apparatus maintains the attachment of the tip of the evaginating spermatophore until the cement body is extruded. Subsequently, the cement body passes through a complex structural rearrangement, which leads to the injection of both its viscid contents and pointed oral region onto the targeted tissue. The inner membrane at the oral region of the cement body contains numerous stellate particles attached at its inner side; eversion of this membrane exposes these sharp structures, which presumably adhere to the tissue and augment attachment. Several naturally attached spermatangia were found with their bases implanted at the deposition sites, and the possible mechanisms of perforation are discussed based on present evidence. The function of the complex squid spermatophore and its spermatophoric reaction is revisited in light of these findings. J. Morphol. 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Eupulmonata) from the coastal area of China based on mtCO I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Shen, Heding; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Bianna; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Chengnuan

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) gene sequences. A total of 240 individuals representing 10 collection sites from across a large portion of its known range were included in the analysis. Overall, 42 haplotypes were defined and 97 polymorphic sites were observed. The O. "struma" populations had high haplotype diversity (0.9280) and nucleotide diversity (0.0404). We inferred that the early maturity and extensive survival habitat led to high genetic diversity of O. "struma" populations in China. Bayesian analysis and SAMOVA analysis showed significant genetic differentiation among populations and all populations were divided into two groups, (HK and HN) versus (GY, DF, CX, CN, ND and XM). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r = 0.251; p = 0.058). Restricted gene flow caused by a shorter term pelagic veliger stage and limited dispersal potential were inferred to result in genetic differentiation among populations based on nested analysis. HK population might be an invasive species by artificial transplantation.

  20. Polyplacophora (Mollusca) from the San Diego Formation: A remarkable assemblage of fossil chitons from the Pliocene of southern Califoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrasco, Michael J.; Eernisse, Douglas J.; Powell, Charles L.; Fernandez, Christine Z.

    2012-01-01

    A rich chiton assemblage consisting of more than 15,000 valves (shell plates) was collected by George P. Kanakoff (1897–1973) from Pliocene exposures of the San Diego Formation just north of the U.S./Mexican border. The assemblage includes 16 extant species, three extinct species (Callistochiton sphaerae n. sp., Lepidozona kanakoffi n. sp., and Amicula solivaga n. sp.), and three indeterminate species. The collection is dominated by the genus Callistochiton and also includes the genera Leptochiton, Oldroydia, Lepidozona, Stenoplax, Amicula, Mopalia, Placiphorella, Tonicella, Dendrochiton, and Nuttallina. This assemblage expands the known stratigraphic and paleogeographic ranges of many chiton genera and species and provides information about an apparent late Cenozoic diversification of chitons along the Pacific Coast of North America. Chitons appear to have diversified in the northeastern Pacific from the middle Miocene to Pleistocene, driven in part by regional increases in productivity and environmental heterogeneity during that time. The chitons are interpreted to have been deposited at inner-neritic depths (,25 m) in the mouth of a bay or in a continental shelf environment, and the annual temperature range and seasonality are inferred to have been similar to those that occur off the nearby San Diego coast today. However, the fossil assemblages also include a mixture of taxa that today range only to the north or to the south. The large sample sizes of chiton valves allow rigorous analysis of the ratio of valve types, revealing a divergence from the expected pattern. This divergence is even greater on average than what occurs in assemblages of chiton valves in Holocene sediments, revealing that

  1. THE BEHAVIOR OF LOLIGO OPALESCENS (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA) AS OBSERVED BY A REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE (ROV). (R825381)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Recrutamento larval e crescimento de teredinidae (mollusca-bivalvia em região entremarés de manguezais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Godoy Bueno Carvalho Lopes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O recrutamento larval e o crescimento de Teredinidae na região entremarés do manguezal da Praia Dura, Ubatuba, SP, foi acompanhado durante doze meses (08/84 a 08/85 utilizando coletores construídos com madeira de mangue. O tempo decorrido para se detectar a presença dos primeiros Teredinidae foi de aproximadamente sete meses após o início do experimento e o número de indivíduos por coletor foi muito reduzido no período de amostragem. Esses resultados contrastam com os obtidos por outros autores que instalaram coletores em ambiente marinho, mas são semelhantes aos obtidos por autores que instalaram coletores em regiões estuarinas do litoral brasileiro. Essas diferenças nos resultados talvez possam ser explicadas pelo fato da salinidade ser mais baixa e mais variável nos estuários que no ambiente marinho. A análise dos dados sobre o recrutamento larval, permite concluir que a espécie mais abundante foi Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys, 1860, com principal época de instalação em março e taxa inicial de crescimento de 1,86 mm/day. As outras espécies de Teredinidae, Bankiaflmbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia roehi Moll, 1931 e Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, apresentaram pequeno número de indivíduos e em função disso, não foi possível determinar suas épocas de instalação e respectivas taxas de crescimento.The larval settlement and growth of Teredinidae in the intertidal region of the Praia Dura mangrove, Ubatuba, SP, were undertaken during one year (08/84 to 08/85 using colectors made from mangrove wood. The presence of the first Teredinidae was detected approximately seven month after the inicial experiment and the number of specimens per coletor was small during the sampling period. These results contrast with those obtained by other authors working in a marine environment, but are similar to those obtained in experiments developed in Brazilian estuaries. The differences between data obtained in marine and estuarine environments, might be explained by the lower and more variable salinity gradient in estuaries. Larval settlement data revealed that the most abundant species was Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys,1860, which settles on wood prefrerably in March, and has an initial growth rate of 1.86 mm/day. The other Teredinidae species Banida fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia rochi Moll, 1931 and Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, occurred in a very small number of specimens and therefore, their time of settlement and growth rates could not be determined.

  3. Biomphalaria straminea (Mollusca: Planorbidae) as an intermediate host of Drepanocephalus spp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Brazil: a morphological and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Hudson A; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M; Ware, Cynthia; Melo, Alan L

    2016-01-01

    Species of trematodes belonging to the genus Drepanocephalus are intestinal parasites of piscivorous birds, primarily cormorants (Phalachrocorax spp.), and are widely reported in the Americas. During a 4-year malacological study conducted on an urban lake in Brazil, 27-collar-spined echinostome cercariae were found in 1665/15,459 (10.7 %) specimens of Biomphalaria straminea collected. The cercariae were identified as Drepanocephalus spp. by sequencing the 18S (SSU) rDNA, ITS1/5.8S rDNA/ITS2 (ITS), 28S (LSU) rDNA region, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) markers. In experimental life cycle studies, metacercariae developed in laboratory-reared guppies (Poecilia reticulata); however, attempts to infect birds and rodents were unsuccessful. Two closely related morphotypes of cercariae were characterized. One species, identified by molecular markers as a genetic variant of Drepanocephalus auritus (99.9 % similarity at SSU, ITS, LSU; 97.2 % at CO1; 95.8 % at ND1), differs slightly from an archived North American isolate of this species also sequenced as part of this study. A second species, putatively identified as Drepanocephalus sp., has smaller cercariae and demonstrates significant differences from D. auritus at the CO1 (11.0 %) and ND1 (13.6 %) markers. Aspects related to the morphological taxonomic identification of 27-collar-spined echinostome metacercariae are briefly discussed. This is the first report of the involvement of molluscs of the genus Biomphalaria in the transmission of Drepanocephalus and the first report of D. auritus in South America.

  4. 贝类受精细胞学的研究现状%A Review of Fertilization Cytology in Mollusca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洲; 熊良伟; 王帅兵; 殷洁馨

    2006-01-01

    从成熟卵子的核相与体外促熟,精子的顶体反应,受精膜的形成,极体的释放与雌雄原核的形成以及多精入卵方面综述了贝类受精细胞学的研究成果,并展望了这一领域的研究和应用前景.

  5. Limitations of cytochrome oxidase I for the barcoding of Neritidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as revealed by Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, S Y

    2015-05-25

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene has been universally and successfully utilized as a barcoding gene, mainly because it can be amplified easily, applied across a wide range of taxa, and results can be obtained cheaply and quickly. However, in rare cases, the gene can fail to distinguish between species, particularly when exposed to highly sensitive methods of data analysis, such as the Bayesian method, or when taxa have undergone introgressive hybridization, over-splitting, or incomplete lineage sorting. Such cases require the use of alternative markers, and nuclear DNA markers are commonly used. In this study, a dendrogram produced by Bayesian analysis of an mtDNA COI dataset was compared with that of a nuclear DNA ATPS-α dataset, in order to evaluate the efficiency of COI in barcoding Malaysian nerites (Neritidae). In the COI dendrogram, most of the species were in individual clusters, except for two species: Nerita chamaeleon and N. histrio. These two species were placed in the same subcluster, whereas in the ATPS-α dendrogram they were in their own subclusters. Analysis of the ATPS-α gene also placed the two genera of nerites (Nerita and Neritina) in separate clusters, whereas COI gene analysis placed both genera in the same cluster. Therefore, in the case of the Neritidae, the ATPS-α gene is a better barcoding gene than the COI gene.

  6. 广东硇洲岛的瓣鳃类%LAMELLIBRANCHIA ANIMAIS OF MOLLUSCA FROM NAOZHOU ISLAND,GUANGDONG PROVICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖汉洪; 陈向荣; 李方满

    2002-01-01

    根据1999~2001年在广东硇洲岛海滨的岩石岸、砾石滩、泥沙滩、沙滩、红树林区潮间带和近海区潮下带等各种生态环境采集到的瓣鳃类动物的整理鉴定,获得瓣鳃类77种,分隶于24科44属.本文对其区系组成及分布特点进行了详细的论述.

  7. New lucinid bivalves from shallow and deeper water of the Indian and West Pacific Oceans (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four new species and a new genus of lucinid bivalves are described from shallow and deeper waters in the Indian and West Pacific Oceans. The new genus Scabrilucina (subfamily Lucininae includes the little-known S. victorialis (Melvill, 1899 from the Arabian Sea and S. vitrea (Deshayes, 1844 from the Andaman Sea as well as a new species S. melvilli from the Torres Strait off northeastern Australia. Ferrocina brunei new species (Lucininae was recovered from 60 m near oil drilling activities off Borneo; its anatomy confirmed the presence of symbiotic bacteria. Two unusual deeper water species of Leucosphaerinae are described, both species included in on-going molecular analyses; Gonimyrtea ferruginea from 400–650 m in the southwest Pacific and Myrtina reflexa from 200–825 m off Zanzibar and Madagascar.

  8. Assimilation of terrigenous organic matter via bacterial biomass as a food source for a brackish clam, Corbicula japonica (Mollusca: Bivalva)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Toshiro; Mizota, Chitoshi; Maki, Yonosuke; Matsumasa, Masatoshi

    2013-07-01

    Corbicula japonica collected from the Kitakami River estuary, northeastern Japan, showed lower δ34S values in soft-body parts (+1.7 to +11.0‰) than the ambient seawater sulfate sulfur (+21‰), and this value gradually decreased at successive sites up to 15.8 km upstream from the river mouth. Previous study using carbon and nitrogen isotopes suggests that the bivalve nonselectively assimilates particulate organic matter of marine and terrestrial origin by filter feeding. This pattern in δ34S values may indicate a considerable contribution of a food source derived from terrigenous organic matter, which has low δ34S values close to 0‰, and the bivalve has been reported to have cellulase and hemicellulase activities. Unique fatty acids (iso 17:0 and anteiso 17:0 acids), both characteristic of sulfate-reducing bacteria, were observed in the salt-free, soft-body parts of the bivalve. The concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids, possibly derived from bacteria, was also high. Trace amounts of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (20:5ω3) specific to dinoflagellates were detected. In Corbicula habitats, reductive sandy layers with ample sulfides that were sporadically intercalated into the oxidative sandy sediment were often observed. The stable isotopic signatures of sediment sulfides (acid-volatile sulfide) and associated pore-water sulfates were -8.9 to +8.6‰ and +22.4 to +26.3‰, respectively, indicating the existence of bacterial sulfate-reducing activity and thiobios biomass. These isotopic signatures of the sediment, with the fatty acid composition of the bivalve, confirm the importance of a food source derived from bacteria belonging to the thiobios in the substrate sediments via pedal feeding, rather than direct digestion of terrigenous organic matter, in this estuarine ecosystem.

  9. 栉江珧生殖细胞的发生%Gametogenesis in Atria pectinata Linnaeus (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅芳; 余祥勇; 王如才

    2000-01-01

    通过观察栉江珧(Atrina pectinata linnaeus)的未分化生殖细胞,精原细胞和卵原细胞,精母细胞和卵母细胞,精子和卵子的形态结构与分布状况及核仁在卵成熟过程中的变化,对栉江珧生殖细胞发生及成熟过程的有关问题进行了探讨.

  10. Study on Lamprotula Mollusca in Henan%河南丽蚌属淡水软体动物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石灵; 牛瑶

    2011-01-01

    共记述河南省的丽蚌属12种,其中天津丽蚌Lamprotula tientsinensis(Crosse&Debeaux,1863)为河南新记录,并编制了这些种类的检索表.%12 species of Lamprotula were recorded from Henan with one species,Lamprotula tientsinensis (Crosse & Debeaux, 1863) , known for the first time in this region. A key of these species was given.

  11. [Temporary abundance variation of Coralliophila abbreviata and Coralliophila caribaea (Mollusca, Coralliophilidae) in a coral reef at Morrocoy National Park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mónaco, Carlos; Villamizar, Estrella; Narciso, Samuel

    2008-06-01

    The mollusks Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea are coral predators in the Caribbean Sea . We evaluated the temporal variability of abundance and size structure of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea in Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuelar (September 2004 - August 2005). The density of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea was evaluated monthly by means of two 50-meter long transects paralell to the coast line, at 3 m and 6 m deep; aditionally, 30 individuals of C. abbreviata were collected to measure size. The densities of C. abbreviata at the shallow transect fluctuated between 1.78 ind/m2 in September and 6.26 ind/m2 in May. The densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 4.23 ind/m2 in January and 7.66 ind/m2 in May. The densities of C. caribaea at the shallow transect fluctuated between 0 Ind/m2 (except in September) and 0.03 Ind/m2 (September) and the densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 0 Ind/m2 (October to March and July) and 0.1 Ind/m2 (April). Most individuals of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea measured between 12 and 16 mm and between 10 and 15 mm long respectively.

  12. [The influence of the trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of Planorbarius corneus (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Bulinidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnichenko, A P; Girin, V K

    2005-01-01

    The influence of the Trematode invasion on the average daily rations and electoral nourishment of the two size groups in the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus, "young" (12-24 mm in diameter) and "old" (24-36.5 mm in diameter), have been investigated.

  13. Dicyema shorti n. sp. (phylum Dicyemida) from Octopus burryi (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Hidetaka; Damian, Raymond T; Hochberg, F G

    2002-04-01

    Nematogens and vermiform embryos of a new species of Dicyema are described from an octopus collected off Veracruz, Mexico. Dicyema shorti n. sp. is a small dicyemid species that rarely exceeds 500 microm in length. It is further characterized by the presence of 18 peripheral cells in the vermiform stages, a conical-shape calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the base of the propolar cells. Other stages in the life cycle of the parasite are not known. This is the first dicyemid to be described from Octopus burryi Voss. 1950, and also from both the southern Gulf of Mexico and the country of Mexico.

  14. Cryptic species of deep-sea clams (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Vesicomyidae) from hydrothermal vent and cold-water seep environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijenhoek, Robert C.; Schutz, Steven J.; Gustafson, Richard G.; Lutz, Richard A.

    1994-08-01

    A protein-electrophoretic analysis of six putative morphospecies in the bivalve family Vesicomyidae from eight deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the eastern Pacific, three cold-water seep sites in the eastern Pacific and the Gulf of Mexico, and one whale-carcass site off Southern California revealed electromorph patterns diagnostic of 10 vesicomyid species. Electrophoretic patterns for 14 enzymes encoded by 17 presumptive gene loci were scored in all 10 species. The pairwise genetic distances (Nei's D) for these 10 species ranged from 0.857 to 2.792, values within the range expected for distinct species and genera. However, the degree of genetic divergence among these taxa could not be used for phylogenetic inferences because allozyme differences had in many cases reached evolutionary saturation. Notwithstanding, the present results revealed a significant problem with current morphospecies identifications of these clams and with applications of the current generic names Calyptogena and Vesicomya. Given the cryptic nature of these taxa, we suggest that subsequent studies simply refer to these clams as "vesicomyids" until careful morphological analyses and molecular studies are completed and systematic relationships are clarified.

  15. Comparative studies on the histology and ultrastructure of the siphons of two species of Tellinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E.V.V. Vitonis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L", circular ("C" and radial ("R" fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm, and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci and one outer (Co, near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm separates an internal (Lmi from an outer (Lmo median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo, forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the inhalant and exhalant siphons, and between the species. Detailed comparisons among the siphons of M. biota and T. lineata and other bivalve species are very difficult, because of at least two reasons. First, each investigator has used different methods to prepare and observe the siphons through histological sections; and second, different nomenclatural schemes are used to describe the musculature of the siphons, causing confusion when the same layers are compared among different species. In order to unify the nomenclature of tissue layers of the bivalve siphons, we now propose a scheme to name these layers based on topological homology.

  16. Differences in the distribution and abundance of Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Carvalho Maldonado

    Full Text Available Abstract Teredinidae are wood-boring mollusks found in marine and estuarine regions. Evaluation of the distribution and abundance of Teredinidae is a very important task, as the impact of the destruction of wood in man-made structures is still underestimated, mainly in tropical regions. It is also know that temperature and salinity are key factors affecting the abundance and activity of Teredinidae due to their effects on the physiological responses of Teredinidae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and abundance of Teredinidae along the Rio de Janeiro coast according to temperature range and pattern. Artificial pine collectors were used and remained immersed for three months in four regions at 14 sites. We recorded seven species of Teredinidae, identified according to their pallets. Ilha Grande Bay was the region with the highest density and species richness, and the region with the lowest was Guanabara Bay. One gradient of abundance related to temperature was found. The most abundant species were Lyrodus floridanus and Teredo furcifera. Besides temperature, wood availability among regions was another important factor. For the first time, we recorded the occurrence of Bankia destructa on the Rio de Janeiro coast, but this record does not indicate any species introduction or expanding distribution range.

  17. On some Vetigastropoda (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Philippines with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwerda, Renate Ariane; Wesselingh, Frank Pieter; Williams, Suzanne T

    2014-01-21

    We studied representatives of seven vetigastropod families in an extremely well-preserved Plio-Pleistocene mollusc fauna found in relatively deep water sediments (c. 200-300 m paleodepth) from the north-western Philippines. The fauna is systematically described and its paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical character is explored. Twenty-six species of gastropods were studied, three of which are described as new: Halystina conoidea n. sp., Calliotropis arenosa n. sp. and Ethminolia wareni n. sp. Four new combinations are proposed: Pseudotalopia taiwanensis (Chen, 2006), Solariella segersi (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006), Zetela tabakotanii (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006) and Ilanga konos (Vilvens, 2009). Fourteen species are known living. Most extant species nowadays occur around the Philippines. Two of the species also occur in Neogene deposits from western Pacific islands. The new fauna offers insights into the character of relatively deep water Indo-West Pacific mollusc faunas prior to the onset of the late Quaternary ice ages.

  18. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  19. Molecular evidence of two cryptic species of Stramonita (Mollusca, Muricidae in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Beltramin De Biasi

    Full Text Available Abstract Snails of the genus Stramonita are commonly found in the rocky intertidal habitat of the western Atlantic Ocean coast. They belong to a monophyletic taxon that occurs along the tropical and warm-temperate Atlantic and eastern Pacific rocky shores. This genus comprises different valid species and members of the S. haemastoma complex. In the present study, samples of Stramonita were collected from three different regions of southeastern Brazil. Partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes, COI and 16S rRNA, were used to compare nucleotides sequences between Stramonita specimens. Levels of nucleotide divergence greater than 2% across the three sampled regions were used for differentiation at the species level. One of the identified species was S. brasiliensis, which has recently been described by molecular analysis; the other species may represent S. haemastoma, not yet described in the southeastern Brazilian coast.

  20. A Miocene molluscan faunule from Caucagua (Miranda State, Venezuela), with the description of a new species of Tryonia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Macsotay, O.

    2006-01-01

    A molluscan faunule from the Miocene Cumaca Formation of the western margin of the Tuy Basin (Venezuela) is described. The fauna yields two species of freshwater snails and a single terrestrial snail species. Tryonia vivasi nov. spec. is described from the fauna, and its biogeographical significance