WorldWideScience

Sample records for acetylcholine vesicular transporter

  1. Subpopulations of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons express active vesicular acetylcholine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Ada Maria; De Stefano, M Egle; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Vilaró, M Teresa; Levey, Allan I; Biagioni, Stefano

    2004-01-15

    The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is a transmembrane protein required, in cholinergic neurons, for selective storage of acetylcholine into synaptic vesicles. Although dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons utilize neuropeptides and amino acids for neurotransmission, we have previously demonstrated the presence of a cholinergic system. To investigate whether, in sensory neurons, the vesicular accumulation of acetylcholine relies on the same mechanisms active in classical cholinergic neurons, we investigated VAChT presence, subcellular distribution, and activity. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of VAChT mRNA and protein product in DRG neurons and in the striatum and cortex, used as positive controls. Moreover, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed VAChT staining located mainly in the medium/large-sized subpopulation of the sensory neurons. A few small neurons were also faintly labeled by immunocytochemistry. In the electron microscope, immunolabeling was associated with vesicle-like elements distributed in the neuronal cytoplasm and in both myelinated and unmyelinated intraganglionic nerve fibers. Finally, [(3)H]acetylcholine active transport, evaluated either in the presence or in the absence of ATP, also demonstrated that, as previously reported, the uptake of acetylcholine by VAChT is ATP dependent. This study suggests that DRG neurons not only are able to synthesize and degrade ACh and to convey cholinergic stimuli but also are capable of accumulating and, possibly, releasing acetylcholine by the same mechanism used by the better known cholinergic neurons.

  2. Spiroindolines identify the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as a novel target for insecticide action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Sluder

    Full Text Available The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family.

  3. Spiroindolines Identify the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter as a Novel Target for Insecticide Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Ann; Shah, Sheetal; Cassayre, Jérôme; Clover, Ralph; Maienfisch, Peter; Molleyres, Louis-Pierre; Hirst, Elizabeth A.; Flemming, Anthony J.; Shi, Min; Cutler, Penny; Stanger, Carole; Roberts, Richard S.; Hughes, David J.; Flury, Thomas; Robinson, Michael P.; Hillesheim, Elke; Pitterna, Thomas; Cederbaum, Fredrik; Worthington, Paul A.; Crossthwaite, Andrew J.; Windass, John D.; Currie, Richard A.; Earley, Fergus G. P.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of all major insecticide classes continues to be eroded by the development of resistance mediated, in part, by selection of alleles encoding insecticide insensitive target proteins. The discovery of new insecticide classes acting at novel protein binding sites is therefore important for the continued protection of the food supply from insect predators, and of human and animal health from insect borne disease. Here we describe a novel class of insecticides (Spiroindolines) encompassing molecules that combine excellent activity against major agricultural pest species with low mammalian toxicity. We confidently assign the vesicular acetylcholine transporter as the molecular target of Spiroindolines through the combination of molecular genetics in model organisms with a pharmacological approach in insect tissues. The vesicular acetylcholine transporter can now be added to the list of validated insecticide targets in the acetylcholine signalling pathway and we anticipate that this will lead to the discovery of novel molecules useful in sustaining agriculture. In addition to their potential as insecticides and nematocides, Spiroindolines represent the only other class of chemical ligands for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter since those based on the discovery of vesamicol over 40 years ago, and as such, have potential to provide more selective tools for PET imaging in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. They also provide novel biochemical tools for studies of the function of this protein family. PMID:22563457

  4. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive axon terminals enriched in the pontine nuclei of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, T; Houtani, T; Toida, K; Kase, M; Yamashita, T; Ishimura, K; Sugimoto, T

    2007-06-08

    Information to the cerebellum enters via many afferent sources collectively known as precerebellar nuclei. We investigated the distribution of cholinergic terminal-like structures in the mouse precerebellar nuclei by immunohistochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). VAChT is involved in acetylcholine transport into synaptic vesicles and is regarded as a reliable marker for cholinergic terminals and preterminal axons. In adult male mice, brains were perfusion-fixed. Polyclonal antibodies for VAChT, immunoglobulin G-peroxidase and diaminobenzidine were used for immunostaining. In the mouse brain, immunoreactivity was seen in almost all major cholinergic cell groups including brainstem motoneurons. In precerebellar nuclei, the signal could be detected as diffusely beaded terminal-like structures. It was seen heaviest in the pontine nuclei and moderate in the pontine reticulotegmental nucleus; however, it was seen less in the medial solitary nucleus, red nucleus, lateral reticular nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, external cuneate nucleus and vestibular nuclear complex. In particular, VAChT-immunoreactive varicose fibers were so dense in the pontine nuclei that detailed distribution was studied using three-dimensional reconstruction of the pontine nuclei. VAChT-like immunoreactivity clustered predominantly in the medial and ventral regions suggesting a unique regional difference of the cholinergic input. Electron microscopic observation in the pontine nuclei disclosed ultrastructural features of VAChT-immunoreactive varicosities. The labeled bouton makes a symmetrical synapse with unlabeled dendrites and contains pleomorphic synaptic vesicles. To clarify the neurons of origin of VAChT-immunoreactive terminals, VAChT immunostaining combined with wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase retrograde labeling was conducted by injecting a retrograde tracer into the right pontine nuclei. Double-labeled neurons were seen bilaterally in the

  5. Pulmonary inflammation is regulated by the levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia M Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh plays a crucial role in physiological responses of both the central and the peripheral nervous system. Moreover, ACh was described as an anti-inflammatory mediator involved in the suppression of exacerbated innate response and cytokine release in various organs. However, the specific contributions of endogenous release ACh for inflammatory responses in the lung are not well understood. To address this question we have used mice with reduced levels of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, a protein required for ACh storage in secretory vesicles. VAChT deficiency induced airway inflammation with enhanced TNF-α and IL-4 content, but not IL-6, IL-13 and IL-10 quantified by ELISA. Mice with decreased levels of VAChT presented increased collagen and elastic fibers deposition in airway walls which was consistent with an increase in inflammatory cells positive to MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in the lung. In vivo lung function evaluation showed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in mutant mice. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (p65-NF-kB in lung of VAChT-deficient mice were higher than in wild-type mice, whereas a decreased expression of janus-kinase 2 (JAK2 was observed in the lung of mutant animals. Our findings show the first evidence that cholinergic deficiency impaired lung function and produce local inflammation. Our data supports the notion that cholinergic system modulates airway inflammation by modulation of JAK2 and NF-kB pathway. We proposed that intact cholinergic pathway is necessary to maintain the lung homeostasis.

  6. Whole-Retina Reduced Electrophysiological Activity in Mice Bearing Retina-Specific Deletion of Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Bedore

    Full Text Available Despite rigorous characterization of the role of acetylcholine in retinal development, long-term effects of its absence as a neurotransmitter are unknown. One of the unanswered questions is how acetylcholine contributes to the functional capacity of mature retinal circuits. The current study investigates the effects of disrupting cholinergic signalling in mice, through deletion of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT in the developing retina, pigmented epithelium, optic nerve and optic stalk, on electrophysiology and structure of the mature retina.A combination of electroretinography, optical coherence tomography imaging and histological evaluation assessed retinal integrity in mice bearing retina- targeted (embryonic day 12.5 deletion of VAChT (VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox and littermate controls at 5 and 12 months of age. VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice did not show any gross changes in nuclear layer cellularity or synaptic layer thickness. However, VAChTSix3-Cre-flox/flox mice showed reduced electrophysiological response of the retina to light stimulus under scotopic conditions at 5 and 12 months of age, including reduced a-wave, b-wave, and oscillatory potential (OP amplitudes and decreased OP peak power and total energy. Reduced a-wave amplitude was proportional to the reduction in b-wave amplitude and not associated with altered a-wave 10%-90% rise time or inner and outer segment thicknesses.This study used a novel genetic model in the first examination of function and structure of the mature mouse retina with disruption of cholinergic signalling. Reduced amplitude across the electroretinogram wave form does not suggest dysfunction in specific retinal cell types and could reflect underlying changes in the retinal and/or extraretinal microenvironment. Our findings suggest that release of acetylcholine by VAChT is essential for the normal electrophysiological response of the mature mouse retina.

  7. A new {sup 18}F-labeled fluoroacetylmorpholino derivative of vesamicol for neuroimaging of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorger, Dietlind [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)], E-mail: sord@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Scheunemann, Matthias [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Grossmann, Udo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Fischer, Steffen; Vercouille, Johnny; Hiller, Achim; Wenzel, Barbara [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Roghani, Ali [Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX 39430 (United States); Schliebs, Reinhard [Paul-Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, University of Leipzig, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Steinbach, Joerg [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    With the aim of producing selective radiotracers for in vivo imaging of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) using positron mission tomography (PET), here, we report synthesis and analysis of a new class of conformationally constrained vesamicol analogues with moderate lipophilicity. The sequential ring opening on trans-1,4-cyclohexadiene dioxide enabled an approach to synthesize 6-arylpiperidino-octahydrobenzo[1,4]oxazine-7-ols [morpholino vesamicols]. The radiosynthesis of the [{sup 18}F]fluoroacetyl-substituted derivative ([{sup 18}F]FAMV) was achieved starting from a corresponding bromo precursor [2-Bromo-1-[7-hydroxy-6-(4-phenyl-piperidin-1-yl)-octahydro-benzo[1,4] oxazin-4-yl]-ethanone] and using a modified commercial computer-controlled module system with a radiochemical yield of 27{+-}4%, a high radiochemical purity (99%) and a specific activity of 35 GBq/{mu}mol. In competitive binding assays using a PC12 cell line overexpressing VAChT and [{sup 3}H]-(-) vesamicol, 2-fluoro-1-[7-hydroxy-6-(4-phenyl-piperidin-1-yl)-octahydro-benzo[1,4] oxazin-4yl]-ethanone (FAMV) demonstrated a high selectivity for binding to VAChT (K{sub i}: 39.9{+-}5.9 nM) when compared to its binding to sigma{sub 1/2} receptors (K{sub i}>1500 nM). The compound showed a moderate lipophilicity (logD{sub (pH7)}=1.9) and a plasma protein binding of 49%. The brain uptake of [{sup 18}F]FAMV was about 0.1% injected dose per gram at 5 min after injection and decreased continuously with time. Notably, an increasing accumulation of radioactivity in the lateral brain ventricles was observed. After 1 h, the accumulation of [{sup 18}F]FAMV, expressed as ratio to the cerebellum, was 4.5 for the striatum, 2.0 for the cortical and 1.5 for the hippocampal regions, measured on brain slices using ex vivo autoradiography. At the present time, 75% of [{sup 18}F]FAMV in the plasma was shown to be metabolized to various hydrophilic compounds, as detected by high-performance liquid chromatography

  8. Positron emission tomography imaging of (2R,3R)-5-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol in rat and monkey brain: a radioligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbourn, Michael R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: mkilbour@umich.edu; Hockley, Brian; Lee, Lihsueh; Sherman, Phillip; Quesada, Carole; Frey, Kirk A.; Koeppe, Robert A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Introduction: The regional brain distribution of (2R,3R)-5-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxy-benzovesamicol ((-)-[{sup 18}F]FEOBV), a radioligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), was examined in vivo in mice, rats and rhesus monkeys. Methods: Regional brain distributions of (-)-[{sup 18}F]FEOBV in mice were determined using ex vivo dissection. MicroPET imaging was used to determine the regional brain pharmacokinetics of the radioligand in rat and rhesus monkey brains. Results: In all three species, clear heterogeneous regional brain distributions were obtained, with the rank order of brain tissues (striatum>thalamus>cortex>cerebellum) consistent with the distribution of cholinergic nerve terminals containing the VAChT. Conclusions: (-)-[{sup 18}F]FEOBV remains a viable candidate for further development as an in vivo imaging agent for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the VAChT in the human brain.

  9. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location.

  10. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock down-mice are more susceptible to inflammation, c-Fos expression and sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Hércules Ribeiro; Oliveira-Lima, Onésia Cristina de; Pereira, Luciana de Melo; Oliveira, Vinícius Elias de Moura; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antônio Máximo; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Massensini, André Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the well-known functions as a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh) can modulate of the immune system. Nonetheless, how endogenous ACh release inflammatory responses is still not clear. To address this question, we took advantage of an animal model with a decreased ACh release due a reduction (knockdown) in vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expression (VAChT-KD(HOM)). These animals were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Afterwards, we evaluated sickness behavior and quantified systemic and cerebral inflammation as well as neuronal activation in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). VAChT-KD(HOM) mice that were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) showed increased mortality rate as compared to control mice. In line with this result, a low dose of LPS (0.1mg/kg) increased the levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in the spleen and brain of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice in comparison with controls. Similarly, serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were increased in VAChT-KD(HOM) mice. This excessive cytokine production was completely prevented by administration of a nicotinic receptor agonist (0.4mg/kg) prior to the LPS injection. Three hours after the LPS injection, c-Fos expression increased in the DVC region of VAChT-KD(HOM) mice compared to controls. In addition, VAChT-KD(HOM) mice showed behavioral changes such as lowered locomotor and exploratory activity and reduced social interaction after the LPS challenge, when compared to control mice. Taken together, our results show that the decreased ability to release ACh exacerbates systemic and cerebral inflammation and promotes neural activation and behavioral changes induced by LPS. In conclusion, our findings support the notion that activity of cholinergic pathways, which can be modulated by VAChT expression, controls inflammatory and neural responses to LPS challenge.

  11. In Vivo Differences between Two Optical Isomers of Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol for Use as a Radioligand for the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Uno

    Full Text Available To develop a superior VAChT imaging probe for SPECT, radiolabeled (--OIDV and (+-OIDV were isolated and investigated for differences in their binding affinity and selectivity to VAChT, as well as their in vivo activities.Radioiodinated o-iodo-trans-decalinvesamicol ([125I]OIDV has a high binding affinity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT both in vitro and in vivo. Racemic [125I]OIDV was separated into its two optical isomers (--[125I]OIDV and (+-[125I]OIDV by HPLC. To investigate VAChT binding affinity (Ki of two OIDV isomers, in vitro binding assays were performed. In vivo biodistribution study of each [125I]OIDV isomer in blood, brain regions and major organs of rats was performed at 2,30 and 60 min post-injection. In vivo blocking study were performed to reveal the binding selectivity of two [125I]OIDV isomers to VAChT in vivo. Ex vivo autoradiography were performed to reveal the regional brain distribution of two [125I]OIDV isomers and (--[123I]OIDV for SPECT at 60 min postinjection.VAChT binding affinity (Ki of (--[125I]OIDV and (+-[125I]OIDV was 22.1 nM and 79.0 nM, respectively. At 2 min post-injection, accumulation of (--[125I]OIDV was the same as that of (+-[125I]OIDV. However, (+-[125I]OIDV clearance from the brain was faster than (--[125I]OIDV. At 30 min post-injection, accumulation of (--[125I]OIDV (0.62 ± 0.10%ID/g was higher than (+-[125I]OIDV (0.46 ± 0.07%ID/g in the cortex. Inhibition of OIDV binding showed that (--[125I]OIDV was selectively accumulated in regions known to express VAChT in the rat brain, and ex vivo autoradiography further confirmed these results showing similar accumulation of (--[125I]OIDV in these regions. Furthermore, (--[123I]OIDV for SPECT showed the same regional brain distribution as (--[125I]OIDV.These results suggest that radioiodinated (--OIDV may be a potentially useful tool for studying presynaptic cholinergic neurons in the brain.

  12. Neuroimaging of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter by a novel 4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-benzoyl derivative of 7-hydroxy-6-(4-phenyl-piperidin-1-yl)-octahydro-benzo[1,4]oxazines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorger, Dietlind [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)], E-mail: sord@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Scheunemann, Matthias; Vercouillie, Johnny [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig 04318 (Germany); Grossmann, Udo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); Fischer, Steffen; Hiller, Achim; Wenzel, Barbara [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig 04318 (Germany); Roghani, Ali [Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock TX 39430 (United States); Schliebs, Reinhard [Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04109 (Germany); Steinbach, Joerg; Brust, Peter [Institute of Interdisciplinary Isotope Research, Leipzig 04318 (Germany); Sabri, Osama [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103 (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Phenylpiperidinyl-octahydro-benzo[1,4]oxazines represent a new class of conformationally restrained vesamicol analogues. Derived from this morpholine-fused vesamicol structure, a new fluorine-18-labeled 4-fluorobenzoyl derivative ([{sup 18}F]FBMV) was synthesized with an average specific activity of 75 GBq/{mu}mol and a radiochemical purity of 99%. The radiolabeling method included an exchange reaction of a 4-nitro group of the precursor by fluorine-18, a reduction procedure to eliminate excess of the nitro compound, followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography purification. [{sup 18}F]FBMV demonstrates (i) a moderate lipophilic character with a logD{sub pH7.0} 1.8{+-}0.10; (ii) a considerable binding affinity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) (K{sub i}=27.5 nM), as determined using PC12 cells transfected with a VAChT cDNA, and a low affinity to {sigma}{sub 1,2} receptors (K{sub i} >3000 nM); (iii) a good uptake into the rat and pig brains; (iv) a typical accumulation in the VAChT-containing brain regions; and (v) an approximately 20% reduction in cortical tracer binding after a specific cholinergic lesion using 192IgG-saporin. [{sup 18}F]FBMV exhibits another PET marker within the group of vesamicol derivatives that demonstrates potentials in imaging brain cholinergic deficits, while its usefulness in clinical practice must await further investigation.

  13. Co-existence of Functionally Different Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster-Wandowski, Agnieszka; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich; Richter, Karin; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    The vesicular transmitter transporters VGLUT, VGAT, VMAT2 and VAChT, define phenotype and physiological properties of neuronal subtypes. VGLUTs concentrate the excitatory amino acid glutamate, VGAT the inhibitory amino acid GABA, VMAT2 monoamines, and VAChT acetylcholine (ACh) into synaptic vesicle (SV). Following membrane depolarization SV release their content into the synaptic cleft. A strict segregation of vesicular transporters is mandatory for the precise functioning of synaptic communication and of neuronal circuits. In the last years, evidence accumulates that subsets of neurons express more than one of these transporters leading to synaptic co-release of different and functionally opposing transmitters and modulation of synaptic plasticity. Synaptic co-existence of transporters may change during pathological scenarios in order to ameliorate misbalances in neuronal activity. In addition, evidence increases that transporters also co-exist on the same vesicle providing another layer of regulation. Generally, vesicular transmitter loading relies on an electrochemical gradient ΔμH(+) driven by the proton ATPase rendering the lumen of the vesicle with respect to the cytosol positive (Δψ) and acidic (ΔpH). While the activity of VGLUT mainly depends on the Δψ component, VMAT, VGAT and VAChT work best at a high ΔpH. Thus, a vesicular synergy of transporters depending on the combination may increase or decrease the filling of SV with the principal transmitter. We provide an overview on synaptic co-existence of vesicular transmitter transporters including changes in the excitatory/inhibitory balance under pathological conditions. Additionally, we discuss functional aspects of vesicular synergy of transmitter transporters.

  14. Co-existence of functionally different vesicular neurotransmitter transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eMünster-Wandowski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular transmitter transporters VGLUT, VGAT, VMAT2 and VAChT, define phenotype and physiological properties of neuronal subtypes. VGLUTs concentrate the excitatory amino acid glutamate, VGAT the inhibitory amino acid GABA, VMAT2 monoamines, and VAChT acetylcholine into synaptic vesicle (SV. Following membrane depolarization SV release their content into the synaptic cleft. A strict segregation of vesicular transporters is mandatory for the precise functioning of synaptic communication and of neuronal circuits. In the last years, evidence accumulates that subsets of neurons express more than one of these transporters leading to synaptic co-release of different and functionally opposing transmitters and modulation of synaptic plasticity. Synaptic co-existence of transporters may change during pathological scenarios in order to ameliorate misbalances in neuronal activity. In addition, evidence increases that transporters also co-exist on the same vesicle providing another layer of regulation. Generally, vesicular transmitter loading relies on an electrochemical gradient µH+ driven by the proton ATPase rendering the lumen of the vesicle with respect to the cytosol positive ( and acidic (pH. While the activity of VGLUT mainly depends on the component, VMAT, VGAT and VAChT work best at a high pH. Thus, a vesicular synergy of transporters depending on the combination may increase or decrease the filling of SV with the principal transmitter. We provide an overview on synaptic co-existence of vesicular transmitter transporters including changes in the excitatory/inhibitory balance under pathological conditions. Additionally, we discuss functional aspects of vesicular synergy of transmitter transporters.

  15. Are vesicular neurotransmitter transporters potential treatment targets for temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeri eVan Liefferinge

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (VNTs are small proteins responsible for packing synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters thereby determining the amount of neurotransmitter released per vesicle through fusion in both neurons and glial cells. Each transporter subtype was classically seen as a specific neuronal marker of the respective nerve cells containing that particular neurotransmitter or structurally related neurotransmitters. More recently, however, it has become apparent that common neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters, adding complexity to neurotransmitter release and suggesting intriguing roles for VNTs therein. We will first describe the current knowledge on vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1/2/3, the vesicular excitatory amino acid transporter (VEAT, the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/2, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT and the vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA transporter (VGAT in the brain. We will focus on evidence regarding transgenic mice with disruptions in VNTs in different models of seizures and epilepsy. We will also describe the known alterations and reorganizations in the expression levels of these VNTs in rodent models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and in human tissue resected for epilepsy surgery. Finally, we will discuss perspectives on opportunities and challenges for VNTs as targets for possible future epilepsy therapies.

  16. Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Karamched, Bhargav R.

    2016-08-01

    A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states.

  17. Armadillo motifs involved in vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Striegl

    Full Text Available Armadillo (ARM repeat proteins function in various cellular processes including vesicular transport and membrane tethering. They contain an imperfect repeating sequence motif that forms a conserved three-dimensional structure. Recently, structural and functional insight into tethering mediated by the ARM-repeat protein p115 has been provided. Here we describe the p115 ARM-motifs for reasons of clarity and nomenclature and show that both sequence and structure are highly conserved among ARM-repeat proteins. We argue that there is no need to invoke repeat types other than ARM repeats for a proper description of the structure of the p115 globular head region. Additionally, we propose to define a new subfamily of ARM-like proteins and show lack of evidence that the ARM motifs found in p115 are present in other long coiled-coil tethering factors of the golgin family.

  18. Vesicular transport of a ribonucleoprotein to mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyita Mukherjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular trafficking of viruses and proteins commonly occurs via the early endosome in a process involving Rab5. The RNA Import Complex (RIC-RNA complex is taken up by mammalian cells and targeted to mitochondria. Through RNA interference, it was shown that mito-targeting of the ribonucleoprotein (RNP was dependent on caveolin 1 (Cav1, dynamin 2, Filamin A and NSF. Although a minor fraction of the RNP was transported to endosomes in a Rab5-dependent manner, mito-targeting was independent of Rab5 or other endosomal proteins, suggesting that endosomal uptake and mito-targeting occur independently. Sequential immunoprecipitation of the cytosolic vesicles showed the sorting of the RNP away from Cav1 in a process that was independent of the endosomal effector EEA1 but sensitive to nocodazole. However, the RNP was in two types of vesicle with or without Cav1, with membrane-bound, asymmetrically orientated RIC and entrapped RNA, but no endosomal components, suggesting vesicular sorting rather than escape of free RNP from endosomes. In vitro, RNP was directly transferred from the Type 2 vesicles to mitochondria. Live-cell imaging captured spherical Cav1− RNP vesicles emerging from the fission of large Cav+ particles. Thus, RNP appears to traffic by a different route than the classical Rab5-dependent pathway of viral transport.

  19. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  20. Synaptic Democracy and Vesicular Transport in Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Levien, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Synaptic democracy concerns the general problem of how regions of an axon or dendrite far from the cell body (soma) of a neuron can play an effective role in neuronal function. For example, stimulated synapses far from the soma are unlikely to influence the firing of a neuron unless some sort of active dendritic processing occurs. Analogously, the motor-driven transport of newly synthesized proteins from the soma to presynaptic targets along the axon tends to favor the delivery of resources to proximal synapses. Both of these phenomena reflect fundamental limitations of transport processes based on a localized source. In this Letter, we show that a more democratic distribution of proteins along an axon can be achieved by making the transport process less efficient. This involves two components: bidirectional or "stop-and-go" motor transport (which can be modeled in terms of advection-diffusion), and reversible interactions between motor-cargo complexes and synaptic targets. Both of these features have recently been observed experimentally. Our model suggests that, just as in human societies, there needs to be a balance between "efficiency" and "equality".

  1. Vesicular and Plasma Membrane Transporters for Neurotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The regulated exocytosis that mediates chemical signaling at synapses requires mechanisms to coordinate the immediate response to stimulation with the recycling needed to sustain release. Two general classes of transporter contribute to release, one located on synaptic vesicles that loads them with transmitter, and a second at the plasma membrane that both terminates signaling and serves to recycle transmitter for subsequent rounds of release. Originally identified as the target of psychoacti...

  2. Effects of cell geometry on reversible vesicular transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamched, Bhargav R.; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2017-02-01

    A major question in cell biology concerns the biophysical mechanism underlying delivery of newly synthesized macromolecules to specific targets within a cell. A recent modeling paper investigated this phenomenon in the context of vesicular delivery to en passant synapses in neurons (Bressloff and Levien 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett.). It was shown how reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses could play a crucial role in achieving uniformity in the distribution of resources throughout an axon, which is consistent with experimental observations in C. elegans and Drosophila. In this work we generalize the previous model by investigating steady-state vesicular distributions on a Cayley tree, a disk, and a sphere. We show that for irreversible transport on a tree, branching increases the rate of decay of the steady-state distribution of vesicles. On the other hand, the steady-state profiles for reversible transport are similar to the 1D case. In the case of higher-dimensional geometries, we consider two distinct types of radially-symmetric microtubular network: (i) a continuum and (ii) a discrete set. In the continuum case, we model the motor-cargo dynamics using a phenomenologically-based advection-diffusion equation in polar (2D) and spherical (3D) coordinates. On the other-hand, in the discrete case, we derive the population model from a stochastic model of a single motor switching between ballistic motion and diffusion. For all of the geometries we find that reversibility in vesicular delivery to target sites allows for a more uniform distribution of vesicles, provided that cargo-carrying motors are not significantly slowed by their cargo. In each case we characterize the loss of uniformity as a function of the dispersion in velocities.

  3. Choline acetyltransferase and organic cation transporters are responsible for synthesis and propionate-induced release of acetylcholine in colon epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Klein, Jochen; Diener, Martin

    2014-06-15

    Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter, but is found in a variety of non-neuronal cells. For example, the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, is expressed by the colonic epithelium of different species. These cells release acetylcholine across the basolateral membrane after luminal exposure to propionate, a short-chain fatty acid. The functional consequence is the induction of chloride secretion, measurable as increase in short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chamber experiments. It is unclear how acetylcholine is produced and released by colonic epithelium. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the identification (on mRNA and protein level) and functional characterization (in Ussing chamber experiments combined with HPLC detection of acetylcholine) of transporters/enzymes in the cholinergic system of rat colonic epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining as well as RT-PCR revealed the expression of high-affinity choline transporter, ChAT, carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and organic cation transporters (OCT 1, 2, 3) in colonic epithelium. In contrast to blockade of ChAT with bromoacetylcholine, inhibition of CarAT with mildronate did not inhibit the propionate-induced increase in Isc, suggesting a predominant synthesis of epithelial acetylcholine by ChAT. Although being expressed, blockade of VAChT with vesamicol was ineffective, whereas inhibition of OCTs with omeprazole and corticosterone inhibited propionate-induced Isc and the release of acetylcholine into the basolateral compartment. In summary, OCTs seem to be involved in regulated acetylcholine release by colonic epithelium, which is assumed to be involved in chemosensing of luminal short-chain fatty acids by the intestinal epithelium.

  4. Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eVigneault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the brain. Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3 are responsible for uploading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are considered as specific markers of canonical glutamatergic neurons, while VGLUT3 is found in neurons previously shown to use other neurotransmitters than glutamate. Although there exists a rich literature on the localization of these glutamatergic markers in the rodent brain, little is currently known about the distribution of VGLUT1-3 in the human brain. In the present study, using subtype specific probes and antisera, we examined the localization of the three vesicular glutamate transporters in the human brain by in situ hybridization, immunoautoradiography and immunohistochemistry. We found that the VGLUT1 transcript was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, whereas VGLUT2 mRNA was mainly found in the thalamus and brainstem. VGLUT3 mRNA was localized in scarce neurons within the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and raphe nuclei. Following immunoautoradiographic labeling, intense VGLUT1- and VGLUT2-immunoreactivities were observed in all regions investigated (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, cerebellum, thalamus, amygdala, substantia nigra, raphe while VGLUT3 was absent from the thalamus and cerebellum. This extensive mapping of VGLUT1-3 in human brain reveals distributions that correspond for the most part to those previously described in rodent brains.

  5. Gas transport and vesicularity in low-viscosity liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioli, Laura; Bonadonna, Costanza; Abdulkareem, Lokman; Azzopardi, Barry; Phillips, Jeremy

    2010-05-01

    Vesicle textures of basaltic scoria preserve information on magma bubble content at fragmentation and are commonly used to constrain degassing, vesiculation and magma permeability. These studies are based on the assumption that microscale textures are representative of the conduit-scale structures and processes. However, the conditions for which this assumption is valid have not been investigated in detail. We have investigated conduit-scale structures by performing a series of experiments of separate two-phase flows in a 6.5-m high cylindrical bubble column using a combination of air with pure glucose syrup, water-syrup mixtures and pure water to reproduce open-system degassing and strombolian activity conditions in the upper volcanic conduit (i.e. at very low or zero liquid fluxes). We have varied gas fluxes, initial liquid height, gas inlet configuration and liquid viscosity and analyzed flow regimes and properties. Temperature and pressure were measured at several heights along the pipe and vesicularity was calculated using pressure data, liquid level measurements and an Electrical Capacitance tomography (ECT) system, which measures instantaneous vesicularity and phase distribution from capacitance measurements between pairs of electrodes placed uniformly around the pipe circumference. The aim of the experiments was to identify the effect of gas-flow rates on the flow regimes (i.e. bubbly, slug, churn and annular), the main degassing structures and the total gas content of the column. The effect of increasing and decreasing gas flow rates was also studied to check hysteresis effects. Results indicate that the vesicularity of the liquid column depends primarily on gas flux, whereas flow regimes exert a minor control. In fact, vesicularity increases with gas flux following a power-law trend whose exponent depends on the viscosity of the liquid. In addition, distributions of instantaneous gas fraction in the column cross section during syrup experiments have shown

  6. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a novel neurotransmitter system

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Greer, Christina L.; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N.; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M.; Nguyen, Bac T.; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J.; de Belle, J. Steven; Krantz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Storage and release of classical and amino acid neurotransmitters requires vesicular transporters. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila...

  7. Vamp-7 Mediates Vesicular Transport from Endosomes to Lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Raj J.; Yang, Bin; Prekeris, Rytis; Lee, Kelly C.; Klumperman, Judith; Scheller, Richard H.

    1999-01-01

    A more complete picture of the molecules that are critical for the organization of membrane compartments is beginning to emerge through the characterization of proteins in the vesicle-associated membrane protein (also called synaptobrevin) family of membrane trafficking proteins. To better understand the mechanisms of membrane trafficking within the endocytic pathway, we generated a series of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against the cytoplasmic domain of vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7). The antibodies recognize a 25-kD membrane-associated protein in multiple tissues and cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals colocalization with a marker of late endosomes and lysosomes, lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1), but not with other membrane markers, including p115 and transferrin receptor. Treatment with nocodozole or brefeldin A does not disrupt the colocalization of VAMP-7 and LAMP-1. Immunoelectron microscopy analysis shows that VAMP-7 is most concentrated in the trans-Golgi network region of the cell as well as late endosomes and transport vesicles that do not contain the mannose-6 phosphate receptor. In streptolysin- O–permeabilized cells, antibodies against VAMP-7 inhibit the breakdown of epidermal growth factor but not the recycling of transferrin. These data are consistent with a role for VAMP-7 in the vesicular transport of proteins from the early endosome to the lysosome. PMID:10459012

  8. Organization of organelles and VAMP-associated vesicular transport systems in differentiating skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular transport plays an important role in the regulation of cellular function and differentiation of the cell, and intracellular vesicles play a role in the delivery of membrane components and in sorting membrane proteins to appropriate domains in organelles and the plasma membrane. Research on vesicular transport in differentiating cells has mostly focused on neurons and epithelial cells, and few such studies have been carried out on skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells have specialized organelles and plasma membrane domains, including T-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, neuromuscular junctions, and myotendinous junctions. The differentiation of skeletal muscle cells is achieved by multiple steps, i.e., proliferation of myoblasts, formation of myotubes by cell-cell fusion, and maturation of myotubes into myofibers. Systematic vesicular transport is expected to play a role in the maintenance and development of skeletal muscle cells. Here, we review a map of the vesicular transport system during the differentiation of skeletal muscle cells. The characteristics of organelle arrangement in myotubes are described according to morphological studies. Vesicular transport in myotubes is explained by the expression profiles of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins.

  9. Increased vesicular and vacuolar transendothelial transport in traumatic human brain oedema. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Orlando J

    2013-01-01

    The endothelial vacuolar and vesicular transports in traumatic human brain oedema have been reviewed and compared with experimental brain oedema in order to establish their role in both oedema formation and oedema resolution. Normal or "non-activated" and "activated" capillaries are found. The activated capillaries showed predominantly an enhanced abluminally orientated vesicular transport by means of small, medium and large uncoated and clathrin coated vesicles, as well as the presence of endothelial tubular structures. Activation of the endothelial nuclear zone is featured by the increased amount of micropinocytotic vesicles. Vesicles internalizing to the hypertrophic Golgi complex, lysosomes and multivesicular bodies are observed. The protein vacuolar transport is predominant in most cortical capillaries. A wide spectrum of endothelial cell mechanisms is observed increasing the vesicular and vacuolar transport, such as deep invaginations of the luminal surface, large coated vesicles, tubular structures, and transient and incomplete transendothelial channels formed either by chained plasmalemmal vesicles or elongated protein-containing vacuoles. Uncoated vesicles are seen surrounding lysosomes. Vesicular transport might be discriminated between abluminally orientated or transendothelial transport (oedema formation) and intraendothelial transport (oedema resolution) directed towards cell lysosomes to be degraded by lysosomal enzymes. The transendothelial passage via large vacuoles is mainly caused by macromolecular protein transport.

  10. Vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT2 expression levels control quantal size and neuropathic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Moechars (Dieder); M.C. Weston (Matthew); S. Leo (Sandra); Z. Callaerts-Vegh (Zsuzsanna); I. Goris (Ilse); R.F. Daneels; A. Buist (A.); M. Cik (M.); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); R.S. Kass (Robert); T. Meert (Theo); R. D'Hooge (Rudi); C. Rosenmund (Christian); R.M. Hampson (R. Mark)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractUptake of L-glutamate into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Three transporters (VGLUT1-VGLUT3) are expressed in the mammalian CNS, with partial overlapping expression patterns, and VGLUT2 is the most abundantly expressed paralog in the thalamus,

  11. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a novel neurotransmitter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Greer, Christina L.; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N.; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M.; Nguyen, Bac T.; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J.; de Belle, J. Steven; Krantz, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Storage and release of classical and amino acid neurotransmitters requires vesicular transporters. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male’s position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Since prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning. PMID:22017990

  12. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a neurotransmitter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth S; Greer, Christina L; Romero-Calderón, Rafael; Serway, Christine N; Grygoruk, Anna; Haimovitz, Jasmine M; Nguyen, Bac T; Najibi, Rod; Tabone, Christopher J; de Belle, J Steven; Krantz, David E

    2011-10-20

    Vesicular transporters are required for the storage of all classical and amino acid neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles. Some neurons lack known vesicular transporters, suggesting additional neurotransmitter systems remain unidentified. Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) remain unknown. Likewise, KCs do not express a known vesicular transporter. We report the identification of a novel Drosophila gene portabella (prt) that is structurally similar to known vesicular transporters. Both larval and adult brains express PRT in the KCs of the MBs. Additional PRT cells project to the central complex and optic ganglia. prt mutation causes an olfactory learning deficit and an unusual defect in the male's position during copulation that is rescued by expression in KCs. Because prt is expressed in neurons that lack other known vesicular transporters or neurotransmitters, it may define a previously unknown neurotransmitter system responsible for sexual behavior and a component of olfactory learning.

  13. Bovine neuronal vesicular glutamate transporter activity is inhibited by ergovaline and other ergopeptines

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-Glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter responsible for neurotransmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, including the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of cattle. Vesicular Glu transporters VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 concentrate (50 mM) Glu (Km = 1 to 4 mM) into synaptic vesicles (S...

  14. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporter trafficking in vivo: moving from cells to flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygoruk, Anna; Fei, Hao; Daniels, Richard W; Miller, Bradley R; Chen, Audrey; DiAntonio, Aaron; Krantz, David E

    2010-01-01

    During exocytosis, classical and amino acid neurotransmitters are released from the lumen of synaptic vesicles to allow signaling at the synapse. The storage of neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles and other types of secretory vesicles requires the activity of specific vesicular transporters. Glutamate and monoamines such as dopamine are packaged by VGLUTs and VMATs respectively. Changes in the localization of either protein have the potential to up- or down regulate neurotransmitter release, and some of the mechanisms for sorting these proteins to secretory vesicles have been investigated in cultured cells in vitro. We have used Drosophila molecular genetic techniques to study vesicular transporter trafficking in an intact organism and have identified a motif required for localizing Drosophila VMAT (DVMAT) to synaptic vesicles in vivo. In contrast to DVMAT, large deletions of Drosophila VGLUT (DVGLUT) show relatively modest deficits in localizing to synaptic vesicles, suggesting that DVMAT and DVGLUT may undergo different modes of trafficking at the synapse. Further in vivo studies of DVMAT trafficking mutants will allow us to determine how changes in the localization of vesicular transporters affect the nervous system as a whole and complex behaviors mediated by aminergic circuits.

  15. The vesicular monoamine transporter-2: an important pharmacological target for the discovery of novel therapeutics to treat methamphetamine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Vartak, Ashish; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse escalates, but no approved therapeutics are available to treat addicted individuals. Methamphetamine increases extracellular dopamine in reward-relevant pathways by interacting at vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) to inhibit dopamine uptake and promote dopamine release from synaptic vesicles, increasing cytosolic dopamine available for reverse transport by the dopamine transporter (DAT). VMAT2 is the target of our iterative drug discovery efforts to identify pharmacotherapeutics for methamphetamine addiction. Lobeline, the major alkaloid in Lobelia inflata, potently inhibited VMAT2, methamphetamine-evoked striatal dopamine release, and methamphetamine self-administration in rats but exhibited high affinity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Defunctionalized, unsaturated lobeline analog, meso-transdiene (MTD), exhibited lobeline-like in vitro pharmacology, lacked nAChR affinity, but exhibited high affinity for DAT, suggesting potential abuse liability. The 2,4-dicholorophenyl MTD analog, UKMH-106, exhibited selectivity for VMAT2 over DAT, inhibited methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release, but required a difficult synthetic approach. Lobelane, a saturated, defunctionalized lobeline analog, inhibited the neurochemical and behavioral effects of methamphetamine; tolerance developed to the lobelane-induced decrease in methamphetamine self-administration. Improved drug-likeness was afforded by the incorporation of a chiral N-1,2-dihydroxypropyl moiety into lobelane to afford GZ-793A, which inhibited the neurochemical and behavioral effects of methamphetamine, without tolerance. From a series of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine analogs, AV-2-192 emerged as a lead, exhibiting high affinity for VMAT2 and inhibiting methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release. Current results support the hypothesis that potent, selective VMAT2 inhibitors provide the requisite preclinical behavioral profile for evaluation as pharmacotherapeutics for

  16. Prion Aggregates Are Recruited to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD) via Myosin 2-Based Vesicular Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nawroth, Peter P; Tyedmers, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Sequestration of misfolded and aggregated proteins into specialized deposition sites may reduce their potentially detrimental properties. Yeast exhibits a distinct deposition site for amyloid aggregates termed "Insoluble PrOtein Deposit (IPOD)", but nothing is known about the mechanism of substrate recruitment to this site. The IPOD is located directly adjacent to the Phagophore Assembly Site (PAS) where the cell initiates autophagy and the Cytoplasm-to-Vacuole Targeting (CVT) pathway destined for delivery of precursor peptidases to the vacuole. Recruitment of CVT substrates to the PAS was proposed to occur via vesicular transport on Atg9 vesicles and requires an intact actin cytoskeleton and "SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) Receptor Proteins (SNARE)" protein function. It is, however, unknown how this vesicular transport machinery is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. We demonstrate that recruitment of model amyloid PrD-GFP and the CVT substrate precursor-aminopeptidase 1 (preApe1) to the IPOD or PAS, respectively, is disturbed after genetic impairment of Myo2-based actin cable transport and SNARE protein function. Rather than accumulating at the respective deposition sites, both substrates reversibly accumulated often together in the same punctate structures. Components of the CVT vesicular transport machinery including Atg8 and Atg9 as well as Myo2 partially co-localized with the joint accumulations. Thus we propose a model where vesicles, loaded with preApe1 or PrD-GFP, are recruited to tropomyosin coated actin cables via the Myo2 motor protein for delivery to the PAS and IPOD, respectively. We discuss that deposition at the IPOD is not an integrated mandatory part of the degradation pathway for amyloid aggregates, but more likely stores excess aggregates until downstream degradation pathways have the capacity to turn them over after liberation by the Hsp104

  17. Prion Aggregates Are Recruited to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD via Myosin 2-Based Vesicular Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Sequestration of misfolded and aggregated proteins into specialized deposition sites may reduce their potentially detrimental properties. Yeast exhibits a distinct deposition site for amyloid aggregates termed "Insoluble PrOtein Deposit (IPOD", but nothing is known about the mechanism of substrate recruitment to this site. The IPOD is located directly adjacent to the Phagophore Assembly Site (PAS where the cell initiates autophagy and the Cytoplasm-to-Vacuole Targeting (CVT pathway destined for delivery of precursor peptidases to the vacuole. Recruitment of CVT substrates to the PAS was proposed to occur via vesicular transport on Atg9 vesicles and requires an intact actin cytoskeleton and "SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein Receptor Proteins (SNARE" protein function. It is, however, unknown how this vesicular transport machinery is linked to the actin cytoskeleton. We demonstrate that recruitment of model amyloid PrD-GFP and the CVT substrate precursor-aminopeptidase 1 (preApe1 to the IPOD or PAS, respectively, is disturbed after genetic impairment of Myo2-based actin cable transport and SNARE protein function. Rather than accumulating at the respective deposition sites, both substrates reversibly accumulated often together in the same punctate structures. Components of the CVT vesicular transport machinery including Atg8 and Atg9 as well as Myo2 partially co-localized with the joint accumulations. Thus we propose a model where vesicles, loaded with preApe1 or PrD-GFP, are recruited to tropomyosin coated actin cables via the Myo2 motor protein for delivery to the PAS and IPOD, respectively. We discuss that deposition at the IPOD is not an integrated mandatory part of the degradation pathway for amyloid aggregates, but more likely stores excess aggregates until downstream degradation pathways have the capacity to turn them over after liberation by the

  18. Relationship between pancreatic vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and insulin expression in human pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Saisho, Yoshifumi; Harris, Paul E.; Butler, Alexandra E.; Galasso, Ryan; GURLO, TATYANA; Rizza, Robert A.; Butler, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is expressed in pancreatic beta cells and has recently been proposed as a target for measurement of beta cell mass in vivo. We questioned, (1) What proportion of beta cells express VMAT2? (2) Is VMAT2 expressed by other pancreatic endocrine or non-endocrine cells? (3) Is the relationship between VMAT2 and insulin expression disturbed in type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM)? Human pancreas (7 non-diabetics, 5 T2DM, 10 T1DM) was immunostained for ins...

  19. Mechanisms for the effects of acetylcholine on sodium transport in frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, A W; Wilson, S A

    1981-03-15

    In frog skin (Rana temporaria) acetylcholine applied to the serosal surface produces either a sustained inhibiton or sustained stimulation of short-circuit current (SCC). The former effect is accompanied by a reduction and the latter by an increase in total tissue conductance. Both effects of acetylcholine can be accounted for, within experimental error, by changes in net sodium flux across the tissue. By use of selective agonists and antagonists it is concluded that acetylcholine interacts with muscarinic receptors in the serosal membrane. The effects of cholinoceptor agents are also seen with isolated epithelium. The stimulatory effect of acetylcholine is potentiated by theophylline and blocked by inhibitors of prostaglandin synthetase and by mepacrine. It is suggested that acetylcholine stimulates transport by liberating prostaglandins which may then activate adenylcyclase. The inhibitory effect of acetylcholine is correlated with a reduction in cyclic AMP content of the epithelium. Calcium appears to be an important determinant of the type of response seen eith acetylcholine, but the mechanism is not known.

  20. Hitchhiking vesicular transport routes to the vacuole: amyloid recruitment to the Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Neuser, Nicole; Tyedmers, Jens

    2017-03-09

    Sequestration of aggregates into specialized deposition sites occurs in many species across all kingdoms of life ranging from bacteria to mammals and is commonly believed to have a cytoprotective function. Yeast cells possess at least three different spatially separated deposition sites, one of which is termed "Insoluble Protein Deposit (IPOD)" and harbors amyloid aggregates. We have recently discovered that recruitment of amyloid aggregates to the IPOD employs an actin cable based recruitment machinery that also involves vesicular transport (1) . Here we discuss how different proteins known to be involved in vesicular transport processes to the vacuole might act to guide amyloid aggregates to the IPOD. These factors include the Myosin V motor protein Myo2 involved in transporting vacuolar vesicles along actin cables, the transmembrane protein Atg9 involved in the recruitment of large precursor hydrolase complexes to the vacuole, the phosphatidylinositol/ phosphatidylcholine (PI/PC) transfer protein Sec 14 and the SNARE chaperone Sec 18. Furthermore, we present new data suggesting that the yeast dynamin homolog Vps1 is also crucial for faithful delivery of the amyloid model protein PrD-GFP to the IPOD. This is in agreement with a previously identified role for Vps1 in recruitment of heat-denatured aggregates to a perivacuolar deposition site (2) .

  1. A Study on Antitoxic Role of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 in Transgenic Chinese Hamster Overy Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶民; 丁新生; 董海蓉; 仇镇宁; 管晓虹

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the antitoxic role of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in transpgenic Chinese Hamster ovary(CHO) cell.Methods:With the technology of transgene from PC12 to CHO,MTT reduction assay was used to detect MPP+ toxic effect on wild type CHO(wtCHO) and transgenic CHO.Meanwhile,the role of reserpine was also observed in MPP+ toxic effects.Results:The sensitivity of transgenic CHO to MPP+ was much less than that of wtCHO with 0.5 mmol/L MPP+.Transgenic CHO had the same sensitivity as wtCHO if rotenone was given.WtCHO,by given reserpine alone,didn''''''''t change its sensitivity to MPP+.Conclusions:VMAT2 has protective effect on transgenic CHO by transporting MPP+ to vesicles.

  2. Amyloid-Beta Induced Changes in Vesicular Transport of BDNF in Hippocampal Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Seifert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an important growth factor in the CNS. Deficits in transport of this secretory protein could underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Investigation of disease-related changes in BDNF transport might provide insights into the cellular mechanism underlying, for example, Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To analyze the role of BDNF transport in AD, live cell imaging of fluorescently labeled BDNF was performed in hippocampal neurons of different AD model systems. BDNF and APP colocalized with low incidence in vesicular structures. Anterograde as well as retrograde transport of BDNF vesicles was reduced and these effects were mediated by factors released from hippocampal neurons into the extracellular medium. Transport of BDNF was altered at a very early time point after onset of human APP expression or after acute amyloid-beta(1-42 treatment, while the activity-dependent release of BDNF remained unaffected. Taken together, extracellular cleavage products of APP induced rapid changes in anterograde and retrograde transport of BDNF-containing vesicles while release of BDNF was unaffected by transgenic expression of mutated APP. These early transport deficits might lead to permanently impaired brain functions in the adult brain.

  3. Orf virus interferes with MHC class I surface expression by targeting vesicular transport and Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Jörg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Orf virus (ORFV, a zoonotic Parapoxvirus, causes pustular skin lesions in small ruminants (goat and sheep. Intriguingly, ORFV can repeatedly infect its host, despite the induction of a specific immunity. These immune modulating and immune evading properties are still unexplained. Results Here, we describe that ORFV infection of permissive cells impairs the intracellular transport of MHC class I molecules (MHC I as a result of structural disruption and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Depending on the duration of infection, we observed a pronounced co-localization of MHC I and COP-I vesicular structures as well as a reduction of MHC I surface expression of up to 50%. These subversion processes are associated with early ORFV gene expression and are accompanied by disturbed carbohydrate trimming of post-ER MHC I. The MHC I population remaining on the cell surface shows an extended half-life, an effect that might be partially controlled also by late ORFV genes. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that ORFV down-regulates MHC I surface expression in infected cells by targeting the late vesicular export machinery and the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus, which might aid to escape cellular immune recognition.

  4. Lobelane inhibits methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release via inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R; Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Norrholm, Seth; Deaciuc, Gabriela; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2010-02-01

    Lobeline is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as a methamphetamine abuse treatment. Lobeline interacts with nicotinic receptor subtypes, dopamine transporters (DATs), and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT2s). Methamphetamine inhibits VMAT2 and promotes dopamine (DA) release from synaptic vesicles, resulting ultimately in increased extracellular DA. The present study generated structure-activity relationships by defunctionalizing the lobeline molecule and determining effects on [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding, inhibition of [(3)H]DA uptake into striatal synaptic vesicles and synaptosomes, the mechanism of VMAT2 inhibition, and inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked DA release. Compared with lobeline, the analogs exhibited greater potency inhibiting DA transporter (DAT) function. Saturated analogs, lobelane and nor-lobelane, exhibited high potency (K(i) = 45 nM) inhibiting vesicular [(3)H]DA uptake, and lobelane competitively inhibited VMAT2 function. Lobeline and lobelane exhibited 67- and 35-fold greater potency, respectively, in inhibiting VMAT2 function compared to DAT function. Lobelane potently decreased (IC(50) = 0.65 microM; I(max) = 73%) methamphetamine-evoked DA overflow, and with a greater maximal effect compared with lobeline (IC(50) = 0.42 microM, I(max) = 56.1%). These results provide support for VMAT2 as a target for inhibition of methamphetamine effects. Both trans-isomers and demethylated analogs of lobelane had reduced or unaltered potency inhibiting VMAT2 function and lower maximal inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked DA release compared with lobelane. Thus, defunctionalization, cis-stereochemistry of the side chains, and presence of the piperidino N-methyl are structural features that afford greatest inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked DA release and enhancement of selectivity for VMAT2. The current results reveal that lobelane, a selective VMAT2 inhibitor, inhibits methamphetamine-evoked DA release and is a promising lead for

  5. Lobelane Inhibits Methamphetamine-Evoked Dopamine Release via Inhibition of the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R.; Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Norrholm, Seth; Deaciuc, Gabriela; Siripurapu, Kiran B.; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Lobeline is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as a methamphetamine abuse treatment. Lobeline interacts with nicotinic receptor subtypes, dopamine transporters (DATs), and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT2s). Methamphetamine inhibits VMAT2 and promotes dopamine (DA) release from synaptic vesicles, resulting ultimately in increased extracellular DA. The present study generated structure-activity relationships by defunctionalizing the lobeline molecule and determining effects on [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding, inhibition of [3H]DA uptake into striatal synaptic vesicles and synaptosomes, the mechanism of VMAT2 inhibition, and inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked DA release. Compared with lobeline, the analogs exhibited greater potency inhibiting DA transporter (DAT) function. Saturated analogs, lobelane and nor-lobelane, exhibited high potency (Ki = 45 nM) inhibiting vesicular [3H]DA uptake, and lobelane competitively inhibited VMAT2 function. Lobeline and lobelane exhibited 67- and 35-fold greater potency, respectively, in inhibiting VMAT2 function compared to DAT function. Lobelane potently decreased (IC50 = 0.65 μM; Imax = 73%) methamphetamine-evoked DA overflow, and with a greater maximal effect compared with lobeline (IC50 = 0.42 μM, Imax = 56.1%). These results provide support for VMAT2 as a target for inhibition of methamphetamine effects. Both trans-isomers and demethylated analogs of lobelane had reduced or unaltered potency inhibiting VMAT2 function and lower maximal inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked DA release compared with lobelane. Thus, defunctionalization, cis-stereochemistry of the side chains, and presence of the piperidino N-methyl are structural features that afford greatest inhibition of methamphetamine-evoked DA release and enhancement of selectivity for VMAT2. The current results reveal that lobelane, a selective VMAT2 inhibitor, inhibits methamphetamine-evoked DA release and is a promising lead for the development of a

  6. Unusual armadillo fold in the human general vesicular transport factor p115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Striegl

    Full Text Available The golgin family gives identity and structure to the Golgi apparatus and is part of a complex protein network at the Golgi membrane. The golgin p115 is targeted by the GTPase Rab1a, contains a large globular head region and a long region of coiled-coil which forms an extended rod-like structure. p115 serves as vesicle tethering factor and plays an important role at different steps of vesicular transport. Here we present the 2.2 A-resolution X-ray structure of the globular head region of p115. The structure exhibits an armadillo fold that is decorated by elongated loops and carries a C-terminal non-canonical repeat. This terminal repeat folds into the armadillo superhelical groove and allows homodimeric association with important implications for p115 mediated multiple protein interactions and tethering.

  7. Hyphal transport by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus of N applied to the soil as ammonium or nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jakobsen, I.; Jensen, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Transport of N by hyphae of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus was studied under controlled experimental conditions. The N source was applied to the soil as (NH4+)-N-15 or (NH3-)N-15. Cucumis sativus was grown for 25 days, either alone or in symbiosis with Glomus intraradices, in containers...

  8. Phenyl ring-substituted lobelane analogs: inhibition of [³H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R; Zheng, Guangrong; Deaciuc, Agripina G; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2011-03-01

    Lobeline attenuates the behavioral effects of methamphetamine via inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2). To increase selectivity for VMAT2, chemically defunctionalized lobeline analogs, including lobelane, were designed to eliminate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor affinity. The current study evaluated the ability of lobelane analogs to inhibit [³H]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding to VMAT2 and [³H]dopamine (DA) uptake into isolated synaptic vesicles and determined the mechanism of inhibition. Introduction of aromatic substituents in lobelane maintained analog affinity for the [³H]DTBZ binding site on VMAT2 and inhibitory potency in the [³H]DA uptake assay assessing VMAT2 function. The most potent (K(i) = 13-16 nM) analogs in the series included para-methoxyphenyl nor-lobelane (GZ-252B), para-methoxyphenyl lobelane (GZ-252C), and 2,4-dichlorphenyl lobelane (GZ-260C). Affinity of the analogs for the [³H]DTBZ binding site did not correlate with inhibitory potency in the [³H]DA uptake assay. It is noteworthy that the N-benzylindole-, biphenyl-, and indole-bearing meso-analogs 2,6-bis[2-(1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-yl)ethyl]-1-methylpiperidine hemifumarate (AV-1-292C), 2,6-bis(2-(biphenyl-4-yl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-272B), and 2,6-bis[2-(1H-indole-3-yl)ethyl]-1-methylpiperidine monofumarate (AV-1-294), respectively] inhibited VMAT2 function (K(i) = 73, 127, and 2130 nM, respectively), yet had little to no affinity for the [³H]DTBZ binding site. These results suggest that the analogs interact at an alternate site to DTBZ on VMAT2. Kinetic analyses of [³H]DA uptake revealed a competitive mechanism for 2,6-bis(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-252B), 2,6-bis(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)-1-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (GZ-252C), 2,6-bis(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-260C), and GZ-272B. Similar to methamphetamine, these analogs released [³H]DA from the vesicles, but with higher potency. In

  9. Phenyl Ring-Substituted Lobelane Analogs: Inhibition of [3H]Dopamine Uptake at the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R.; Zheng, Guangrong; Deaciuc, Agripina G.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Lobeline attenuates the behavioral effects of methamphetamine via inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2). To increase selectivity for VMAT2, chemically defunctionalized lobeline analogs, including lobelane, were designed to eliminate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor affinity. The current study evaluated the ability of lobelane analogs to inhibit [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding to VMAT2 and [3H]dopamine (DA) uptake into isolated synaptic vesicles and determined the mechanism of inhibition. Introduction of aromatic substituents in lobelane maintained analog affinity for the [3H]DTBZ binding site on VMAT2 and inhibitory potency in the [3H]DA uptake assay assessing VMAT2 function. The most potent (Ki = 13–16 nM) analogs in the series included para-methoxyphenyl nor-lobelane (GZ-252B), para-methoxyphenyl lobelane (GZ-252C), and 2,4-dichlorphenyl lobelane (GZ-260C). Affinity of the analogs for the [3H]DTBZ binding site did not correlate with inhibitory potency in the [3H]DA uptake assay. It is noteworthy that the N-benzylindole-, biphenyl-, and indole-bearing meso-analogs 2,6-bis[2-(1-benzyl-1H-indole-3-yl)ethyl]-1-methylpiperidine hemifumarate (AV-1-292C), 2,6-bis(2-(biphenyl-4-yl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-272B), and 2,6-bis[2-(1H-indole-3-yl)ethyl]-1-methylpiperidine monofumarate (AV-1-294), respectively] inhibited VMAT2 function (Ki = 73, 127, and 2130 nM, respectively), yet had little to no affinity for the [3H]DTBZ binding site. These results suggest that the analogs interact at an alternate site to DTBZ on VMAT2. Kinetic analyses of [3H]DA uptake revealed a competitive mechanism for 2,6-bis(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-252B), 2,6-bis(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl)-1-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (GZ-252C), 2,6-bis(2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl)piperidine hydrochloride (GZ-260C), and GZ-272B. Similar to methamphetamine, these analogs released [3H]DA from the vesicles, but with higher potency. In contrast to

  10. Distinct pharmacological properties and distribution in neurons and endocrine cells of two isoforms of the human vesicular monoamine transporter.

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, J.D.; Schafer, M K; Bonner, T I; Eiden, L. E.; Weihe, E.

    1996-01-01

    A second isoform of the human vesicular monoamine transporter (hVMAT) has been cloned from a pheochromocytoma cDNA library. The contribution of the two transporter isoforms to monoamine storage in human neuroendocrine tissues was examined with isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies against hVMAT1 and hVMAT2. Central, peripheral, and enteric neurons express only VMAT2. VMAT1 is expressed exclusively in neuroendocrine, including chromaffin and enterochromaffin, cells. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are coexpr...

  11. Vesicular transport of progeny parvovirus particles through ER and Golgi regulates maturation and cytolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Séverine; Rommelaere, Jean; Nüesch, Jürg P F

    2013-09-01

    Progeny particles of non-enveloped lytic parvoviruses were previously shown to be actively transported to the cell periphery through vesicles in a gelsolin-dependent manner. This process involves rearrangement and destruction of actin filaments, while microtubules become protected throughout the infection. Here the focus is on the intracellular egress pathway, as well as its impact on the properties and release of progeny virions. By colocalization with cellular marker proteins and specific modulation of the pathways through over-expression of variant effector genes transduced by recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors, we show that progeny PV particles become engulfed into COPII-vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are transported through the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Besides known factors like sar1, sec24, rab1, the ERM family proteins, radixin and moesin play (an) essential role(s) in the formation/loading and targeting of virus-containing COPII-vesicles. These proteins also contribute to the transport through ER and Golgi of the well described analogue of cellular proteins, the secreted Gaussia luciferase in absence of virus infection. It is therefore likely that radixin and moesin also serve for a more general function in cellular exocytosis. Finally, parvovirus egress via ER and Golgi appears to be necessary for virions to gain full infectivity through post-assembly modifications (e.g. phosphorylation). While not being absolutely required for cytolysis and progeny virus release, vesicular transport of parvoviruses through ER and Golgi significantly accelerates these processes pointing to a regulatory role of this transport pathway.

  12. Vesicular glutamate transporter-immunoreactivities in the vestibular nuclear complex of rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao DENG; Fu-Xing ZHANG; You-Wang PANG; Jin-Lian LI; Yun-Qing LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective Aims to delineate the distribution profile of three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT), viz. VGluT1~3, and their cellular localization within vestibular nuclear complex (VNC). Methods Brain sections from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were processed immunohistochemically for VGluT detection, employing avidinbiotinylated peroxidase complex method with 3-3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as chromogen. Results The whole VNC expressed all of the three transporters that were observed to be localized to the fiber endings. Compared with VGluT1 and VGluT3, VGluT2 demonstrated a relatively homogeneous distribution, with much higher density in VNC. VGluT3 displayed the highest density in lateral vestibular nucleus and group X, contrasting with the sparse immunostained puncta within vestibular medial and inferior nuclei. Conclusion Glutamtatergic pathways participate in the processing of vestibular signals within VNC mainly through the re-uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by VGluT1 and 2, whereas VGluT3 may play a similar role mainly in areas other than medial and inferior nuclei of VNC.

  13. Dopamine, vesicular transporters, and dopamine receptor expression in rat major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Mancini, Manuele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Amenta, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The localization of dopamine stores and the expression and localization of dopamine (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) type-1 and -2 and of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes were investigated in rat submandibular, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Male Wistar rats of 2 mo of age were used. The highest dopamine levels were measured in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and sublingual glands. Western blot analysis revealed DAT, VMAT-1, VMAT-2, and dopamine receptors immunoreactivity in membrane preparations obtained from the three glands investigated. Immunostaining for dopamine and transporters was developed within striated ducts. Salivary glands processed for dopamine receptors immunohistochemistry developed an immunoreaction primarily in striated and excretory ducts. In the submandibular gland, acinar cells displayed strong immunoreactivity for the D2 receptor, while cells of the convoluted granular tubules were negative for both D1-like and D2-like receptors. Parotid glands acinar cells displayed the highest immunoreactivity for both D1 and D2 receptors compared with other salivary glands. The above localization of dopamine and dopaminergic markers investigated did not correspond closely with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) localization. This indicates that at least in part, catecholamine stores and dopaminergic markers are independent from glandular innervation. These findings suggest that rat major salivary glands express a dopaminergic system probably involved in salivary secretion. The stronger immunoreactivity for dopamine transporters and receptors in striated duct cells suggests that the dopaminergic system could regulate not only quality, but also volume and ionic concentration of saliva.

  14. Role of tetanus neurotoxin insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) in vesicular transport mediating neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arca, S; Alberts, P; Zahraoui, A; Louvard, D; Galli, T

    2000-05-15

    How vesicular transport participates in neurite outgrowth is still poorly understood. Neurite outgrowth is not sensitive to tetanus neurotoxin thus does not involve synaptobrevin-mediated vesicular transport to the plasma membrane of neurons. Tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein (TI-VAMP) is a vesicle-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein [NSF] attachment protein [SNAP] receptor), involved in transport to the apical plasma membrane in epithelial cells, a tetanus neurotoxin-resistant pathway. Here we show that TI-VAMP is essential for vesicular transport-mediating neurite outgrowth in staurosporine-differentiated PC12 cells. The NH(2)-terminal domain, which precedes the SNARE motif of TI-VAMP, inhibits the association of TI-VAMP with synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kD (SNAP25). Expression of this domain inhibits neurite outgrowth as potently as Botulinum neurotoxin E, which cleaves SNAP25. In contrast, expression of the NH(2)-terminal deletion mutant of TI-VAMP increases SNARE complex formation and strongly stimulates neurite outgrowth. These results provide the first functional evidence for the role of TI-VAMP in neurite outgrowth and point to its NH(2)-terminal domain as a key regulator in this process.

  15. A rhythmic change of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hira, Yoshiki; Ehara, Ayuka; Mimura-Yamamoto, Yuka; Kawano, Michihiro; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes melatonin under circadian control via nocturnal noradrenergic stimulation, and expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v). Although we previously reported that VGLUT2 mRNA level of rat pineal gland at postnatal day 21 is higher in the nighttime than in daytime, questions remained as to the time of postnatal onset of this phenomenon and a 24-h change in the mRNA or protein level at postnatal days. The day-night difference in VGLUT2 mRNA level was evident 14 days after birth. In the adult, VGLUT2 mRNA and protein levels increased in the dark phase, with the protein level showing a 6-h delay. The nocturnal elevation in VGLUT2 mRNA level diminished under the constant light condition but persisted under the constant dark condition. The present data suggest that VGLUT2 in the rat pineal gland is involved in some nocturnal glutamatergic function.

  16. Vesicular stomatitis virus with the rabies virus glycoprotein directs retrograde transsynaptic transport among neurons in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T Beier

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining the connections among neurons is critical to our understanding of the structure and function of the nervous system. Recombinant viruses engineered to transmit across synapses provide a powerful approach for the dissection of neuronal circuitry in vivo. We recently demonstrated that recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV can be endowed with anterograde or retrograde synaptic tracing ability by providing the virus with different glycoproteins. Here we extend the characterization of the transmission and gene expression of VSV with the rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G, and provide examples of its activity relative to the anterograde tracer form of rVSV. rVSV with RABV-G was found to drive strong expression of transgenes and to spread rapidly from neuron to neuron in only a retrograde manner. Depending upon how the RABV-G was delivered, VSV served as a polysynaptic or monosynaptic tracer, or was able to define projections through axonal uptake and retrograde transport. In animals co-infected with rVSV in its anterograde form, rVSV with RABV-G could be used to begin to characterize the similarities and differences in connections to a given area. rVSV with RABV-G provides a flexible, rapid, and versatile tracing tool that complements the previously described VSV-based anterograde transsynaptic tracer.

  17. Genomic convergence analysis of schizophrenia: mRNA sequencing reveals altered synaptic vesicular transport in post-mortem cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann Mudge

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCZ is a common, disabling mental illness with high heritability but complex, poorly understood genetic etiology. As the first phase of a genomic convergence analysis of SCZ, we generated 16.7 billion nucleotides of short read, shotgun sequences of cDNA from post-mortem cerebellar cortices of 14 patients and six, matched controls. A rigorous analysis pipeline was developed for analysis of digital gene expression studies. Sequences aligned to approximately 33,200 transcripts in each sample, with average coverage of 450 reads per gene. Following adjustments for confounding clinical, sample and experimental sources of variation, 215 genes differed significantly in expression between cases and controls. Golgi apparatus, vesicular transport, membrane association, Zinc binding and regulation of transcription were over-represented among differentially expressed genes. Twenty three genes with altered expression and involvement in presynaptic vesicular transport, Golgi function and GABAergic neurotransmission define a unifying molecular hypothesis for dysfunction in cerebellar cortex in SCZ.

  18. The ontogenic expressions of multiple vesicular glutamate transporters during postnatal development of rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Ina, A; Konno, J; Wu, T; Shutoh, F; Nogami, H; Hisano, S

    2008-03-18

    The pineal gland expresses vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), which are thought to transport glutamate into synaptic-like microvesicles in the pinealocytes. Recently, we reported that the rat pineal gland also expresses VGLUT1v which is a novel variant of VGLUT1 during the perinatal period. To explore the biological significance of these VGLUT expressions in pineal development, we studied the ontogeny of VGLUT in this gland by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using rats. Histological analysis revealed that intensities of VGLUT1 hybridization signal and immunostaining drastically increase by postnatal day (P) 7, whereas VGLUT2 expression exhibits high levels of mRNA and protein at birth and decreases gradually from P7 onward. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis supported these histological observations, showing that expressions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit opposite patterns to each other. Coinciding with VGLUT1-upregulation, RT-PCR data showed that expressions of dynamin 1 and endophilin 1, which are factors predictably involved in the endocytotic recovery of VGLUT1-associated vesicle, are also increased by P7. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of VGLUT1v demonstrated that its mRNA expression is upregulated by P7, kept at the same level until P14, and apparently decreased at P21, suggesting its functional property required for a certain developmental event. Moreover, a comparison of mRNA expressions at daytime and nighttime revealed that neither VGLUT1 nor VGLUT1v shows any difference in both P7 and P21 glands, whereas VGLUT2 is significantly lower at daytime than at nighttime at P21 but not P7, the time point at which the melatonin rhythm is not yet generated. The present study shows that expressions of these VGLUT types are differentially regulated during postnatal pineal development, each presumably participating in physiologically distinct glutamatergic functions.

  19. Transportomics: screening for substrates of ABC transporters in body fluids using vesicular transport assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krumpochova, P; Sapthu, S.; Brouwers, J.F.H.M.; de Haas, M.; de Vos, R.; Borst, P.; van de Wetering, K.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes encode the largest family of transmembrane proteins. ABC transporters translocate a wide variety of substrates across membranes, but their physiological function is often incompletely understood. We describe a new method to study the substrate spectrum o

  20. Pyrrolidine analogs of GZ-793A: synthesis and evaluation as inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Ponugoti, Purushothama Rao; Nickell, Justin R; Deaciuc, Agripina G; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2013-06-01

    Central heterocyclic ring size reduction from piperidinyl to pyrrolidinyl in the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) inhibitor GZ-793A and its analogs resulted in novel N-propane-1,2(R)-diol analogs 11a-i. These compounds were evaluated for their affinity for the dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site on VMAT2 and for their ability to inhibit vesicular dopamine (DA) uptake. The 4-difluoromethoxyphenethyl analog 11f was the most potent inhibitor of [(3)H]-DTBZ binding (Ki=560 nM), with 15-fold greater affinity for this site than GZ-793A (Ki=8.29 μM). Analog 11f also showed similar potency of inhibition of [(3)H]-DA uptake into vesicles (Ki=45 nM) compared to that for GZ-793A (Ki=29 nM). Thus, 11f represents a new water-soluble inhibitor of VMAT function.

  1. Osh proteins regulate COPII-mediated vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Kentaro; Ikeda, Atsuko; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Castillon, Guillaume A; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Hanada, Kentaro; Riezman, Howard; Muñiz, Manuel; Funato, Kouichi

    2014-01-15

    Lipids synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are delivered to the Golgi by vesicular and non-vesicular pathways. ER-to-Golgi transport is crucial for maintaining the different membrane lipid composition and identities of organelles. Despite their importance, mechanisms regulating transport remain elusive. Here we report that in yeast coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle-mediated transport of ceramide from the ER to the Golgi requires oxysterol-binding protein homologs, Osh proteins, which have been implicated in lipid homeostasis. Because Osh proteins are not required to transport proteins to the Golgi, these results indicate a specific requirement for the Osh proteins in the transport of ceramide. In addition, we provide evidence that Osh proteins play a negative role in COPII vesicle biogenesis. Together, our data suggest that ceramide transport and sphingolipid levels between the ER and Golgi are maintained by two distinct functions of Osh proteins, which negatively regulate COPII vesicle formation and positively control a later stage, presumably fusion of ceramide-enriched vesicles with Golgi compartments.

  2. New Insights on Plant Cell Elongation: A Role for Acetylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian-Pietro Di Sansebastiano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of auxin and acetylcholine on the expression of the tomato expansin gene LeEXPA2, a specific expansin gene expressed in elongating tomato hypocotyl segments. Since auxin interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, in order to regulate cellular and developmental responses we produced protoplasts from tomato elongating hypocotyls and followed the endocytotic marker, FM4-64, internalization in response to treatments. Tomato protoplasts were observed during auxin and acetylcholine treatments after transient expression of chimerical markers of volume-control related compartments such as vacuoles. Here we describe the contribution of auxin and acetylcholine to LeEXPA2 expression regulation and we support the hypothesis that a possible subcellular target of acetylcholine signal is the vesicular transport, shedding some light on the characterization of this small molecule as local mediator in the plant physiological response.

  3. BDNF regulates the expression and distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos V Melo

    Full Text Available BDNF is a pro-survival protein involved in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. BDNF strengthens excitatory synapses and contributes to LTP, presynaptically, through enhancement of glutamate release, and postsynaptically, via phosphorylation of neurotransmitter receptors, modulation of receptor traffic and activation of the translation machinery. We examined whether BDNF upregulated vesicular glutamate receptor (VGLUT 1 and 2 expression, which would partly account for the increased glutamate release in LTP. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with 100 ng/ml BDNF, for different periods of time, and VGLUT gene and protein expression were assessed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. At DIV7, exogenous application of BDNF rapidly increased VGLUT2 mRNA and protein levels, in a dose-dependent manner. VGLUT1 expression also increased but only transiently. However, at DIV14, BDNF stably increased VGLUT1 expression, whilst VGLUT2 levels remained low. Transcription inhibition with actinomycin-D or α-amanitine, and translation inhibition with emetine or anisomycin, fully blocked BDNF-induced VGLUT upregulation. Fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that BDNF stimulation upregulates the number, integrated density and intensity of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 puncta in neurites of cultured hippocampal neurons (DIV7, indicating that the neurotrophin also affects the subcellular distribution of the transporter in developing neurons. Increased VGLUT1 somatic signals were also found 3 h after stimulation with BDNF, further suggesting an increased de novo transcription and translation. BDNF regulation of VGLUT expression was specifically mediated by BDNF, as no effect was found upon application of IGF-1 or bFGF, which activate other receptor tyrosine kinases. Moreover, inhibition of TrkB receptors with K252a and PLCγ signaling with U-73122 precluded BDNF-induced VGLUT upregulation. Hippocampal neurons express both isoforms during

  4. Stimulation of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 activity by DJ-1 in SH-SY5Y cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Shizuma; Tanaka, Yuki; Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Niki, Takeshi; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss-of-functional mutation in the DJ-1 gene causes a subset of familial Parkinson's disease. The mechanism underlying DJ-1-related selective vulnerability in the dopaminergic pathway is, however, not known. Dopamine is synthesized by two enzymes and then packed into synaptic vesicles by vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). In this study, we found that knockdown of DJ-1 expression reduced the levels of mRNA and protein of VMAT2, resulting in reduced VMAT2 activity. Co-immunoprecipitatio...

  5. Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS.

  6. A glial variant of the vesicular monoamine transporter is required to store histamine in the Drosophila visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Romero-Calderón

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other monoamine neurotransmitters, the mechanism by which the brain's histamine content is regulated remains unclear. In mammals, vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs are expressed exclusively in neurons and mediate the storage of histamine and other monoamines. We have studied the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster in which histamine is the primary neurotransmitter released from photoreceptor cells. We report here that a novel mRNA splice variant of Drosophila VMAT (DVMAT-B is expressed not in neurons but rather in a small subset of glia in the lamina of the fly's optic lobe. Histamine contents are reduced by mutation of dVMAT, but can be partially restored by specifically expressing DVMAT-B in glia. Our results suggest a novel role for a monoamine transporter in glia that may be relevant to histamine homeostasis in other systems.

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant vesicular glutamate transporter VGLUT1 using PC12 cells and High Five insect cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Søren S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In synaptic vesicles, the estimated concentration of the excitatory amino acid glutamate is 100-150 mM. It was recently discovered that VGLUT1, previously characterized as an inorganic phosphate transporter (BNPI with 9-11 predicted transmembrane spanning domains, is capable of transporting glutamate. The expression and His-tag based purification of recombinant VGLUT1 from PC12 cells and High Five insect cells is described. Significantly better virus and protein expression was obtained using High Five rather than Sf9 insect cells. PC12 cell expressed VGLUT1 is functional but not the Baculovirus expressed protein. The lack of functionality of the Baculovirus expressed VGLUT1 is discussed. The data indicate that VGLUT1 readily oligomerizes/dimerizes. The data are discussed in the context of developing this system further in order to reconstitute vesicular glutamate uptake in vitro using lipid-detergent vesicles.

  8. 1,4-Diphenalkylpiperidines: A new scaffold for the design of potent inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R; Culver, John P; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    A series of 1,4-diphenalkylpiperidine analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their affinity and inhibitory potency at the [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site and [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake site on the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Results revealed that translocation of the phenethyl side chains of lobelane from C2 and C6 to C1 and C4 around the central piperidine ring slightly reduces affinity and inhibitory potency at VMAT2 with respect to lobelane. However, methoxy and fluoro-substitution of either phenyl ring of these 1,4-diphenethyl analogs afforded VMAT2 inhibition comparable or higher (5-fold) affinity at the DTBZ binding and DA uptake sites relative to lobelane, whereas replacement of the 4-phenethyl moiety in these analogs with a 4-phenmethyl moiety markedly reduced affinity for the DTBZ binding and DA uptake sites by 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Among the twenty five 1,4-diphenethylpiperidine analogs evaluated, compounds containing a 4-(2-methoxyphenethyl) moiety exhibited the most potent inhibition of DTBZ binding and vesicular DA uptake. From this subgroup, analogs 8h, 8j and 8m exhibited Ki values of 9.3nM, 13nM and 13nM, respectively, for inhibition of [(3)H]DA uptake by VMAT2, and represent some of the most potent inhibitors of VMAT2 function reported thus far.

  9. DNA-fragments are transcytosed across CaCo-2 cells by adsorptive endocytosis and vesicular mediated transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene E Johannessen

    Full Text Available Dietary DNA is degraded into shorter DNA-fragments and single nucleosides in the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary DNA is mainly taken up as single nucleosides and bases, but even dietary DNA-fragments of up to a few hundred bp are able to cross the intestinal barrier and enter the blood stream. The molecular mechanisms behind transport of DNA-fragments across the intestine and the effects of this transport on the organism are currently unknown. Here we investigate the transport of DNA-fragments across the intestinal barrier, focusing on transport mechanisms and rates. The human intestinal epithelial cell line CaCo-2 was used as a model. As DNA material a PCR-fragment of 633 bp was used and quantitative real time PCR was used as detection method. DNA-fragments were found to be transported across polarized CaCo-2 cells in the apical to basolateral direction (AB. After 90 min the difference in directionality AB vs. BA was >10(3 fold. Even undegraded DNA-fragments of 633 bp could be detected in the basolateral receiver compartment at this time point. Transport of DNA-fragments was sensitive to low temperature and inhibition of endosomal acidification. DNA-transport across CaCo-2 cells was not competed out with oligodeoxynucleotides, fucoidan, heparin, heparan sulphate and dextrane sulphate, while linearized plasmid DNA, on the other hand, reduced transcytosis of DNA-fragments by a factor of approximately 2. Our findings therefore suggest that vesicular transport is mediating transcytosis of dietary DNA-fragments across intestinal cells and that DNA binding proteins are involved in this process. If we extrapolate our findings to in vivo conditions it could be hypothesized that this transport mechanism has a function in the immune system.

  10. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and the acute and long-term response to 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Lucina E; Cholanians, Aram B; Phan, Andy V; Herndon, Joseph M; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J

    2015-01-01

    3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative with potent psychostimulant properties. The neuropharmacological effects of MDMA are biphasic in nature, initially causing synaptic monoamine release, primarily of serotonin (5-HT). Conversely, the long-term effects of MDMA manifest as prolonged depletions in 5-HT, and reductions in 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT), indicative of serotonergic neurotoxicity. MDMA-induced 5-HT efflux relies upon disruption of vesicular monoamine storage, which increases cytosolic 5-HT concentrations available for release via a carrier-mediated mechanism. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is responsible for packaging monoamine neurotransmitters into cytosolic vesicles. Thus, VMAT2 is a molecular target for a number of psychostimulant drugs, including methamphetamine and MDMA. We investigated the effects of depressed VMAT2 activity on the adverse responses to MDMA, via reversible inhibition of the VMAT2 protein with Ro4-1284. A single dose of MDMA (20 mg/kg, subcutaneous) induced significant hyperthermia in rats. Ro4-1284 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) pretreatment prevented the thermogenic effects of MDMA, instead causing a transient decrease in body temperature. MDMA-treated rats exhibited marked increases in horizontal velocity and rearing behavior. In the presence of Ro4-1284, MDMA-mediated horizontal hyperlocomotion was delayed and attenuated, whereas rearing activity was abolished. Finally, Ro4-1284 prevented deficits in 5-HT content in rat cortex and striatum, and reduced depletions in striatal SERT staining, 7 days after MDMA administration. In summary, acute inhibition of VMAT2 by Ro4-1284 protected against MDMA-mediated hyperthermia, hyperactivity, and serotonergic neurotoxicity. The data suggest the involvement of VMAT2 in the thermoregulatory, behavioral, and neurotoxic effects of MDMA.

  11. Effects of Acetylcholine, Cytochalasin B and Amiprophos methyl on Phloem Transport in Radish (Raphanus sativas)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-Jun Yang; Zhi-Xi Zhai; Yu-Hai Guo; Peng Gao

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of the "sieve tube-companion cell complex" lining the tube periphery, particularly the microfilament and microtubule, in assisting the pushing of phloem sap flow. We made a simple phloem transport system with a living radish plant, in which the conducting channel was exposed for local treatment with chemicals that are effective in modulating protoplasmic movement (acetylcholine, (ACh) a neurotransmitter in animals and insects; cytochalasin B, (CB) a specific inhibitor of many cellular responses that are mediated by microfilament systems and amiprophos-methyl, (APM) a specific inhibitor of many cellular responses that are mediated by microtubule systems). Their effects on phloem transport were estimated by two experimental devices: (i) a comparison of changes in the amount of assimilates in terms of carbohydrates and 14C-labeled photosynthetic production that is left in the leaf blade of treated plants; and (ii) distribution patterns of 14C-labeled leaf assimilates in the phloem transport system. The results indicate that CB and APM markedly inhibited the transfer of photosynthetic product from leaf to root via the leaf vein, while ACh enhanced the transfer of photosynthetic product in low concentrations (5.0×10-4 mol/L) but inhibited it in higher concentrations (2.0×10-3 mol/L) from leaf to root via the leaf vein. Autoradiograph imaging clearly reveals that ACh treatment is more effective than the control, and both CB and APM treatments effectively inhibit the passage of radioactive assimilates. All of the results support the postulation that the peripheral protoplasm in the sieve tube serves not only as a passive semi-permeable membrane, but is also directly involved in phloem transport.

  12. Amyloid-Beta Induced Changes in Vesicular Transport of BDNF in Hippocampal Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Seifert; Robert Eckenstaler; Raik Rönicke; Julia Leschik; Beat Lutz; Klaus Reymann; Volkmar Lessmann; Tanja Brigadski

    2016-01-01

    The neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important growth factor in the CNS. Deficits in transport of this secretory protein could underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Investigation of disease-related changes in BDNF transport might provide insights into the cellular mechanism underlying, for example, Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To analyze the role of BDNF transport in AD, live cell imaging of fluorescently labeled BDNF was performed in hippocampal neurons of different AD...

  13. The antinociceptive effects of intracerebroventricular administration of Chicago sky blue 6B, a vesicular glutamate transporter inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Yi, Shoupu; Wang, Meiliang; Yan, Hui; Yan, Lingdi; Su, Ruibin; Gong, Zehui

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), which control the storage and release of glutamate, may play a role in pain processing. Chicago sky blue 6B (CSB6B), which is structurally related to glutamate, is a competitive VGLUT inhibitor without affecting plasma membrane transporters. The present study was designed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of CSB6B in a number of pain models. The hot-plate test was used as an acute thermal pain test. Inflammatory pain was evaluated using acetic acid writhing, formalin, and complete Freund's adjuvant tests. Intracerebroventricular administration of CSB6B did not affect acute thermal pain responses in 50 or 55°C hot plate tests. However, CSB6B attenuated acetic acid-induced writhing in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. In addition, CSB6B reduced licking/biting behavior during the second phase, but not during the first phase, following an intraplantar injection of formalin. In the complete Freund's adjuvant test, a significant attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia was also observed in CSB6B-treated mice. At antinociceptive doses, CSB6B did not affect mice spontaneous locomotor activity. The present study shows that pharmacological inhibition of VGLUT activity was sufficient to attenuate experimental inflammatory pain and suggests that regulation of VGLUTs might be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pain.

  14. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  15. CAR-associated vesicular transport of an adenovirus in motor neuron axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Sara; Bilsland, Lynsey G; Henaff, Daniel; Weston, Anne E; Keriel, Anne; Schiavo, Giampietro; Kremer, Eric J

    2009-05-01

    Axonal transport is responsible for the movement of signals and cargo between nerve termini and cell bodies. Pathogens also exploit this pathway to enter and exit the central nervous system. In this study, we characterised the binding, endocytosis and axonal transport of an adenovirus (CAV-2) that preferentially infects neurons. Using biochemical, cell biology, genetic, ultrastructural and live-cell imaging approaches, we show that interaction with the neuronal membrane correlates with coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) surface expression, followed by endocytosis involving clathrin. In axons, long-range CAV-2 motility was bidirectional with a bias for retrograde transport in nonacidic Rab7-positive organelles. Unexpectedly, we found that CAR was associated with CAV-2 vesicles that also transported cargo as functionally distinct as tetanus toxin, neurotrophins, and their receptors. These results suggest that a single axonal transport carrier is capable of transporting functionally distinct cargoes that target different membrane compartments in the soma. We propose that CAV-2 transport is dictated by an innate trafficking of CAR, suggesting an unsuspected function for this adhesion protein during neuronal homeostasis.

  16. Serotonin increases cilia-driven particle transport via an acetylcholine-independent pathway in the mouse trachea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter König

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mucociliary clearance in the airways is driven by the coordinated beating of ciliated cells. Classical neuromediators such as noradrenalin and acetylcholine increase ciliary beat frequency and thus cilia-driven transport. Despite the fact that the neuromediator serotonin is ciliostimulatory in invertebrates and has been implied in releasing acetylcholine from the airway epithelium, its role in regulating cilia function in vertebrate airways is not established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the effects of serotonin on ciliary beat frequency and cilia-driven particle transport in the acutely excised submerged mouse trachea and determined the sources of serotonin in this tissue by immunohistochemistry. Serotonin (100 microM increased cilary beat frequency (8.9+/-1.2 Hz to 17.0+/-2.7 Hz and particle transport speed (38.9+/-4.6 microm/s to 83.4+/-8.3 microm/s to an extent that was comparable to a supramaximal dose of ATP. The increase in particle transport speed was totally prevented by methysergide (100 microM. Blockade of muscarinic receptors by atropine (1 microM did not reduce the effect of serotonin, although it was effective in preventing the increase in particle transport speed mediated by muscarine (100 microM. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated serotonin in mast cells pointing towards mast cells and platelets as possible endogenous sources of serotonin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that serotonin is a likely endogenous mediator that can increase cilia-driven transport independent from acetylcholine during activation of mast cells and platelets.

  17. Serotonin Increases Cilia-Driven Particle Transport via an Acetylcholine-Independent Pathway in the Mouse Trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasteva, Gabriela; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Background Mucociliary clearance in the airways is driven by the coordinated beating of ciliated cells. Classical neuromediators such as noradrenalin and acetylcholine increase ciliary beat frequency and thus cilia-driven transport. Despite the fact that the neuromediator serotonin is ciliostimulatory in invertebrates and has been implied in releasing acetylcholine from the airway epithelium, its role in regulating cilia function in vertebrate airways is not established. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of serotonin on ciliary beat frequency and cilia-driven particle transport in the acutely excised submerged mouse trachea and determined the sources of serotonin in this tissue by immunohistochemistry. Serotonin (100 µM) increased cilary beat frequency (8.9±1.2 Hz to 17.0±2.7 Hz) and particle transport speed (38.9±4.6 µm/s to 83.4±8.3 µm/s) to an extent that was comparable to a supramaximal dose of ATP. The increase in particle transport speed was totally prevented by methysergide (100 µM). Blockade of muscarinic receptors by atropine (1 µM) did not reduce the effect of serotonin, although it was effective in preventing the increase in particle transport speed mediated by muscarine (100 µM). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated serotonin in mast cells pointing towards mast cells and platelets as possible endogenous sources of serotonin. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that serotonin is a likely endogenous mediator that can increase cilia-driven transport independent from acetylcholine during activation of mast cells and platelets. PMID:19290057

  18. EXPRESSION OF VESICULAR GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS IN TRANSIENT RECEPTOR POTENTIAL MELASTATIN 8 (TRPM8)-POSITIVE DENTAL AFFERENTS IN THE MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. S.; Kim, T. H.; Mckemy, D. D.; Bae, Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is activated by innocuous cool and noxious cold and plays a crucial role in cold-induced acute pain and pain hypersensitivity. To help understand the mechanism of TRPM8-mediated cold perception under normal and pathologic conditions, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis in mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8-positive (+) neurons. We investigated the coexpression of TRPM8 and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and VGLUT2 in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the dental pulp before and after inducing pulpal inflammation. Many TRPM8+ neurons in the TG and axons in the dental pulp expressed VGLUT2, while none expressed VGLUT1. TRPM8+ axons were dense in the pulp horn and peripheral pulp and also frequently observed in the dentinal tubules. Following pulpal inflammation, the proportion of VGLUT2+ and of VGLUT2+/TRPM8+ neurons increased significantly, whereas that of TRPM8+ neurons remained unchanged. Our findings suggest the existence of VGLUT2 (but not VGLUT1)-mediated glutamate signaling in TRPM8+ neurons possibly underlying the cold-induced acute pain and hypersensitivity to cold following pulpal inflammation. PMID:26166724

  19. Inhibition of biliary cholesterol and phospholipid secretion by cefmetazole. The role of vesicular transport and of canalicular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, F; Gonzalez, J; Gonzalez-Buitrago, J M; Muriel, C; Jimenez, R

    1991-01-01

    A number of organic anions selectively inhibit the biliary secretion of cholesterol and phospholipids without affecting bile acid secretion. We studied the effect of cefmetazole, a third-generation cephalosporin, on biliary lipid secretion in the rat. Injection of cefmetazole at a dose of 200 mumol/kg body wt. induced a choleretic effect and a significant decrease in the biliary output of cholesterol and phospholipid, without changes in bile acid secretion. The decrease was more marked for cholesterol than for phospholipid secretion, with a significant decrease in their molar ratio in bile. The effects were apparently unrelated to an inhibition of intracellular vesicular transport because, after injection of horseradish peroxidase, both the time course and total amount secreted of the protein did not significantly differ between control animals and those receiving cefmetazole. The secretory rate of the lysosomal marker acid phosphatase was not affected by cefmetazole administration. Biliary outputs of the plasma-membrane enzymes alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were significantly decreased by the antibiotic. These results point to an effect of cefmetazole at the level of the canalicular membrane. PMID:1674860

  20. Distributions of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the visual system of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, P; Isaamullah, M; Petry, HM; Bickford, ME; Kaas, JH

    2014-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) proteins regulate the storage and release of glutamate from synapses of excitatory neurons. Two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are found in most glutamatergic projections across the mammalian visual system, and appear to differentially identify subsets of excitatory projections between visual structures. To expand current knowledge on the distribution of VGLUT isoforms in highly visual mammals, we examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and primary visual cortex (V1) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), which are closely related to primates but classified as a separate order (Scandentia). We found that VGLUT1 was distributed in intrinsic and corticothalamic connections, whereas VGLUT2 was predominantly distributed in subcortical and thalamocortical connections. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were coexpressed in the LGN and in the pulvinar complex, as well as in restricted layers of V1, suggesting a greater heterogeneity in the range of efferent glutamatergic projections from these structures. These findings provide further evidence that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identify distinct populations of excitatory neurons in visual brain structures across mammals. Observed variations in individual projections may highlight the evolution of these connections through the mammalian lineage. PMID:25521420

  1. Distributions of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 in the visual system of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, P; Isaamullah, M; Petry, H M; Bickford, M E; Kaas, J H

    2015-08-15

    Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) proteins regulate the storage and release of glutamate from synapses of excitatory neurons. Two isoforms, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, are found in most glutamatergic projections across the mammalian visual system, and appear to differentially identify subsets of excitatory projections between visual structures. To expand current knowledge on the distribution of VGLUT isoforms in highly visual mammals, we examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and primary visual cortex (V1) in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), which are closely related to primates but classified as a separate order (Scandentia). We found that VGLUT1 was distributed in intrinsic and corticothalamic connections, whereas VGLUT2 was predominantly distributed in subcortical and thalamocortical connections. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were coexpressed in the LGN and in the pulvinar complex, as well as in restricted layers of V1, suggesting a greater heterogeneity in the range of efferent glutamatergic projections from these structures. These findings provide further evidence that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identify distinct populations of excitatory neurons in visual brain structures across mammals. Observed variations in individual projections may highlight the evolution of these connections through the mammalian lineage.

  2. Exosomes as new vesicular lipid transporters involved in cell-cell communication and various pathophysiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Michel; Carayon, Kevin; Poirot, Marc; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles that have emerged as a new intercellular communication system between an intracellular compartment of a donor cell towards the periphery or an internal compartment of a recipient cell. The bioactivity of exosomes resides not only in their protein and RNA contents but also in their lipidic molecules. Exosomes display original lipids organized in a bilayer membrane and along with the lipid carriers such as fatty acid binding proteins that they contain, exosomes transport bioactive lipids. Exosomes can vectorize lipids such as eicosanoids, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and their lipid composition can be modified by in-vitro manipulation. They also contain lipid related enzymes so that they can constitute an autonomous unit of production of various bioactive lipids. Exosomes can circulate between proximal or distal cells and their fate can be regulated in part by lipidic molecules. Compared to their parental cells, exosomes are enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin and their accumulation in cells might modulate recipient cell homeostasis. Exosome release from cells appears to be a general biological process. They have been reported in all biological fluids from which they can be recovered and can be monitors of specific pathophysiological situations. Thus, the lipid content of circulating exosomes could be useful biomarkers of lipid related diseases. Since the first lipid analysis of exosomes ten years ago detailed knowledge of exosomal lipids has accumulated. The role of lipids in exosome fate and bioactivity and how they constitute an additional lipid transport system are considered in this review.

  3. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert P; Jia, Zhiyuan; Gross, Steven P; Yu, Clare C

    2011-05-01

    The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s), significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  4. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  5. Nuclear Choline Acetyltransferase Activates Transcription of a High-affinity Choline Transporter*

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Akinori; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Nishimura, Masaki; YASUHARA, Osamu; Saito, Naoaki; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, at cholinergic nerve terminals. ChAT contains nuclear localization signals and is also localized in the nuclei of neural and non-neuronal cells. Nuclear ChAT might have an as yet unidentified function, such as transcriptional regulation. In this study, we investigated the alteration of candidate gene transcription by ChAT. We chose high affinity choline transporter (CHT1) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter ...

  6. Familial Dysautonomia (FD Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived PNS Neurons Reveal that Synaptic Vesicular and Neuronal Transport Genes Are Directly or Indirectly Affected by IKBKAP Downregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Lefler

    Full Text Available A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD, affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Here we found new molecular insights for the IKAP role and the impact of the FD mutation in the human PNS lineage by using a novel and unique human embryonic stem cell (hESC line homozygous to the FD mutation originated by pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD analysis. We found that IKBKAP downregulation during PNS differentiation affects normal migration in FD-hESC derived neural crest cells (NCC while at later stages the PNS neurons show reduced intracellular colocalization between vesicular proteins and IKAP. Comparative wide transcriptome analysis of FD and WT hESC-derived neurons together with the analysis of human brains from FD and WT 12 weeks old embryos and experimental validation of the results confirmed that synaptic vesicular and neuronal transport genes are directly or indirectly affected by IKBKAP downregulation in FD neurons. Moreover we show that kinetin (a drug that corrects IKBKAP alternative splicing promotes the recovery of IKAP expression and these IKAP functional associated genes identified in the study. Altogether, these results support the view that IKAP might be a vesicular like protein that might be involved in neuronal transport in hESC derived PNS neurons. This function seems to be mostly affected in FD-hESC derived PNS neurons probably reflecting some PNS neuronal dysfunction observed in FD.

  7. Familial Dysautonomia (FD) Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived PNS Neurons Reveal that Synaptic Vesicular and Neuronal Transport Genes Are Directly or Indirectly Affected by IKBKAP Downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Sharon; Cohen, Malkiel A; Kantor, Gal; Cheishvili, David; Even, Aviel; Birger, Anastasya; Turetsky, Tikva; Gil, Yaniv; Even-Ram, Sharona; Aizenman, Einat; Bashir, Nibal; Maayan, Channa; Razin, Aharon; Reubinoff, Benjamim E; Weil, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes Familial Dysautonomia (FD), affecting the IKAP protein expression levels and proper development and function of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here we found new molecular insights for the IKAP role and the impact of the FD mutation in the human PNS lineage by using a novel and unique human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line homozygous to the FD mutation originated by pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) analysis. We found that IKBKAP downregulation during PNS differentiation affects normal migration in FD-hESC derived neural crest cells (NCC) while at later stages the PNS neurons show reduced intracellular colocalization between vesicular proteins and IKAP. Comparative wide transcriptome analysis of FD and WT hESC-derived neurons together with the analysis of human brains from FD and WT 12 weeks old embryos and experimental validation of the results confirmed that synaptic vesicular and neuronal transport genes are directly or indirectly affected by IKBKAP downregulation in FD neurons. Moreover we show that kinetin (a drug that corrects IKBKAP alternative splicing) promotes the recovery of IKAP expression and these IKAP functional associated genes identified in the study. Altogether, these results support the view that IKAP might be a vesicular like protein that might be involved in neuronal transport in hESC derived PNS neurons. This function seems to be mostly affected in FD-hESC derived PNS neurons probably reflecting some PNS neuronal dysfunction observed in FD.

  8. GZ-793A, a lobelane analog, interacts with the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 to inhibit the effect of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, David B; Nickell, Justin R; Zheng, Guangrong; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2013-10-01

    (R)-3-[2,6-cis-Di(4-methoxyphenethyl)piperidin-1-yl]propane-1,2-diol (GZ-793A) inhibits methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release from striatal slices and methamphetamine self-administration in rats. GZ-793A potently and selectively inhibits dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). This study determined GZ-793A's ability to evoke [³H]dopamine release and inhibit methamphetamine-evoked [³H]dopamine release from isolated striatal synaptic vesicles. Results show GZ-793A concentration-dependent [³H]dopamine release; nonlinear regression revealed a two-site model of interaction with VMAT2 (High- and Low-EC₅₀ = 15.5 nM and 29.3 μM, respectively). Tetrabenazine and reserpine completely inhibited GZ-793A-evoked [³H]dopamine release, however, only at the High-affinity site. Low concentrations of GZ-793A that interact with the extravesicular dopamine uptake site and the High-affinity intravesicular DA release site also inhibited methamphetamine-evoked [³H]dopamine release from synaptic vesicles. A rightward shift in the methamphetamine concentration-response was evident with increasing concentrations of GZ-793A, and the Schild regression slope was 0.49 ± 0.08, consistent with surmountable allosteric inhibition. These results support a hypothetical model of GZ-793A interaction at more than one site on the VMAT2 protein, which explains its potent inhibition of dopamine uptake, dopamine release via a High-affinity tetrabenazine- and reserpine-sensitive site, dopamine release via a Low-affinity tetrabenazine- and reserpine-insensitive site, and a low-affinity interaction with the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site on VMAT2. GZ-793A inhibition of the effects of methamphetamine supports its potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse.

  9. Pyrrolidine analogues of lobelane: relationship of affinity for the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site with function of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Ashish P; Nickell, Justin R; Chagkutip, Jaturaporn; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2009-12-10

    Ring size reduction of the central piperidine ring of lobelane yielded pyrrolidine analogues that showed marked inconsistencies in their ability to bind to the dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site on the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and their ability to inhibit VMAT2 function. The structure-activity relationships indicate that structural modification within the pyrrolidine series resulted in analogues that interact with two different sites, i.e., the DTBZ binding site and an alternative site on VMAT2 to inhibit transporter function.

  10. Pyrrolidine analogs of lobelane: Relationship of affinity for the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site with function of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Ashish P.; Nickell, Justin R.; Chagkutip, Jaturaporn; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Crooks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Ring size reduction of the central piperidine ring of lobelane yielded pyrrolidine analogs that showed marked inconsistencies in their ability to bind to the dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) binding site on the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and their ability to inhibit VMAT2 function. The structure activity relationships indicate that structural modification within the pyrrolidine series resulted in analogs that interact with two different sites, i.e., the DTBZ binding site and an alternative site on VMAT2 to inhibit transporter function. PMID:19691331

  11. Ion Transport in Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelium, Capan-1 Cells, Is Regulated by Secretin, VIP, Acetylcholine, and Purinergic Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, puriner......OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular......, purinergic receptors, and determine their effects on ion transport. METHODS: Human adenocarcinoma cell line Capan-1 cells were grown on permeable supports and set in Ussing chambers for electrophysiological recordings. Transepithelial voltage (Vte), resistance, and short-circuit currents (Isc) were measured...... in response to agonists. RESULTS: Secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), acetylcholine, forskolin, ionomycin, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP, and adenosine induced lumen negative Vte and Isc. These changes were consistent with anion...

  12. Alpha cells secrete acetylcholine as a non-neuronal paracrine signal priming human beta cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Jacques-Silva, M. Caroline; Fachado, Alberto; Molina, Judith; Abdulreda, Midhat; Ricordi, Camillo; Roper, Stephen D.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in the function of the insulin secreting pancreatic beta cell1,2. Parasympathetic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, the islets of Langerhans, has been shown to provide cholinergic input to the beta cell in several species1,3,4, but the role of autonomic innervation in human beta cell function is at present unclear. Here we show that, in contrast to mouse islets, cholinergic innervation of human islets is sparse. Instead, we find that the alpha cells of the human islet provide paracrine cholinergic input to surrounding endocrine cells. Human alpha cells express the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and release acetylcholine when stimulated with kainate or a lowering in glucose concentration. Acetylcholine secretion by alpha cells in turn sensitizes the beta cell response to increases in glucose concentration. Our results demonstrate that in human islets acetylcholine is a paracrine signal that primes the beta cell to respond optimally to subsequent increases in glucose concentration. We anticipate these results to revise models about neural input and cholinergic signaling in the endocrine pancreas. Cholinergic signaling within the islet represents a potential therapeutic target in diabetes5, highlighting the relevance of this advance to future drug development. PMID:21685896

  13. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of water-soluble 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs as novel inhibitors of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Justin R; Culver, John P; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-09-15

    A small library of 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs was synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2). Results from these studies identified three novel molecules, 6b, 6e and 9a (Ki=35nM, 48nM and 37nM, respectively) that exhibit similar potency for inhibition of VMAT2 function compared with lobelane (Ki=45nM), and importantly, have enhanced water-solubility when compared to the previously reported 1,4-diphenethylpiperidine analogs. These 1,4-diphenethylpiperazine analogs constitute promising new leads in the discovery of potential pharmacotherapeutics for treatment of methamphetamine use disorders.

  14. Inhibitors of vesicular glutamate transporter:research advances%囊泡谷氨酸转运体抑制剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈圆; 宫泽辉; 苏瑞斌; 颜玲娣

    2014-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporter(VGLUT), located on the vesicular membrane, is a highly specific marker of glut-amatergic neurons. VGLUT selectively transports glutamate in the cytoplasm into vesicles. VGLUT1, VGLUT2 and VGLUT3 are three subtypes of VGLUT. The VGLUT can influence the glutamatergic synaptic transmission through mediating sequestration, storage and release of glutamate. The number and activity of VGLUT can change the level of glutamate in synapse cleft through mediating sequestration,storage and release of glutamate,then influence the glutamatergic synaptic transmission. To improve this pathological situation and maintain glutamate at the physiologically relevant concentration, VGLUT inhibition is required. Several classes of competitive VGLUT inhibitors have emerged including azo dyes, substituted quinolines, fatty acids and alkaloids. This article provides a brief review on the structure and function of these potential VGLUT inhibitors.%囊泡谷氨酸转运体(vesicular glutamate transporter,VGLUT)是谷氨酸能神经元最突出的标志物,主要分布于囊泡膜上,其功能是特异性地将胞浆中的谷氨酸转运进入囊泡内,它包括3个亚型,分别是VGLUT1、VGLUT2和VGLUT3。 VGLUT的数量和功能活性控制谷氨酸的隔离、储存和释放,进而影响突触间隙谷氨酸的水平,影响谷氨酸能突触传递。突触间隙中谷氨酸浓度过高时,可对神经元产生毒害,导致神经元的退化、衰老及死亡,最终导致各种疾病。通过抑制VGLUT的表达或活性,维持谷氨酸正常浓度,可能改善病理状况。目前已报道有多种化合物对VGLUT的功能有抑制作用,如偶氮染料、取代的喹啉、脂肪酸和生物碱等。本文对潜在药物靶标VGLUT功能抑制剂的结构和功能研究进展做一综述。

  15. Lobelane analogues containing 4-hydroxy and 4-(2-fluoroethoxy) aromatic substituents: Potent and selective inhibitors of [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolakanti, Shyamsunder R; Nickell, Justin R; Janganati, Venumadhav; Zheng, Guangrong; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2016-05-15

    A series of lobelane and GZ-793A analogues that incorporate aromatic 4-hydroxy and 4-(2-fluoroethoxy) substituents were synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) and the dopamine transporter (DAT), and [(3)H]serotonin uptake at the serotonin transporter (SERT). Most of these compounds exhibited potent inhibition of DA uptake at VMAT2 in the nanomolar range (Ki=30-70nM). The two most potent analogues, 7 and 14, both exhibited a Ki value of 31nM for inhibition of VMAT2. The lobelane analogue 14, incorporating 4-(2-fluoroethoxy) and 4-hydroxy aromatic substituents, exhibited 96- and 335-fold greater selectivity for VMAT2 versus DAT and SERT, respectively, in comparison to lobelane. Thus, lobelane analogues bearing hydroxyl and fluoroethoxy moieties retain the high affinity for VMAT2 of the parent compound, while enhancing selectivity for VMAT2 versus the plasmalemma transporters.

  16. An essential role of acetylcholine-glutamate synergy at habenular synapses in nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Silke; Antolin-Fontes, Beatriz; Görlich, Andreas; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich; Ahnert-Hilger, Gudrun; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines

    2015-12-01

    A great deal of interest has been focused recently on the habenula and its critical role in aversion, negative-reward and drug dependence. Using a conditional mouse model of the ACh-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (Chat), we report that local elimination of acetylcholine (ACh) in medial habenula (MHb) neurons alters glutamate corelease and presynaptic facilitation. Electron microscopy and immuno-isolation analyses revealed colocalization of ACh and glutamate vesicular transporters in synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the central IPN. Glutamate reuptake in SVs prepared from the IPN was increased by ACh, indicating vesicular synergy. Mice lacking CHAT in habenular neurons were insensitive to nicotine-conditioned reward and withdrawal. These data demonstrate that ACh controls the quantal size and release frequency of glutamate at habenular synapses, and suggest that the synergistic functions of ACh and glutamate may be generally important for modulation of cholinergic circuit function and behavior.

  17. Differential impact of genetically modulated choline transporter expression on the release of endogenous versus newly synthesized acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hideki; Calcutt, M Wade; Blakely, Randy D

    2016-09-01

    The efficient import of choline into cholinergic nerve terminals by the presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter (CHT, SLC5A7) dictates the capacity for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release. Tissue levels of ACh are significantly reduced in mice heterozygous for a loss of function mutation in Slc5a7 (HET, CHT(+/-)), but significantly elevated in overexpressing, Slc5a7 BAC-transgenic mice (BAC). Since the readily-releasable pool of ACh is thought to constitute a small fraction of the total ACh pool, these genotype-dependent changes raised the question as to whether CHT expression or activity might preferentially influence the size of reserve pool ACh vesicles. In the current study, we approached this question by evaluating CHT genotype effects on the release of ACh from suprafused mouse forebrain slices. We treated slices from HET, BAC or wildtype (WT) controls with elevated K(+) and monitored release of both newly synthesized and storage pools of ACh. Newly synthesized ACh produced following uptake of [(3)H]choline was quantified by scintillation spectrometry whereas release of endogenous ACh storage pools was quantified by an HPLC-MS approach, from the same samples. Whereas endogenous ACh release scaled with CHT gene dosage, preloaded [(3)H]ACh release displayed no significant genotype dependence. Our findings suggest that CHT protein levels preferentially impact the capacity for ACh release afforded by mobilization of reserve pool vesicles.

  18. Immunohistochemical detection and gene expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 in intrinsic cardiac ganglia of socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation induced a significant increase in resting heart rate and reduction in heart rate variability. Dysfunction of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system is implicated in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. Previous evidence suggests that cardiac ganglia contain noradrenergic neurons. Thus, immunohistochemical expression of catecholaminesynthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2 were analyzed, as well as the effects of social isolation stress on mRNA and protein levels of this enzyme and transporter in the intrinsic cardiac nervous system of adult rats. Our results indicate that cardiac ganglion neurons express TH and VMAT2 immunoreactivity. Chronic isolated stress of rats caused a decrease in TH mRNA and VMAT2 mRNA in the neurons of intrinsic cardiac ganglia. No significant alterations in the protein levels of TH and VMAT2 were observed in these neurons. These data indicate that the neurons of intrinsic cardiac ganglia express TH as well as VMAT2 but that social isolation stress does not change their protein levels. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173044

  19. Selective expression of alpha-synuclein-immunoreactivity in vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive axons in the guinea pig rectum and human colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharrad, Dale F.; de Vries, Elsbeth; Brookes, Simon J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor impairments, including constipation. The hallmark pathological features of Parkinson's disease are Lewy bodies and neurites, of which aggregated a-synuclein is a major constituent. Frequently, Lewy pathology is i

  20. Distribution of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 and Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors in the Auditory Ganglion and Cochlear Nuclei of Pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M R; Atoji, Y

    2016-02-01

    Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the auditory system. Our previous studies revealed localization of glutamate receptor mRNAs in the pigeon cochlear nuclei, suggesting the existence of glutamatergic input from the auditory nerve to the brainstem. This study demonstrated localization of mRNAs for vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) and ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, kainate and NMDA) in the auditory ganglion (AG) and cochlear nuclei (magnocellular, angular and laminar nuclei). VGluT2 mRNA was intensely expressed in AG and intensely or moderately in the cochlear nuclei. The AG and cochlear nuclei showed intense-to-moderate mRNA signals for GluA2, GluA3, GluA4, GluK4 and GluN1. These results suggest that the pigeon AG neurons receives glutamatergic input from hair cells and in turn projects to the magnocellular and angular nuclei. Glutamate may play a pivotal role in the excitatory synapse transmission in the peripheral auditory pathway of birds.

  1. Quinolyl analogues of norlobelane: novel potent inhibitors of [(3)H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and [(3)H]dopamine uptake at the vesicular monoamine transporter-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Derong; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that quinolyl moieties are attractive structural replacements for the phenyl groups in lobelane. These quinolyl analogues had improved water-solubility over lobelane and retained the potent vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) inhibitory properties of the parent compound, with quinlobelane (4) exhibiting potent inhibition of uptake at VMAT-2 (Ki=51nM). However, the VMAT-2 inhibitory properties of quinolyl analogues of norlobelane, which is equipotent with lobeline as an inhibitor of [(3)H]dopamine (DA) uptake at VMAT-2, have not been reported. In the current communication, we describe the synthesis of some novel des-methyl quinolyl analogues of lobelane that exhibit greater affinity (Ki=178-647nM) for the dihydrotetrabenazine binding site located on VMAT-2 compared with lobelane (Ki=970nM), norlobelane (Ki=2310nM) and quinlobelane (Ki=2640nM). The most potent compounds, 14 and 15, also exhibited inhibition of [(3)H]DA uptake at VMAT-2 (Ki=42nM) which was comparable to both lobelane (Ki=45nM) and norlobelane (Ki=43nM). Results reveal that binding affinity at VMAT-2 serves as an accurate predictor of inhibition of the function of VMAT-2 for the majority of these analogues. These novel analogues are under consideration for further development as treatments for methamphetamine abuse.

  2. Vesicular monoamine transporter protein expression correlates with clinical features, tumor biology, and MIBG avidity in neuroblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temple, William; Mendelsohn, Lori; Nekritz, Erin; Gustafson, W.C.; Matthay, Katherine K. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kim, Grace E. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathy [UCSF School of Pharmacy, Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, San Francisco, CA (United States); Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group Statistics and Data Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory A. [University of Michigan, CS Mott Children' s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Hogarty, Michael [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia and Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DuBois, Steven G. [UCSF School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Vesicular monoamine transporters 1 and 2 (VMAT1 and VMAT2) are thought to mediate MIBG uptake in adult neuroendocrine tumors. In neuroblastoma, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been investigated as the principal MIBG uptake protein, though some tumors without NET expression concentrate MIBG. We investigated VMAT expression in neuroblastoma and correlated expression with MIBG uptake and clinical features. We evaluated VMAT1 and VMAT2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in neuroblastoma tumors from 76 patients with high-risk metastatic disease treated in a uniform cooperative group trial (COG A3973). All patients had baseline MIBG diagnostic scans centrally reviewed. IHC results were scored as the product of intensity grading (0 - 3+) and percent of tumor cells expressing the protein of interest. The association between VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores and clinical and biological features was tested using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Patient characteristics were typical of high-risk neuroblastoma, though the cohort was intentionally enriched in patients with MIBG-nonavid tumors (n = 20). VMAT1 and VMAT2 were expressed in 62 % and 75 % of neuroblastoma tumors, respectively. VMAT1 and VMAT2 scores were both significantly lower in MYCN amplified tumors and in tumors with high mitotic karyorrhectic index. MIBG-avid tumors had significantly higher VMAT2 scores than MIBG-nonavid tumors (median 216 vs. 45; p = 0.04). VMAT1 expression did not correlate with MIBG avidity. VMAT1 and VMAT2 are expressed in the majority of neuroblastomas. Expression correlates with other biological features. The expression level of VMAT2 but not that of VMAT1 correlates with avidity for MIBG. (orig.)

  3. Differential expression of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 may identify distinct modes of glutamatergic transmission in the macaque visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, Pooja; Hackett, Troy A; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate is the primary neurotransmitter utilized by the mammalian visual system for excitatory neurotransmission. The sequestration of glutamate into synaptic vesicles, and the subsequent transport of filled vesicles to the presynaptic terminal membrane, is regulated by a family of proteins known as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Two VGLUT proteins, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, characterize distinct sets of glutamatergic projections between visual structures in rodents and prosimian primates, yet little is known about their distributions in the visual system of anthropoid primates. We have examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the visual system of macaque monkeys, an Old World anthropoid primate, in order to determine their relative distributions in the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar complex, V1 and V2. Distinct expression patterns for both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identified architectonic boundaries in all structures, as well as anatomical subdivisions of the superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and V1. These results suggest that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 clearly identify regions of glutamatergic input in visual structures, and may identify common architectonic features of visual areas and nuclei across the primate radiation. Additionally, we find that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 characterize distinct subsets of glutamatergic projections in the macaque visual system; VGLUT2 predominates in driving or feedforward projections from lower order to higher order visual structures while VGLUT1 predominates in modulatory or feedback projections from higher order to lower order visual structures. The distribution of these two proteins suggests that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 may identify class 1 and class 2 type glutamatergic projections within the primate visual system (Sherman and Guillery, 2006).

  4. VESICULAR TRANSPORT. A structure of the COPI coat and the role of coat proteins in membrane vesicle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonova, S O; Diestelkoetter-Bachert, P; von Appen, A; Hagen, W J H; Beck, R; Beck, M; Wieland, F; Briggs, J A G

    2015-07-10

    Transport of material within cells is mediated by trafficking vesicles that bud from one cellular compartment and fuse with another. Formation of a trafficking vesicle is driven by membrane coats that localize cargo and polymerize into cages to bend the membrane. Although extensive structural information is available for components of these coats, the heterogeneity of trafficking vesicles has prevented an understanding of how complete membrane coats assemble on the membrane. We combined cryo-electron tomography, subtomogram averaging, and cross-linking mass spectrometry to derive a complete model of the assembled coat protein complex I (COPI) coat involved in traffic between the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum. The highly interconnected COPI coat structure contradicted the current "adaptor-and-cage" understanding of coated vesicle formation.

  5. BPAG1a and b associate with EB1 and EB3 and modulate vesicular transport, Golgi apparatus structure, and cell migration in C2.7 myoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniia Poliakova

    Full Text Available BPAG1a and BPAG1b (BPAG1a/b constitute two major isoforms encoded by the dystonin (Dst gene and show homology with MACF1a and MACF1b. These proteins are members of the plakin family, giant multi-modular proteins able to connect the intermediate filament, microtubule and microfilament cytoskeletal networks with each other and to distinct cell membrane sites. They also serve as scaffolds for signaling proteins that modulate cytoskeletal dynamics. To gain better insights into the functions of BPAG1a/b, we further characterized their C-terminal region important for their interaction with microtubules and assessed the role of these isoforms in the cytoskeletal organization of C2.7 myoblast cells. Our results show that alternative splicing does not only occur at the 5' end of Dst and Macf1 pre-mRNAs, as previously reported, but also at their 3' end, resulting in expression of additional four mRNA variants of BPAG1 and MACF1. These isoform-specific C-tails were able to bundle microtubules and bound to both EB1 and EB3, two microtubule plus end proteins. In the C2.7 cell line, knockdown of BPAG1a/b had no major effect on the organization of the microtubule and microfilament networks, but negatively affected endocytosis and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus structure, which became dispersed. Finally, knockdown of BPAG1a/b caused a specific decrease in the directness of cell migration, but did not impair initial cell adhesion. These data provide novel insights into the complexity of alternative splicing of Dst pre-mRNAs and into the role of BPAG1a/b in vesicular transport, Golgi apparatus structure as well as in migration in C2.7 myoblasts.

  6. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 is required for the respiratory and parasympathetic activation produced by optogenetic stimulation of catecholaminergic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Stephen B G; Holloway, Benjamin B; Viar, Kenneth E; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2014-01-01

    Catecholaminergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM-CA neurons; C1 neurons) contribute to the sympathetic, parasympathetic and neuroendocrine responses elicited by physical stressors such as hypotension, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and infection. Most RVLM-CA neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)2, and may use glutamate as a ionotropic transmitter, but the importance of this mode of transmission in vivo is uncertain. To address this question, we genetically deleted VGLUT2 from dopamine-β-hydroxylase-expressing neurons in mice [DβH(Cre/0) ;VGLUT2(flox/flox) mice (cKO mice)]. We compared the in vivo effects of selectively stimulating RVLM-CA neurons in cKO vs. control mice (DβH(Cre/0) ), using channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2-mCherry) optogenetics. ChR2-mCherry was expressed by similar numbers of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons in each strain (~400 neurons), with identical selectivity for catecholaminergic neurons (90-99% colocalisation with tyrosine hydroxylase). RVLM-CA neurons had similar morphology and axonal projections in DβH(Cre/0) and cKO mice. Under urethane anesthesia, photostimulation produced a similar pattern of activation of presumptive ChR2-positive RVLM-CA neurons in DβH(Cre/0) and cKO mice. Photostimulation in conscious mice produced frequency-dependent respiratory activation in DβH(Cre/0) mice but no effect in cKO mice. Similarly, photostimulation under urethane anesthesia strongly activated efferent vagal nerve activity in DβH(Cre/0) mice only. Vagal responses were unaffected by α1 -adrenoreceptor blockade. In conclusion, two responses evoked by RVLM-CA neuron stimulation in vivo require the expression of VGLUT2 by these neurons, suggesting that the acute autonomic responses driven by RVLM-CA neurons are mediated by glutamate.

  7. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated vesicular transport of calcium in intestine: time-course studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemere, I.; Norman, A.W.

    1988-06-01

    Previous work has biochemically identified lysosomes containing calcium and calbindin-D28K (CaBP) in chick intestine that are sensitive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) status. In the present work, lysosomal accumulation of 45Ca was optimal after 30 min of absorption from in situ ligated duodenal loops. The areas under the curves, defined as lysosomal fractions in Percoll gradients, were calculated, and values after 10, 20, 30, and 40 min of transport were (+D/-D ratio) 0.90, 1.62, 1.88, and 1.78, respectively. Lysosomal CaBP also increased in parallel with the time of absorption and was not due to nonspecific adsorption. When lysosomal 45Ca was determined 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 43 h after administration of 1.3 nmol 1,25-(OH)2D3 or vehicle, the area ratios were 1.02, 1.47, 3.10, 1.88, and 1.29, respectively. Analyses of serum 45Ca in the same birds yielded a closely parallel time course with 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption; values were 108 +/- 12% (+/- SE), 164 +/- 29%, 300 +/- 35%, 340 +/- 39%, and 169 +/- 8% of vitamin D-deficient control values at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 43 h, respectively. Immunoreactive CaBP in lysosomal fractions did not change significantly between 5-43 h after administration of seco-steroid. A similar series of experiments was conducted with microsomal membranes containing putative endocytic vesicles, which are believed to deliver calcium to the lysosomes. The brush border origin of the vesicles was supported by the internalization of anti-CaBP immunoglobulin G after 3 min of absorption. Accumulation of 45Ca by endocytic vesicles was subsequently found to be maximal after 20 min of absorption (+D/-D = 1.48), declining again at 30 min (+D/-D = 1.16), while CaBP levels in the same fractions remained unchanged between 0-30 min of absorption.

  8. X-linked dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, lubag): disease-specific sequence change DSC3 in TAF1/DYT3 affects genes in vesicular transport and dopamine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Thilo; Nolte, Dagmar; Grznarova, Maria; Hofmann, Andrea; Schultze, Joachim L; Müller, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    X-chromosomal dystonia parkinsonism syndrome (XDP, 'lubag') is associated with sequence changes within the TAF1/DYT3 multiple transcript system. Although most sequence changes are intronic, one, disease-specific single-nucleotide change 3 (DSC3), is located within an exon (d4). Transcribed exon d4 occurs as part of multiple splice variants. These variants include exons d3 and d4 spliced to exons of TAF1, and an independent transcript composed of exons d2-d4. Location of DSC3 in exon d4 and utilization of this exon in multiple splice variants suggest an important role of DSC3 in the XDP pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we transfected neuroblastoma cells with four expression constructs, including exons d2-d4 [d2-d4/wild-type (wt) and d2-d4/DSC3] and d3-d4 (d3-d4/wt and d3-d4/DSC3). Expression profiling revealed a dramatic effect of DSC3 on overall gene expression. Three hundred and sixty-two genes differed between cells containing d2-d4/wt and d2-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering revealed enrichment of genes related to vesicular transport, dopamine metabolism, synapse function, Ca(2+) metabolism and oxidative stress. Two hundred and eleven genes were differentially expressed in d3-d4/wt versus d3-d4/DSC3. Annotation clustering highlighted genes in signal transduction and cell-cell interaction. The data show an important role of physiologically occurring transcript d2-d4 in normal brain function. Interference with this role by DSC3 is a likely pathological mechanism in XDP. Disturbance of dopamine function and of Ca(2+) metabolism can explain abnormal movement; loss of protection against reactive oxygen species may account for the neurodegenerative changes in XDP. Although d3-d4 also affect genes potentially related to neurodegenerative processes, their physiologic role as splice variants of TAF1 awaits further exploration.

  9. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood ...

  10. Stochastic Model of Maturation and Vesicular Exchange in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical organization of membrane-bound organelles along intracellular transport pathways relies on vesicular exchange between organelles and on biochemical maturation of the organelle content by specific enzymes. The relative importance of each mechanism in controlling organelle dynamics remains controversial, in particular for transport through the Golgi apparatus. Using a stochastic model, we show that full maturation of membrane-bound compartments can be seen as the stochastic escape from a steady-state in which export is dominated by vesicular exchange. We show that full maturation can contribute a significant fraction of the total out-flux for small organelles such as endosomes and Golgi cisternae.

  11. Stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor regulates glutamate transporter GLAST via basic fibroblast growth factor production in cultured cortical microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Norimitsu; Harano, Sakura; Tokuhara, Masato; Idenoshita, Yuko; Zhang, Fang Fang; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor expressed in microglia has a crucial role in neuroprotection. Simulation of α7 nACh receptor leads to increased expression of glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), which in turn decreases synaptic glutamate levels. However, the upregulation of GLAST in cultured rat cortical microglia appears long after (over 18 h) stimulation of the α7 nACh receptor with nicotine. Thus, the current study elucidated the pathway responsible for the induction of GLAST expression in cultured cortical microglia. Nicotine-induced GLAST mRNA expression was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide pretreatment, indicating that a protein intermediary, such as a growth factor, is required for GLAST expression. The expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) mRNA in cortical microglia was significantly increased 6 and 12h after treatment with nicotine, and this increase was potently inhibited by pretreatment with methyllycaconitine, a selective α7 nACh receptor antagonist. The treatment with nicotine also significantly increased FGF-2 protein expression. Furthermore, treatment with recombinant FGF-2 increased GLAST mRNA, protein expression and (14)C-glutamate uptake, a functional measurement of GLAST activity. Conversely, pretreatment with PD173074, an inhibitor of FGF receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase, significantly prevented the nicotine-induced expression of GLAST mRNA, its protein and (14)C-glutamate uptake. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed FGFR1 mRNA expression was confined to cultured cortical microglia. Together, the current findings demonstrate that the neuroprotective effect of activation of microglial α7 nACh receptors could be due to the expression of FGF-2, which in turn increases GLAST expression, thereby clearing glutamate from synapse and decreasing glutamate neurotransmission.

  12. Autophagy and proteins involved in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Celina; Fader, Claudio Marcelo; Colombo, María Isabel

    2015-11-14

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that, as a basic mechanism it delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosomes in order to maintain adequate energy levels and cellular homeostasis. This complex cellular process is activated by low cellular nutrient levels and other stress situations such as low ATP levels, the accumulation of damaged proteins or organelles, or pathogen invasion. Autophagy as a multistep process involves vesicular transport events leading to tethering and fusion of autophagic vesicles with several intracellular compartments. This review summarizes our current understanding of the autophagic pathway with emphasis in the trafficking machinery (i.e. Rabs GTPases and SNAP receptors (SNAREs)) involved in specific steps of the pathway.

  13. Aluminium toxicity targets PIN2 in Arabidopsis root apices: Effects on PIN2 endocytosis, vesicular recycling,and polar auxin transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; HOU NingYan; Markus SCHLICHT; WAN YingLang; Stefano MANCUSO; Frantisek BALUSKA

    2008-01-01

    The most obvious symptom of AI toxicity is the inhibition of root growth.However,the mechanism of AI-inhibiting root growth remains to be elucidated.In this study,auxin transport and vesicle movement of an auxin-efflux carrier (PIN2) were investigated in Arabidopsis roots in response to AI stress.Results indicated that AI inhibited the apical transport of auxin in root tips of Arabidopsis significantly.The severe inhibition was localized in the cells of transition zone,where the concentration of auxin was only 34% that of the control.Brefeldin A (BFA),an inhibitor of vesicle transport,induced the dot-like structure of PIN2 vesicle significantly.Al decreased the size of dot-like structure of PIN2 vesicles.Re-sults of real-time RT-PCR and Western-blotting analysis showed that Al increased the transcript level of PIN2 and the accumulation of PIN2 protein in horizontal direction of plasma membrane,but decreased its distribution in endosomes,suggesting that AI inhibited the transport of PIN2 vesicles from plasma membrane to endosomes.Results of cytoskeleton-depolymering drugs indicated that it was via the pathway of disruption of actin microfilaments that AI inhibited the transport of PIN2 vesicles.Exposed to AI stress,the cells of elongation zone had less AI uptake and less transport frequency of vesicles than cells of transition zone.Taken together,our results suggested that AI inhibited root growth mainly by modulating the transport of PIN2 vesicles between plasma membrane and endosomes,thus block-ing auxin transport and root growth.

  14. Transcriptomic effects of depleted uranium on acetylcholine and cholesterol metabolisms in Alzheimer's disease model; Effets transcriptomiques de l'uranium appauvri sur les metabolismes de l'acetylcholine et du cholesterol chez un modele de maladie d'Alzheimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestaevel, Ph.; Bensoussan, H.; Racine, R.; Airault, F.; Gourmelon, P.; Souidi, M. [Direction de la radioprotection de l' Homme, service de radiobiologie et d' epidemiologie, laboratoire de radiotoxicologie experimentale, institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire, BP no 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Some heavy metals, or aluminium, could participate in the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). Depleted uranium (DU), another heavy metal, modulates the cholinergic system and the cholesterol metabolism in the brain of rats, but without neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to determine what happens in organisms exposed to DU that will/are developing the AD. This study was thus performed on a transgenic mouse model for human amyloid precursor protein (APP), the Tg2576 strain. The possible effects of DU through drinking water (20 mg/L) over an 8-month period were analyzed on acetylcholine and cholesterol metabolisms at gene level in the cerebral cortex. The mRNA levels of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABC A1) decreased in control Tg2576 mice in comparison with wild-type mice (respectively -89%, -86% and -44%, p < 0.05). Chronic exposure of Tg2576 mice to DU increased mRNA levels of ChAT (+189%, p < 0.05), VAChT (+120%, p < 0.05) and ABC A1 (+52%, p < 0.05) compared to control Tg2576 mice. Overall, these modifications of acetylcholine and cholesterol metabolisms did not lead to increased disturbances that are specific of AD, suggesting that chronic DU exposure did not worsen the pathology in this experimental model. (authors)

  15. Kv3.3 immunoreactivity in the vestibular nuclear complex of the rat with focus on the medial vestibular nucleus: targeting of Kv3.3 neurones by terminals positive for vesicular glutamate transporter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Ruth Elizabeth; Corns, Laura; Edwards, Ian James; Deuchars, Jim

    2010-07-23

    Kv3 voltage-gated K(+) channels are important in shaping neuronal excitability and are abundant in the CNS, with each Kv3 gene exhibiting a unique expression pattern. Mice lacking the gene encoding for the Kv3.3 subunit exhibit motor deficits. Furthermore, mutations in this gene have been linked to the human disease spinocerebellar ataxia 13, associated with cerebellar and extra-cerebellar symptoms such as imbalance and nystagmus. Kv subunit localisation is important in defining their functional roles and thus, we investigated the distribution of Kv3.3-immunoreactivity in the vestibular nuclear complex of rats with particular focus on the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN). Kv3.3-immunoreactivity was widespread in the vestibular nuclei and was detected in somata, dendrites and synaptic terminals. Kv3.3-immunoreactivity was observed in distinct neuronal populations and dual labelling with the neuronal marker NeuN revealed 28.5+/-1.9% of NeuN labelled MVN neurones were Kv3.3-positive. Kv3.3-immunoreactivity co-localised presynaptically with the synaptic vesicle marker SV2, parvalbumin, the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT2 and the glycine transporter GlyT2. VGluT1 terminals were scarce within the MVN (2.5+/-1.1 per 50 microm(2)) and co-localisation was not observed. However, 85.4+/-9.4% of VGluT1 terminals targeted and enclosed Kv3.3-immunoreactive somata. Presynaptic Kv3.3 co-localisation with the GABAergic marker GAD67 was also not observed. Cytoplasmic GlyT2 labelling was observed in a subset of Kv3.3-positive neurones. Electron microscopy confirmed a pre- and post-synaptic distribution of the Kv3.3 protein. This study provides evidence supporting a role for Kv3.3 subunits in vestibular processing by regulating neuronal excitability pre- and post-synaptically.

  16. 9 CFR 311.32 - Vesicular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vesicular diseases. 311.32 Section 311... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.32 Vesicular diseases. (a) Any carcass affected with vesicular disease shall be condemned if the condition is acute and if...

  17. 9 CFR 309.15 - Vesicular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vesicular diseases. 309.15 Section 309... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.15 Vesicular diseases. (a) Immediate notification shall be given by... any livestock is found to be affected with a vesicular disease. (b) No livestock under quarantine...

  18. The effects of postnatal alcohol exposure and galantamine on the context pre-exposure facilitation effect and acetylcholine efflux using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Amy E; Fadel, Jim R; Kelly, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are characterized by damage to multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, which is involved in learning and memory. The acetylcholine neurotransmitter system provides major input to the hippocampus and is a possible target of developmental alcohol exposure. Alcohol (3.0 g/kg/day) was administered via intubation to male rat pups (postnatal day [PD] 2-10; ethanol-treated [ET]). Controls received a sham intubation (IC) or no treatment (NC). Acetylcholine efflux was measured using in vivo microdialysis (PD 32-35). ET animals were not different at baseline, but had decreased K(+)/Ca(2+)-induced acetylcholine efflux compared to NC animals and an enhanced acetylcholine response to galantamine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; 2.0 mg/kg) compared to both control groups. A separate cohort of animals was tested in the context pre-exposure facilitation effect task (CPFE; PD 30-32) following postnatal alcohol exposure and administration of galantamine (2.0 mg/kg; PD 11-30). Neither chronic galantamine nor postnatal alcohol exposure influenced performance in the CPFE task. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that neither alcohol exposure nor behavioral testing significantly altered the density of vesicular acetylcholine transporter or alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the ventral hippocampus (CA1). In the medial septum, the average number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT+) cells was increased in ET animals that displayed the context-shock association; there were no changes in IC and NC animals that learned the context-shock association or in any animals that were in the control task that entailed no learning. Taken together, these results indicate that the hippocampal acetylcholine system is significantly disrupted under conditions of pharmacological manipulations (e.g., galantamine) in alcohol-exposed animals. Furthermore, ChAT was up‑regulated in ET animals that learned the CPFE, which may account for their ability

  19. Localization of vesicular glutamate transporters in the peripheral vestibular system of rat%囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体在前庭外周系统中的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远; 庞有旺; 董玉琳; 张富兴; 李金莲; 李云庆

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluTs: VGluT1-VGluT3) in the peripheral vestibular system. Methods The vestibular structures, including Scarpa's ganglion (vestibular ganglion, VG), maculae of utricle and saccule, and ampullary cristae, from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were processed immunohistochemically for VGluTs,by avidin-biotinylated peroxidase complex method, with 3-3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) as chromogen. Results (1) VGluT1was localized to partial neurons of VG and to the putative primary afferent fibers innervating vestibular end-organs. (2)Intense VGluT3 immunoreactivity was detected in large number of sensory epithelia cells, and weak labeling of VGluT3-positive afferent fibers was in the maculae and ampullary cristae. (3) No or very weak VGluT2 immunoreactivity was observed in the VG and acoustic maculae. Conclusion These results provide the morphological support that glutamate exists in the peripheral vestibular system, and it may play an important role in the centripetal vestibular transmission.%目的 检查囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体(vesicular glutamate transporter,VGluT)在前庭外周系统中的分布特征.方法 采用ABC(avidin-biotinylated peroxidase complex)免疫组织化学方法,二氨基联苯作为染色剂,观察VGluT1-3在正常成年SD大鼠前庭外周系统,包括球囊、椭圆囊、壶腹嵴和前庭神经节(Scarpa神经节)的表达.结果 (1)VGluT1样免疫阳性产物位于前庭神经节和传入纤维支配的前庭外周终末感受器.(2)大部分感觉上皮细胞表达高密度的VGluT3样免疫阳性产物,但在球囊斑和椭圆囊斑,VGluT3样免疫阳性传入纤维表达较弱.(3)在上述部位,没有或仅有很弱的VGluT2样免疫反应.结论 VGluT1和VGluT3参与了初级前庭传入纤维和毛细胞中将谷氨酸转运入囊泡的过程,可能在调节前庭终末感受器通过前庭核向大脑传递信息的传导通路中具有重要作用.

  20. Glutamatergic or GABAergic neuron-specific, long-term expression in neocortical neurons from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors containing the phosphate-activated glutaminase, vesicular glutamate transporter-1, or glutamic acid decarboxylase promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Kong, Lingxin; Zhang, Guo-rong; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xiaodan; Szabo, Gabor; Curthoys, Norman P; Geller, Alfred I

    2007-05-01

    Many potential uses of direct gene transfer into neurons require restricting expression to one of the two major types of forebrain neurons, glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons. Thus, it is desirable to develop virus vectors that contain either a glutamatergic or GABAergic neuron-specific promoter. The brain/kidney phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG), the product of the GLS1 gene, produces the majority of the glutamate for release as neurotransmitter, and is a marker for glutamatergic neurons. A PAG promoter was partially characterized using a cultured kidney cell line. The three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are expressed in distinct populations of neurons, and VGLUT1 is the predominant VGLUT in the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) produces GABA; the two molecular forms of the enzyme, GAD65 and GAD67, are expressed in distinct, but largely overlapping, groups of neurons, and GAD67 is the predominant form in the neocortex. In transgenic mice, an approximately 9 kb fragment of the GAD67 promoter supports expression in most classes of GABAergic neurons. Here, we constructed plasmid (amplicon) Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors that placed the Lac Z gene under the regulation of putative PAG, VGLUT1, or GAD67 promoters. Helper virus-free vector stocks were delivered into postrhinal cortex, and the rats were sacrificed 4 days or 2 months later. The PAG or VGLUT1 promoters supported approximately 90% glutamatergic neuron-specific expression. The GAD67 promoter supported approximately 90% GABAergic neuron-specific expression. Long-term expression was observed using each promoter. Principles for obtaining long-term expression from HSV-1 vectors, based on these and other results, are discussed. Long-term glutamatergic or GABAergic neuron-specific expression may benefit specific experiments on learning or specific gene therapy approaches. Of note, promoter analyses might identify regulatory elements that determine

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes vesicular glutamate transporter 3 expression and neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through the activation of the transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Huaxiang; Li, Hao; Pan, Xinliang; Li, Zhenzhong

    2016-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical for sensory neuron survival and is necessary for vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) expression. Whether the transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are involved in these BDNF-induced effects remains unclear. In the present study, primary cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to test the link between BDNF and transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 on VGLUT3 expression and neurite outgrowth. BDNF promoted the mRNA and protein expression of Etv4 and Etv5 in DRG neurons. These effects were blocked by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD98059 but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 or phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) inhibitor U73122. Etv4 siRNA and Etv5 siRNA effectively blocked the VGLUT3 expression and neurite elongation induced by BNDF. The overexpression of Etv4 or Etv5 potentiated the effects of BNDF-induced neurite elongation and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), medium neurofilament (NF-M), and light neurofilament (NF-L) expression while these effects could be inhibited by Etv4 and Etv5 siRNA. These data imply that Etv4 and Etv5 are essential transcription factors in modulating BDNF/TrkB signaling-mediated VGLUT3 expression and neurite outgrowth. BDNF, through the ERK1/2 signaling pathway, activates Etv4 and Etv5 to initiate GAP-43 expression, promote neurofilament (NF) protein expression, induce neurite outgrowth, and mediate VGLUT3 expression for neuronal function improvement. The biological effects initiated by BDNF/TrkB signaling linked to E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors are important to elucidate neuronal differentiation, axonal regeneration, and repair in various pathological states.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase and Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-30

    placing the ester group at th- estera - tic site. K. values for AcCh and DMBAc are similar, indicating no substantial coulombic effe,-t, and the...V. P. (1950) Biochim. BioDhys. Acta 4, 543-558. 2. "Studies on Cholinesterase. VII. The Active Surface of Acetylcholine Esterase Derived from Effects...L., Chang, H. W., and Chen-, Y. T. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 1555-1565. 42. "Rapid and Complete Purification of Acetylcholin- esterases of Electric

  3. Combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonism and partial serotonin transporter inhibition produce antidepressant-like effects in the mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to an involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in major depression. Nicotine improves symptoms of depression in humans and shows antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Monoamine release is facilitated by nAChR stimulation, and nicotine-evoked serotonin (5...... represents a compound displaying the synergistic effect of α7 nAChR agonism combined with partial 5-HT reuptake inhibition previously described. The addition of α7 nAChR agonism to classical monoamine-based mechanisms may represent a novel option for the improved treatment of major depression....

  4. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  5. Transmission and pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is caused by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), a negative single stranded RNA arthropod-borne virus member of the Family Rhabdoviridae. The virion is composed of the host derived plasma membrane, the envelope, and an internal ribonucleoprotein core. The envelope contain...

  6. Identification and functional expression of a family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in the central nervous system of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Pim; Bertrand, Sonia; Munno, David W; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; van Minnen, Jan; Spafford, J David; Syed, Naweed I; Bertrand, Daniel; Smit, August B

    2006-01-20

    We described a family of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits underlying cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS) of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis. By using degenerate PCR cloning, we identified 12 subunits that display a high sequence similarity to nAChR subunits, of which 10 are of the alpha-type, 1 is of the beta-type, and 1 was not classified because of insufficient sequence information. Heterologous expression of identified subunits confirms their capacity to form functional receptors responding to acetylcholine. The alpha-type subunits can be divided into groups that appear to underlie cation-conducting (excitatory) and anion-conducting (inhibitory) channels involved in synaptic cholinergic transmission. The expression of the Lymnaea nAChR subunits, assessed by real time quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, indicates that it is localized to neurons and widespread in the CNS, with the number and localization of expressing neurons differing considerably between subunit types. At least 10% of the CNS neurons showed detectable nAChR subunit expression. In addition, cholinergic neurons, as indicated by the expression of the vesicular ACh transporter, comprise approximately 10% of the neurons in all ganglia. Together, our data suggested a prominent role for fast cholinergic transmission in the Lymnaea CNS by using a number of neuronal nAChR subtypes comparable with vertebrate species but with a functional complexity that may be much higher.

  7. Apolipoprotein E4 reduces evoked hippocampal acetylcholine release in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejší, Eva; Liraz, Ori; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. We utilized apoE4-targeted replacement mice (approved by the Tel Aviv University Animal Care Committee) to investigate whether cholinergic dysfunction, which increases during aging and is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, is accentuated by apoE4. This revealed that levels of the pre-synaptic cholinergic marker, vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the hippocampus and the corresponding electrically evoked release of acetylcholine, are similar in 4-month-old apoE4 and apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) mice. Both parameters decrease with age. This decrease is, however, significantly more pronounced in the apoE4 mice. The levels of cholinacetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) were similar in the hippocampus of young apoE4 and apoE3 mice and decreased during aging. For ChAT, this decrease was similar in the apoE4 and apoE3 mice, whereas it was more pronounced in the apoE4 mice, regarding their corresponding AChE and BuChE levels. The level of muscarinic receptors was higher in the apoE4 than in the apoE3 mice at 4 months and increased to similar levels with age. However, the relative representation of the M1 receptor subtype decreased during aging in apoE4 mice. These results demonstrate impairment of the evoked release of acetylcholine in hippocampus by apoE4 in 12-month-old mice but not in 4-month-old mice. The levels of ChAT and the extent of the M2 receptor-mediated autoregulation of ACh release were similar in the adult mice, suggesting that the apoE4-related inhibition of hippocampal ACh release in these mice is not driven by these parameters. Evoked ACh release from hippocampal and cortical slices is similar in 4-month-old apoE4 and apoE3 mice but is specifically and significantly reduced in hippocampus, but not cortex, of 12-month-old apoE4 mice. This effect is accompanied by decreased VAChT levels. These findings show that

  8. Expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in the rat trigeminal motor nucleus%囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体阳性纤维在大鼠三叉神经运动核内的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞有旺; 郑季南; 洪庆南; 方钧

    2012-01-01

    Objective Distribution of vesicular glutamate transporters, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, im-munoreactivity was studied in the trigeminal motor nucleus of rats. Methods Firstly, immunofluorescence staining for VGLUT1 , VGLUT2 and neuronal nuclear protein was done in the rat; Sechondly, jaw-opening neurons were retrogradely labeled by injecting tetramethyl rhodamine into the rat mylohyoideus nerve, and then dual fluorescent immunostained for VGluTl and neuronal nuclear protein. Results VGLUT1 im-munoreactivity was detected in the dorsolateral divisions of the trigeminal motor nucleus, not in the ven-tromedial divisions; whereas VGLUT2 immunoreactivity were localized throughout the trigeminal motor nucleus. The divisions without VGLUT1 immunoreactivity was right the ventromedial divisions of the trigeminal motor nucleus containing motoneurons innervating the jaw-opening muscles. Conclusion These results show that the jaw-closing motoneurons might be innervated by both VGLUTl-immunoreactive profiles and VGLUT2-immunoreactive profiles, while the jaw-opening motoneurons might be innervated only by VGLUT2-immunoreactive profiles.%目的 观察Ⅰ、Ⅱ型囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体阳性纤维在大鼠三叉神经运动核内的分布.方法 首先采用免疫荧光三重标记Ⅰ、Ⅱ型囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体和神经元核蛋白以观察Ⅰ、Ⅱ型囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体阳性纤维在大鼠三叉神经运动核内的分布;接着注射四甲基罗达明入下颌舌骨肌神经逆行标记三叉神经运动核开口神经元,再采用免疫荧光双重标记Ⅰ型囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体和神经元核蛋白以观察Ⅰ、Ⅱ型囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体阳性纤维在大鼠三叉神经运动核开口神经元区和闭口神经元区内的分布差异.结果 Ⅰ型囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体阳性纤维仅在三叉神经运动核背外侧部分布,而Ⅱ型囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体阳性纤维在整个三叉神经运动核内分布;开口神经元区未观

  9. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in acetylcholine regulating stomatal movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In animal cells, action of acetylcholine depends on its binding with its two specific receptors on the plasma membrane: the nicotinic and muscarinic respectively. The present investigation has shown that agonists of muscarinic receptor (muscarine) could induce stomatal opening, while the antagonists (atropine) could block stomatal opening induced by acetylcholine. Their effects can only be realized in medium containing Ca2+, but not in medium containing K+. The results tend to reveal that the muscarinic receptor is involved in acetylcholine-induced stomatal movement.

  10. Predicted overlapping microRNA regulators of acetylcholine packaging and degradation in neuroinflammation-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eNadorp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs can notably control many targets each and regulate entire cellular pathways, but whether miRNAs can regulate complete neurotransmission processes is largely unknown. Here, we report that miRNAs with complementary sequence motifs to the key genes involved in acetylcholine (ACh synthesis and/or packaging show massive overlap with those regulating ACh degradation. To address this topic, we first searched for miRNAs that could target the 3’-untranslated regions of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT gene that controls ACh synthesis; the vesicular ACh transporter (VAChT, encoded from an intron in the ChAT gene and the ACh hydrolyzing genes acetyl- and/or butyrylcholinesterase (AChE, BChE. Intriguingly, we found that many of the miRNAs targeting these genes are primate-specific, and that changes in their levels associate with inflammation, anxiety, brain damage, cardiac, neurodegenerative or pain-related syndromes. To validate the in vivo relevance of this dual interaction, we selected the evolutionarily conserved miR-186, which targets both the stress-inducible soluble readthrough variant AChE-R and the major peripheral cholinesterase BChE. We exposed mice to predator scent stress and searched for potential associations between consequent changes in their miR-186, AChE-R and BChE levels. Both intestinal miR-186 as well as BChE and AChE-R activities were conspicuously elevated one week post-exposure, highlighting the previously unknown involvement of miR-186 and BChE in psychological stress responses. Overlapping miRNA regulation emerges from our findings as a recently evolved surveillance mechanism over cholinergic neurotransmission in health and disease; and the corresponding miRNA details and disease relevance may serve as a useful resource for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying this surveillance.

  11. Lipid Based Vesicular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular drug delivery system can be defined as highly ordered assemblies consisting of one or more concentric bilayers formed as a result of self-assembling of amphiphilic building blocks in presence of water. Vesicular drug delivery systems are particularly important for targeted delivery of drugs because of their ability to localize the activity of drug at the site or organ of action thereby lowering its concentration at the other sites in body. Vesicular drug delivery system sustains drug action at a predetermined rate, relatively constant (zero order kinetics, efficient drug level in the body, and simultaneously minimizes the undesirable side effects. It can also localize drug action in the diseased tissue or organ by targeted drug delivery using carriers or chemical derivatization. Different types of pharmaceutical carriers such as polymeric micelles, particulate systems, and macro- and micromolecules are presented in the form of novel drug delivery system for targeted delivery of drugs. Particulate type carrier also known as colloidal carrier system, includes lipid particles, micro- and nanoparticles, micro- and nanospheres, polymeric micelles and vesicular systems like liposomes, sphingosomes, niosomes, transfersomes, aquasomes, ufasomes, and so forth.

  12. Vesicular uptake and exocytosis of l-aspartate is independent of sialin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Nordengen, Kaja; Larsson, Max; Prolo, Laura M.; Farzampour, Zoya; Reimer, Richard J.; Gundersen, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of release and the role of l-aspartate as a central neurotransmitter are controversial. A vesicular release mechanism for l-aspartate has been difficult to prove, as no vesicular l-aspartate transporter was identified until it was found that sialin could transport l-aspartate and l-glutamate when reconstituted into liposomes. We sought to clarify the release mechanism of l-aspartate and the role of sialin in this process by combining l-aspartate uptake studies in isolated synaptic vesicles with immunocyotchemical investigations of hippocampal slices. We found that radiolabeled l-aspartate was taken up into synaptic vesicles. The vesicular l-aspartate uptake, relative to the l-glutamate uptake, was twice as high in the hippocampus as in the whole brain, the striatum, and the entorhinal and frontal cortices and was not inhibited by l-glutamate. We further show that sialin is not essential for exocytosis of l-aspartate, as there was no difference in ATP-dependent l-aspartate uptake in synaptic vesicles from sialin-knockout and wild-type mice. In addition, expression of sialin in PC12 cells did not result in significant vesicle uptake of l-aspartate, and depolarization-induced depletion of l-aspartate from hippocampal nerve terminals was similar in hippocampal slices from sialin-knockout and wild-type mice. Further, there was no evidence for nonvesicular release of l-aspartate via volume-regulated anion channels or plasma membrane excitatory amino acid transporters. This suggests that l-aspartate is exocytotically released from nerve terminals after vesicular accumulation by a transporter other than sialin.—Morland, C., Nordengen, K., Larsson, M., Prolo, L. M., Farzampour, Z., Reimer, R. J., Gundersen, V. Vesicular uptake and exocytosis of l-aspartate is independent of sialin. PMID:23221336

  13. Novel acetylcholine and carbamoylcholine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Petrycer; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Christensen, Jeppe K.;

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity for this ......A series of carbamoylcholine and acetylcholine analogues were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Several of the compounds displayed low nanomolar binding affinities to the alpha 4beta 2 nAChR and pronounced selectivity...... for this subtype over alpha 3beta 4, alpha 4beta 4, and alpha 7 nAChRs. The high nAChR activity of carbamoylcholine analogue 5d was found to reside in its R-enantiomer, a characteristic most likely true for all other compounds in the series. Interestingly, the pronounced alpha 4beta 2 selectivities exhibited......AChR agonists published to date. Ligand-protein docking experiments using homology models of the amino-terminal domains of alpha 4beta 2 and alpha 3beta 4 nAChRs identified residues Val111(beta 2)/Ile113(beta 4), Phe119(beta 2)/Gln121(beta 4), and Thr155(alpha 4)/Ser150(alpha 3) as possible key determinants...

  14. Acetylcholine : Future research and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, E. A.; Platt, B.; Riedel, G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since the initial description of chemical transmission in the early part of the 20th century and the identification of acetylcholine (ACh) as the first such transmitter, interests grew to define the multiple facets of its functions. This multitude is only partially covered here, but even in the

  15. Emulsomes: An emerging vesicular drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawandeep Gill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral route is the easiest, cost effective, and most vital method for drug administration. Therefore, improvement of dosage forms mainly for the prolonged release purpose has been a challenge for scientists. Vesicular drug delivery systems are developed with a purpose to overcome problems coupled with the drugs such a poor bioavailability, protection from harsh gastric environment, and from gastric enzymes, which degrade the drug. Vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, emulsions, niosomes, proniosomes, solid lipid-nano particles, ethosomes, nanoparticles, and pharmacosomes, etc have gained much attention, but emulsomes have rouse as system, which bypasses many disadvantages associated with other systems, developed as novel lipoidal vesicular system with internal solid fat core surrounded by phospholipid bilayer. This technology is designed to act as vehicle for poorly soluble drugs. The drug is enclosed in the emulsomes and provide prolong existence of drug in systemic circulation. Furthermore, emulsomal-based formulations of genetic drugs such as antisense oligonucleotides and plasmids for gene therapy that have clear potential for systemic utility are increasingly available. This review addresses the concept of emulsomal drug delivery system, summarizes the success of emulsomes for the delivery of small molecules, and special attention has been paid to its formulation design, advantages, biopharmaceutical aspects, stability aspects, and various aspects related to drug delivery including future aspects.

  16. Specific Stimulated Uptake of Acetylcholine by Torpedo Electric Organ Synaptic Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Stanley M.; Koenigsberger, Robert

    1980-10-01

    The specificity of acetylcholine uptake by synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica was studied. In the absence of cofactors, [3H]acetylcholine was taken up identically to [14C]choline in the same solution (passive uptake), and the equilibrium concentration achieved inside the vesicles was equal to the concentration outside. In the presence of MgATP, [3H]acetylcholine and [14C]choline in the same solution were taken up identically, except only about half as much of each was taken up (suppressed uptake). [3H]Acetylcholine uptake was stimulated by MgATP and HCO3 about 4-fold relative to suppressed uptake, for a net concentrative uptake of about 2:1 (stimulated uptake). Uptake of [14C]choline in the same solution remained at the suppressed level. [3H]Acetylcholine taken up under stimulated conditions migrated with vesicles containing [14C]mannitol on analytical glycerol density gradients during centrifugation. Vesicles were treated with nine protein modification reagents under mild conditions. Two reagents had no effect on, dithiothreitol potentiated, and six reagents strongly inhibited subsequent stimulated uptake of [3H]acetylcholine. The results indicate that uptake of acetylcholine is conditionally specific for the transported substrate, is carried out by the synaptic vesicles rather than a contaminant of the preparation, and requires a functional protein system containing a critical sulfhydryl group.

  17. Dose protocols of acetylcholine test in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向定成; 龚志华; 何建新; 洪长江; 邱建; 马骏

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acetylcholine test has been widely used clinically in several countries as a practical test provoking coronary artery spasm.1-3 Although it has also been launched recently in a few hospitals in China, the dose protocol for acetylcholine test used in these hospitals were from abroad.4,5 This study was aimed at developing a dose protocol for acetylcholine test suitable for Chinese people.

  18. Studies on the roles of small GTP-binding proteins and heterotrimeric G proteins in intracellular vesicular transport; Saibonai shoho yuso ni okeru teibunshiryo GTP ketsugo tanpakushitsu oyobi 3 ryotai G tanpakushitus no kino ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazuhisa [Tsukuba University, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Science

    1998-12-16

    Transport of proteins between organelles involves carrier vesicles. A variety of GTP-binding proteins are responsible for the formation of carrier vesicles. A family of small GTP-binding proteins, ARFs, trigger budding of the vesicles, while a high molecular weight GTP-binding protein, dynamin, is responsible for fission of the neck of the budding vesicles. In this study, we cloned and determined the subcellular localization of six mouse ARF proteins, and cloned three human guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for ARF. We also cloned and determined its subcellular localization of a novel dynamin-like protein, named DVLP (for Dnm 1p/Vps 1p-like protein). (author)

  19. Localization and secretory pathways of a 58K-like protein in multi-vesicular bodies in callus of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Multi-vesicular bodies in endocytosis and protoplasts are special cellular structures that are consid-ered to be originated from invagination of plasma membranes. However, the genesis and function of multi-vesicular bodies, the relationship with Golgi bodies and cell walls, and their secretory pathways remain controversial and ambiguous. Using a monoclonal antibody against an animal 58K protein, we have detected, by Western blotting and confocal microscopy, that a 58K-like protein is present in the calli of Arabidopsis thaliana and Hypericum perforatum. The results of immuno-electron microscopy showed that the 58K-like protein was located in the cisternae of Golgi bodies, secretory vesicles, multi-vesicular bodies, cell walls and vacuoles in callus of Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that the multi-vesicular bodies may be originated from Golgi bodies and function as a transporter carrying substances synthesized in Golgi bodies to cell walls and vacuoles. It seems that multi-vesicular bodies have a close relationship with the development of the cell wall and vacuole. The possible secretory pathways of multi-vesicular bodies might be in exocytosis, in which multi-vesicular bodies carry sub-stances to the cell wall for its construction, and in endocytosis, in which multi-vesicular bodies carry substances to the vacuole for its development, depending on what they carry and where the materials are transported. We hence propose that there is more than one pathway for the secretion of multi-vesicular bodies. In addition, our results provided a paradigm that a plant molecule, such as the 58k-like protein in callus of Arabidopsis thaliana, can be detected using a cross-reactive monoclonal antibody induced by an animal protein, and illustrate the existence of analog molecules in both animal and plant kingdoms.

  20. In vivo release of non-neuronal acetylcholine from the human skin as measured by dermal microdialysis: effect of botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlereth, Tanja; Birklein, Frank; an Haack, Katrin; Schiffmann, Susanne; Kilbinger, Heinz; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Wessler, Ignaz

    2006-01-01

    1.--Acetylcholine is synthesized in the majority of non-neuronal cells, for example in human skin. In the present experiments, the in vivo release of acetylcholine was measured by dermal microdialysis. 2.--Two microdialysis membranes were inserted intradermally at the medial shank of volunteers. Physiological saline containing 1 muM neostigmine was perfused at a constant rate of 4 microl min(-1) and the effluent was collected in six subsequent 20 min periods. Acetylcholine was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with bioreactors and electrochemical detection. 3.--Analysis of the effluent by HPLC showed an acetylcholine peak that disappeared, when the analytical column was packed with acetylcholine-specific esterase, confirming the presence of acetylcholine. 4.--In the absence of neostigmine, 71+/-51 pmol acetylcholine (n=4) was found during a 120 min period. The amount increased to 183+/-43 pmol (n=34), when the perfusion medium contained 1 microM neostigmine. 5.--Injection of 100 MU botulinum toxin subcutaneously blocked sweating completely, but the release of acetylcholine was not affected (botulinum toxin treated skin: 116+/-70 pmol acetylcholine/120 min; untreated skin: 50+/-20 pmol; n=4). 6.--Quinine (1 mM), inhibitor of organic cation transporters, and carnitine (0.1 mM), substrate of the Na(+)-dependent carnitine transporter OCTN2, tended to reduce acetylcholine release (by 40%, not significant). 7.--Our experiments demonstrate, for the first time, the in vivo release of non-neuronal acetylcholine in human skin. Organic cation transporters are not predominantly involved in the release of non-neuronal acetylcholine from the human skin.

  1. Pharmacosomes: A Potential Vesicular Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagasamy Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipid based drug delivery systems have been examined in various studies and exhibited their potential in controlled and targeted drug delivery. Pharmacosomes, a novel vesicular drug delivery system, offering a unique advantage over liposomes and niosomes, and serve as potential alternative to these conventional vesicles. They constitute an amphiphilic phospholipid complex with drug bearing an active hydrogen atom covalently that bind to phospholipids. They provide an efficient delivery of drug required at the site of action, which ultimately reduces the drug toxicity with reduced adverse effects and also reduces the cost of therapy by imparting better biopharmaceutical properties to the drug, resulting in increases bioavailability, especially in case of poorly soluble drugs. As the system is formed by binding the drug (pharmakon to carrier (soma, they are termed as pharmacosomes. Depending upon the chemical structure of the drug lipid complex they may exist as ultrafine vesicular, micellar and hexagonal aggregate. Drug having active hydrogen group such as carboxyl, hydroxyl group can be esterified to lipids, resulting in amphiphilic compound. Pharmacosomes are widely used as carriers for various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proteins, cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs. The release of drug from pharmacosomes is generally governed by the process of enzymatic reaction and acid hydrolysis. Here, in the present review paper we have discussed the potential of pharmacosomes as a controlled and targeted drug delivery system and highlighted the method of preparation and characterization.

  2. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of SKF38393.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saigusa, T.; Aono, Y.; Sekino, R.; Uchida, T.; Takada, K.; Oi, Y.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Like dexamphetamine, SKF38393 induces an increase in striatal dopamine efflux which is insensitive for tetrodotoxin, Ca(2+) independent and prevented by a dopamine transporter inhibitor. The dexamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine efflux originates from both the reserpine-sensitive vesicular dopami

  3. Molecular recognition of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by an acetylcholine binding protein reveals determinants of binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe A Olsen

    Full Text Available Despite extensive studies on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and homologues, details of acetylcholine binding are not completely resolved. Here, we report the crystal structure of acetylcholine bound to the receptor homologue acetylcholine binding protein from Lymnaea stagnalis. This is the first structure of acetylcholine in a binding pocket containing all five aromatic residues conserved in all mammalian nAChRs. The ligand-protein interactions are characterized by contacts to the aromatic box formed primarily by residues on the principal side of the intersubunit binding interface (residues Tyr89, Trp143 and Tyr185. Besides these interactions on the principal side, we observe a cation-π interaction between acetylcholine and Trp53 on the complementary side and a water-mediated hydrogen bond from acetylcholine to backbone atoms of Leu102 and Met114, both of importance for anchoring acetylcholine to the complementary side. To further study the role of Trp53, we mutated the corresponding tryptophan in the two different acetylcholine-binding interfaces of the widespread α4β2 nAChR, i.e. the interfaces α4(+β2(- and α4(+α4(-. Mutation to alanine (W82A on the β2 subunit or W88A on the α4 subunit significantly altered the response to acetylcholine measured by oocyte voltage-clamp electrophysiology in both interfaces. This shows that the conserved tryptophan residue is important for the effects of ACh at α4β2 nAChRs, as also indicated by the crystal structure. The results add important details to the understanding of how this neurotransmitter exerts its action and improves the foundation for rational drug design targeting these receptors.

  4. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...

  5. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in Sensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherate, Raju

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine release in sensory neocortex contributes to higher-order sensory function, in part by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Molecular studies have revealed a bewildering array of nAChR subtypes and cellular actions; however, there is some consensus emerging about the major nAChR subtypes and their functions in…

  6. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE VESICULAR GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS AND THE ASTROCYTES IN THE SPINAL CORD OF THE RAT%大鼠脊髓内囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体与星形胶质细胞之间的联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉琳; 庞有旺; 张富兴; 李金莲

    2004-01-01

    本研究应用双重免疫荧光组织化学法观察了大鼠脊髓胶质细胞内囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体(VGluTs包括VGluT1,VG-luT2及VGluT3)的表达状况.结果显示:大鼠脊髓内VGluT1、VGluT2和VGluT3样阳性轴突终末与星形胶质细胞之间形成密切接触;部分星形胶质细胞同时呈VGluT3样免疫阳性.上述结果提示,脊髓内谷氨酸能神经终末与星形胶质细胞之间存在着信号传递;且在星形胶质细胞通过胞吐作用释放谷氨酸的过程中VGluT3可能发挥重要作用.%We examined immunohistochemically whether the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluTs), including VGluT1,VGluT2 and VGluT3, might be expressed in the astrocytes of the spinal cord of the rat. The dual immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that VGluT1- and VGluT2-like immunoreactive (-LI) axon terminals were in close apposition to the GFAP-LI structures, while VGluT3-LI axon terminals not only made close apposition but also coexpressed with the GFAP-LI structures in the spinal cord of the rat. Thus, the present results indicated the existence of the intercellular signaling transmission between glutamatergic neurons and astrocytes, and the VGluT3 might play a key role in exocytotic glutamate release from astrocytes.

  7. Critical issues related to transfersomes - novel vesicular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kombath Ravindran Vinod

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It has become increasingly apparent that vesicular drug delivery elicits modest possessions in drug targeting. Transfersomes are a form of elastic or deformable vesicle, which were first introduced in the early 1990s. Elas ticity can be achieved by using an edge activator in the lipid bilayer structure. Molecules greater than 500 Da normally do not cross the skin. This prevents epicutaneous delivery of the high molecular weight therapeutics as well as non-invasive transcutaneous immunisation. Transdermal route will always remain a lucrative area for drug delivery. With the advent of new categories of drugs like peptides this route has captured more focus to combat the problems related to their delivery through oral route. But the transdermal route is equally filled with the hopes and disappointments as the transport of drug through this route faces many problems especially for the large molecules. To answer this problem many approaches were adopted. One of the very recent approaches is the use of ultra-deformable carrier systems (transfersomes. They have been used as drug carriers for a range of small molecules, peptides, proteins and vaccines, both in vitro and in vivo. Transfersomes penetrate through the pores of stratum corneum which are smaller than its size and get into the underlying viable skin in intact form. This is because of its deformable nature. The aim of this article is explanation the formation of micelle and vesicles, various types of vesicles, specifically focusing on transfersomes.

  8. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  9. Vesicular stomatitis outbreak in the southwestern United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Brian J; Pelzel-McCluskey, Angela M; Creekmore, Lynn; Schiltz, John

    2013-09-01

    Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease primarily affecting horses and cattle when it occurs in the United States. Outbreaks in the southwestern United States occur sporadically, with initial cases typically occurring in Texas, New Mexico, or Arizona and subsequent cases occurring in a northward progression. The viruses causing vesicular stomatitis can be transmitted by direct contact of lesioned animals with other susceptible animals, but transmission is primarily through arthropod vectors. In 2012, an outbreak of vesicular stomatitis in the United States occurred that was caused by Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus serotype. Overall, 51 horses on 36 premises in 2 states were confirmed positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus indicated that it was most closely related to viruses detected in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, in 2000.

  10. Identification and Complete Genome of Seneca Valley Virus in Vesicular Fluid and Sera of Pigs Affected with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, F A; Linhares, D C L; Barcellos, D E S N; Lam, H C; Collins, J; Marthaler, D

    2015-12-01

    Numerous, ongoing outbreaks in Brazilian swine herds have been characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute losses of neonatal piglets. The complete genome of Seneca Valley virus (SVV) was identified in vesicular fluid and sera of sows, providing evidence of association between SVV and vesicular disease and viraemia in affected animals.

  11. Alcohol and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Tang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The frequent co-abuse of alcohol and tobacco may suggest that they share some common neurological mechanisms. For example, nicotine acts on Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs in the brain to release dopamine to sustain addiction. Might nAChRs be entwined with alcohol? Objectives This review summarizes recent studies on the relationship between alcohol and nAChRs, including the role of nAChRs in molecular biological studies, genetic studies and pharmacological studies on alcohol, which indicate that nAChRs have been potently modulated by alcohol. Methods We performed a cross-referenced literature search on biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol and nAChRs. Results Molecular biological and genetic studies indicated that nAChR (genes may be important in mediating alcohol intake, but we still lack substantial evidence about how it works. Pharmacological studies proved the correlation between nAChRs and alcohol intake, and the association between nicotine and alcohol at the nAChRs. The positive findings of varenicline (a partial agonist at the _4_2 nAChR, smoking-cessation pharmaceutical treatment for alcoholism, provides a new insight for treating co-abuse of these two substances. >Conclusions Molecular biological, genetic and pharmacological studies of alcohol at the nAChR level, provide a new sight for preventing and treating the co-abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Given the important role of nAChRs in nicotine dependence, the interaction between alcohol and nAChRs would provide a new insight in finding effective pharmacological treatments, in decreasing or stopping alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking concurrently.

  12. Regulated vesicular trafficking of specific PCDH15 and VLGR1 variants in auditory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Delimont, Duane; Meehan, Daniel T; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2012-10-03

    Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by hearing and balance dysfunction and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. Mouse models carrying mutations for the nine Usher-associated genes have splayed stereocilia, and some show delayed maturation of ribbon synapses suggesting these proteins may play different roles in terminal differentiation of auditory hair cells. The presence of the Usher proteins at the basal and apical aspects of the neurosensory epithelia suggests the existence of regulated trafficking through specific transport proteins and routes. Immature mouse cochleae and UB/OC-1 cells were used in this work to address whether specific variants of PCDH15 and VLGR1 are being selectively transported to opposite poles of the hair cells. Confocal colocalization studies between apical and basal vesicular markers and the different PCDH15 and VLGR1 variants along with sucrose density gradients and the use of vesicle trafficking inhibitors show the existence of Usher protein complexes in at least two vesicular subpools. The apically trafficked pool colocalized with the early endosomal vesicle marker, rab5, while the basally trafficked pool associated with membrane microdomains and SNAP25. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation experiments between SNAP25 and VLGR1 show a physical interaction of these two proteins in organ of Corti and brain. Collectively, these findings establish the existence of a differential vesicular trafficking mechanism for specific Usher protein variants in mouse cochlear hair cells, with the apical variants playing a potential role in endosomal recycling and stereocilia development/maintenance, and the basolateral variants involved in vesicle docking and/or fusion through SNAP25-mediated interactions.

  13. A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regules, Jason A; Beigel, John H; Paolino, Kristopher M; Voell, Jocelyn; Castellano, Amy R; Hu, Zonghui; Muñoz, Paula; Moon, James E; Ruck, Richard C; Bennett, Jason W; Twomey, Patrick S; Gutiérrez, Ramiro L; Remich, Shon A; Hack, Holly R; Wisniewski, Meagan L; Josleyn, Matthew D; Kwilas, Steven A; Van Deusen, Nicole; Mbaya, Olivier Tshiani; Zhou, Yan; Stanley, Daphne A; Jing, Wang; Smith, Kirsten S; Shi, Meng; Ledgerwood, Julie E; Graham, Barney S; Sullivan, Nancy J; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Peel, Sheila A; Alimonti, Judie B; Hooper, Jay W; Silvera, Peter M; Martin, Brian K; Monath, Thomas P; Ramsey, W Jay; Link, Charles J; Lane, H Clifford; Michael, Nelson L; Davey, Richard T; Thomas, Stephen J

    2017-01-26

    Background The worst Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history has resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. We present the final results of two phase 1 trials of an attenuated, replication-competent, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine candidate designed to prevent EVD. Methods We conducted two phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalation trials of an rVSV-based vaccine candidate expressing the glycoprotein of a Zaire strain of Ebola virus (ZEBOV). A total of 39 adults at each site (78 participants in all) were consecutively enrolled into groups of 13. At each site, volunteers received one of three doses of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine (3 million plaque-forming units [PFU], 20 million PFU, or 100 million PFU) or placebo. Volunteers at one of the sites received a second dose at day 28. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. Results The most common adverse events were injection-site pain, fatigue, myalgia, and headache. Transient rVSV viremia was noted in all the vaccine recipients after dose 1. The rates of adverse events and viremia were lower after the second dose than after the first dose. By day 28, all the vaccine recipients had seroconversion as assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the glycoprotein of the ZEBOV-Kikwit strain. At day 28, geometric mean titers of antibodies against ZEBOV glycoprotein were higher in the groups that received 20 million PFU or 100 million PFU than in the group that received 3 million PFU, as assessed by ELISA and by pseudovirion neutralization assay. A second dose at 28 days after dose 1 significantly increased antibody titers at day 56, but the effect was diminished at 6 months. Conclusions This Ebola vaccine candidate elicited anti-Ebola antibody responses. After vaccination, rVSV viremia occurred frequently but was transient. These results support further evaluation of the vaccine dose of 20 million PFU for preexposure prophylaxis and suggest that a

  14. Vesicular Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Transport—Herpesviruses as Pioneers in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses use a vesicle-mediated transfer of intranuclearly assembled nucleocapsids through the nuclear envelope (NE) for final maturation in the cytoplasm. The molecular basis for this novel vesicular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is beginning to be elucidated in detail. The heterodimeric viral nuclear egress complex (NEC), conserved within the classical herpesviruses, mediates vesicle formation from the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by polymerization into a hexagonal lattice followed by fusion of the vesicle membrane with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Mechanisms of capsid inclusion as well as vesicle-membrane fusion, however, are largely unclear. Interestingly, a similar transport mechanism through the NE has been demonstrated in nuclear export of large ribonucleoprotein complexes during Drosophila neuromuscular junction formation, indicating a widespread presence of a novel concept of cellular nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. PMID:27690080

  15. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds and prote......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...

  16. Primary Structure of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    quantities of starting material (for reviews of receptor, see Popot and Changeux, 1984; Stroud and Finer-Moore, 1985). This work led to the...Cloning of the Acetylcholine Receptor. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. on Quant. Biol. XLVIH: 71-78. 15. Popot , J-L. and Changeux, J-P. (1984) The

  17. Structural Studies of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahsavar, Azadeh; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette S;

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily that play important roles in control of neurotransmitter release in the central and peripheral nervous system. These receptors are important therapeutic targets for development of drugs...

  18. Vesicular Contact Reaction May Progress into Erythema Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Szulczyńska-Gabor, Joanna; Teresiak-Mikołajczak, Ewa; Szyfter-Harris, Joanna; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika

    2016-12-01

    reading procedure was difficult due to patient's skin reactivity toward a plaster mounting Finn chambers. Literature data suggests that erythema multiforme may occasionally occur in conjunction with allergic contact dermatitis to various non-related substances including chemicals (epoxy-based compound, fragrances, epichlorydrine, bromofluorene), medications (antibiotics, acetaminophen, triamcinolone, bufexamac), plant-derived allergens (poison ivy, tea tree oil, red cedar essential oil), but also rubber ingredients and nickel. The severity of the reaction varies from mild erythema to generalized erythema multiforme or even toxic epidermal necrolysis (1,2,3,4). Lesions characteristic for erythema multiforme may appear during the episode of acute contact dermatitis or may follow a nearly resolving vesicular eczematous eruption. The pathomechanism Patomechanism of an erythema multiforme-like eruption developing in association with allergic contact dermatitis still remains unclear. Immune complex-mediated and T-cell-mediated reactions have been proposed as the cause. However, T-cell-mediated cellular mechanisms seems to be more likely, since generalized erythema multiforme often follows contact dermatitis, which is a type IV allergic reaction mediated by T cells (5,6). According to Bushkell et al. (7), an allergen penetration through the skin may result in a type III hypersensitivity reaction, with involvement of circulating immune complexes, and to confirm that, IgM, IgA, C3, and fibrin deposits are detected in some cases of targetoid lesions in erythema multiforme. On the other hand, Wiedemeyer et al. (8) suggest that contact allergens (i.e. paraphenylenodiamine) may be transported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the area of initial skin contact even to distant sites. According to Shiohara et al. (9) and Gonzalez-Delgado et al. (10), epidermal expression of adhesion molecule - 1 (ICAM-1) and the number of CD4+ T cells is increased within the iris lesions of

  19. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Field-Grown Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iver

    1986-01-01

    The importance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and P fertilizer for P nutrition and dry matter production in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in moderately P-deficient soil. Half of the experimental plots were fumigated to reduce the level of VAM infection. Shoots and 0 to 30 cm...

  20. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and epizootiology of swine vesicular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Aaldert

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was initiated after the outbreaks of swine vesicular disease (SVD) in the Netherlands in 1992. The thesis starts with a general introduction on SVD and the virus causing SVD. Infection with SVD virus had been absent from the Netherlands for 17 years, and before 1992

  1. Reconstitution of the fusogenic activity of vesicular stomatitis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metsikkö, K.; van Meer, G.; Simons, K.

    1986-01-01

    Enveloped virus glycoproteins exhibit membrane fusion activity. We have analysed whether the G protein of vesicular stomatitis virus, reconstituted into liposomes, is able to fuse nucleated cells in a pH-dependent fashion. Proteoliposomes produced by octylglucoside dialysis did not exhibit cell fusi

  2. 9 CFR 94.12 - Pork and pork products from regions where swine vesicular disease exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from the swine vesicular disease free region of origin to the processing establishment in the swine... swine vesicular disease free region of origin specifying that the pork or pork product involved... where swine vesicular disease exists. 94.12 Section 94.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  3. Lycopene from tomatoes: vesicular nanocarrier formulations for dermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenso, Andreia; Pinho, Sónia; Eleutério, Carla; Praça, Fabíola Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceição; Silva, Olga; Simões, Sandra

    2013-07-31

    This experimental work aimed to develop a simple, fast, economic, and environmentally friendly process for the extraction of lycopene from tomato and incorporate this lycopene-rich extract into ultradeformable vesicular nanocarriers suitable for topical application. Lycopene extraction was conducted without a cosolvent for 30 min. The extracts were analyzed and incorporated in transfersomes and ethosomes. These formulations were characterized, and the cellular uptake was observed by confocal microscopy. Dermal delivery of lycopene formulations was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lycopene extraction proved to be quite safe and selective. The vesicular formulation was taken up by the cells, being more concentrated around the nucleus. Epicutaneous application of lycopene formulations decreased the level of anthralin-induced ear swelling by 97 and 87%, in a manner nonstatistically different from the positive control. These results support the idea that the lycopene-rich extract may be a good alternative to the expensive commercial lycopene for incorporation into advanced topical delivery systems.

  4. Regulation of vesicular traffic at the T cell immune synapse: lessons from the primary cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Onnis, Anna; Baldari, Cosima T

    2015-03-01

    The signals that orchestrate the process of T cell activation are coordinated at the specialized interface that forms upon contact with an antigen presenting cell displaying a specific MHC-associated peptide ligand, known as the immune synapse. The central role of vesicular traffic in the assembly of the immune synapse has emerged only in recent years with the finding that sustained T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling involves delivery of TCR/CD3 complexes from an intracellular pool associated with recycling endosomes. A number of receptors as well as membrane-associated signaling mediators have since been demonstrated to exploit this process to localize to the immune synapse. Here, we will review our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for TCR recycling, with a focus on the intraflagellar transport system, a multimolecular complex that is responsible for the assembly and function of the primary cilium which we have recently implicated in polarized endosome recycling to the immune synapse.

  5. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection...... leads to a robust induction of MICA mRNA expression, however the subsequent surface expression is potently hindered. Thus, VSV lines up with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and adenovirus, which actively subvert the immune system by negatively affecting NKG2D-ligand surface expression. VSV infection caused...... an active suppression of NKG2D-ligand surface expression, affecting both endogenous and histone deacetylase (HDAC)-inhibitor induced MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 expression. The classical immune escape mechanism of VSV (i.e., the M protein blockade of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport) was not involved, as the VSV...

  6. Toward Acetylcholine Sensor Devices: Facile Synthesis of 2-Cyanoresorcin[4 ] arene and Its High Affinity toward Acetylcholine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Song-De; WEI Ying; WANG Bo; XU Zun-Le; CHEN Wen-Hua

    2003-01-01

    @@ The biological importance of acetylcholine spurs the efforts to construct its synthetic receptors with the aims to develop acetylcholine sensor devices. Among the various building blocks used to synthesize artificial acetylcholine receptors, resorcin [4 ]arenes, [1] which can be conveniently obtained from the acid-catalyzed condensation of resorcinol with aldehyde, were shown to serve as one of the most strongest synthetic receptors for choline type guests.

  7. Topography of the Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Vesicular Trafficking of Infectious Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Keiffer, Timothy R.; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Luszczek, Wioleta; Guion, Lucile G. M.; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid protein L2. During entry, the HPV capsid undergoes numerous conformational changes that result in endosomal uptake and subsequent trafficking of the L2 protein in complex with the viral DNA to the trans-Golgi network. To facilitate this transport, the L2 protein harbors a number of putative motifs that, if capable of direct interaction, would interact with cytosolic host cell factors. These data imply that a portion of L2 becomes cytosolic during infection. Using a low concentration of digitonin to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane of infected cells, we mapped the topography of the L2 protein during infection. We observed that epitopes within amino acid residues 64 to 81 and 163 to 170 and a C-terminal tag of HPV16 L2 are exposed on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, whereas an epitope within residues 20 to 38, which are upstream of a putative transmembrane region, is luminal. Corroborating these findings, we also found that L2 protein is sensitive to trypsin digestion during infection. These data demonstrate that the majority of the L2 protein becomes accessible on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes in order to interact with cytosolic factors to facilitate vesicular trafficking. IMPORTANCE In order to complete infectious entry, nonenveloped viruses have to pass cellular membranes. This is often achieved through the viral capsid protein associating with or integrating into intracellular membrane. Here, we determine the topography of HPV L2 protein in the endocytic vesicular compartment, suggesting that L2 becomes a transmembrane protein with a short luminal portion and with the majority facing the cytosolic side for interaction with host cell transport factors. PMID:26246568

  8. Cellular trafficking of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul A ST JOHN

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play critical roles throughout the body. Precise regulation of the cellular location and availability of nAChRs on neurons and target cells is critical to their proper function. Dynamic, post-translational regulation of nAChRs, particularly control of their movements among the different compartments of cells, is an important aspect of that regulation. A combination of new information and new techniques has the study of nAChR trafficking poised for new breakthroughs.

  9. Conotoxins Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Marine snails of the genus Conus are a large family of predatory gastropods with an unparalleled molecular diversity of pharmacologically active compounds in their venom. Cone snail venom comprises of a rich and diverse cocktail of peptide toxins which act on a wide variety of ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium- (NaV), potassium- (KV), and calcium- (CaV) channels as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which are classified as ligand-gated ion channels. The mode of action ...

  10. Short- and long-term effects of MDMA ("ecstasy") on synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of neurotransmitters in vitro and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Inger Lise; Haug, Kristin Huse; Myhre, Oddvar; Fonnum, Frode

    2003-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a commonly abused drug which has been shown to be neurotoxic to serotonergic neurons in many species. The exact mechanism responsible for the neurotoxicity of MDMA is, however, poorly understood. In this study, the effects of MDMA on the synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of neurotransmitters were investigated. Our results show that MDMA (0.5-20 microM) reduces both synaptosomal and vesicular uptake of serotonin and dopamine in a dose dependent manner in vitro, while the uptake of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) remains unaffected. Ex vivo experiments support the importance of the monoamines, with predominant dopaminergic inhibition at short-term exposure (3 x 15 mg/kg; 2-h intervals), and exclusively serotonergic inhibition at long-term exposure (2 x 10 mg/kg per day; 4 days). This study also compares MDMA and the structurally related antidepressant paroxetine, in an attempt to reveal possible cellular mechanisms for the serotonergic toxicity of MDMA. One important difference between paroxetine and MDMA is that only MDMA has the capability of inhibiting vesicular uptake of monoamines at doses used. We suggest that inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter-2, and a following increase in cytoplasmatic monoamine concentrations, might be crucial for the neurotoxic effect of MDMA.

  11. Activities of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulate neurotransmission and synaptic architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Oda; Hidekazu Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in a broad spectrum of brain function, and its failure has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. Acetylcholine transduces signals through muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, both of which inlfuence synaptic plasticity and cognition. However, the mechanisms that relate the rapid gating of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to per-sistent changes in brain function have remained elusive. Recent evidence indicates that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors activities affect synaptic morphology and density, which result in per-sistent rearrangements of neural connectivity. Further investigations of the relationships between nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and rearrangements of neural circuitry in the central nervous system may help understand the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.

  12. The effect of ketamine on intraspinal acetylcholine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Goldkuhl, Renée Röstlinger; Nylund, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    The general anaesthetic ketamine affects the central cholinergic system in several manners, but its effect on spinal acetylcholine release, which may be an important transmitter in spinal antinociception, is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ketamine on spinal acetylcholine...... release. Microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally in male rats, and acetylcholine was quantified with HPLC. Anaesthesia was switched from isoflurane (1.3%) to ketamine (150 mg/kg h), which resulted in a 500% increased acetylcholine release. The increase was attenuated during nicotinic receptor...... blockade (50 microM mecamylamine). The nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine (175 microM) produced a ten-fold higher relative increase of acetylcholine release during isoflurane anaesthesia compared to ketamine anaesthesia (270% to 27%). Intraspinal administration of ketamine and norketamine both...

  13. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  14. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  15. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Di Bari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE. Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD, is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis.

  16. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Maria; Reale, Marcella; Di Nicola, Marta; Orlando, Viviana; Galizia, Sabrina; Porfilio, Italo; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Ruggieri, Serena; Biagioni, Stefano; Gasperini, Claudio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-11-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS) patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD), is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis.

  17. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, Maria; Reale, Marcella; Di Nicola, Marta; Orlando, Viviana; Galizia, Sabrina; Porfilio, Italo; Costantini, Erica; D’Angelo, Chiara; Ruggieri, Serena; Biagioni, Stefano; Gasperini, Claudio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS) patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD), is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis. PMID:27916909

  18. Chemical stimulation of adherent cells by localized application of acetylcholine from a microfluidic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Zibek

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical stimulation of cells is inherently cell type selective in contrast to electro-stimulation. The availability of a system for localized application of minute amounts of chemical stimulants could be useful for dose related response studies to test new compounds. It could also bring forward the development of a novel type of neuroprostheses.In an experimental setup micro-droplets of an acetylcholine solution were ejected from a fluidic microsystem and applied to the bottom of a nanoporous membrane. The solution travelled through the pores to the top of the membrane on which TE671 cells were cultivated. Calcium imaging was used to visualize cellular response with temporal and spatial resolution. Experimental demonstration of chemical stimulation for both threshold gated stimulation as well as accumulated dose response was achieved by either employing acetylcholine as chemical stimulant or applying calcein uptake, respectively.Numerical modelling and simulation of transport mechanisms involved were employed to gain a theoretical understanding of the influence of pore size, concentration of stimulant and droplet volume on the spatial-temporal distribution of stimulant and on the cellular response. Diffusion, pressure driven flow and evaporation effects were taken into account. Fast stimulation kinetic is achieved with pores of 0.82 µm diameter, whereas sustained substance delivery is obtained with nanoporous membranes. In all cases threshold concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.015 µM acetylcholine independent of pore size were determined.

  19. Acetylcholine activity in selective striatal regions supports behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzino, Michael E; Mohler, Eric G; Prior, Margaret; Palencia, Carlos A; Rozman, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Daily living often requires individuals to flexibly respond to new circumstances. There is considerable evidence that the striatum is part of a larger neural network that supports flexible adaptations. Cholinergic interneurons are situated to strongly influence striatal output patterns which may enable flexible adaptations. The present experiments investigated whether acetylcholine actions in different striatal regions support behavioral flexibility by measuring acetylcholine efflux during place reversal learning. Acetylcholine efflux selectively increased in the dorsomedial striatum, but not dorsolateral or ventromedial striatum during place reversal learning. In order to modulate the M2-class of autoreceptors, administration of oxotremorine sesquifumurate (100 nM) into the dorsomedial striatum, concomitantly impaired reversal learning and an increase in acetylcholine output. These effects were reversed by the m(2) muscarinic receptor antagonist, AF-DX-116 (20 nM). The effects of oxotremorine sesquifumurate and AF-DX-116 on acetylcholine efflux were selective to behaviorally-induced changes as neither treatment affected acetylcholine output in a resting condition. In contrast to reversal learning, acetylcholine efflux in the dorsomedial striatum did not change during place acquisition. The results reveal an essential role for cholinergic activity and define its locus of control to the dorsomedial striatum in cognitive flexibility.

  20. Histopathological analysis of vesicular and bullous lesions in Kaposi sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandemir Nilüfer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, the clinical and morphological features of vesiculobullous lesions observed in Kaposi sarcoma are analyzed, and the features of bullous Kaposi sarcoma cases are emphasized. Methods A total of 178 biopsy materials of 75 cases diagnosed as classic-type cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma were reviewed. Twenty-five cases showing vesiculobullous features were included in the study. Tumor, epidermis, dermis, and clinical data regarding these cases was evaluated. Results Vesicular changes were observed in 21 (12% out of 178 lesions of the 75 cases, while bullous changes were present in only 4 (2%. In all cases where vesicular and bullous changes were detected, tumor, epidermis, and dermis changes were similar. All cases were nodular stage KS lesions, whereas hyperkeratosis and serum exudation in the epidermis, marked edema in the dermis, and enlarged lymphatic vessels and chronic inflammatory response were observed. Conclusions Our findings suggest that changes in vascular resistance occurring during tumor progression are the most important factors comprising vesiculobullous morphology. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1646397188748474

  1. Vesicularity, bubble formation and noble gas fractionation during MORB degassing

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, G; Guillot, B

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to use molecular dynamics simulation (MD) to evaluate the vesicularity and noble gas fractionation, and to shed light on bubble formation during MORB degassing. A previous simulation study (Guillot and Sator (2011) GCA 75, 1829-1857) has shown that the solubility of CO2 in basaltic melts increases steadily with the pressure and deviates significantly from Henry's law at high pressures (e.g. 9.5 wt% CO2 at 50 kbar as compared with 2.5 wt% from Henry's law). From the CO2 solubility curve and the equations of state of the two coexisting phases (silicate melt and supercritical CO2), deduced from the MD simulation, we have evaluated the evolution of the vesicularity of a MORB melt at depth as function of its initial CO2 contents. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculations and data on MORB samples collected at oceanic ridges. Moreover, by implementing the test particle method (Guillot and Sator (2012) GCA 80, 51-69), the solubility of noble gases in the two coexisting pha...

  2. [FeFe]-hydrogenase models assembled into vesicular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Kristin; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Wolter, Nonio; Rüger, Ronny; Alpermann, Theodor; Steiniger, Frank; Gabel, Detlef; Förster, Stephan; Weigand, Wolfgang; Fahr, Alfred

    2014-03-01

    Compartmentalization is a major prerequisite for the origin of life on earth according to Wächtershäuser "Iron-Sulfur-World". The hypothesis is mainly based on an autocatalytic inorganic energy reproducing redox system consisting of iron and sulfur as requirement for the subsequent synthesis of complex organic structures. Here, we modified [FeFe]-hydrogenase models by means of covalent coupling to either oleic acid or the amphiphilic block copolymer polybutadiene-polyethyleneoxide (PB-PEO) and incorporated those into the membranes of vesicles composed of phospholipids (liposomes) or the unmodified amphiphilic polymer (polymersomes). We employed a [2Fe-2S] cluster as a hydrogenase model, since these structures are known to be suitable catalysts for the generation of H2 in the presence of weak acids. Successful incorporation was confirmed by spectrophotometric iron quantification and the vesicles formed were characterized by size determination (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS)), and zeta potential as well as by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The modified models could be incorporated into liposomes or polymersomes up to molar proportions of 3.15% and 28%, respectively. Due to the immobilization in vesicular bilayers the [FeFe]-hydrogenase models can even exhibit catalytic action under the particular conditions of the intravesicular microenvironment. Our results suggest that the vesicular systems described may be applied as a nanoreactor for the reduction of encapsulated substances by generating hydrogen and thus as a minimal cell model.

  3. Alcohol's actions on neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tiffany J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that alcoholism and tobacco addiction often co-occur, relatively little information is available on the biological factors that regulate the co-use and abuse of nicotine and alcohol. In the brain, nicotine acts at several different types of receptors collectively known as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Alcohol also acts on at least some of these receptors, enhancing the function of some nAChR subtypes and inhibiting the activity of others. Chronic alcohol and nicotine administration also lead to changes in the numbers of nAChRs. Natural variations (i.e., polymorphisms) in the genes encoding different nAChR subunits may be associated with individual differences in the sensitivity to some of alcohol's and nicotine's effects. Finally, at least one subtype of nAChR may help protect cells against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity.

  4. Impulsive behavior and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yu; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Higher impulsivity is thought to be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. Excessive levels of impulsivity are often observed in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in impulsive behavior. Here, we introduce recent advances in this field and describe the role of the following nAChR-related brain mechanisms in modulating impulsive behavior: dopamine release in the ventral striatum; α4β2 nAChRs in the infralimbic cortex, which is a ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and dopamine release in the mPFC. We also suggest several potential therapeutic drugs to address these mechanisms in impulsivity-related disorders and explore future directions to further elucidate the roles of central nAChRs in impulsive behavior.

  5. Conotoxins Targeting Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline K. M. Lebbe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine snails of the genus Conus are a large family of predatory gastropods with an unparalleled molecular diversity of pharmacologically active compounds in their venom. Cone snail venom comprises of a rich and diverse cocktail of peptide toxins which act on a wide variety of ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium- (NaV, potassium- (KV, and calcium- (CaV channels as well as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs which are classified as ligand-gated ion channels. The mode of action of several conotoxins has been the subject of investigation, while for many others this remains unknown. This review aims to give an overview of the knowledge we have today on the molecular pharmacology of conotoxins specifically interacting with nAChRs along with the structure–function relationship data.

  6. Modulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by strychnine

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Colunga, Jesús; Miledi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Strychnine, a potent and selective antagonist at glycine receptors, was found to inhibit muscle (α1β1γδ, α1β1γ, and α1β1δ) and neuronal (α2β2 and α2β4) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AcChoRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Strychnine alone (up to 500 μM) did not elicit membrane currents in oocytes expressing AcChoRs, but, when applied before, concomitantly, or during superfusion of acetylcholine (AcCho), it rapidly and reversibly inhibited the current elicited by AcCho (AcCho-current). Although in the three cases the AcCho-current was reduced to the same level, its recovery was slower when the oocytes were preincubated with strychnine. The amount of AcCho-current inhibition depended on the receptor subtype, and the order of blocking potency by strychnine was α1β1γδ > α2β4 > α2β2. With the three forms of drug application, the Hill coefficient was close to one, suggesting a single site for the receptor interaction with strychnine, and this interaction appears to be noncompetitive. The inhibitory effects on muscle AcChoRs were voltage-independent, and the apparent dissociation constant for AcCho was not appreciably changed by strychnine. In contrast, the inhibitory effects on neuronal AcChoRs were voltage-dependent, with an electrical distance of ≈0.35. We conclude that strychnine regulates reversibly and noncompetitively the embryonic type of muscle AcChoR and some forms of neuronal AcChoRs. In the former case, strychnine presumably inhibits allosterically the receptor by binding at an external domain whereas, in the latter case, it blocks the open receptor-channel complex. PMID:10097172

  7. Role of acetylcholine on plant root-shoot signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) on plant root- shoot communication was investigated using the root-split system of Vicia faba L. In the experiments, slight osmotic stress caused the decrease of ACh content in root tips and the xylem sap transported up per time unit from root tip to the shoot when the water potential of the shoot was kept unchanged. It also caused the decrease of ACh content in the abaxial epidermis. The decrease was highly correlative to the changes of transpiration rate, suggesting that the decrease of ACh content probably functions as a signal to regulate stomatal behavior. The effect of osmotic stress might be mainly through the inhibition of the ACh synthesis in root tip; thus further influences the ACh content in root tip, xylem sap and abaxial epidermis and resulting in the changes of stomatal behavior. These results provide new evidence that plants transduce positive and negative signals among roots and shoots to coordinate stomatal behavior and adapt to variable environments.

  8. H-aggregation of azobenzene-substituted amphiphiles in vesicular membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, JM; Engberts, JBFN

    2004-01-01

    Photochemical switching has been studied of double-tailed phosphate amphiphiles containing azobenzene units in both tails in aqueous vesicular dispersions and in mixed vesicular systems with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). Since the ease of switching depends on the strength of the b

  9. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY... vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.14 Section 94.14 Animals and Animal Products...

  10. Vesicular Disease in 9-Week-Old Pigs Experimentally Infected with Senecavirus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Nestor; Buckley, Alexandra; Guo, Baoqing; Kulshreshtha, Vikas; VanGeelen, Albert; Hoang, Hai; Rademacher, Christopher; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Lager, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Senecavirus A has been infrequently associated with vesicular disease in swine since 1988. However, clinical disease has not been reproduced after experimental infection with this virus. We report vesicular disease in 9-week-old pigs after Sencavirus A infection by the intranasal route under experimental conditions.

  11. Viral Surveillance during the 2006 Vesicular Stomatitis Outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, we collected 12203 biting flies from a vesicular stomatitis outbreak in Natrona County, Wyoming. Flies were identified to the species level and viruses were isolated and identified by RT-PCR. We detected vesicular stomatitis virus-New Jersey serotype in two pools of Simulium bivittatum, W...

  12. Experimental infection of Didelphis marsupialis with Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although vesicular stomatitis has been present for many years in the Americas, many aspects of its natural history remain undefined. In this study we challenged five adult Virginia opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey serotype virus (VSNJV). Opossums had no detecta...

  13. Time to seroconversion to vesicular stomatitis virus in sentinel cows in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is a disease of livestock and some wildlife species caused by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). VS epidemics are frequent in certain regions of the United States and such epidemics inflict severe economic losses to affected regions of the country. In this study, a prospecti...

  14. Acetylcholine is released from taste cells, enhancing taste signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), a candidate neurotransmitter that has been implicated in taste buds, elicits calcium mobilization in Receptor (Type II) taste cells. Using RT-PCR analysis and pharmacological interventions, we demonstrate that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 mediates these actions. Applying ACh enhanced both taste-evoked Ca2+ responses and taste-evoked afferent neurotransmitter (ATP) secretion from taste Receptor cells. Blocking muscarinic receptors depressed taste-evoked responses in Receptor cells, suggesting that ACh is normally released from taste cells during taste stimulation. ACh biosensors confirmed that, indeed, taste Receptor cells secrete acetylcholine during gustatory stimulation. Genetic deletion of muscarinic receptors resulted in significantly diminished ATP secretion from taste buds. The data demonstrate a new role for acetylcholine as a taste bud transmitter. Our results imply specifically that ACh is an autocrine transmitter secreted by taste Receptor cells during gustatory stimulation, enhancing taste-evoked responses and afferent transmitter secretion.

  15. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  16. 大鼠囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体样和谷氨酸脱羧酶样阳性终末与表达GABAA受体α3亚单位的三叉神经中脑核神经元之间的联系%CONNECTIONS BETWEEN VESICULAR GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS-,GAD-LIKE IMMUNOREACTIVE TERMINALS AND GABAA RECEPTOR α3 SUBUNIT-LIKE POSITIVE NEURONS IN MESENCEPHALIC TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS OF THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 李金莲

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the association of vesicular glutamate transporter of type Ⅰ(VGluT1)-like immunoreactive(LI),the differentiation-associated Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter(DNPI)-LI and glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD)-LI terminals with GABAA receptor α3 subunit(GABAARα3)-LI neurons in mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus of the rat. Methods Triple-immunofluorescence histochemical staining technique and confocal laser-scanning microscopy were used. Results A large number of neuronal cell bodies showed GABAA Rα3-LI immunoreactivity at all rostrocaudal levels of the Vme,and most of GABAARα3-LI cells were large (25-50μm) pseudounipolar neurons.The dense VGluT1-LI,DNPL-LI and GAD-LI terminals distributed widely in Vme,some VGluT1/DNPI-LI and GAD-LI terminals surrounded the somata of the GABAARα3-LI Vme neurons,and made close contacts with them.Conclusion Proprioceptive sensory signals from the orofacial region might be modulated at the level of the primary afferent cell bodies in the Vme both by glutamatergic- and GABAergic-axonal terminals from other brain areas,and the effect of GABAergic-terminals might be mediated by post-synaptical GABAA receptors.%目的观察大鼠三叉神经中脑核(Vme)内囊泡膜谷氨酸转运体(VGluT1和DNPI)样和谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)样阳性终末与GABAA受体α3亚单位(GABAARα3)样阳性神经元之间的联系. 方法免疫荧光组织化学三重染色技术,在激光共聚焦显微镜下观察. 结果在Vme吻尾方向上,有大量的神经元胞体呈GABAARα3样免疫阳性,这些神经元多为大的假单极神经元(直径为25~50μm).VGluT1样、DNPI样和GAD样免疫阳性终末密集分布于Vme内,一些VGluT1/DNPI样和GAD样阳性终末包绕在GABAARα3样阳性Vme神经元胞体周围,并与之形成密切接触. 结论 Vme神经元在介导口面部本体感觉信息的传递过程中,可能同时接受中枢其他来源的谷氨酸能和GABA能终末的调控,其中GABA能终末的

  17. Compartmentalization of signaling by vesicular trafficking: a shared building design for the immune synapse and the primary cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Baldari, Cosima T

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence underscores the immune synapse (IS) of naive T cells as a site of intense vesicular trafficking. At variance with helper and cytolytic effectors, which use the IS as a secretory platform to deliver cytokines and/or lytic granules to their cellular targets, this process is exploited by naive T cells as a means to regulate the assembly and maintenance of the IS, on which productive signaling and cell activation crucially depend. We have recently identified a role of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system, which is responsible for the assembly of the primary cilium, in the non-ciliated T-cell, where it controls IS assembly by promoting polarized T-cell receptor recycling. This unexpected finding not only provides new insight into the mechanisms of IS assembly but also strongly supports the notion that the IS and the primary cilium, which are both characterized by a specialized membrane domain highly enriched in receptors and signaling mediators, share architectural similarities and are homologous structures. Here, we review our current understanding of vesicular trafficking in the regulation of the assembly and maintenance of the naive T-cell IS and the primary cilium, with a focus on the IFT system.

  18. Vesicular stomatitis virus infection promotes immune evasion by preventing NKG2D-ligand surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Jensen

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection leads to a robust induction of MICA mRNA expression, however the subsequent surface expression is potently hindered. Thus, VSV lines up with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and adenovirus, which actively subvert the immune system by negatively affecting NKG2D-ligand surface expression. VSV infection caused an active suppression of NKG2D-ligand surface expression, affecting both endogenous and histone deacetylase (HDAC-inhibitor induced MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 expression. The classical immune escape mechanism of VSV (i.e., the M protein blockade of nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport was not involved, as the VSV mutant strain, VSV(ΔM51, which possess a defective M protein, prevented MICA surface expression similarly to wild-type VSV. The VSV mediated down modulation of NKG2D-ligand expression did not involve apoptosis. Constitutive expression of MICA bypassed the escape mechanism, suggesting that VSV affect NKG2D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV and chemotherapeutic drugs.

  19. Trans-synaptic transmission of vesicular Wnt signals through Evi/Wntless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Ceren; Ataman, Bulent; Ramachandran, Preethi; Ashley, James; Barria, Romina; Gherbesi, Norberto; Budnik, Vivian

    2009-10-16

    Wnts play pivotal roles during development and in the mature nervous system. However, the mechanism by which Wnts traffic between cells has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate a mechanism of Wnt transmission through release of exosome-like vesicles containing the Wnt-binding protein Evenness Interrupted/Wntless/Sprinter (Evi/Wls/Srt). We show that at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), presynaptic vesicular release of Evi is required for the secretion of the Wnt, Wingless (Wg). We also show that Evi acts cell-autonomously in the postsynaptic Wnt-receiving cell to target dGRIP, a Wg-receptor-interacting protein, to postsynaptic sites. Upon Evi loss of function, dGRIP is not properly targeted to synaptic sites, interfering with postsynaptic Wnt signal transduction. These findings uncover a previously unknown cellular mechanism by which a secreted Wnt is transported across synapses by Evi-containing vesicles and reveal trafficking functions of Evi in both the Wnt-producing and the Wnt-receiving cells. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data available online.

  20. Intracoronary Acetylcholine Provocation Testing for Assessment of Coronary Vasomotor Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Peter; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-08-18

    Intracoronary acetylcholine provocation testing (ACH-test) is an established method for assessment of epicardial coronary artery spasm in the catheterization laboratory which was introduced more than 30 years ago. Due to the short half-life of acetylcholine it can only be applied directly into the coronary arteries. Several studies have demonstrated the safety and clinical usefulness of this test. However, acetylcholine testing is only rarely applied in the U.S. or Europe. Nevertheless, it has been shown that 62% of Caucasian patients with stable angina and unobstructed coronary arteries on coronary angiography suffer from coronary vasomotor disorders that can be diagnosed with acetylcholine testing. In recent years it has been appreciated that the ACH-test not only assesses the presence of epicardial spasm but that it can also be useful for the detection of coronary microvascular spam. In such cases no epicardial spasm is seen after injection of acetylcholine but ischemic ECG shifts are present together with a reproduction of the patient's symptoms during the test. This article describes the experience with the ACH-test and its implementation in daily clinical routine.

  1. Alternative splicing in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits from Locusta migratoria and its influence on acetylcholine potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixi; Liu, Yang; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Liu, Zewen

    2017-01-18

    Due to the great abundance within insect central nervous system (CNS), nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play key roles in insect CNS, which makes it to be the targets of several classes of insecticides, such as neonicotinoids. Insect nAChRs are pentameric complexes consisting of five subunits, and a dozen subunits in one insect species can theoretically comprise diverse nAChRs. The alternative splicing in insect nAChR subunits may increase the diversity of insect nAChRs. In the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria manilensis Meyen), a model insect species with agricultural importance, the alternative splicing was found in six α subunits among nine α and two β subunits, such as missing conserved residues in Loop D from Locα1, Locα6 and Locα9, a 34-residue insertion in Locα8 cytoplasmic loop, and truncated transcripts for Locα4, Locα7 and Locα9. Hybrid nAChRs were successfully constructed in Xenopus oocytes through co-expression with rat β2 and one α subunit from L. migratoria, which included Locα1, Locα2, Locα3, Locα4, Locα5, Locα8 and Locα9. Influences of alternative splicing in Locα1, Locα8 and Locα9 on acetylcholine potency were tested on hybrid nAChRs. The alternative splicing in Locα1 and Locα9 could increase acetylcholine sensitivities on recombinant receptors, while the splicing in Locα8 showed significant influences on the current amplitudes of oocytes. The results revealed that the alternative splicing at or close to the ligand-binding sites, as well as at cytoplasmic regions away from the ligand-binding sites, in insect nAChR subunits would change the agonist potencies on the receptors, which consequently increased nAChR diversity in functional and pharmacological properties.

  2. Asymmetric packaging of polymerases within vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Jeffery; Tang, Xiaolin; Landesman, Michael B. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Ruedas, John B. [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Ghimire, Anil [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Gudheti, Manasa V. [Vutara, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Perrault, Jacques [Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University (United States); Jorgensen, Erik M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States); Gerton, Jordan M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Bioengineering, University of Utah (United States); Saffarian, Saveez, E-mail: saffarian@physics.utah.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah (United States); Center for Cell and Genome Science, University of Utah (United States); Dept. of Biology, University of Utah (United States)

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •The VSV polymerases (L proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •The VSV phosphoproteins (P proteins) are localized to the blunt end of the virus. •Each VSV virion packages a variable number of P and L proteins. -- Abstract: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. The bullet-shape appearance of the virion results from tightly wound helical turns of the nucleoprotein encapsidated RNA template (N-RNA) around a central cavity. Transcription and replication require polymerase complexes, which include a catalytic subunit L and a template-binding subunit P. L and P are inferred to be in the cavity, however lacking direct observation, their exact position has remained unclear. Using super-resolution fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on single VSV virions, we show that L and P are packaged asymmetrically towards the blunt end of the virus. The number of L and P proteins varies between individual virions and they occupy 57 ± 12 nm of the 150 nm central cavity of the virus. Our finding positions the polymerases at the opposite end of the genome with respect to the only transcriptional promoter.

  3. Understanding and altering cell tropism of vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Eric; Cataldi, Marcela; Marriott, Ian; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z.

    2013-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus. VSV’s broad cell tropism makes it a popular model virus for many basic research applications. In addition, a lack of preexisting human immunity against VSV, inherent oncotropism and other features make VSV a widely used platform for vaccine and oncolytic vectors. However, VSV’s neurotropism that can result in viral encephalitis in experimental animals needs to be addressed for the use of the virus as a safe vector. Therefore, it is very important to understand the determinants of VSV tropism and develop strategies to alter it. VSV glycoprotein (G) and matrix (M) protein play major roles in its cell tropism. VSV G protein is responsible for VSV broad cell tropism and is often used for pseudotyping other viruses. VSV M affects cell tropism via evasion of antiviral responses, and M mutants can be used to limit cell tropism to cell types defective in interferon signaling. In addition, other VSV proteins and host proteins may function as determinants of VSV cell tropism. Various approaches have been successfully used to alter VSV tropism to benefit basic research and clinically relevant applications. PMID:23796410

  4. Subepidermal vesicular dermatosis and sensory peripheral neuropathy caused by pyridoxine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M A; Resnick, J S; Baer, R L

    1986-05-01

    A woman who had ingested 2 gm of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) daily for 2 years for menstrual water retention developed a subepidermal vesicular eruption on the dorsa of the hands and toes, as well as a sensory peripheral neuropathy. The cutaneous and neurologic manifestations subsided about 2 months after discontinuation of the pyridoxine. The possible relationship of subepidermal vesicular eruptions caused by pyridoxine abuse to epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is discussed.

  5. In Vitro Percutaneous Permeation and Skin Accumulation of Finasteride Using Vesicular Ethosomal Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found...

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  7. First case report of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio José Clementino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the first case of vesicular stomatitis in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. Records from the Official Veterinary Services of the State of Paraíba were analyzed while responding to a suspected case of vesicular disease at a property (property I in the municipality of Pombal in which the cattle showed clinical signs and lesions of vesicular disease. Surveillance in the surrounding area revealed similar lesions in cattle at two other properties (II and III. Based on these events, the suspicion was considered well founded, and samples were collected for evaluation at the National Agricultural Laboratory of the State of Pará. The property was interdicted, and those located within a 3 km radius (perifocal from the focus were inspected. At property I, 42.86% (6/14 of the cattle showed vesicular disease lesions characterized by intense sialorrhea, ruptured oral vesicles, epithelial detachment of the tongue and muzzle, and vesicular lesions in the udder and interdigital space. Similar lesions were detected in cattle at properties II and III, affecting 80.95% (34/42 and 11.54% (3/26 of the animals, respectively. Tissue samples collected from the three properties were positive for the vesicular stomatitis virus (Indiana 3 subtype. The properties were monitored for 21 days after the last infected animal was cured, and afterwards, the three properties were released.

  8. Acetylcholine elongates neuronal growth cone filopodia via activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lei Ray; Estes, Stephen; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    In addition to acting as a classical neurotransmitter in synaptic transmission, acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to play a role in axonal growth and growth cone guidance. What is not well understood is how ACh acts on growth cones to affect growth cone filopodia, structures known to be important for neuronal pathfinding. We addressed this question using an identified neuron (B5) from the buccal ganglion of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis in cell culture. ACh treatment caused pronounced filopodial elongation within minutes, an effect that required calcium influx and resulted in the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i ). Whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed that ACh caused a reduction in input resistance, a depolarization of the membrane potential, and an increase in firing frequency in B5 neurons. These effects were mediated via the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as the nAChR agonist dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) mimicked the effects of ACh on filopodial elongation, [Ca]i elevation, and changes in electrical activity. Moreover, the nAChR antagonist tubucurarine blocked all DMPP-induced effects. Lastly, ACh acted locally at the growth cone, because growth cones that were physically isolated from their parent neuron responded to ACh by filopodial elongation with a similar time course as growth cones that remained connected to their parent neuron. Our data revealed a critical role for ACh as a modulator of growth cone filopodial dynamics. ACh signaling was mediated via nAChRs and resulted in Ca influx, which, in turn, caused filopodial elongation.

  9. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Andreasen, Jesper Tobias; Arvaniti, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued for decades as potential molecular targets to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their positioning within regions of the brain critical in learning and memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus......, and their demonstrated role in processes underlying cognition such as synaptic facilitation, and theta and gamma wave activity. Historically, activity at these receptors is facilitated in AD by use of drugs that increase the levels of their endogenous agonist acetylcholine, and more recently nAChR selective ligands have...

  10. Redistributive properties of the vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfman, W.B.; Perrault, J. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The template for transcription of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) genome consists of a negative-strand RNA (approximately 11 kb) tightly associated with approximately 1250 copies of the nucleocapsid or N protein (N-RNA template). The interaction between the virion-associated polymerase and this template was probed with a novel assay using purified N-RNA complexes added to detergent-disrupted uv-irradiated standard virions or unirradiated defective interfering (DI) particles. In contrast to the well-known stability of assembled cellular transcription complexes, the VSV polymerase copied exogenously added templates efficiently and yielded products indistinguishable from control virus transcription. Addition of uv-irradiated N-RNA templates to unirradiated virus effectively competed for transcription of endogenous template indicating that most or all of the polymerase can freely redistribute. Furthermore preincubation of virus and added templates at high ionic strength to solubilize L and NS polymerase proteins did not release additional active enzyme for redistribution. Pretranscription of virus also had little or no effect on redistributed activity indicating that polymerase complexes are capable of multiple rounds of synthesis beginning at the 3' end promoter. Unexpectedly, titration with saturating amounts of added N-RNA showed that active polymerase complexes are only in slight excess relative to template in standard or DI particles despite the large surplus of packaged L and NS polypeptides. Moreover, added standard virus templates competed equally well for the redistributing polymerase from DI particles or standard virus indicating no significant polymerase-binding preference for interfering templates. These findings bear important implications regarding mechanisms of VSV transcription and replication.

  11. Purification and characterization of 33.5 kDa vesicular protein in human bile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bin Xiang; Duan Cai; Bao-Jin Ma; Xi-Liang Cha; Li-Ying Wang; Han-Qing Mo; Yan-Ling Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The present study was undertaken to purify and partially characterize the 33.5-kilodalton (33.5 kDa) vesicular protein in human bile and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms of the initial crystal nucleation process.METHODS: The 33.5 kDa vesicular protein was isolated by ultracentrifugation and further purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under nonreducing conditions. The purified 33.5 kDa vesicular protein was subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing and amino acid analysis. Cholesterol crystallization activity was detected by cholesterol crystal growth assay. The sugar chain of the 33.5 kDa vesicular protein was analyzed by dot-immunobinding assay of lectin coupled to a peroxidase (HRP-DSA, HRP-ConA, HRP-WGA) and was deglycosylated using two different enzymatic approaches (N-deglycosylation and O-deglycosylation) to determine the molecular weight of the protein component, the type of linkage between polypeptide and carbohydrate components.RFSULTS: The 33.5 kDa vesicular protein with complicated glycan was an extensively glycosylated (37.3 %) monomer and these sugar chains strongly bound to DSA, but did not bind to ConA. Amino acid sequencing indicated that the protein was unique. The 33.5 kDa vesicular protein exhibited potent cholesterol crystallization promoting activity in vitro with derived crystal growth curve indices It, Ig, Ic presented as 0.57, 1.52, and 1.63 respectively. Both enzymatic proteolysis and N-deglycosylation of the protein removed all activity.CONCLUSION: These data suggest the 33.5 kDa vesicular protein may be responsible for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease, and the sugar chains play an important role in pro-nucleating process.

  12. Vesicular stomatitis virus (indiana 2 serotype as experimental model to study acute encephalitis – morphological features Vírus da estomatite vesicular (sorotipo indiana 2 como modelo experimental para o estudo de encefalite aguda – aspectos morfológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcanti Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV is a Vesiculovirus of the Rhabdoviridae family that infects mammals and causes vesicular lesions similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease. VSV experimental encephalitis can be induced in rodents and the symptoms are similar to those observed in rabies. However, the lesions observed in the animals´ encephalon are different. Inclusion bodies are not observed. There is necrosis, particularly in the region of the olfactory bulb, and, in some cases, ventriculitis. It was observed that the time pattern of VSV dissemination and the morphological aspects of the lesions are similar to those described in literature. The virus seems to be disseminated through the brain ventricles, being multiplied in the ependyma cells and in the neurons, besides using retrograde and anterograde transport. It was noticed that, due to the facility of virus manipulation, this experimental model has been used in innumerable research studies in several fields. If, on the one hand there are plenty of reports on the infection pathogenesis, on the other hand there are many gaps involving, for instance, aspects about virus transmission, recovery of infected animals and participation of glial cells in the acute as well as in the recovery phases.   O vírus da estomatite vesicular (VEV é um Vesiculovírus da família Rhabdoviridae que infecta mamíferos e causa lesões vesiculares semelhantes às observadas na febre aftosa. A encefalite experimental pode ser induzida em roedores e os sintomas são semelhantes aos observados na raiva; entretanto, as lesões observadas no encéfalo dos animais são diferentes. Corpúsculos de inclusão não são observados, há necrose especialmente da região do bulbo olfatório e em alguns casos, ventriculite. Observamos que o padrão temporal de disseminação do VEV e os aspectos morfológicos das lesões são similares aos descritos na literatura. O vírus parece se disseminar através dos ventr

  13. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Andreasen T., Jesper; Arvaniti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been pursued for decades as potential molecular targets to treat cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to their positioning within regions of the brain critical in learning and memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus...

  14. Binding of quinolizidine alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, T; Sauerwein, M; Sporer, F; Wink, M; Müller, W E

    1994-09-01

    Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid types were especially active at the muscarinic receptor.

  15. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj;

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with n...

  16. Enzyme-linked DNA dendrimer nanosensors for acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Ruckh, Timothy T.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-10-01

    It is currently difficult to measure small dynamics of molecules in the brain with high spatial and temporal resolution while connecting them to the bigger picture of brain function. A step towards understanding the underlying neural networks of the brain is the ability to sense discrete changes of acetylcholine within a synapse. Here we show an efficient method for generating acetylcholine-detecting nanosensors based on DNA dendrimer scaffolds that incorporate butyrylcholinesterase and fluorescein in a nanoscale arrangement. These nanosensors are selective for acetylcholine and reversibly respond to levels of acetylcholine in the neurophysiological range. This DNA dendrimer architecture has the potential to overcome current obstacles to sensing in the synaptic environment, including the nanoscale size constraints of the synapse and the ability to quantify the spatio-temporal fluctuations of neurotransmitter release. By combining the control of nanosensor architecture with the strategic placement of fluorescent reporters and enzymes, this novel nanosensor platform can facilitate the development of new selective imaging tools for neuroscience.

  17. Changes in Acetylcholine Extracellular Levels during Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepeu, Giancarlo; Giovannini, Maria Grazia

    2004-01-01

    Measuring the changes in neurotransmitter extracellular levels in discrete brain areas is considered a tool for identifying the neuronal systems involved in specific behavioral responses or cognitive processes. Acetylcholine (ACh) is the first neurotransmitter whose diffusion from the central nervous system was investigated and whose extracellular…

  18. Tissue-specific effects of acetylcholine in the canine heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callø, Kirstine; Goodrow, Robert; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acetylcholine (ACh) release from the vagus nerve slows heart rate and atrioventricular conduction. ACh stimulates a variety of receptors and channels, including an inward rectifying current (IK,ACh). The effect of ACh in ventricle is still debated. We compare the effect of ACh...

  19. Polyester with Pendent Acetylcholine-Mimicking Functionalities Promotes Neurite Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaofei; Jeffries, Eric; Gao, Jin; Sun, Lijie; You, Zhengwei; Wang, Yadong

    2016-04-20

    Successful regeneration of nerves can benefit from biomaterials that provide a supportive biochemical and mechanical environment while also degrading with controlled inflammation and minimal scar formation. Herein, we report a neuroactive polymer functionalized by covalent attachment of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach). The polymer was readily synthesized in two steps from poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD), which previously demonstrated biocompatibility and biodegradation in vivo. Distinct from prior acetylcholine-biomimetic polymers, PSeD-Ach contains both quaternary ammonium and free acetyl moieties, closely resembling native acetylcholine structure. The polymer structure was confirmed via (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Hydrophilicity, charge, and thermal properties of PSeD-Ach were determined by tensiometer, zetasizer, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. PC12 cells exhibited the greatest proliferation and neurite outgrowth on PSeD-Ach and laminin substrates, with no significant difference between these groups. PSeD-Ach yielded much longer neurite outgrowth than the control polymer containing ammonium but no the acetyl group, confirming the importance of the entire acetylcholine-like moiety. Furthermore, PSeD-Ach supports adhesion of primary rat dorsal root ganglions and subsequent neurite sprouting and extension. The sprouting rate is comparable to the best conditions from previous report. Our findings are significant in that they were obtained with acetylcholine-like functionalities in 100% repeating units, a condition shown to yield significant toxicity in prior publications. Moreover, PSeD-Ach exhibited favorable mechanical and degradation properties for nerve tissue engineering application. Humidified PSeD-Ach had an elastic modulus of 76.9 kPa, close to native neural tissue, and could well recover from cyclic dynamic compression. PSeD-Ach showed a gradual in

  20. Identification and quantification of host proteins in the vesicular fluid of porcine Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Moguel, Bárbara; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2014-08-01

    The host-parasite relationship in cestode infections is complex. One feature of this bidirectional molecular communication is the uptake of host proteins by the parasite. Here we describe the presence of several host proteins in the vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci dissected from the central nervous system and the skeletal muscle of naturally infected pigs. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis we compared the protein patterns of vesicular fluids of cysticerci vs. the sera of cysticercotic pigs. We found that the vesicular fluids of both groups of cysts showed 17 protein spots matching with the pig's sera spots. After mass spectrometry sequencing of these spots, five host proteins were identified: hemoglobin, albumin, serpin A3-8, haptoglobin, rho GTPase-activating protein 36-like. Three of the 17 spots corresponded to host protein fragments: hemoglobin, albumin and serpin A3-8. IgG heavy and light chains were also identified by Western blot using a specific antibody. Quantitative estimations indicated that the host proteins represented 11-13% of the protein content in the vesicular fluids. We also calculated the relative abundance of these host proteins in the vesicular fluids; all were represented in similar relative abundances as in host sera. This suggests that uptake of host proteins by cysticerci proceeds through an unspecific mechanism such as non-specific fluid pinocytosis.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of senecavirus A associated with vesicular disease in pigs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Gasparini, Marcela R; Sales, Érica B; Rivetti, Anselmo V; Sousa, Natália M; Oliveira, Anapolino M; Camargos, Marcelo F; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Tatiana F; Gonçalves, Junia P M; Madureira, Marieta C; Ribeiro, Damaso P; Marcondes, Ivone V; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F; Fonseca, Antônio A

    2016-10-01

    Senecavirus A (SV-A) may cause vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in pigs, and was first detected in Brazil in 2015. Samples including tissues and serum from pigs with suspected vesicular diseases were collected from January to August in 2015 from farms in the states of Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, Goiás and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and tested for the presence of SV-A by reverse transcriptase PCR. All samples were negative for foot and mouth disease virus, as well as 13 other infectious agents associated with vesicular diseases in pigs. SV-A was detected by PCR in 65/265 (24.5%) specimens. A 530 base pair fragment sequenced from the VP1 protein coding region indicated a high genetic distance from SV-A in other countries, but a common origin among the Brazilian isolates.

  2. Stimulation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in vitro RNA Synthesis by Microtubule-Associated Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Virginia M.; Harmon, Shirley A.; Summers, Donald F.

    1986-08-01

    Microtubule-associated proteins purified from bovine brains stimulated the in vitro transcription and replication reactions of vesicular stomatitis virus. The products of these reactions were intact messenger or genome-sized RNA species. A preparation from HeLa cells containing tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins also stimulated vesicular stomatitis virus transcription in vitro. This observation is in accord with previous studies, which suggested that a host cell factor was involved with the function of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase, and others that indicated that several animal viruses displayed an association with host cell cytoskeletal elements during their replication cycles. We show evidence in this report of a host cell protein that seems to have a functional role in interacting with the virion polymerase.

  3. Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Detection of Senecavirus A in Swine Vesicular Diagnostic Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa J Bracht

    Full Text Available Senecavirus A (SV-A, formerly, Seneca Valley virus (SVV, has been detected in swine with vesicular lesions and is thought to be associated with swine idiopathic vesicular disease (SIVD, a vesicular disease syndrome that lacks a defined causative agent. The clinical presentation of SIVD resembles that of other more contagious and economically devastating vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, swine vesicular disease (SVD, and vesicular stomatitis (VS, that typically require immediate rule out diagnostics to lift restrictions on animal quarantine, movement, and trade. This study presents the development of a sensitive, SYBR Green RT-qPCR assay suitable for detection of SV-A in diagnostic swine specimens. After testing 50 pigs with clinical signs consistent with vesicular disease, 44 (88% were found to be positive for SV-A by RT-qPCR as compared to none from a negative cohort of 35 animals without vesicular disease, indicating that the assay is able to successfully detect the virus in an endemic population. SV-A RNA was also detectable at a low level in sera from a subset of pigs that presented with (18% or without (6% vesicular signs. In 2015, there has been an increase in the occurrence of SV-A in the US, and over 200 specimens submitted to our laboratory for vesicular investigation have tested positive for the virus using this method. SV-A RNA was detectable in all common types of vesicular specimens including swabs and tissue from hoof lesions, oral and snout epithelium, oral swabs, scabs, and internal organ tissues such as liver and lymph node. Genome sequencing analysis from recent virus isolates was performed to confirm target amplicon specificity and was aligned to previous isolates.

  4. Is replenishment of the readily releasable pool associated with vesicular movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Loc; Glavinović, Mladen I

    2014-04-01

    At the excitatory synapse of rat hippocampus the short-term synaptic depression observed during long high-frequency stimulation is associated with slower replenishment of the readily-releasable pool. Given that the replenishment rate is also not [Ca(++)]o sensitive this puts into question a widely held notion that the vesicles-constrained by the cytoskeleton and rendered free from such constraints by Ca(++) entry that renders them more mobile-are important in the replenishment of the readily-releasable pool. This raises a question-Is vesicular replenishment of the readily releasable pool associated with significant movement? To answer this question we evaluated how okadaic acid and staurosporine (compounds known to affect vesicular mobility) influence the replenishment rate. We used patterned stimulation on the Schaffer collateral fiber pathway and recorded the excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) from rat CA1 neurons, in the absence and presence of these drugs. The parameters of a circuit model with two vesicular pools were estimated by minimizing the squared difference between the ESPC amplitudes and simulated model output. [Ca(2+)]o did not influence the progressive decrease of the replenishment rate during long, high frequency stimulation. Okadaic acid did not significantly affect any parameters of the vesicular storage and release system, including the replenishment rate. Staurosporine reduced the replenishment coupling, but not the replenishment rate, and this is owing to the fact that it also reduces the ability of the readily releasable pool to contain quanta. Moreover, these compounds were ineffective in influencing how the replenishment rate decreases during long, high frequency stimulation. In conclusion at the excitatory synapses of rat hippocampus the replenishment of the readily releasable pool does not appear to be associated with a significant vesicular movement, and during long high frequency stimulation [Ca(++)]o does not influence the

  5. Isolation and Identification of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Stimulatory Compounds from Clover (Trifolium repens) Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Muraleedharan G.; Safir, Gene R.; Siqueira, Jose O.

    1991-01-01

    Two isoflavonoids isolated from clover roots grown under phosphate stress were characterized as formononetin (7-hydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone). At 5 ppm, these compounds stimulated hyphal growth in vitro and root colonization of an undescribed vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a Glomus sp. (INVAM-112). The permethylated products of the two compounds were inactive. These findings suggest that the isoflavonoids studied may act as signal molecules in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. PMID:16348409

  6. Historia natural del virus de la estomatitis vesicular en zonas enzoóticas de Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) es una enfermedad producida
    por el virus de la Estomatitis Vesicular, serotipos New Jersey (VSV-NJ) e Indiana (VSV-IN), afecta bovinos y equinos, porcinos y causa infección natural en humanos, principalmente granjeros, ordeñadores y personal de laboratorio.
    Se caracteriza por producir vesículas en las membranas mucosas
    de la boca (epitelio de la lengua y el paladar), bandas coronarias,
    pezones y tejidos blandos...

  7. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  8. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risveden, Klas; Dick, Kimberly A; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiN(x)-covered w......A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on Si......N(x)-covered wafers. Two different reactors are shown: one with simple, one-dimensional nanorods and one with branched nanorod structures (nanotrees). Significantly higher enzymatic activity is found for the nanotree reactors than for the nanorod reactors, most likely due to the increased gold surface area...

  9. Localization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in plant guard cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), as an important neurotransmitter in animals, also plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. But relatively little is known about its receptors in plants. A green fluorescence BODIPY FL-labeled ABT, which is a high affinity ligand of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), was used to localize mAChR in plant guard cells. In Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L., mAChR was found both on the plasma membrane of guard cells. mAChR may also be distributed on guard cell chloroplast membrane of Vicia faba L. The evidence that mAChR localizes in the guard cells provides a new possible signal transduction pathway in ACh mediated stomata movement.

  10. Structures of acetylcholine picrate and methoxycarbonylcholine picrate hemihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Grønborg, L; Jensen, B

    1988-01-01

    Acetylcholine picrate, C7H16NO2+.C6H2N3-O7-, Mr = 374.3, orthorhombic, Pbca, at 105 K: a = 18.799 (4), b = 7.726 (2), c = 22.878 (4) A, V = 3323 (2) A3, Z = 8, Dm(295 K, flotation) = 1.44, D chi(105 K) = 1.496 Mg m-3, mu(Mo K alpha) = 0.120 mm-1, F(000) = 1568, m.p. (hot-stage microscope) 381-382 K......(295 K, flotation) = 1.49, D chi(105 K) = 1.539 Mg m-3, mu(Mo K alpha) = 0.126 mm-1, F(000) = 836, m.p. (hot-stage microscope) 391-391.5 K, R = 0.033 for 6359 observed [I greater than or equal to 3.0 sigma(I)] reflections. The acetylcholine ion as well as the methoxycarbonylcholine ion have as first...

  11. Cytopathogenesis of Vesicular Stomatitis virus is regulated by the PSAP motif of M protein in a species-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an important vector-borne pathogen of bovine and equine species, causing a reportable vesicular disease. The matrix (M) protein of VSV is multifunctional and plays a key role in cytopathogenesis, apoptosis, host protein shut-off, and virion assembly/budding. Our ...

  12. The effect of acetylcholine on the ultrastructure of torpedo acetylcholinesterases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-chanCHEN; Ying-geZHANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effects of acetylcholine (ACh), the natural substrate of acetylcholinesterases (ACHE), on the conformational state of the active gorge of ACHE. METHODS: Atomic force microscopy (AFM). RESULTS: The surface of the enzyme particles was smooth. The boundary of them was clear and the shapes were ellipsoid. However, the morphology of the enzyme after reacted with ACh became almost utterly different. The most obvious change was a hole or a gorge emerged in the protein,

  13. Acetylcholine Receptors in Model Membranes: Structure/Function Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    AChR Popot et 81. (71) reported the preparation of large vesicles (mean ’J diameter 950 1 550A) by partial cholate dialysis and subsequent gel...Changeux, J.-P., Heidmann, T., Popot , J. and Sobel, A. (1979) Reconstitution of a functional acetylcholine regulator under defined conditions. FEBS Lett...during reconstitution in vesicles. J. Biol. Chem. 256:4377-4387. 71. Popot , J.-L., Cartaud, J. and Changeux, J.-P. (1981) Reconstitution of a

  14. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  15. Membrane permeable C-terminal dopamine transporter peptides attenuate amphetamine-evoked dopamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Owens, WA; Winkler, Marie-Therese

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate...

  16. The beneficial effect of dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin, XG.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight of shoots and roots, total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements, the final yields and recovery of phosphorus of white clover were significantly increased by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and dual inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium. The highest response of inoculation was obtained by adding fertilizer phosphorus at the level of 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate.

  17. Eps15 homology domain containing protein of Plasmodium falciparum (PfEHD) associates with endocytosis and vesicular trafficking towards neutral lipid storage site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vandana; Asad, Mohd; Jain, Shaifali; Hossain, Mohammad E; Gupta, Akanksha; Kaur, Inderjeet; Rathore, Sumit; Ali, Shakir; Khan, Nida J; Mohmmed, Asif

    2015-11-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, takes up numerous host cytosolic components and exogenous nutrients through endocytosis during the intra-erythrocytic stages. Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHDs) are conserved NTPases, which are implicated in membrane remodeling and regulation of specific endocytic transport steps in eukaryotic cells. In the present study, we have characterized the dynamin-like C-terminal Eps15 homology domain containing protein of P. falciparum (PfEHD). Using a GFP-targeting approach, we studied localization and trafficking of PfEHD in the parasite. The PfEHD-GFP fusion protein was found to be a membrane bound protein that associates with vesicular network in the parasite. Time-lapse microscopy studies showed that these vesicles originate at parasite plasma membrane, migrate through the parasite cytosol and culminate into a large multi-vesicular like structure near the food-vacuole. Co-staining of food vacuole membrane showed that the multi-vesicular structure is juxtaposed but outside the food vacuole. Labeling of parasites with neutral lipid specific dye, Nile Red, showed that this large structure is neutral lipid storage site in the parasites. Proteomic analysis identified endocytosis modulators as PfEHD associated proteins in the parasites. Treatment of parasites with endocytosis inhibitors obstructed the development of PfEHD-labeled vesicles and blocked their targeting to the lipid storage site. Overall, our data suggests that the PfEHD is involved in endocytosis and plays a role in the generation of endocytic vesicles at the parasite plasma membrane, that are subsequently targeted to the neutral lipid generation/storage site localized near the food vacuole.

  18. The development and significance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas as influenced by agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruissen, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The development and significance of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) in wheat and potatoes have been studied in relation to various farming systems and agricultural practices. The effects of farming systems on VAM have been observed on three neighbouring experimental farms in the vicinity of

  19. Toluene-induced, Ca2+-dependent vesicular catecholamine release in rat PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, R.H.S.; Vijverberg, H.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Acute effects of toluene on vesicular catecholamine release from intact PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells have been investigated using carbon fiber microelectrode amperometry. The frequency of vesicles released is low under basal conditions and is enhanced by depolarization. Toluene causes an increase in

  20. Domestic cattle as a non-conventional amplifying host of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of vertebrates as amplifying and maintenance hosts for vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) remains unclear. Livestock have been considered dead-end hosts because detectable viremia is absent in VSNJV-infected animals. We demonstrated two situations where cattle can serve as a so...

  1. Infection of Melanoplus Sanguinipes Grasshoppers Following Ingestion of Rangeland Plant Species Harboring Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the many mechanisms of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) transmission is critical to understanding the epidemiology of sporadic disease outbreaks in the western U.S. Migratory grasshoppers (Melanoplus sanguinipes, Fabricius) have been implicated as reservoirs and mechanical vectors of VS...

  2. Genome sequences of nine vesicular stomatitis virus isolates from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report nine full-genome sequences of vesicular stomatitis virus obtrained by Illumina next-generation sequencing of RNA, isolated from either cattle epithelial suspensions or cell culture supernatants. Seven of these viral genomes belonged to the New Jersey serotype/species, clade III, while two...

  3. Potential for Transovarial Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an insect transmitted rhabdovirus which causes economically devastating disease in cattle and horses in the western U.S. Important insect vectors identified thus far include Lutzomyia shannoni sand flies, Simulium vittatum black flies, and Culicoides sonorensis bi...

  4. Blood Feeding Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infected Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection of Culicoides sonorensis affects subsequent blood feeding behavior, midges injected with either virus-infected or virus-free cell lysates were allowed to blood feed for short (10 min) or long (60 min) periods of time on days 2, 3, and 4...

  5. Characterization of the Full-Length Genomic Sequence of Vesicular Stomatitis Cocal and Alagoas Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock throughout the Americas caused by members of the vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae. VS outbreaks between northern South America and North America are caused principally by the New Jersey serotype (VSNJV) and to a les...

  6. Infection of grasshoppers following ingestion of grassland plant species harboring vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes sporadic, re-emerging disease outbreaks in horses and cattle in the western United States. Lesions in the oral cavity result in excessive salivation and significant virus shedding. This results in efficient direct contact transmission within the herd, and vira...

  7. Depletion of vesicular zinc in dorsal horn of spinal cord causes increased neuropathic pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Seung; Danscher, Gorm; Schrøder, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    pain. The animals were then sacrificed 5 days later. The ZnT3 immunoreactivity was found to have decreased significantly in dorsal horn of fourth, fifth, and sixth lumbar segments. In parallel with the depressed ZnT3 immunoreactivity the amount of vesicular zinc decreased perceptibly in superficial...

  8. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrated that previous vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based Lassa virus vaccine does not alter protective efficacy of subsequent vaccination with a VSV-based Ebola virus vaccine. These findings demonstrate the utility of VSV-based vaccines against divergent viral pathogens, even when preexisting immunity to the vaccine vector is present.

  9. Detection of three porcine vesicular viruses using multiplex real-time primer-probe energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Aguero, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid identification of the etiologic agent in infected animals is important for the control of an outbreak of vesicular disease in livestock. We have in the present study developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR, based on primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET), for simultaneous...

  10. Effect of amyloids on the vesicular machinery: implications for somatic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anand Kant; Pandit, Rucha; Maiti, Sudipta

    2015-07-01

    Certain neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be initiated by the aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins. However, the mechanism underlying toxicity remains obscure. Most of the suggested mechanisms are generic in nature and do not directly explain the neuron-type specific lesions observed in many of these diseases. Some recent reports suggest that the toxic aggregates impair the synaptic vesicular machinery. This may lead to an understanding of the neuron-type specificity observed in these diseases. A disruption of the vesicular machinery can also be deleterious for extra-synaptic, especially somatic, neurotransmission (common in serotonergic and dopaminergic systems which are specifically affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), respectively), though this relationship has remained unexplored. In this review, we discuss amyloid-induced damage to the neurotransmitter vesicular machinery, with an eye on the possible implications for somatic exocytosis. We argue that the larger size of the system, and the availability of multi-photon microscopy techniques for directly visualizing monoamines, make the somatic exocytosis machinery a more tractable model for understanding the effect of amyloids on all types of vesicular neurotransmission. Indeed, exploring this neglected connection may not just be important, it may be a more fruitful route for understanding AD and PD.

  11. Secretion of goblet cell serine proteinase, ingobsin, is stimulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1987-01-01

    Ingobsin is localized to the intestinal goblet cells in the rat and in man. In the present study, we investigated the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on the secretion of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum. Intravenous infusion of VIP or acetylcholine increased...... the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion, while the concentration in the duodenum was unchanged. Simultaneous infusion of VIP and acetylcholine increased the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion and decreased the concentration of ingobsin in the duodenum. This study demonstrates that secretion...... of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum is exocrine and can be stimulated by VIP and acetylcholine....

  12. Overexpressing OsPIN2 enhances aluminium internalization by elevating vesicular trafficking in rice root apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daoming; Shen, Hong; Yokawa, Ken; Baluška, František

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) sequestration is required for internal detoxification of Al in plant cells. In this study, it was found that the rice OsPIN2 overexpression line (OX1) had significantly reduced Al content in its cell wall and increased Al concentration in cell sap only in rice root tips relative to the wild-type (WT). In comparison with WT, OX1 reduced morin staining of cytosolic Al, enhanced FM 4-64 staining of membrane vesicular trafficking in root tip sections (0-1mm), and showed morin-FM 4-64 fluorescence overlap. Recovery treatment showed that cell-wall-bound Al was internalized into vacuoles via endocytic vesicular trafficking after removal of external Al. In this process, OX1 showed a higher rate of Al internalization than WT. Brefeldin A (BFA) interfered with vesicular trafficking and resulted in inhibition of Al internalization. This inhibitory effect could be alleviated when BFA was washed out, and the process of alleviation was slower in the cells of WT than in those of OX1. Microscopic observations revealed that, upon Al exposure, numerous multilamellar endosomes were detected between the cell wall and plasma membrane in the cells of OX1. Moreover, more vesicles enriched with Al complexes accumulated in the cells of OX1 than in those of WT, and these vesicles transformed into larger structures in the cells of OX1. Taken together, the data indicate that endocytic vesicular trafficking might contribute to Al internalization, and that overexpressing OsPIN2 enhances rice Al tolerance via elevated endocytic vesicular trafficking and Al internalization.

  13. Immuno-detection of OCTN1 (SLC22A4) in HeLa cells and characterization of transport function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Indiveri, Cesare

    2015-11-01

    OCTN1 was immuno-detected in the cervical cancer cell HeLa, in which the complete pattern of acetylcholine metabolizing enzymes is expressed. Comparison of immuno-staining intensity of HeLa OCTN1 with the purified recombinant human OCTN1 allowed measuring the specific OCTN1 concentration in the HeLa cell extract and, hence calculating the HeLa OCTN1 specific transport activity that was about 10 nmol×min(-1)×mg protein(-1), measured as uptake of [(3)H]acetylcholine in proteoliposomes reconstituted with HeLa extract. This value was very similar to the specific activity of the recombinant protein. Acetylcholine transport was suppressed by incubation of the protein or proteoliposomes with the anti-OCTN1 antibody and was strongly inhibited by PLP and MTSEA, known inhibitors of OCTN1. The absence of ATP in the internal side of proteoliposomes strongly impaired transport function of both the HeLa and, as expected, the recombinant OCTN1. HeLa OCTN1 was inhibited by spermine, NaCl (Na(+)), TEA, γ-butyrobetaine, choline, acetylcarnitine and ipratropium but not by neostigmine. Besides acetylcholine, choline was taken up by HeLa OCTN1 proteoliposomes. The transporter catalyzed also acetylcholine and choline efflux which, differently from uptake, was not inhibited by MTSEA. Time course of [(3)H]acetylcholine uptake in intact HeLa cells was measured. As in proteoliposomes, acetylcholine transport in intact cells was inhibited by TEA and NaCl. Efflux of [(3)H]acetylcholine occurred in intact cells, as well. The experimental data concur in demonstrating a role of OCTN1 in transporting acetylcholine and choline in HeLa cells.

  14. Acetylcholine synthesis and possible functions during sea urchin development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Angelini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic neurotransmitter system molecules were found to play a role during fertilisation and early cell cycles of a large number of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. In this study, we investigated the presence and possible function of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the biosynthetic enzyme of acetylcholine in gametes of the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, through localisation and functional studies. ChAT-like molecules were detected in oocytes, mature eggs and zygotes with indirect immunofluorescence methods. Positive immunoreactivity was found in the ovarian egg cytoplasm and surface as well as at the zygote surface. This suggests the eggs' capacity to autonomously synthesise acetylcholine (ACh, the signal molecule of the cholinergic system. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, the lytic enzyme of acetylcholine was also found in ovarian eggs, with a similar distribution; however, it disappeared after fertilisation. Ultrastructural ChAT localisation in sperms, which was carried out with the immuno-gold method, showed immunoreactivity in the acrosome of unreacted sperms and at the head surface of reacted sperms. In order to verify a functional role of ACh during fertilization and sea urchin development, in vivo experiments were performed. Exposure of the eggs before fertilisation to 1 mM ACh + 1 ?M eserine caused an incomplete membrane depolarisation and consequently enhanced polyspermy, while lower concentrations of ACh caused developmental anomalies. The exposure of zygotes to 0,045 AChE Units/mL of sea water caused developmental anomalies as well, in 50% of the embryos. Altogether, these findings and other previously obtained results, suggest that the cholinergic system may subserve two different tasks during development, according to which particular type of ACh receptor is active during each temporal window. The first function, taking place in the course of fertilisation is a result of autonomously synthesised ACh in sperms, while the

  15. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from basic science to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Raymond; Rollema, Hans; Bertrand, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Substantial progress in the identification of genes encoding for a large number of proteins responsible for various aspects of neurotransmitter release, postsynaptic detection and downstream signaling, has advanced our understanding of the mechanisms by which neurons communicate and interact. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors represent a large and well-characterized family of ligand-gated ion channels that is expressed broadly throughout the central and peripheral nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells. With 16 mammalian genes identified that encode for nicotinic receptors and the ability of the subunits to form heteromeric or homomeric receptors, the repertoire of conceivable receptor subtype combinations is enormous and offers unique possibilities for the design and development of new therapeutics that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with recent insights in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from genes, structure and function to diseases, and with the latest findings on the pharmacology of these receptors. Although so far only a few nicotinic drugs have been marketed or are in late stage development, much progress has been made in the design of novel chemical entities that are being explored for the treatment of various diseases, including addiction, depression, ADHD, cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, pain and inflammation. A pharmacological analysis of these compounds, including those that were discontinued, can improve our understanding of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic requirements for nicotinic 'drug-like' molecules and will reveal if hypotheses on therapies based on targeting specific nicotinic receptor subtypes have been adequately tested in the clinic.

  16. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Wymke Ockenga; Ritva Tikkanen

    2015-01-01

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimul...

  17. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with n...... findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain, and that Lypd6 is dysregulated by nicotine exposure during early development. Regulatory proteins of the Lynx family modulate the function of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). We report for the first time that the Lynx...

  18. Stochastic Models of Vesicular Sorting in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The proper sorting of membrane components by regulated exchange between cellular organelles is crucial to intra-cellular organization. This process relies on the budding and fusion of transport vesicles, and should be strongly influenced by stochastic fluctuations considering the relatively small size of many organelles. We identify the perfect sorting of two membrane components initially mixed in a single compartment as a first passage process, and we show that the mean sorting time exhibits two distinct regimes as a function of the ratio of vesicle fusion to budding rates. Low ratio values leads to fast sorting, but results in a broad size distribution of sorted compartments dominated by small entities. High ratio values result in two well defined sorted compartments but is exponentially slow. Our results suggests an optimal balance between vesicle budding and fusion for the rapid and efficient sorting of membrane components, and highlight the importance of stochastic effects for the steady-state organizati...

  19. Role of acetylcholine and muscarinic receptors in serotonin-induced bronchoconstriction in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Wolfgang; Wiegand, Silke; Akinci, Sibel; Schinkel, Alfred H; Wess, Jürgen; Koepsell, Hermann; Haberberger, Rainer Viktor; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2006-01-01

    For the murine trachea, it has been reported that constriction evoked by serotonin (5-HT) is largely dependent on acetylcholine (ACh) released from the epithelium, owing to the sensitivity of the 5-HT response to epithelium removal, sensitivity to atropine, and insensitivity to tetrodotoxin (Moffatt et al., 2003). Consistent with this assumption, the respiratory epithelium contains ACh, its synthesizing enzyme, and the high-affinity choline transporter CHT1 (Reinheimer et al., 1996; Pfeil et al., 2003; Proskocil et al., 2004). Recently, we demonstrated that ACh can be released from non-neuronal cells by corticosteroid-sensitive polyspecific organic cation transporters (OCTs), which are also expressed by airway epithelial cells (Lips et al., 2005). Hence, we proposed that 5-HT evokes release of ACh from epithelial cells via OCTs and that this epithelial-derived ACh induces bronchoconstriction. We tested this hypothesis in a well-established model of videomorphometric analysis of bronchial diameter in precision-cut murine lung slices utilizing epithelium removal to assess the role of the epithelium, OCT mouse knockout (KO) strains to assess the role of OCT isoforms, and muscarinic receptor M2/M3 double-KO mice to assess the cholinergic component of 5-HT induced bronchoconstriction, as bronchi of this strain are entirely unresponsive to cholinergic stimulation(Struckmann et al., 2003).

  20. Conformationally restrained carbamoylcholine homologues. Synthesis, pharmacology at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and biostructural considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Fuente Revenga, M; Balle, Thomas; Jensen, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of small selective ligands for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) based on acetylcholine (ACh) has led to the development of potent agonists with clear preference for the α4β2 nAChR, the most prevalent nAChR subtype in the central nervous system. In this work we present th...

  1. Rational design of a-conotoxin analogues targeting a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armishaw, Christopher; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Balle, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels and belong to the superfamily of Cys-loop receptors. Valuable insight into the orthosteric ligand binding to nAChRs in recent years has been obtained from the crystal structures of acetylcholine binding proteins (ACh...

  2. Effects of antihistamines on the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Bassem; Khanian, Seyedeh Soha; Ashoor, Abrar; Prytkova, Tatiana; Ghattas, Mohammad A; Atatreh, Noor; Nurulain, Syed M; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Howarth, Frank Christopher; Oz, Murat

    2015-01-05

    Effects of the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) antagonists (antihistamines), promethazine (PMZ), orphenadrine (ORP), chlorpheniramine (CLP), pyrilamine (PYR), diphenhydramine (DPH), citerizine (CTZ), and triprolidine (TRP) on the functional properties of the cloned α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes were investigated. Antihistamines inhibited the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the order PYR>CLP>TRP>PMZ>ORP≥DPH≥CTZ. Among the antihistamines, PYR showed the highest reversible inhibition of acetylcholine (100 µM)-induced responses with IC₅₀ of 6.2 µM. PYR-induced inhibition was independent of the membrane potential and could not be reversed by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine. Specific binding of [¹²⁵I] α-bungarotoxin, a selective antagonist for α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, was not changed in the presence of PYR suggesting a non-competitive inhibition of nicotinic receptors. In line with functional experiments, docking studies indicated that PYR can potentially bind allosterically with the α7 transmembrane domain. Our results indicate that the H₂-H₄ receptor antagonists tested in this study (10 µM) showed negligible inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. On the other hand, H₁ receptor antagonists inhibited the function of human α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, with varying potencies. These results emphasize the importance of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for future pharmacological/toxicological profiling.

  3. Electrolyte and protein secretion by the perfused rabbit mandibular gland stimulated with acetylcholine or catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Novak, I

    1980-01-01

    unstimulated or evoked by acetylcholine or eserine, could be blocked completely by atropine.4. During prolonged stimulation with acetylcholine, the fluid secretory response declined rapidly over a period of about 15 min from an initial high value to a much lower plateau value. After 3 or more hours...

  4. Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    of acetylcholine. Ten and 30 mg/kg lidocaine injected intravenously significantly increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. The effect of lidocaine could be reduced by pretreatment with intraspinally administered atropine or mecamylamine. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effect produced...

  5. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Caitlin Alexis; Hauser, Frank; Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I

    2013-01-01

    ). In this study, we cloned two structurally related GPCRs from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which, after expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells, proved to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. One mAChR (the A-type; encoded by gene CG4356) is activated by acetylcholine (EC50, 5 × 10(-8) M...

  6. Vagus Nerve Activity Augments Intestinal Macrophage Phagocytosis via Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 4 beta 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Esmerij P.; Snoek, Susanne A.; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E.; Stanisor, Oana I.; Verseijden, Caroline; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Greaves, David R.; Gordon, Siamon; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The vagus nerve negatively regulates macrophage cytokine production via the release of acetylcholine (ACh) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). In various models of intestinal inflammation, vagus nerve efferent stimulation ameliorates disease. Given the act

  7. Acetylcholine's effect on vascular resistance and compliance in the pulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, S A; Senteno, E; Smith, S; Taylor, A E

    1989-10-01

    Acetylcholine's effect on the distribution of vascular resistance and compliance in the canine pulmonary circulation was determined under control and elevated vascular tone by the arterial, venous, and double occlusion techniques in isolated blood-perfused dog lungs at both constant flow and constant pressure. Large and small blood vessel resistances and compliances were studied in lungs given concentrations of acetylcholine ranging from 2.0 ng/ml to 200 micrograms/ml. The results of this study indicate that acetylcholine dilates large arteries at low concentrations (less than or equal to 20 ng/ml) and constricts small and large veins at concentrations of at least 2 micrograms/ml. Characterization of acetylcholine's effects at constant pulmonary blood flow indicates that 1) large artery vasodilation may be endothelial-derived relaxing factor-mediated because the dilation is blocked with methylene blue; 2) a vasodilator of the arachidonic acid cascade (blocked by ibuprofen), probably prostacyclin, lessens acetylcholine's pressor effects; 3) when vascular tone was increased, acetylcholine's hemodynamic effects were attenuated; and 4) acetylcholine decreased middle compartment and large vessle compliance under control but not elevated vascular tone. Under constant pressure at control vascular tone acetylcholine increases resistance in all segments except the large artery, and at elevated vascular tone the pressor effects were enhanced, and large artery resistance was increased.

  8. Characterisation of an acetylcholine receptor gene of Haemonchus contortus in relation to levamisole resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Visser, A.; Wiley, L.; Weiss, A.S.; Sangster, N.C.; Roos, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    The anthelmintic drug levamisole is thought to bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of nematodes. It is possible that resistance to this drug is associated with either a change in binding characteristics or a reduction in the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Therefore, the molecular

  9. Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning from a home-made shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaka, Yair; Broides, Arnon; Tzion, Raffi Lev; Lifshitz, Matitiahu

    2011-07-01

    Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning is a major health problem in children. We report an unusual cause of organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning. Two children were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning after exposure from a home-made shampoo that was used for the treatment of head lice. Owing to no obvious source of poisoning, the diagnosis of organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning in one of these patients was delayed. Both patients had an uneventful recovery. Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning from home-made shampoo is possible. In cases where the mode of poisoning is unclear, direct questioning about the use of home-made shampoo is warranted, in these cases the skin and particularly the scalp should be rinsed thoroughly as soon as possible.

  10. Rheumatoid arthritis and pseudo-vesicular skin plaques: rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manriquez, Juan; Giesen, Laura; del Puerto, Constanza; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    A 54 year-old woman with a 3-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consulted us because of weight loss, fever and skin eruption. On physical examination, erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance were seen on the back of both shoulders. Histological examination was consistent with rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis (RND). After 3 days of prednisone treatment, the skin eruption resolved. RND is a rare cutaneous manifestation of seropositive RA, characterized by asymptomatic, symmetrical erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance. Histology characteristically reveals a dense, neutrophilic infiltrate with leucocitoclasis but without other signs of vasculitis. Lesions may resolve spontaneously or with RA treatment. This case illustrates an uncommon skin manifestation of active rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27579747

  11. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Heys

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB. To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed towards identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in entorhinal cortex that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in entorhinal cortex that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in entorhinal cortex that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in entorhinal cortex. Finally, the local circuits of entorhinal cortex demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of entorhinal cortex to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory.

  12. Adult celiac disease with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive myasthenia gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh J Freeman; Helen R Gillett; Peter M Gillett; Joel Oger

    2009-01-01

    Celiac disease has been associated with some autoimmune disorders. A 40-year-old competitive strongman with celiac disease responded to a glutenfree diet, but developed profound and generalized motor weakness with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive myasthenia gravis, a disorder reported to occur in about 1 in 5000. This possible relationship between myasthenia gravis and celiac disease was further explored in serological studies. Frozen stored serum samples from 23 acetylcholine receptor antibody positive myasthenia gravis patients with no intestinal symptoms were used to screen for celiac disease. Both endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were examined. One of 23 (or, about 4.3%) was positive for both IgA-endomysial and IgA tissue transglutaminase antibodies. Endoscopic studies subsequently showed duodenal mucosal scalloping and biopsies confirmed the histopathological changes of celiac disease. Celiac disease and myasthenia gravis may occur together more often than is currently appreciated. The presence of motor weakness in celiac disease may be a clue to occult myasthenia gravis, even in the absence of intestinal symptoms.

  13. Interactions of macrophages with probiotic bacteria lead to increased antiviral response against vesicular stomatitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivec, Martin; Botic, Tanja; Koren, Srecko

    2007-01-01

    dehydrogenases activity could be implied as the first indicator of potential inhibitory effects of the probiotics on virus replication. The interactions between probiotic bacteria, macrophages and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), markedly depended on the bacterial strain studied....... understanding of their role in the activation of macrophages and their stimulation of proinflammatory cytokine production in early viral infection was the main goal of this study. Our in vitro model study showed that probiotic bacteria, either from the species Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria have the ability...

  14. Purification of Regucalcin from the Seminal Vesicular Fluid: A Calcium Binding Multi-Functional Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishna, P; Shende, A M; Reena, K K; Thomas, Jobin; Bhure, S K

    2016-08-01

    Regucalcin is a multi-functional protein having roles in calcium homeostasis as well as in anti-apoptotic, anti-prolific and anti-oxidative functions. Recently, it has been reported from the male reproductive tract, but its role in male reproduction needs further investigation; for which the native regucalcin of reproductive origin will be more appropriate. The gel exclusion chromatography followed by diethyl aminoethane cellulose chromatography and two-dimentional cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis used for its purification are time consuming and less specific. Here, the regucalcin gene from buffalo testis has been cloned, expressed and purified in recombinant form, and subsequently used for raising hyper-immune serum. The Western blot of seminal vesicular fluid probed with anti-regucalcin polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies showed the presence of 28 and 34 kDa bands specific to regucalcin. Further, an affinity matrix has been prepared using anti-regucalcin polyclonal antibodies. An immuno-affinity chromatography method has been standardized to isolate regucalcin from seminal vesicular fluid. The initial complexity of the protein mixture in the seminal vesicular fluid has been reduced by a heat coagulation step. The purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band at 68 kDa that has been further confirmed as regucalcin by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The RGN purified from seminal vesicular fluid will be more appropriate for studying its possible role in male reproduction, especially sperm cell capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction and cryopreservation. The study can be applied in purifying regucalcin from different tissues or species with minor modifications in the methodology.

  15. Production of Plant Growth-Regulating Substances by the Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus mosseae

    OpenAIRE

    Barea, José M.; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción

    1982-01-01

    Glomus mosseae, a representative species of Endogonaceae (Phycomycetes) able to form vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, was investigated for phytohormone production. Spores of G. mosseae were axenically germinated in water, and the resultant mycelial growth was assayed by standard procedures for extracting plant hormones from microbial cultures. Paper partition chromatography and specific bioassays were used to separate and identify plant growth-regulating substances. The microorganism synthesi...

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis and pseudo-vesicular skin plaques: rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Manriquez,Juan; Giesen, Laura; Puerto,Constanza del; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: A 54 year-old woman with a 3-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consulted us because of weight loss, fever and skin eruption. On physical examination, erythematous plaques with a pseudo-vesicular appearance were seen on the back of both shoulders. Histological examination was consistent with rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatosis (RND). After 3 days of prednisone treatment, the skin eruption resolved. RND is a rare cutaneous manifestation of seropositive RA, characterized by asym...

  17. Outbreaks of Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus in horses and cattle in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Olinda, Roberio G; Maia, Lisanka A; de Aguiar, Gildeni M N; Neto, Eldinê G M; Simões, Sara V D; de Lima, Tatiane G; Dantas, Antônio F M; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-11-01

    The current article describes outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in horses and cattle in Paraiba and Rio Grande do Norte states, northeastern Brazil, between June and August 2013. The reported cases affected 15-20 horses and 6 cattle distributed over 6 small farms in 4 municipalities, but additional data indicated the involvement of a large number of animals on several farms. The disease was characterized by blisters; eruptive lesions in coronary bands, lips, mouth, and muzzle; salivation; claudication and loss of condition. Swollen lower limbs and lips, and ulcerated and erosive areas in the lips and muzzle were observed in some horses. A necrotizing vesiculopustular dermatitis and stomatitis was observed histologically. Vesicular stomatitis virus was isolated from the vesicular fluid of a horse lesion and shown to be serologically related to the VS Indiana serogroup (VSIV) by virus neutralization. Convalescent sera of affected horses and cattle, and from healthy contacts, harbored high levels of neutralizing antibodies against the isolated virus (named VSIV-3 2013SaoBento/ParaibaE). Genomic sequences of VSIV subtype 3 (Vesicular stomatitis Alagoas virus) were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction out of clinical specimens from a cow and a horse from different farms. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the phosphoprotein gene indicated that the 2 isolates were derived from the same virus and clustered them in VSIV-3, along with VS viruses identified in southeastern and northeastern Brazil in the last decades. Thus, the present report demonstrates the circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazil and urges for more effective diagnosis and surveillance.

  18. Foreign glycoproteins expressed from recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses are incorporated efficiently into virus particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Schnell, M J; Buonocore, L; Kretzschmar, E; Johnson, E.; Rose, J K

    1996-01-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be used as a vector to express a soluble protein in mammalian cells. Here we have generated VSV recombinants that express four different membrane proteins: the cellular CD4 protein, a CD4-G hybrid protein containing the ectodomain of CD4 and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of the VSV glycoprotein (G), the measles virus hemagglutinin, or the measles virus fusion protein. The proteins were expressed at levels r...

  19. A vesicular sequestration to oxidative deamination shift in myocardial sympathetic nerves in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S; Sullivan, Patricia; Holmes, Courtney; Miller, Gary W; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Kopin, Irwin J

    2014-10-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), profound putamen dopamine (DA) depletion reflects denervation and a shift from vesicular sequestration to oxidative deamination of cytoplasmic DA in residual terminals. PD also involves cardiac sympathetic denervation. Whether PD entails myocardial norepinephrine (NE) depletion and a sequestration-deamination shift have been unknown. We measured apical myocardial tissue concentrations of NE, DA, and their neuronal metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) from 23 PD patients and 23 controls and ascertained the extent of myocardial NE depletion in PD. We devised, validated in VMAT2-Lo mice, and applied 5 neurochemical indices of the sequestration-deamination shift-concentration ratios of DOPAC:DA, DA:NE, DHPG:NE, DOPAC:NE, and DHPG:DOPAC-and used a kinetic model to estimate the extent of the vesicular storage defect. The PD group had decreased myocardial NE content (p Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have profound (98%) myocardial norepinephrine depletion, because of both cardiac sympathetic denervation and a shift from vesicular sequestration to oxidative deamination of cytoplasmic catecholamines in the residual nerves. This shift may be part of a final common pathogenetic pathway in the loss of catecholaminergic neurons that characterizes PD.

  20. Detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Sales, Érica Bravo; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; de Souza, Natália Mendes; da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina; Souza, Giovana Gonçalves; Carani, Fernanda Rezek; Dos Santos, Alyane Figueiredo; Rivetti Júnior, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Thirty-seven epithelial samples from cattle and 1 sample from a buffalo were sent to the laboratory for testing for FMDV and similar disease agents. All samples from MT were positive for parapoxvirus (Pseudocowpox virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus). In addition, 3 samples were positive for Bluetongue virus, and 5 samples were positive for Bovine herpesvirus 1 Among these samples, 1 was positive for all of these 3 agents. Only 2 samples from AM were negative for parapoxvirus. The molecular tests conducted in this study detected multiple infections, with a high prevalence of parapoxvirus.

  1. Application of vesicular coacervate phase for microextraction based on solidification of floating drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Morteza; Yamini, Yadollah

    2012-03-16

    A new, efficient and environmentally friendly method for the analysis of parabens as model compounds was developed using solidified floating vesicular coacervative drop microextraction (SFVCDME). A supramolecular solvent consisting of vesicles of decanoic acid in the nano- and microscale regimes was firstly used as the solvent in solidification of floating drop microextraction. The solvent was produced from the coacervation of decanoic acid aqueous vesicles in the presence of tetrabutylammonium (Bu(4)N(+)). Methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), and propylparaben (PP) were extracted on the basis of hydrophobic and π-cation interactions and the formation of hydrogen bonds. Microliter volume of vesicular coacervative droplet was delivered to the surface of the aqueous sample, and the sample was stirred for a desired time. The sample vial was cooled by immersing it into an ice bath for 3 min. The solidified solvent was transferred into a suitable vial and melted immediately. Twenty microliter of the vesicular coacervative solvent was directly injected to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, with no need to dilution or solvent evaporation. Several parameters affecting the microextraction efficiency including sample temperature, stirring rate, pH, salt effect, volume of the solvent and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, preconcentration factors and relative recoveries of the studied compounds were obtained in the range of 81-174 and 91-108%, respectively; and the performance of the method was comparable with that of solid-phase extraction as the reference method.

  2. Dextran vesicular carriers for dual encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules and delivery into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, P S; Takamura, Kathryn; Chaphekar, Sonali; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Jayakannan, M

    2012-11-12

    Dextran vesicular nanoscaffolds were developed based on polysaccharide and renewable resource alkyl tail for dual encapsulation of hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules (or drugs) and delivery into cells. The roles of the hydrophobic segments on the molecular self-organization of dextran backbone into vesicles or nanoparticles were investigated in detail. Dextran vesicles were found to be a unique dual carrier in which water-soluble molecules (like Rhodamine-B, Rh-B) and polyaromatic anticancer drug (camptothecin, CPT) were selectively encapsulated in the hydrophilic core and hydrophobic layer, respectively. The dextran vesicles were capable of protecting the plasma-sensitive CPT lactone pharmacophore against the hydrolysis by 10× better than the CPT alone in PBS. The aliphatic ester linkage connecting the hydrophobic tail with dextran was found to be cleaved by esterase under physiological conditions for fast releasing of CPT or Rh-B. Cytotoxicity of the dextran vesicle and its drug conjugate were tested on mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) using MTT assay. The dextran vesicular scaffold was found to be nontoxic to living cells. CPT loaded vesicles were found to be 2.5-fold more effective in killing fibroblasts compared to that of CPT alone in PBS. Confocal microscopic images confirmed that both Rh-B and CPT loaded vesicles to be taken up by fibroblasts compared to CPT alone, showing a distinctly perinuclear localization in cells. The custom designed dextran vesicular provides new research opportunities for dual loading and delivering of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug molecules.

  3. Inhibition of skin inflammation in mice by diclofenac in vesicular carriers: liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddeo, Carla; Sales, Octavio Diez; Valenti, Donatella; Saurí, Amparo Ruiz; Fadda, Anna Maria; Manconi, Maria

    2013-02-25

    Diclofenac-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely conventional liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs (penetration enhancer-containing vesicles) were developed and their efficacy in TPA (phorbol ester) induced skin inflammation was examined. Vesicles were made from a cheap and unpurified mixture of phospholipids and diclofenac sodium; Transcutol P and propylene glycol were added to obtain PEVs, and ethanol to produce ethosomes. The structure and lamellar organization of the vesicle bilayer were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and small and wide angle X-ray scattering, as well as the main physico-chemical features. The formulations, along with a diclofenac solution and commercial Voltaren Emulgel, were tested in a comparative trial for anti-inflammatory efficacy on TPA-treated mice dorsal skin. Vesicles were around 100 nm, negatively charged, able to encapsulate diclofenac in good yields, and disclosed different lamellarity, as a function of the formulation composition. Vesicular formulations promoted drug accumulation and reduced the permeation. Administration of vesicular diclofenac on TPA-inflamed skin resulted in marked attenuation of oedema and leucocyte infiltration, especially using PEVs. Histology confirmed the effectiveness of vesicles, since they provided an amelioration of the tissual damage induced by TPA. The proposed approach based on vesicular nanocarriers may hold promising therapeutic value for treating a variety of inflammatory skin disorders.

  4. In vitro percutaneous permeation and skin accumulation of finasteride using vesicular ethosomal carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found to be oppositely charged. Ethosomes were found to be more efficient delivery carriers with high encapsulation capacities. In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of finasteride through human cadaver skin was significantly increased when ethosomes were used. The finasteride transdermal fluxes from ethosomes containing formulation (1.34 +/- 0.11 microg/cm(2)/h) were 7.4, 3.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of finasteride from aqueous solution, conventional liposomes and hydroethanolic solution respectively (P ethosomes produced a significant (P formulation. The study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for enhancing percutaneous absorption of finasteride.

  5. Relationship between eruptive style and vesicularity of juvenile clasts during eruptive episode A of Towada Volcano, Northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, Yoshimi; Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2016-10-01

    It has been reported that juvenile pumice lapilli found in plinian eruptions have high vesicularity, while those found in phreatoplinian eruptions have low vesicularity. However, juvenile glass shards from phreatoplinian eruptions consist of large, expanded bubbles such as bubble wall-type glass. These glass shards seem to possess high vesicularity, unlike the pumice lapilli. This study examines the factors causing this difference, especially focusing on the temporal variations in the vesicularity of the juvenile pyroclasts from eruptive episode A of Towada Volcano, Northeast Japan. This examination was conducted through four analyses: density measurements of pumice lapilli, thin section texture classification of pumice lapilli, classification of glass shards, and surface texture classification of pumice lapilli. Further, pumice lapilli from plinian eruptions have a low density, and those from phreatoplinian eruptions are characterized by high density. The density of the pumice lapilli depends on the eruption style and is hence determined after the eruption. A progressive increase in the amount of large bubbles is observed in glass shards ejected during an eruptive magmatic to phreatomagmatic sequence. Because it does not hinge on the eruptive style, it is assumed that the vesicularity of the glass shards is kept from the conduit before contact with water, especially on fragmentation by magma vesiculation in the conduit. The surfaces of the pumice lapilli show a similar increase in vesicularity with time as glass shards. However, this increase is not successive throughout, but decreases temporarily at the phreatomagmatic stage of the eruption, as in the case of density. This indicates that the successive bubble growth continues within the pumice, and additional vesiculation is superposed when the magmatic eruption comes into contact with water. Because of this, different juvenile clasts exhibit different vesicularities upon cooling. Interestingly, magma

  6. Real-time monitoring of auxin vesicular exocytotic efflux from single plant protoplasts by amperometry at microelectrodes decorated with nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Tao; Hu, Liang-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Rong-Sheng; Cheng, Zhi; Chen, Shi-Jing; Amatore, Christian; Huang, Wei-Hua; Huo, Kai-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Recent biochemical results suggest that auxin (IAA) efflux is mediated by a vesicular cycling mechanism, but no direct detection of vesicular IAA release from single plant cells in real-time has been possible up to now. A TiC@C/Pt-QANFA micro-electrochemical sensor has been developed with high sensitivity in detection of IAA, and it allows real-time monitoring and quantification of the quantal release of auxin from single plant protoplast by exocytosis.

  7. Postexposure Protection Against Marburg Haemorrhagic Fever with Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors in Non-Human Primates: An Efficacy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-29

    virus (MARV). We aimed to test the effi cacy of a replication -competent vaccine based on attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV...including vaccines based on recombinant adenoviruses12,13 and recombinant alphaviruses .8 We previously described the generation and assessment of a live...such as Marburg virus (MARV). We aimed to test the efficacy of a replication -competent vaccine based on attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis

  8. Ca2+ is involved in muscarine-acetylcholine-receptor-mediated acetylcholine signal transduction in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanxia; MIAO Long; ZHANG Shuqiu; LOU Chenghou

    2004-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important neurochemical transmitter in animals; it also exists in plants and plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. ACh has been known to induce the stomatal opening. By monitoring the changes of cytosolic Ca2+ with fluorescent probe Fluo-3 AM under the confocal microscopy,we found that exogenous ACh increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of guard cells of Vicia faba L. Muscarine, an agonist of muscarine acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), could do so as well. In contrast, atropine, the antagonist of mAChR abolished the ability of ACh to increase Ca2+ in guard cells.This mechanism is similar to mAChR in animals. When EGTA was used to chelate Ca2+ or ruthenium red to block Ca2+ released from vacuole respectively, the results showed that the increased cytosolic Ca2+ mainly come from intracellular Ca2+ store. The evidence supports that Ca2+ is involved in guard-cell response to ACh and that Ca2+ signal is coupled to mAChRs in ACh signal transduction in guard cells.

  9. Acetylcholine modulates transient outward potassium channel in acutely isolated cerebral cortical neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanwei Cui; Tao Sun; Lihui Qu; Yurong Li; Haixia Wen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The neuronal transient outward potassium channel has been shown to be highly associated with acetylcholine.However,the influence of acetylcholine on the transient outward potassium current in cerebral cortical neurons remains poorly understood.OBJECTIVE:To investigate acetylcholine modulation on transient outward potassium current in rat parietal cortical neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A neuroelectrophysiology study was performed at the Department of Physiology,Harbin Medical University between January 2005 and January 2006.MATERIALS:Wistar rats were provided by the Animal Research Center,the Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University;PC-IIC patch-clamp amplifier and IBBClamp data collection analysis system were provided by Huazhong University for Science and Technology,Wuhan,China;PP-83 microelectrode puller was purchased from Narrishage,Japan.METHODS:The parietal somatosensory cortical neurons were acutely dissociated,and the modulation of acetylcholine (0.1,1,10,100 μmol/L) on transient outward potassium channel was recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Influence of acetylcholine on transient outward potassium current,potassium channel activation,and inactivation.RESULTS:The inhibitory effect of acetylcholine on transient outward potassium current was dose- and voltage-dependent (P<0.01).Acetylcholine was found to significantly affect the activation process of transient outward potassium current,i.e.,the activation curve of transient outward potassium current was left-shifted,while the inactivation curve was shifted to hyperpolarization.Acetylcholine significantly prolonged the time constant of recovery from inactivation of transient outward potassium current (P<0.01).CONCLUSION:These results suggest that acetylcholine inhibits transient outward potassium current by regulating activation and inactivation processes of the transient outward potassium channel.

  10. Caffeine potentiates the enhancement by choline of striatal acetylcholine release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. A.; Ulus, I. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the effect of peripherally administered caffeine (50 mg/kg), choline (30, 60, or 120 mg/kg) or combinations of both drugs on the spontaneous release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the corpus striatum of anesthetized rats using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine alone or choline in the 30 or 60 mg/kg dose failed to increase ACh in microdialysis samples; the 120 mg/kg choline dose significantly enhanced ACh during the 80 min following drug administration. Coadministration of caffeine with choline significantly increased ACh release after each of the choline doses tested. Peak microdialysate levels with the 120 mg/kg dose were increased 112% when caffeine was additionally administered, as compared with 54% without caffeine. These results indicate that choline administration can enhance spontaneous ACh release from neurons, and that caffeine, a drug known to block adenosine receptors on these neurons, can amplify the choline effect.

  11. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj;

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with n......AChRs in human brain extracts, identifying Lypd6 as a novel regulator of nAChR function. Using protein cross-linking and affinity purification from human temporal cortical extracts, we demonstrate that Lypd6 is a synaptically enriched membrane-bound protein that binds to multiple nAChR subtypes in the human...... brain. Additionally, soluble recombinant Lypd6 protein attenuates nicotine-induced hippocampal inward currents in rat brain slices and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells, suggesting that binding of Lypd6 is sufficient to inhibit n...

  12. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford); (NIH); (D.E. Shaw); (Hanyang); (UTSMC)

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  13. Physiological characterization of human muscle acetylcholine receptors from ALS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Eleonora; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conti, Luca; Deflorio, Cristina; Frasca, Vittorio; Manteca, Alessia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Roseti, Cristina; Torchia, Gregorio; Limatola, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis. Research in transgenic mice suggests that the muscle actively contributes to the disease onset, but such studies are difficult to pursue in humans and in vitro models would represent a good starting point. In this work we show that tiny amounts of muscle from ALS or from control denervated muscle, obtained by needle biopsy, are amenable to functional characterization by two different technical approaches: “microtransplantation” of muscle membranes into Xenopus oocytes and culture of myogenic satellite cells. Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents and unitary events were characterized in oocytes and multinucleated myotubes. We found that ALS acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) retain their native physiological characteristics, being activated by ACh and nicotine and blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BuTX), d-tubocurarine (dTC), and galantamine. The reversal potential of ACh-evoked currents and the unitary channel behavior were also typical of normal muscle AChRs. Interestingly, in oocytes injected with muscle membranes derived from ALS patients, the AChRs showed a significant decrease in ACh affinity, compared with denervated controls. Finally, riluzole, the only drug currently used against ALS, reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the ACh-evoked currents, indicating that its action remains to be fully characterized. The two methods described here will be important tools for elucidating the role of muscle in ALS pathogenesis and for developing drugs to counter the effects of this disease. PMID:22128328

  14. Cellular approaches to the interaction between cannabinoid receptor ligands and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Murat; Al Kury, Lina; Keun-Hang, Susan Yang; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Galadari, Sehamuddin

    2014-05-15

    Cannabinoids are among the earliest known drugs to humanity. Cannabis plant contains various phytochemicals that bind to cannabinoid receptors. In addition, synthetic and endogenously produced cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) constitute other classes of cannabinoid receptor ligands. Although many pharmacological effects of these cannabinoids are mediated by the activation of cannabinoid receptors, recent studies indicate that cannabinoids also modulate the functions of various integral membrane proteins including ion channels, receptors, neurotransmitter transporters, and enzymes by mechanism(s) not involving the activation of known cannabinoid receptors. Currently, the mechanisms of these effects were not fully understood. However, it is likely that direct actions of cannabinoids are closely linked to their lipophilic structures. This report will focus on the actions of cannabinoids on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and will examine the results of recent studies in this field. In addition some mechanistic approaches will be provided. The results discussed in this review indicate that, besides cannabinoid receptors, further molecular targets for cannabinoids exist and that these targets may represent important novel sites to alter neuronal excitability.

  15. A D-peptide ligand of nicotine acetylcholine receptors for brain-targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Zhan, Changyou; Shen, Qing; Fu, Wei; Xie, Cao; Gao, Jie; Peng, Chunmei; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Weiyue

    2015-03-01

    Lysosomes of brain capillary endothelial cells are implicated in nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated transcytosis and act as an enzymatic barrier for the transport of peptide ligands to the brain. A D-peptide ligand of nAChRs (termed (D)CDX), which binds to nAChRs with an IC50 value of 84.5 nM, was developed by retro-inverso isomerization. (D)CDX displayed exceptional stability in lysosomal homogenate and serum, and demonstrated significantly higher transcytosis efficiency in an in vitro blood-brain barrier monolayer compared with the parent L-peptide. When modified on liposomal surface, (D)CDX facilitated significant brain-targeted delivery of liposomes. As a result, brain-targeted delivery of (D)CDX modified liposomes enhanced therapeutic efficiency of encapsulated doxorubicin for glioblastoma. This study illustrates the importance of ligand stability in nAChRs-mediated transcytosis, and paves the way for developing stable brain-targeted entities.

  16. Avian Imc-tectal projection is mediated by acetylcholine and glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S R; Wu, G Y; Felix, D

    1995-03-27

    In the bird, biochemical and histochemical data suggest that the neurotransmitter between nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc) and tectum is either acetylcholine or glutamate. There are, however, discrepancies regarding the functional role of acetylcholine. In the present study we investigated the action of acetylcholine and glutamate and their specific antagonists on excitatory isthmo-tectal synaptic transmission using electrophysiological and microiontophoretic techniques. The results show two different population of cells: (1) excitatory cholinergic input, blocked by atropine sulphate but not by glutamate antagonist; (2) excitatory glutamatergic input of NMDA or non-NMDA receptor type, which is blocked or reduced by CPP or CNQX but not by atropine sulphate.

  17. Influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elizondo, Elisa; Larsen, Jannik; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    A confocal fluorescence microscopy-based assay was used for studying the influence of the preparation route on the supramolecular organization of lipids in a vesicular system. In this work, vesicles composed of cholesterol and CTAB (1/1 mol %) or cholesterol and DOPC (2/8 mol %) and incorporating...... two membrane dyes were prepared by either a compressed fluid (CF)-based method (DELOS-susp) or a conventional film hydration procedure. They were subsequently immobilized and imaged individually using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Two integrated fluorescence intensities, I(dye1) and I(dye2...

  18. Radiation inactivation analysis of fusion and hemolysis by vesicular stomatitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundo-Morita, K.; Gibson, S.; Lenard, J.

    1988-04-01

    Radiation inactivation analysis was used to determine the size of the functional unit responsible for fusion of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with cardiolipin or phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylethanolamine (1:1) liposomes, and for VSV-induced hemolysis. When radiation-insensitive background values were subtracted, the calculated functional units for all three activities were similar, ranging from 866 to 957 kDa, equivalent to about 15 G protein molecules. This is in striking contrast to results of similar studies with influenza and Sendai viruses, in which the functional unit corresponded in size to a single fusion protein monomer, and suggests that VSV fusion may occur by a different mechanism.

  19. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions r...... stating that SVDV originated through co-infection, recombination, and a single anthroponotic event, during large viral meningitis epidemics around 1960/1961 involving the ancestral serotypes. The exact geographical origin of SVDV may remain untestable due to historical aspects....

  20. Synthesis and proton NMR spectroscopy of intra-vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luke Y-J; Tong, Rong; Kohane, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of vesicles containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and their proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra. These vesicles were constructed to more closely mimic the intracellular environment wherein GABA exists. For this study, these GABA-containing vesicles were examined under (1)H NMR as a potential platform for future studies on the differences between aqueous phantoms, ex vivo brain extracts, and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy results. We found that intra-vesicular GABA faithfully yielded the chemical shifts and J-coupling constants of free aqueous GABA, alongside the chemical shift signals of the vesicle wall.

  1. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector mediates postexposure protection against Sudan Ebola hemorrhagic fever in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Williams, Kinola J N; Geisbert, Joan B; Leung, Anders; Feldmann, Friederike; Hensley, Lisa E; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing homologous filoviral glycoproteins can completely protect rhesus monkeys against Marburg virus when administered after exposure and can partially protect macaques after challenge with Zaire ebolavirus. Here, we administered a VSV vector expressing the Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) glycoprotein to four rhesus macaques shortly after exposure to SEBOV. All four animals survived SEBOV challenge, while a control animal that received a nonspecific vector developed fulminant SEBOV hemorrhagic fever and succumbed. This is the first demonstration of complete postexposure protection against an Ebola virus in nonhuman primates and provides further evidence that postexposure vaccination may have utility in treating exposures to filoviruses.

  2. MEJORAMIENTO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UNA VACUNA OLEOSA CONTRA ESTOMATITIS VESICULAR BIVALENTE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio calculó diferentes MI (Multiplicidad de Infección) para la producción de cultivos industriales de virus de Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) y evaluó el efecto de la cantidad de glicoproteína G en la inducción de respuesta de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el virus de EV en cobayos inmunizados con una vacuna oleosa bivalente (Indiana (I) y New Jersey (NJ)). Al establecer el MI más eficiente se logró mejorar la cinética de infección de los cultivos industriales disminuyendo los...

  3. AGE-RELATED EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON ACETYLCHOLINE RELEASE IN RAT BRAIN. (R825811)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus insecticide that elicits toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Young animals are markedly more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of CPF. We evaluated acetylcholine (ACh) release and its muscarinic recept...

  4. Nonenzymatic all-solid-state coated wire electrode for acetylcholine determination in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Wang, Zhan; Wang, You; Hu, Ruifen; Li, Guang

    2016-11-15

    A nonenzymatic all-solid-state coated wire acetylcholine electrode was investigated. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) as conducting polymer was coated on one end of a gold wire (0.5mm in diameter). The acetylcholine selective membrane containing heptakis(2,3,6-tri-Ο-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin as an ionophore covered the conducting polymer layer. The electrode could work stably in a pH range of 6.5-8.5 and a temperature range of 15-40°C. It covered an acetylcholine concentration range of 10(-5)-10(-1)M with a slope of 54.04±1.70mV/decade, while detection limit was 5.69±1.06µM. The selectivity, dynamic response, reproducibility and stability were evaluated. The electrode could work properly in the rat brain homogenate to detect different concentrations of acetylcholine.

  5. Microtransplantation of acetylcholine receptors from normal or denervated rat skeletal muscles to frog oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernareggi, Annalisa; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Lorenzon, Paola; Ruzzier, Fabio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Cell membranes, carrying neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels, can be ‘microtransplanted’ into frog oocytes. This technique allows a direct functional characterization of the original membrane proteins, together with any associated molecules they may have, still embedded in their natural lipid environment. This approach has been previously demonstrated to be very useful to study neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels contained in cell membranes isolated from human brains. Here, we examined the possibility of using the microtransplantation method to study acetylcholine receptors from normal and denervated rat skeletal muscles. We found that the muscle membranes, carrying their fetal or adult acetylcholine receptor isoforms, could be efficiently microtransplanted to the oocyte membrane, making the oocytes become sensitive to acetylcholine. These results show that oocytes injected with skeletal muscle membranes efficiently incorporate functional acetylcholine receptors, thus making the microtransplantation approach a valuable tool to further investigate receptors and ion channels of human muscle diseases. PMID:21224230

  6. Cyclic nucleotides of canine antral smooth muscle. Effects of acetylcholine, catecholamines and gastrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, S; Grant, B; Wooton, J

    1981-01-01

    1. The effects of acetylcholine, catecholamines and gastrin on the intracellular content of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in antral circular muscle have been determined. 2. Acetylcholine results in a significant but transient increase in intracellular cyclic GMP. 3. Isoproterenol and norepinephrine increase intracellular cyclic AMP. Based on half-maximal effective doses, isoproterenol is 2.7-times more effective than norepinephrine. The increase in intracellular cyclic AMP by both agents is inhibited by propranolol but not phentolamine, indicating that both agents act on the muscle cell by a beta-receptor-coupled mechanism. 4. Gastrin has no demonstrable effect on either cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. This suggests that while gastrin and acetylcholine can produce a like myoelectric response in the muscle cell, the action of gastrin is mediated by a separate receptor, presumably on the muscle cell, and not by a release of acetylcholine.

  7. Role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in Alzheimer's disease pathology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Sylvia; Maskos, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the major form of senile dementia, characterized by neuronal loss, extracellular deposits, and neurofibrillary tangles. It is accompanied by a loss of cholinergic tone, and acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain, which were hypothesized to be responsible for the cognitive decline observed in AD. Current medication is restricted to enhancing cholinergic signalling for symptomatic treatment of AD patients. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family (nAChR) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family (mAChR) are the target of ACh in the brain. Both families of receptors are affected in AD. It was demonstrated that amyloid beta (Aβ) interacts with nAChRs. Here we discuss how Aβ activates or inhibits nAChRs, and how this interaction contributes to AD pathology. We will discuss the potential role of nAChRs as therapeutic targets. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'.

  8. Carrier-mediated release of monoamines induced by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist DMPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szász, Bernadett K; Mayer, Aliz; Zsilla, Gabriella; Lendvai, Balázs; Vizi, E Sylvester; Kiss, János P

    2005-09-01

    We have previously shown that dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) increases the release of noradrenaline (NA) from rat hippocampal slices via two distinct mechanisms: a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated exocytosis and a carrier-mediated release induced by the reversal of NA transporters. Our aim was to investigate whether other monoaminergic systems are also affected by the multiple actions of DMPP. In our experiments DMPP dose-dependently increased the release of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) from rat striatal and hippocampal slices, respectively. The dual effect was observed, however, only in case of DA at a lower DMPP concentration (30 microM), where the response was partly inhibited by mecamylamine, TTX and Ca2+-free medium (nAChR-mediated exocytosis) while the other part of the response was blocked only by the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine (carrier-mediated release). In contrast, the DMPP-evoked 5-HT release and the DA release induced by high concentration DMPP was not inhibited by nicotinic antagonists, TTX and Ca2+-free medium but only by selective uptake inhibitors. In addition, DMPP dose-dependently inhibited the [3H]DA and [3H]5-HT uptake in striatal and hippocampal synaptosome preparation with an IC50 of 3.18 and 0.49 microM, respectively. Our data show that DMPP interacts with monoamine transporters and induces a substantial carrier-mediated release of DA and 5-HT, therefore caution is needed for the interpretation of data, when this drug is used as a nAChR agonist.

  9. A novel congenital myasthenic syndrome due to decreased acetylcholine receptor ion-channel conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard; Maxwell, Susan; Spearman, Hayley; Tai, Kaihsu; Beckstein, Oliver; Sansom, Mark; Beeson, David

    2012-04-01

    Muscle acetylcholine receptor ion channels mediate neurotransmission by depolarizing the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. Inherited disorders of neuromuscular transmission, termed congenital myasthenic syndromes, are commonly caused by mutations in genes encoding the five subunits of the acetylcholine receptor that severely reduce endplate acetylcholine receptor numbers and/or cause kinetic abnormalities of acetylcholine receptor function. We tracked the cause of the myasthenic disorder in a female with onset of first symptoms at birth, who displayed mildly progressive bulbar, respiratory and generalized limb weakness with ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Direct DNA sequencing revealed heteroallelic mutations in exon 8 of the acetylcholine receptor ε-subunit gene. Two alleles were identified: one with the missense substitution p.εP282R, and the second with a deletion, c.798_800delCTT, which result in the loss of a single amino acid, residue F266, within the M2 transmembrane domain. When these acetylcholine receptor mutations were expressed in HEK 293 cells, the p.εP282R mutation caused severely reduced expression on the cell surface, whereas p.εΔF266 gave robust surface expression. Single-channel analysis for p.εΔF266 acetylcholine receptor channels showed the longest burst duration population was not different from wild-type acetylcholine receptor (4.39 ± 0.6 ms versus 4.68 ± 0.7 ms, n = 5 each) but that the amplitude of channel openings was reduced. Channel amplitudes at different holding potentials showed that single-channel conductance was significantly reduced in p.εΔF266 acetylcholine receptor channels (42.7 ± 1.4 pS, n = 8, compared with 70.9 ± 1.6 pS for wild-type, n = 6). Although a phenylalanine residue at this position within M2 is conserved throughout ligand-gated excitatory cys-loop channel subunits, deletion of equivalent residues in the other subunits of muscle acetylcholine receptor did not

  10. [Role of acetylcholine in coordination od spontaneous electrical activity of various areas of the rat uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Akopian, R R

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous electrical activity of myometrium was studied in areas of the uterine corpus, zone of its connection with uterine tube and cervix at intravenous administration of various acetylcholine concentrations. Under these conditions, changes of the frequency and amplitude characteristics of rhythmogenesis were studied both separately and in their combined active state. The presence of 10(-3) M acetylcholine in the animal blood creates the most optimal conditions for synchronization and coordination of activities of all studied uterus areas.

  11. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyin Li; Liming Zou; Carry Pope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus insecticides may promote the accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses and the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity to cause disturbance of neural signal conduction and induce a toxic reaction. Organophosphorus insecticides may act on M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whose combination with G proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and to reveal other possible actions of organophosphorus insecticides.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study, which was performed in the Central Laboratory of Shenyang Medical College, and Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University from June 2002 to December 2004.METHODS: The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was extracted and purified from pig brain using affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the purified M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, and [OP32] ATP were incubated with different concentrations of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon together. The mixture then underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the gel film was dried and radioactively autographed to detect phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, the radio-labeled phosphorylated M2 receptor protein band was excised for counting with an isotope liquid scintillation counter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion in different concentrations on the phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; effects of chlorpyrifos oxon on the phosphorylation of the adrenergic receptor.CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organophosphorus insecticides have different effects on the phosphorylation of the G protein

  12. Distinct Agonist Regulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine M2-M3 Heteromers and Their Corresponding Homomers*

    OpenAIRE

    Aslanoglou, Despoina; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Marsango, Sara; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Each subtype of the muscarinic receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors is activated by similar concentrations of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or closely related synthetic analogs such as carbachol. However, pharmacological selectivity can be generated by the introduction of a pair of mutations to produce Receptor Activated Solely by Synthetic Ligand (RASSL) forms of muscarinic receptors. These display loss of potency for acetylcholine/carbachol alongside a concurrent gain in pote...

  13. Low acetylcholine during slow-wave sleep is critical for declarative memory consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gais, Steffen; Born, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is considered essential for proper functioning of the hippocampus-dependent declarative memory system, and it represents a major neuropharmacological target for the treatment of memory deficits, such as those in Alzheimer's disease. During slow-wave sleep (SWS), however, declarative memory consolidation is particularly strong, while acetylcholine levels in the hippocampus drop to a minimum. Observations in rats led to the hypothesis that the low cholinergic ...

  14. Acetylcholine test in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Destro, Gianni; Oliva, Massimo; Zardini, Piero

    1994-02-01

    Angina pectoris with normal coronary artery on the coronary angiography is an intriguing issue. Intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine has recently been used to test the integrity of endothelial cells. We studied 16 patients with this syndrome. A relationship has been found between the acetylcholine test and the exercise stress test in normotensive patients. The presence of hypertension makes the evaluation of the test more unpredictable, probably because of the damage on the endothelial cells related to systemic hypertension.

  15. Subunit profiling and functional characteristics of acetylcholine receptors in GT1-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuki; Ishii, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Makito; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    GnRH neurons form a final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Although the involvement of acetylcholine in GnRH secretion has been reported, direct effects of acetylcholine and expression profiles of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) still remain to be studied. Using immortalized GnRH neurons (GT1-7 cells), we analyzed molecular expression and functionality of AChRs. Expression of the mRNAs were identified in the order α7 > β2 = β1 ≧ α4 ≧ α5 = β4 = δ > α3 for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and m4 > m2 for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes. Furthermore, this study revealed that α7 nAChRs contributed to Ca(2+) influx and GnRH release and that m2 and m4 mAChRs inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP production and isobutylmethylxanthine-induced GnRH secretion. These findings demonstrate the molecular profiles of AChRs, which directly contribute to GnRH secretion in GT1-7 cells, and provide one possible regulatory action of acetylcholine in GnRH neurons.

  16. Detection of basal and potassium-evoked acetylcholine release from embryonic DRG explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Nadia; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Tata, Ada Maria; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano

    2004-03-01

    Spontaneous and potassium-induced acetylcholine release from embryonic (E12 and E18) chick dorsal root ganglia explants at 3 and 7 days in culture was investigated using a chemiluminescent procedure. A basal release ranging from 2.4 to 13.8 pm/ganglion/5 min was detected. Potassium application always induced a significant increase over the basal release. The acetylcholine levels measured in E12 explants were 6.3 and 38.4 pm/ganglion/5 min at 3 and 7 days in culture, respectively, while in E18 explant cultures they were 10.7 and 15.5 pm/ganglion/5 min. In experiments performed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ ions, acetylcholine release, both basal and potassium-induced, was abolished and it was reduced by cholinergic antagonists. A morphometric analysis of explant fibre length suggested that acetylcholine release was directly correlated to neurite extension. Moreover, treatment of E12 dorsal root ganglion-dissociated cell cultures with carbachol as cholinergic receptor agonist was shown to induce a higher neurite outgrowth compared with untreated cultures. The concomitant treatment with carbachol and the antagonists at muscarinic receptors atropine and at nicotinic receptors mecamylamine counteracted the increase in fibre outgrowth. Although the present data have not established whether acetylcholine is released by neurones or glial cells, these observations provide the first evidence of a regulated release of acetylcholine in dorsal root ganglia.

  17. Nonionic surfactant vesicular systems for effective drug delivery—an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gannu P. Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vesicular systems are a novel means of drug delivery that can enhance bioavailability of encapsulated drug and provide therapeutic activity in a controlled manner for a prolonged period of time. Liposomes were the first such system but they suffer from a number of drawbacks including high cost and lack of stability at various pHs. Niosomes are a nonionic surfactant vesicular system, which can be easily and reliably made in the laboratory. Many factors affect noisome formation such as the method of manufacture, nature of surfactant and encapsulated drug, temperature at which the lipids are hydrated and the critical packing parameter. This review describes all aspects of niosomes including their different compositions, the various methods of preparation, the effect of changing manufacturing parameters, methods of characterization, factors that affect their stability, their use by various routes of administration, their therapeutic applications and the most important patents. The review also provides detailed information of the various types of niosomes that provide effective drug delivery.

  18. Ethosomes: versatile vesicular carriers for efficient transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vikas; Golhani, Dilip; Shukla, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Delivery across skin is attractive due to its easy accessibility. However, drug delivery across skin is still a challenge in biomedical sciences. Over the past few decades, various successful novel devices and techniques have emerged to optimize drug delivery across skin whose obstructing behavior constricts entry of most of the therapeutic agents. Inability of various conventional vesicular formulations, e.g. liposomes to pass through the tapered (>30 nm) intercellular channels of stratum corneum, rendered invention of some lipid based vesicular carrier systems such as ethosomes which consist of phospholipid, ethanol and water. Ethosomes are non-invasive delivery carriers that enable drugs to reach the deep skin layers and/or the systemic circulation. In spite of their sophistication in conceptuality, they are exemplified by easiness in their preparation, safety and efficacy - a combination that can highly inflate their application. This review attempts to describe all aspects of ethosomes including roles and upshots of different excipients, various methods of preparation and characterizations, research reports on various drug deliveries, patent reports and future prospects.

  19. Calcium-dependent (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release and muscarinic autoreceptors in rat cortical synaptosomes during development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Caviglia, A.; Paudice, P.; Raiteri, M.

    1983-05-01

    A number of presynaptic cholinergic parameters (high affinity (/sup 3/H)choline uptake, (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine synthesis, (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release, and autoinhibition of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release mediated by muscarinic autoreceptors) were comparatively analyzed in rat brain cortex synaptosomes during postnatal development. These various functions showed a differential time course during development. At 10 days of age the release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine evoked by 15 mM KCl from superfused synaptosomes was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent but insensitive to the inhibitory action of extrasynaptosomal acetylcholine. The muscarinic autoreceptors regulating acetylcholine release were clearly detectable only at 14 days, indicating that their appearance may represent a criterion of synaptic maturation more valuable than the onset of a Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release.

  20. Didelphis marsupialis como un reservorio potencial u hospedero amplificador del virus de la estomatitis vesicular, serotipo new jersey en Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) es una enfermedad viral, aguda
    y autolimitante que afecta principalmente bovinos, equinos y
    porcinos. Es producida por el virus de estomatitis vesicular (VEV), serotipos New Jersey (VEV-NJ) e Indiana (VEV-IN), que son los as importantes epidemiológicamente (1). Los estudios serológicos demuestran que VEV-NJ y VEV-IN infectan en forma natural una gran variedad de animales silvestres, que están posiblemente implicados en la  coepizoot...

  1. Alpha-conotoxins as pharmacological probes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Layla AZAM; J Michael MCINTOSH

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine-rich peptides from the venom of cone snails (Conus) target a wide variety of different ion channels. One family of conopeptides, the a-conotoxins, specifically target different isoforms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) found both in the neuromuscular junction and central nervous system. This family is further divided into subfamilies based on the number of amino acids between cysteine residues. The exquisite subtype selectivity of certain a-conotoxins has been key to the characterization of native nAChR isoforms involved in modulation of neurotransmitter release, the pathophysiol-ogy of Parkinson's disease and nociception. Structure/function characterization of a-conotoxins has led to the development of analogs with improved potency and/or subtype selectivity. Cyclization of the backbone structure and addition of lipo-philic moieties has led to improved stability and bioavailability of a-conotoxins, thus paving the way for orally available therapeutics. The recent advances in phylogeny, exogenomics and molecular modeling promises the discovery of an even greater number of a-conotoxins and analogs with improved selectivity for specific subtypes of nAChRs.

  2. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs.

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide provokes acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, M.; Tsai, L.H.; Taniyama, K.; Tanaka, C.

    1986-07-01

    Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from longitudinal muscle strips with myenteric plexus (LM) preparations were examined in the guinea pig small intestine. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent contraction of LM preparation. The VIP-induced contractions seem to be related to three components, the scopolamine-sensitive, the scopolamine-insensitive, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive, and the tetrodotoxin-insensitive contractions. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent increase in the release of (TH)ACh from LM preparations preloaded with (TH)choline. The VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was inhibited by removal of CaS from the perfusion medium and by treatment with tetrodotoxin but not by scopolamine and hexamethonium. The spontaneous and VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was not affected by phentolamine, propranolol, methysergide, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, bicuculline, or (D-ProS, D-Trp/sup 7,9/)substance P. The result demonstrates that VIP induces contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle directly and indirectly by the stimulation of both cholinergic neurons and noncholinergic excitatory neurons.

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  5. Revisiting the endocytosis of the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-05-12

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  6. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymke Ockenga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  7. Early Life Stress, Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y. Holgate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major driving force in alcohol use disorders (AUDs. It influences how much one consumes, craving intensity and whether an abstinent individual will return to harmful alcohol consumption. We are most vulnerable to the effects of stress during early development, and exposure to multiple traumatic early life events dramatically increases the risk for AUDs. However, not everyone exposed to early life stress will develop an AUD. The mechanisms determining whether an individual’s brain adapts and becomes resilient to the effects of stress or succumbs and is unable to cope with stress remain elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroplastic changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc following early life stress underlie the development of AUDs. This review discusses the impact of early life stress on NAc structure and function, how these changes affect cholinergic signaling within the mesolimbic reward pathway and the role nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs play in this process. Understanding the neural pathways and mechanism determining stress resilience or susceptibility will improve our ability to identify individuals susceptible to developing AUDs, formulate cognitive interventions to prevent AUDs in susceptible individuals and to elucidate and enhance potential therapeutic targets, such as the nAChRs, for those struggling to overcome an AUD.

  8. Characteristics of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukina,Itaru

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors were studied in the rat central nervous system (CNS using 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB, an antagonist of muscarinic ACh receptors. Scatchard analysis indicated that the rat CNS had a single 3H-QNB binding site with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd of 5.0 X 10(-10 M. Li+, Zn++ and Cu++ had strong effects on 3H-QNB binding which indicates that these metal ions might play important roles at muscarinic ACh receptor sites in the brain. Since antidepressants and antischizophrenic drugs displaced the binding of 3H-QNB, the anticholinergic effects of these drugs need to be taken into account when they are applied clinically. The muscarinic ACh receptor was successfully solubilized with lysophosphatidylcholine. By gel chromatography, with a Sepharose 6B column, the solubilized muscarinic ACh receptor molecule eluted at the fraction corresponding to a Stokes' radius of 6.1 nm. With the use of sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, the molecular weight of the solubilized muscarinic ACh receptor was determined to be about 90,000 daltons. The regional distribution of 3H-QNB binding in rat brain was examined, and the highest level of 3H-QNB binding was found to be in the striatum followed by cerebral cortex and hippocampus, indicating that muscarinic ACh mechanisms affect CNS function mainly through these areas.

  9. Cycloxaprid insecticide: nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding site and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xusheng; Swenson, Tami L; Casida, John E

    2013-08-21

    Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel neonicotinoid prepared from the (nitromethylene)imidazole (NMI) analogue of imidacloprid. In this study we consider whether CYC is active per se or only as a proinsecticide for NMI. The IC50 values (nM) for displacing [(3)H]NMI binding are 43-49 for CYC and 2.3-3.2 for NMI in house fly and honeybee head membranes and 302 and 7.2, respectively, in mouse brain membranes, potency relationships interpreted as partial conversion of some CYC to NMI under the assay conditions. The 6-8-fold difference in toxicity of injected CYC and NMI to house flies is consistent with their relative potencies as in vivo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitors in brain measured with [(3)H]NMI binding assays. CYC metabolism in mice largely involves cytochrome P450 pathways without NMI as a major intermediate. Metabolites of CYC tentatively assigned are five monohydroxy derivatives and one each of dihydroxy, nitroso, and amino modifications. CYC appears be a proinsecticide, serving as a slow-release reservoir for NMI with selective activity for insect versus mammalian nAChRs.

  10. [Effects of steroid hormones on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel kinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurowska, E; Dworakowska, B; Dołowy, K

    2000-01-01

    Classically steroid hormones acts through genomic mechanism. In the last period there is more evidence that some steroid hormones exert fast (in order of seconds) effects on membrane receptors. In the presented work we analysed the effects of some steroid hormones on muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel kinetics. We divided steroid hormone on two groups which exert different effects. The first group including hydrocortisone (HC), corticosterone (COR), dexamethasone decrease the mean open time increasing the number of openings in bursts. The effects do not depend on agonist concentration. Some effects of HC and COR are voltage-dependent. The mechanism of such voltage dependent action caused by steroids hormones that are uncharged molecules, is unknown. Some experiments suggest however that an agonist molecule is involved in the mechanism of steroid action. The second group consists of progesterone, some of its derivatives and deoxycorticosterone. For this group the most evident effect was decrease in the probability of openings without a decrease in the mean open time. The effect depends on agonist concentration, suggesting an involvement of an agonist molecule in the mechanism. For this hormones an involvement of an charged agonist molecule does not however induce a voltage dependency. Most probably two groups of steroids acts on different part of the AChR. The localization of a steroid action site can be crucial for inducing voltage dependency.

  11. Schizophrenia and the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura F; Freedman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the devastating symptoms of psychosis, many people with schizophrenia also suffer from cognitive impairment. These cognitive symptoms lead to marked dysfunction and can impact employability, treatment adherence, and social skills. Deficits in P50 auditory gating are associated with attentional impairment and may contribute to cognitive symptoms and perceptual disturbances. This nicotinic cholinergic-mediated inhibitory process represents a potential new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. This chapter will review evidence implicating the nicotinic cholinergic, and specifically, the alpha7 nicotinic receptor system in the pathology of schizophrenia. Impaired auditory sensory gating has been linked to the alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene on the chromosome 15q14 locus. A majority of persons with schizophrenia are heavy smokers. Although nicotine can acutely reverse diminished auditory sensory gating in people with schizophrenia, this effect is lost on a chronic basis due to receptor desensitization. The alpha7 nicotinic agonist 3-(2,4 dimethoxy)benzylidene-anabaseine (DMXBA) can also enhance auditory sensory gating in animal models. DMXBA is well tolerated in humans and a new study in persons with schizophrenia has found that DMXBA enhances both P50 auditory gating and cognition. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists appear to be viable candidates for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia.

  12. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+). Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+) transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  13. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  14. Acetylcholine Protects against Candida albicans Infection by Inhibiting Biofilm Formation and Promoting Hemocyte Function in a Galleria mellonella Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; Borghi, Elisa; Falleni, Monica; Perdoni, Federica; Tosi, Delfina; Lappin, David F; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Greetham, Darren; Ramage, Gordon; Nile, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Both neuronal acetylcholine and nonneuronal acetylcholine have been demonstrated to modulate inflammatory responses. Studies investigating the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections have revealed contradictory findings with regard to disease outcome. At present, the role of acetylcholine in the pathogenesis of fungal infections is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether acetylcholine plays a role in fungal biofilm formation and the pathogenesis of Candida albicans infection. The effect of acetylcholine on C. albicans biofilm formation and metabolism in vitro was assessed using a crystal violet assay and phenotypic microarray analysis. Its effect on the outcome of a C. albicans infection, fungal burden, and biofilm formation were investigated in vivo using a Galleria mellonella infection model. In addition, its effect on modulation of host immunity to C. albicans infection was also determined in vivo using hemocyte counts, cytospin analysis, larval histology, lysozyme assays, hemolytic assays, and real-time PCR. Acetylcholine was shown to have the ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, acetylcholine protected G. mellonella larvae from C. albicans infection mortality. The in vivo protection occurred through acetylcholine enhancing the function of hemocytes while at the same time inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation. Furthermore, acetylcholine also inhibited inflammation-induced damage to internal organs. This is the first demonstration of a role for acetylcholine in protection against fungal infections, in addition to being the first report that this molecule can inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. Therefore, acetylcholine has the capacity to modulate complex host-fungal interactions and plays a role in dictating the pathogenesis of fungal infections.

  15. Lesion development and replication kinetics during early infection in cattle inoculated with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus via scarification and black fly (Simulium vittatum) bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis viruses are the causative agents of vesicular stomatitis, an economically important contagious disease of livestock that occurs in North, Central, and South America. Little is known regarding the early stages of infection in natural hosts. Twelve adult Holstein steers were inocu...

  16. Experimental Transmission of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus From Black Flies (Simulium vittatum) To Cattle: Clinical Outcome Is Determined By Site of Insect Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) is an insect-transmitted Rhabdovirus causing vesicular disease in domestic livestock including cattle, horses and pigs. The natural transmission of VSV during epidemics remains poorly understood. Transmission of VSNJV from experimentally infected black f...

  17. Inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, a novel facet in the pleiotropic activities of snake venom phospholipases A2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 represent the most abundant family of snake venom proteins. They manifest an array of biological activities, which is constantly expanding. We have recently shown that a protein bitanarin, isolated from the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans and possessing high phospholipolytic activity, interacts with different types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and with the acetylcholine-binding protein. To check if this property is characteristic to all venom phospholipases A2, we have studied the capability of these enzymes from other snakes to block the responses of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons to acetylcholine or cytisine and to inhibit α-bungarotoxin binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and acetylcholine-binding proteins. Here we present the evidence that phospholipases A2 from venoms of vipers Vipera ursinii and V. nikolskii, cobra Naja kaouthia, and krait Bungarus fasciatus from different snake families suppress the acetylcholine- or cytisine-elicited currents in L. stagnalis neurons and compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to muscle- and neuronal α7-types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, as well as to acetylcholine-binding proteins. As the phospholipase A2 content in venoms is quite high, under some conditions the activity found may contribute to the deleterious venom effects. The results obtained suggest that the ability to interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may be a general property of snake venom phospholipases A2, which add a new target to the numerous activities of these enzymes.

  18. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus: use of rapid molecular assay to differentiate between vesicular disease viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is endemic in Central America and northern regions of South America. Sporadic outbreaks of VS can occur in cattle and pigs where the clinical presentation can be similar to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). There is therefore a pressing need for rapid, sensitive and specific d...

  19. Circulating antibodies against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in chagasic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOIN, J C; VENERA, G; BONINO, M BISCOGLIO DE JIMÉNEZ; STERIN-BORDA, L

    1997-01-01

    Human and experimental Chagas' disease causes peripheral nervous system damage involving neuromuscular transmission alterations at the neuromuscular junction. Additionally, autoantibodies directed to peripheral nerves and sarcolemmal proteins of skeletal muscle have been described. In this work, we analyse the ability of serum immunoglobulin factors associated with human chagasic infection to bind the affinity-purified nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from electric organs of Discopyge tschudii and to identify the receptor subunits involved in the interaction. The frequency of serum anti-nAChR reactivity assayed by dot-blot was higher in seropositive chagasic patients than in uninfected subjects. Purified IgG obtained from chagasic patients immunoprecipitated a significantly higher fraction of the solubilized nAChR than normal IgG. Furthermore, immunoblotting assays indicated that α and β are the main subunits involved in the interaction. Chagasic IgG was able to inhibit the binding of α-bungarotoxin to the receptor in a concentration-dependent manner, confirming the contribution of the α-subunit in the autoantibody-receptor interaction. The presence of anti-nAChR antibodies was detected in 73% of chagasic patients with impairment of neuromuscular transmission in conventional electromyographical studies, indicating a strong association between seropositive reactivity against nAChR and electromyographical abnormalities in chagasic patients. The chronic binding of these autoantibodies to the nAChR could induce a decrease in the population of functional nAChRs at the neuromuscular junction and consequently contribute to the electrophysiological neuromuscular alterations described in the course of chronic Chagas' disease. PMID:9367405

  20. The formation of acetylcholine receptor clusters visualized with quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng H Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor innervation of skeletal muscle leads to the assembly of acetylcholine receptor (AChR clusters in the postsynaptic membrane at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ. Synaptic AChR aggregation, according to the diffusion-mediated trapping hypothesis, involves the establishment of a postsynaptic scaffold that "traps" freely diffusing receptors into forming high-density clusters. Although this hypothesis is widely cited to explain the formation of postsynaptic AChR clusters, direct evidence at molecular level is lacking. Results Using quantum dots (QDs and live cell imaging, we provide new measurements supporting the diffusion-trap hypothesis as applied to AChR cluster formation. Consistent with published works, experiments on cultured Xenopus myotomal muscle cells revealed that AChRs at clusters that formed spontaneously (pre-patterned clusters, also called hot spots and at those induced by nerve-innervation or by growth factor-coated latex beads were very stable whereas diffuse receptors outside these regions were mobile. Moreover, despite the restriction of AChR movement at sites of synaptogenic stimulation, individual receptors away from these domains continued to exhibit free diffusion, indicating that AChR clustering at NMJ does not involve an active attraction of receptors but is passive and diffusion-driven. Conclusion Single-molecular tracking using QDs has provided direct evidence that the clustering of AChRs in muscle cells in response to synaptogenic stimuli is achieved by two distinct cellular processes: the Brownian motion of receptors in the membrane and their trapping and immobilization at the synaptic specialization. This study also provides a clearer picture of the "trap" that it is not a uniformly sticky area but consists of discrete foci at which AChRs are immobilized.

  1. Contribution of vesicular and cytosolic dopamine to the increased striatal dopamine efflux elicited by intrastriatal injection of dexamphetamine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, S.; Aono, Y.; Fusa, K.; Takada, K.; Saigusa, T.; Koshikawa, N.; Cools, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Systemic administration of high doses of dexamphetamine induces a dopamine efflux that has its intracellular origin in both the vesicular, reserpine-sensitive dopamine pool and the cytosolic, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine-sensitive, newly synthesized dopamine pool. It remains unknown whether locally ad

  2. Cooperation of B cells and T cells is required for survival of mice infected with vesicular stomatitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Nansen, A; Andersen, C

    1997-01-01

    To define the role of T cells and B cells in resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, knockout mice with different specific immune defects on an identical background were infected i.v. and the outcome of infection was compared; in this way a more complete picture of the relative...

  3. Loss-of-function mutations in ATP6V0A2 impair vesicular trafficking, tropoelastin secretion and cell survival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hucthagowder, V.; Morava, E.; Kornak, U.; Lefeber, D.J.; Fischer, B.; Dimopoulou, A.; Aldinger, A.; Choi, J.; Davis, E.C.; Abuelo, D.N.; Adamowicz, M.; Al-Aama, J.Y.; Basel-Vanagaite, L.; Fernandez, B.; Greally, M.T.; Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Kayserili, H.; Lemyre, E.; Tekin, M.; Turkmen, S.; Tuysuz, B.; Yuksel-Konuk, B.; Mundlos, S.; Maldergem, L. van; Wevers, R.A.; Urban, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2 (ARCL2), a syndrome of growth and developmental delay and redundant, inelastic skin, is caused by mutations in the a2 subunit of the vesicular ATPase H+-pump (ATP6V0A2). The goal of this study was to define the disease mechanisms that lead to connective tissue l

  4. APPARENT LACK OF VESICULAR-ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) IN SEAGRASSES ZOSTERA MARINA L. AND THALASSIA TESTUDIUM BANKS EX KONIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined two populations of Zostera marina L. and one of Thalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig for presence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM). None of these plants showed any VAM colonization. In addition, we were unable to find any literature references on the presence o...

  5. 78 FR 24670 - Notice of a Determination Regarding the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... communicable diseases, including swine vesicular disease (SVD). SVD is a dangerous and destructive communicable... importation of pork and pork products and swine, respectively, from regions where SVD exists in order to prevent the introduction of the disease into the United States. We consider SVD to exist in all...

  6. Quantitative multiplex assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Indiana and New Jersey serotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Fernandez, Jovita;

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish a rapid and reliable system for the detection of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of the major serotypes, VSV Indiana and VSV New Jersey, using a closed...

  7. Full length genome analysis of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus strains representing the phylogenetic and geographic diversity of the virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe the complete genomic sequence of nine isolates of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) representing six distinct phylogenetic groups and spanning the known geographic range of the virus. The total genomic length (11119-11123nt) and structure of these isolates were very similar ...

  8. The lipidomes of vesicular stomatitis virus, semliki forest virus, and the host plasma membrane analyzed by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvodova, Lucie; Sampaio, Julio L; Cordo, Sandra;

    2009-01-01

    kidney cells can be infected by two different viruses, namely, vesicular stomatitis virus and Semliki Forest virus, from the Rhabdoviridae and Togaviridae families, respectively. We purified the host plasma membrane and the two different viruses after exit from the host cells and analyzed the lipid...

  9. Spatial and phylogenetic analysis of the vesicular stomatitis virus epidemic in the southwestern United States in 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southwestern United States has been incidentally affected by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) epidemics during the last 100 years. By the time this manuscript was written, the last episodes were reported in 2004-2006. Results of space clustering and phylogenetic analysis techniques used here sug...

  10. Characterization of the temporal and spatial distribution and reproductive ration of vesicular stomatitis outbreaks in Mexico in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective--- To quantify the temporal and spatial distribution and reproductive ratio of vesicular stomatitis (VS) outbreaks reported in Mexico in 2008. Population--- Mexican herds in which VS outbreaks were officially reported and confirmed from January 1st through December 31st, 2008. Procedure---...

  11. Field Evaluation of a Multiplex Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporadic outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in the United States result in significant economic losses for the US livestock industries because VS is an OIE reportable disease and also clinically mimics foot-and-mouth disease. Rapid and accurate differentiation of these two diseases is critical ...

  12. Posttranslational folding of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein in the ER: involvement of noncovalent and covalent complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Silva, A. de; Helenius, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we show that posttranslational folding of Vesicular Stomatitis virus G protein subunits can involve noncovalent, multimeric complexes as transient intermediates. The complexes are heterogeneous in size (4-21S20,W), contain several G glycopolypeptides, and are associated with BiP/GRP78

  13. Vesicular erythema migrans: an atypical and easily misdiagnosed form of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazori, Daniel R; Orme, Charisse M; Mir, Adnan; Meehan, Shane A; Neimann, Andrea L

    2015-08-15

    Erythema migrans is the initial sign in the majority of patients infected with Borrelia, the genus of spirochetes that causes Lyme disease. Early identification and treatment decrease the risk of progression to later stages of disease. Although a "bull's eye" appearance owing to lesional clearing is considered classic for erythema migrans, this feature is surprisingly often lacking among patients in the United States. Furthermore, cutaneous Lyme disease can exhibit a wide range of morphologic variability in a minority of patients. Herein, we describe the case of a patient with Lyme disease in which the presence of atypical vesicular features, in conjunction with the initial absence of clearing, resulted in multiple misdiagnoses and delayed treatment. We also review the literature on the epidemiology and management of erythema migrans for cases in which the diagnosis may pose a challenge.

  14. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Feldmann, Heinz

    2011-11-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most-promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses a single filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). Importantly, a single injection of blended rVSV-based filovirus vaccines was shown to completely protect nonhuman primates against Marburg virus and 3 different species of Ebola virus. These rVSV-based vaccines have also shown utility when administered as a postexposure treatment against filovirus infections, and a rVSV-based Ebola virus vaccine was recently used to treat a potential laboratory exposure. Here, we review the history of rVSV-based vaccines and pivotal animal studies showing their utility in combating Ebola and Marburg virus infections.

  15. Enhanced N-Transfer from a Soybean to Maize by Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Christopher; Singleton, Paul W.; Hoben, Heinz J.

    1985-01-01

    Using a split-root technique, roots of soybean plants were divided between two pots. In one of the two pots, two maize plants were grown and half of those pots were inoculated with the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus, Glomus fasciculatus. Fifty-two days after planting, 15N-labeled ammonium sulfate was applied to the pots which contained only soybean roots. Forty-eight hours after application, significantly higher values for atom per cent 15N excess were found in roots and leaves of VAM-infected maize plants as compared with the non-VAM-infected maize plants. Results indicated that VAM fungi did enhance N transfer from one plant to another. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16664451

  16. Enhanced N-Transfer from a Soybean to Maize by Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, C; Singleton, P W; Hoben, H J

    1985-10-01

    Using a split-root technique, roots of soybean plants were divided between two pots. In one of the two pots, two maize plants were grown and half of those pots were inoculated with the vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus, Glomus fasciculatus. Fifty-two days after planting, (15)N-labeled ammonium sulfate was applied to the pots which contained only soybean roots. Forty-eight hours after application, significantly higher values for atom per cent (15)N excess were found in roots and leaves of VAM-infected maize plants as compared with the non-VAM-infected maize plants. Results indicated that VAM fungi did enhance N transfer from one plant to another.

  17. Morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on bulbous plants (Taurus mountain in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaarslan Emel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM on bulbous plants in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey. Thirteen soil samples and bulbous roots were taken from the rhizosphere of bulbous plants. The soils were analyzed for the number of VAM spores and chemical and physical properties. In addition, the roots were examined for infection levels, and morphological identification of VAM spores was made. All tested plants are considered mycorrhizal plants. We determined three spore species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus hoi and Scutellospora calospora from the surveyed soils. The spore distribution rates were as follows: G. Mossea 61.54 %, G. Hoi 23.07 % and Scutellospora calospora 15.38 %. Results suggest that VAM fungal spores and root colonization display variation in rhizosphere under bulbous plants in different ecological conditions.

  18. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, S; Akgun, A

    2006-07-01

    The experiment was undertaken to test the efficiency of inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species used as rootstocks. The stratified Pistacia seeds were inoculated with VAM fungi. The highest rate of inoculated roots was 96.7% in P. khinjuck seedlings with G. clarum and G. etunicatum, 83.3% in P. vera seedlings with G. caledonium and 73.3% in P. terebinthus seedlings with G. caledonium. Mycorrhizal inoculations improved seedling height only in P. terebinthus. Certain mycorrhizal inoculations increased the leaf N, but not P and K contents. Seedlings inoculated with G. caledonium had higher reducing sugar contents. It was concluded that pre-inoculated Pistacia seedlings could have a better growth in the harsh field conditions.

  19. Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, W; Yin, X-X; Lee, B-J; Li, Y-G

    2015-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia and severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment and no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient and easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry.

  20. Signifiance of Arginine 20 in the 2A protease for swine vesicular disease virus pathogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Toru; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Leyuan;

    2007-01-01

    of the 2A protease is particularly significant. Inoculation of pigs with mutant viruses containing single amino acid substitutions at this residue leads to the appearance of revertants, often containing an arginine at this position encoded by an AGA codon, one of six codons for this residue. The properties...... in pigs of two chimeric viruses, each with an arginine residue at this position but encoded by different codons, have been investigated in parallel with the parental pathogenic and attenuated strains. Presence of the arginine residue, but not of the AGA codon, is essential for induction of high viraemia......Pathogenic and attenuated strains of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), an enterovirus, have been characterized previously and, by using chimeric infectious cDNA clones, the key determinants of pathogenicity in pigs have been mapped to the coding region for 1D–2A. Within this region, residue 20...

  1. Viral meningitis epidemics and a single, recent, recombinant and anthroponotic origin of swine vesicular disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is a close relative of the human Enterovirus B serotype, coxsackievirus B5. As the etiological agent of a significant emergent veterinary disease, several studies have attempted to explain its origin. However, several key questions...... remain, including the full biological ancestry of the virus, and its geographical and temporal origin. METHODOLOGY: We sequenced near-complete genomes of 27 SVDV and 13 coxsackievirus B5 samples, all originally isolated between 1966 and 2006, and analysed these in conjunction with existing sequences...... and historical information. RESULTS: While analyses incorporating 24 additional near-complete SVDV genomic sequences indicate clear signs of within-SVDV recombination, all 51 SVDV isolates remain monophyletic. This supports a hypothesis of a single anthroponotic transfer origin. Analysis of individual coding...

  2. Designing Efficacious Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Vectored Vaccines Against Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-01-01

    Infection with the Ebola virus (EBOV) causes an aggressive hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates. Traditional approaches, such as vaccination with inactivated virion preparations, have had limited efficacy, whereas immunization with live-attenuated EBOV is not feasible due to the highly lethal nature of the pathogen. This has necessitated the development of other approaches towards an effective EBOV vaccine. Over the past decade, recombinant viruses expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) have constituted the most promising platforms, as evidenced by their ability to protect naïve nonhuman primates from a lethal EBOV challenge. The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is one such vector and is currently progressing through the clinical pipeline. This chapter presents methodologies for the design, cloning, rescue, and preparation of live, recombinant VSV vaccines expressing GP for research purposes.

  3. Spectrum of Text Information Content in the RNA Sequence of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filyukov, Alexander A.

    A new strategy to recognize patterns in the DNA sequences with functional significance is proposed. The strategy is based on the general definition of any individual organism as a Gibbsian ensemble of identical personal DNA molecules. This approach provides application of the methods of statistical thermodynamics of irreversible steady processes to genome informatics. The random processes theory and its Markov chains approximation lead in this approach directly to the definition of the generalized concept of evolution entropy and to the genuine measure of text information content in the sequences. Computer-assisted proofs of the existence of the nonequilibrium steady state conditions in genome molecule were obtained by investigation of the special type balance relations in the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) RNA sequence. The main maxima of the text information content were decoded and denominated. The established coding principles are connected with deviations from equilibrium conditions and from equipartition.

  4. Strain characterization of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissondo, M C; Dopchiz, M C; Zanini, F; Pérez, H; Brasesco, M; Denegri, G

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the strain of protoscoleces of E. granulosus of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development. The in vitro development of these samples was compared to samples of sheep origin determined previously by genetic analyses as common sheep strain (G1). There were similarities between sheep and cattle samples not only in the time of microcysts formation, but also in the development process. Vesiculated protoscoleces and protoscoleces with posterior bladders appeared during the first week of incubation. After 14 days of culture, a laminated layer appeared like a fine membrane in one of the extremes of the protoscoleces. In the sheep samples, microcysts were observed between 19 and 20 days. In the cattle samples, microcysts appeared between 20 and 23 days. The coincidence between the development times and physiological characteristics found in the present study may indicate that the parasites from cattle and sheep were of the same strain.

  5. Strain characterization of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissondo M.C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the strain of protoscoleces of E. granulosus of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development. The in vitro development of these samples was compared to samples of sheep origin determined previously by genetic analyses as common sheep strain (G1. There were similarities between sheep and cattle samples not only in the time of microcysts formation, but also in the development process. Vesiculated protoscoleces and protoscoleces with posterior bladders appeared during the first week of incubation. After 14 days of culture, a laminated layer appeared like a fine membrane in one of the extremes of the protoscoleces. In the sheep samples, microcysts were observed between 19 and 20 days. In the cattle samples, microcysts appeared between 20 and 23 days. The coincidence between the development times and physiological characteristics found in the present study may indicate that the parasites from cattle and sheep were of the same strain.

  6. Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infection Promotes Immune Evasion by Preventing NKG2D-Ligand Surface Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Andresen, Lars; Nielsen, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has recently gained attention for its oncolytic ability in cancer treatment. Initially, we hypothesized that VSV infection could increase immune recognition of cancer cells through induction of the immune stimulatory NKG2D-ligands. Here we show that VSV infection...... mutant strain, VSV DM51, which possess a defective M protein, prevented MICA surface expression similarly to wild-type VSV. The VSV mediated down modulation of NKG2D-ligand expression did not involve apoptosis. Constitutive expression of MICA bypassed the escape mechanism, suggesting that VSV affect NKG2......D-ligand expression at an early post-transcriptional level. Our results show that VSV possess an escape mechanism, which could affect the immune recognition of VSV infected cancer cells. This may also have implications for immune recognition of cancer cells after combined treatment with VSV...

  7. Polysaccharide nano-vesicular multidrug carriers for synergistic killing of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, P. S.; Shah, Ruchira; Chaphekar, Sonali; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2014-09-01

    Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic efficacies against cancer cells. Here, we report dual delivery polysaccharide nano-vesicles that are capable of loading and delivering both water soluble and water insoluble drugs together in a single polymer scaffold. The selective rupture of the nano-vesicular assembly under intracellular enzyme conditions allowed the simultaneous delivery of a hydrophobic drug camptothecin (CPT) and hydrophilic drug doxorubicin (DOX) supporting their synergistic killing of breast and colon cancer cells. The polysaccharide nano-vesicles have allowed us to address a few important questions regarding the need for multiple drug administration in cancer cells including (a) the role of simultaneous drug release, (b) antagonistic versus synergistic effects of drug combinations and (c) how these are affected by the ratio of drugs. Further, evaluation of the role of caveolae in endocytosis of these polymer scaffolds was also made. The vesicular scaffolds were found to preserve and deliver DOX resulting in 50-60% better killing of cancer cells than the free drug. Additionally, dual loaded nano-vesicles when compared to drug cocktails with individual drugs in separate nano-vesicles (at comparable molar ratios) suggest the relative drug concentration following release and mode of delivery to be both important in cancer cell killing. Results from these experiments have revealed newly developed polysaccharide nano-vesicles loaded with DOX and CPT drugs as potential candidates for improved breast cancer cell killing. Thus, these custom-designed polysaccharide nano-vesicles provide a new perspective on multi-anticancer drug delivery systems and their efficacy.Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic

  8. Mineralogical comparison and cooling history of lunar and chondritic vesicular melt breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M.; Takeda, H.; Ishii, T.

    1984-01-01

    Lunar sample 77135, an impact melt breccia full of vesicles, has been reinvestigated by electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction techniques and compared with a vesicular melt LL chondrite, Yamato 790964, in an attempt to understand their impact heating processes and subsequent cooling history. Notable similarities between the lunar and chondritic melt breccias include: abundant vesicles, similar pyroxene chemical zoning trends, the presence of variable amounts of clastic material, and similar chemical compositions except for K and Na contents of glass and mesostasis. Some constraints on the cooling history are estimated from Mg-Fe diffusion profiles in olivine and pyroxene. The burial depth of lunar sample 77135 during cooling was 0.2-100 m; the depth for the chondrite was probably smaller. Impact melts were probably produced and a layer of regolith retained on the parent body sufficiently thick to allow the olivines to homogenize during slow cooling.

  9. Dermal delivery of drugs using different vesicular carriers: A comparative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saahil Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many skin diseases are based in the dermal layer of the skin like-acne, alopecia, psoriasis, herpes zoster, etc. Conventional topical formulations have not proved to be effective in managing these conditions because of poor retention in the skin. Some formulations do not penetrate through the stratum corneum and some pass through the skin very quickly. Therefore, there is need to develop a strategy to deliver drugs to the dermis for better management of these conditions. Vesicular systems like liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes and transfersomes have been used by many researchers to localize drugs in the dermal layer and have been fairly successful. Some vesicles were found to be more effective in retaining drug to the skin and some were more effective in transdermal delivery. This article summarizes and compares the work done in the last decade on this topic and provides a conclusion.

  10. 'Full fusion' is not ineluctable during vesicular exocytosis of neurotransmitters by endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Alexander; Svir, Irina; Amatore, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Vesicular exocytosis is an essential and ubiquitous process in neurons and endocrine cells by which neurotransmitters are released in synaptic clefts or extracellular fluids. It involves the fusion of a vesicle loaded with chemical messengers with the cell membrane through a nanometric fusion pore. In endocrine cells, unless it closes after some flickering ('Kiss-and-Run' events), this initial pore is supposed to expand exponentially, leading to a full integration of the vesicle membrane into the cell membrane-a stage called 'full fusion'. We report here a compact analytical formulation that allows precise measurements of the fusion pore expansion extent and rate to be extracted from individual amperometric spike time courses. These data definitively establish that, during release of catecholamines, fusion pores enlarge at most to approximately one-fifth of the radius of their parent vesicle, hence ruling out the ineluctability of 'full fusion'.

  11. Allosteric modulation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by HEPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzin, Maegan M; Huang, Yanzhou; Schulte, Marvin K

    2014-06-05

    A number of new positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been reported that enhance responses of neuronal alpha7 and alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to orthosteric ligands. PAMs represent promising new leads for the development of therapeutic agents for disorders involving alterations in nicotinic neurotransmission including Autism, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. During our recent studies of alpha4beta2 PAMs, we identified a novel effect of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). The effects of HEPES were evaluated in a phosphate buffered recording solution using two-electrode voltage clamp techniques and alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine induced responses of high-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors were potentiated 190% by co-exposure to HEPES. Responses were inhibited at higher concentrations (bell-shaped concentration/response curve). Coincidentally, at concentrations of HEPES typically used in oocyte recording (5-10mM), the potentiating effects of HEPES are matched by its inhibitory effects, thus producing no net effect. Mutagenesis results suggest HEPES potentiates the high-sensitivity stoichiometry of the alpha4beta2 receptors through action at the beta2+/beta2- interface and is dependent on residue beta2D218. HEPES did not potentiate low-sensitivity alpha4beta2 receptors and did not produce any observable effect on acetylcholine induced responses on alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  12. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sérgio M; Almendinger, Johann; Cabello, Juan; Hengartner, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  13. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M Pinto

    Full Text Available The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  14. Acupuncture effects on the hippocampal cholinergic system in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junying Wang; Junling Liu; Shuping Chen; Yonghui Gao; Fanying Meng; Lina Qiao

    2012-01-01

    The present study observed the effects of repeated electroacupuncture of Zusanli (ST36) and Yanglingquan (GB34) on expression of hippocampal acetylcholinesterase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and muscarinic M1 receptor mRNA in chronic constrictive injury (neuropathic pain) and/or ovariotomy rats. Results demonstrated increased expression of hippocampal acetylcholinesterase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter, and muscarinic M1 receptor mRNA, as well as decreased pain threshold, in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain after electroacupuncture. The effects of electroacupuncture increased with prolonged time, but the above-mentioned effects decreased in memory-deficient animals. Results indicated that repeated electroacupuncture has a cumulative analgesic effect, which is closely associated with upregulation of acetylcholinesterase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter activity, as well as M1 receptor mRNA expression and memory.

  15. Potential fossil endoliths in vesicular pillow basalt, Coral Patch Seamount, eastern North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalazzi, Barbara; Westall, Frances; Cady, Sherry L; Barbieri, Roberto; Foucher, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    The chilled rinds of pillow basalt from the Ampère-Coral Patch Seamounts in the eastern North Atlantic were studied as a potential habitat of microbial life. A variety of putative biogenic structures, which include filamentous and spherical microfossil-like structures, were detected in K-phillipsite-filled amygdules within the chilled rinds. The filamentous structures (∼2.5 μm in diameter) occur as K-phillipsite tubules surrounded by an Fe-oxyhydroxide (lepidocrocite) rich membranous structure, whereas the spherical structures (from 4 to 2 μm in diameter) are associated with Ti oxide (anatase) and carbonaceous matter. Several lines of evidence indicate that the microfossil-like structures in the pillow basalt are the fossilized remains of microorganisms. Possible biosignatures include the carbonaceous nature of the spherical structures, their size distributions and morphology, the presence and distribution of native fluorescence, mineralogical and chemical composition, and environmental context. When taken together, the suite of possible biosignatures supports the hypothesis that the fossil-like structures are of biological origin. The vesicular microhabitat of the rock matrix is likely to have hosted a cryptoendolithic microbial community. This study documents a variety of evidence for past microbial life in a hitherto poorly investigated and underestimated microenvironment, as represented by the amygdules in the chilled pillow basalt rinds. This kind of endolithic volcanic habitat would have been common on the early rocky planets in our Solar System, such as Earth and Mars. This study provides a framework for evaluating traces of past life in vesicular pillow basalts, regardless of whether they occur on early Earth or Mars.

  16. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  17. Synaptic activity slows vesicular replenishment at excitatory synapses of rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Loc; Glavinović, Mladen I

    2013-04-01

    Short-term synaptic depression mainly reflects the depletion of the readily releasable pool (RRP) of quanta. Its dynamics, and especially the replenishment rate of the RRP, are still not well characterized in spite of decades of investigation. Main reason is that the vesicular storage and release system is treated as time-independent. If it is time-dependent all parameters thus estimated become problematic. Indeed the reports about how prolonged stimulation affects the dynamics are contradictory. To study this, we used patterned stimulation on the Schaeffer collateral fiber pathway and model-fitting of the excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSC) recorded from CA1 neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The parameters of a vesicular storage and release model with two pools were estimated by minimizing the squared difference between the ESPC amplitudes and simulated model output. This yields the 'basic' parameters (release coupling, replenishment coupling and RRP size) that underlie the 'derived' and commonly used parameters (fractional release and replenishment rate). The fractional release increases when [Ca(++)]o is raised, whereas the replenishment rate is [Ca(++)]o independent. Fractional release rises because release coupling increases, and the RRP becomes less able to contain quanta. During prolonged stimulation, the fractional release remains generally unaltered, whereas the replenishment rate decreases down to ~10 % of its initial value with a decay time of ~15 s, and this decrease in the replenishment rate significantly contributes to synaptic depression. In conclusion, the fractional release is [Ca(++)]o-dependent and stimulation-independent, whereas the replenishment rate is [Ca(++)]o-independent and stimulation-dependent.

  18. Insensitive Acetylcholine Receptor Conferring Resistance of Plutella xylostella to Nereistoxin Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Luo-gen; YU Guang; CHEN Zi-hao; LI Zhong-yin

    2008-01-01

    The combinative rate measurement of (3-[Ⅰ125] iodotyrosyl) α-bungarotoxin was applied in the analysis of the relation between nerve acetylcholine receptor and three types of insecticide resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). In the dimehypo-resistant strain and in the cartap-resistant strain, the nerve acetylcholine receptor showed the remarkable insensitivity to dimehypo and cartap, of which the binding rate to ligand was approximately 66 and 60%, respectively, of the susceptible strain. The sensitivity to deltamethrin in the deltamethrin-resistant strain did not show visible change. These results indicated that the decline in the sensitivity of nerve acetylcholine receptor to insecticide might be a potential mechanism to nereistoxin insecticides resistance in the diamondback moth.

  19. pARIS-htt: an optimised expression platform to study huntingtin reveals functional domains required for vesicular trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo Raúl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntingtin (htt is a multi-domain protein of 350 kDa that is mutated in Huntington's disease (HD but whose function is yet to be fully understood. This absence of information is due in part to the difficulty of manipulating large DNA fragments by using conventional molecular cloning techniques. Consequently, few studies have addressed the cellular function(s of full-length htt and its dysfunction(s associated with the disease. Results We describe a flexible synthetic vector encoding full-length htt called pARIS-htt (Adaptable, RNAi Insensitive &Synthetic. It includes synthetic cDNA coding for full-length human htt modified so that: 1 it is improved for codon usage, 2 it is insensitive to four different siRNAs allowing gene replacement studies, 3 it contains unique restriction sites (URSs dispersed throughout the entire sequence without modifying the translated amino acid sequence, 4 it contains multiple cloning sites at the N and C-ter ends and 5 it is Gateway compatible. These modifications facilitate mutagenesis, tagging and cloning into diverse expression plasmids. Htt regulates dynein/dynactin-dependent trafficking of vesicles, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF-containing vesicles, and of organelles, including reforming and maintenance of the Golgi near the cell centre. We used tests of these trafficking functions to validate various pARIS-htt constructs. We demonstrated, after silencing of endogenous htt, that full-length htt expressed from pARIS-htt rescues Golgi apparatus reformation following reversible microtubule disruption. A mutant form of htt that contains a 100Q expansion and a htt form devoid of either HAP1 or dynein interaction domains are both unable to rescue loss of endogenous htt. These mutants have also an impaired capacity to promote BDNF vesicular trafficking in neuronal cells. Conclusion We report the validation of a synthetic gene encoding full-length htt protein that will facilitate

  20. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.S. Sampaio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of melatonin on the developmental pattern of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was investigated in embryonic 8-day-old chick retinal cells in culture. The functional response to acetylcholine was measured in cultured retina cells by microphysiometry. The maximal functional response to acetylcholine increased 2.7 times between the 4th and 5th day in vitro (DIV4, DIV5, while the Bmax value for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin was reduced. Despite the presence of alpha8-like immunoreactivity at DIV4, functional responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were observed only at DIV5. Mecamylamine (100 µM was essentially without effect at DIV4 and DIV5, while dihydro-ß-erythroidine (10-100 µM blocked the response to acetylcholine (3.0 nM-2.0 µM only at DIV4, with no effect at DIV5. Inhibition of melatonin receptors with the antagonist luzindole, or melatonin synthesis by stimulation of D4 dopamine receptors blocked the appearance of the alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response at DIV5. Therefore, alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors were expressed in retinal cells as early as at DIV4, but they reacted to acetylcholine only after DIV5. The development of an alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive response is dependent on the production of melatonin by the retinal culture. Melatonin, which is produced in a tonic manner by this culture, and is a key hormone in the temporal organization of vertebrates, also potentiates responses mediated by alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors in rat vas deferens and cerebellum. This common pattern of action on different cell models that express alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors probably reflects a more general mechanism of regulation of these receptors.

  1. Covalent attachment of antagonists to the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: synthesis and reactivity of substituted maleimides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, Joseph I; Halliday, Jill I; Kanizaj, Nicholas;

    2012-01-01

    The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR).......The 3-methylmaleimide congeners of the natural product methyllycaconitine (MLA) and an analogue covalently attach to functional cysteine mutants of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)....

  2. Central nervous system promotes thermotolerance via FoxO/DAF-16 activation through octopamine and acetylcholine signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2016-03-25

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) responds to many kinds of stressors to maintain homeostasis. Although the ANS is believed to regulate stress tolerance, the exact mechanism underlying this is not well understood. To understand this, we focused on longevity genes, which have functions such as lifespan extension and promotion of stress tolerance. To understand the relationship between ANS and longevity genes, we analyzed stress tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans treated with octopamine, which has an affinity to noradrenaline in insects, and acetylcholine. Octopamine and acetylcholine did not show resistance against H2O2, but the neurotransmitters promoted thermotolerance via DAF-16. However, chronic treatment with octopamine and acetylcholine did not extend the lifespan, although DAF-16 plays an important role in longevity. In conclusion, our results show that octopamine and acetylcholine activate DAF-16 in response to stress, but chronic induction of octopamine and acetylcholine is not beneficial for increasing longevity.

  3. Activity assay of membrane transport proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Xie

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transport proteins are integral membrane proteins and considered as potential drug targets. Activity assay of transport proteins is essential for developing drugs to target these proteins. Major issues related to activity assessment of transport proteins include availability of transporters,transport activity of transporters, and interactions between ligands and transporters. Researchers need to consider the physiological status of proteins (bound in lipid membranes or purified), availability and specificity of substrates, and the purpose of the activity assay (screening, identifying, or comparing substrates and inhibitors) before choosing appropriate assay strategies and techniques. Transport proteins bound in vesicular membranes can be assayed for transporting substrate across membranes by means of uptake assay or entrance counterflow assay. Alternatively, transport proteins can be assayed for interactions with ligands by using techniques such as isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or surface plasmon resonance. Other methods and techniques such as fluorometry, scintillation proximity assay, electrophysiological assay, or stopped-flow assay could also be used for activity assay of transport proteins. In this paper the major strategies and techniques for activity assessment of membrane transport proteins are reviewed.

  4. Historia natural del virus de la estomatitis vesicular en zonas enzoóticas de Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Arboleda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV es una enfermedad producida
    por el virus de la Estomatitis Vesicular, serotipos New Jersey (VSV-NJ e Indiana (VSV-IN, afecta bovinos y equinos, porcinos y causa infección natural en humanos, principalmente granjeros, ordeñadores y personal de laboratorio.
    Se caracteriza por producir vesículas en las membranas mucosas
    de la boca (epitelio de la lengua y el paladar, bandas coronarias,
    pezones y tejidos blandos de los cascos; hay pérdida de peso y decrecimiento en la producción de leche. Está clasificada en la Lista A de la Organización Internacional de Epizootias, debido a su gran poder de difusión, a las graves consecuencias socioeconómicas y a las restricciones comerciales. Además, clínicamente la EV es indistinguible de la Fiebre Aftosa (FA (1.
    La enfermedad se presenta por ciclos estacionales; la mayoría
    de ellos ocurre en las épocas de transición de los períodos de lluvias a los de verano y viceversa (2. Estudios serológicos realizados en áreas endémicas han demostrado que VSV-NJ y VSV-IN infectan en forma natural una amplia variedad de animales silvestres, los cuales están posiblemente implicados en la ecozootiología de la EV, bien como hospederos portadores, amplificadores o reservorios. Igualmente, dos especies de artrópodos, Lutzomyia shannoni y Simulium vittatum son infectados naturalmente, replican y transmiten experimentalmente
    el VSV, convirtiéndolos en posibles vectores y/o reservorios.
    Sin embargo, en ningún animal se produce la viremia necesaria para infectar los artrópodos hematófagos. El reservorio natural nunca ha sido encontrado entre los animales domésticos y silvestres investigados (3.

    El objetivo es identificar los factores ecológicos (cobertura
    vegetal, temperatura promedio, pluviosidad y humedad relativa, los vectores artrópodos y los mamíferos reservorios asociados con el antenimiento y transmisión de la VSV en

  5. Vesicular Trans-Cell Wall Transport in Fungi: A Mechanism for the Delivery of Virulence-Associated Macromolecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio L. Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cells are encaged in rigid, complex cell walls. Until recently, there was remarkably little information regarding the trans-fungal cell wall transfer of intracellular macromolecules to the extracellular space. Recently, several studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that fungal cells utilize to secrete a wide variety of macromolecules through the cell wall. The combined use of transmission electron microscopy, serology, biochemistry, proteomics and lipidomics have revealed that the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Sporothrix schenckii, as well as the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each produces extracellular vesicles that carry lipids, proteins, polysaccharides and pigment-like structures of unquestionable biological significance. Compositional analysis of the C. neoformans and H. capsulatum extracellular vesicles suggests that they may function as ‘virulence bags’, with the potential to modulate the host-pathogen interaction in favor of the fungus. The cellular origin of the extracellular vesicles remains unknown, but morphological and biochemical features indicate that they are similar to the well-described mammalian exosomes.

  6. Hyphal N transport by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus associated with cucumber grown at three nitrogen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jakobsen, I.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    mg N which were applied gradually to the RC during the experiment. N-15 was supplied to HC(A) 42 d after planting, at 50 mg (NH4+)-N-15-N kg-1 soil. Lateral movement of the applied N-15 towards the roots was minimized by using a nitrification inhibitor and a hyphal buffer compartment. Non...

  7. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Courtot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  8. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L; Beech, Robin N; Harmache, Abdallah; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent; Peineau, Nicolas; Woods, Debra J; Neveu, Cedric

    2015-12-01

    Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  9. Both A1 and A2a purine receptors regulate striatal acetylcholine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; James, S; Reddington, M; Richardson, P J

    1990-07-01

    The receptors responsible for the adenosine-mediated control of acetylcholine release from immunoaffinity-purified rat striatal cholinergic nerve terminals have been characterized. The relative affinities of three analogues for the inhibitory receptor were (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than cyclohexyladenosine greater than N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), with binding being dependent of the presence of Mg2+ and inhibited by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] and adenosine receptor antagonists. Adenosine A1 receptor agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated cholinergic adenylate cyclase activity, with an IC50 of 0.5 nM for (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine and 500 nM for (S)-phenylisopropyladenosine. A1 agonists inhibited acetylcholine release at concentrations approximately 10% of those required to inhibit the cholinergic adenylate cyclase. High concentrations (1 microM) of adenosine A1 agonists were less effective in inhibiting both adenylate cyclase and acetylcholine release, due to the presence of a lower affinity stimulatory A2 receptor. Blockade of the A1 receptor with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine revealed a half-maximal stimulation by NECA of the adenylate cyclase at 10 nM, and of acetylcholine release at approximately 100 nM. NECA-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity copurified with choline acetyltransferase in the preparation of the cholinergic nerve terminals, suggesting that the striatal A2 receptor is localized to cholinergic neurones. The possible role of feedback inhibitory and stimulatory receptors on cholinergic nerve terminals is discussed.

  10. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Erythrina alkaloid analogues as neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A.; Borch, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of a new series of Erythrina alkaloid analogues and their pharmacological characterization at various nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes are described. The compounds were designed to be simplified analogues of aromatic erythrinanes with the aim of obtaining subtype...

  11. Functional aspects of dexamethasone upregulated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maestrone, E; Lagostena, L; Henning, RH; DenHertog, A; Nobile, M

    1995-01-01

    Three days of treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (1 nM-mu M) induced a concentration-dependent up-regulation of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in C2C12 mouse myotubes (EC(50)=10+/-7.3 nM), as assessed by [H-3]alpha-BuTx binding. The maximum increase in binding amounted

  12. Septohippocampal Acetylcholine: Involved in but Not Necessary for Learning and Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marise B.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) has been accorded an important role in supporting learning and memory processes in the hippocampus. Cholinergic activity in the hippocampus is correlated with memory, and restoration of ACh in the hippocampus after disruption of the septohippocampal pathway is sufficient to rescue memory. However, selective…

  13. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS. A.S. Bale*; P.J. Bushnell; C.A. Meacham; T.J. Shafer Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Toluene (TOL...

  14. Tying up Nicotine: New Selective Competitive Antagonist of the Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ida Nymann; Crestey, François; Jensen, Anders A;

    2015-01-01

    Conformational restriction of the pyrrolidine nitrogen in nicotine by the introduction of an ethylene bridge provided a potent and selective antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Resolution by chiral SFC, pharmacological characterization of the two enantiomers...

  15. Distinct neural pathways mediate alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent activation of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists are candidates for the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Selective alpha(7) nAChR agonists, such as SSR180711, activate neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens shell (ACCshell) in rats, regions...

  16. Cognitive improvement by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from animal models to human pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H; Timmerman, Daniel B;

    2010-01-01

    Agonists and positive allosteric modulators of the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) are currently being developed for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer's disease. This review describes the neurobiological properties of the alpha n...

  17. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Arvaniti, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes...

  18. Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChR located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The...

  19. Acetylcholine Release in the Hippocampus and Striatum during Place and Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pych, Jason C.; Chang, Qing; Colon-Rivera, Cynthia; Haag, Renee; Gold, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments examined the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus and striatum when rats were trained, within single sessions, on place or response versions of food-rewarded mazes. Microdialysis samples of extra-cellular fluid were collected from the hippocampus and striatum at 5-min increments before, during, and after training. These…

  20. Anterior Thalamic Lesions Alter Both Hippocampal-Dependent Behavior and Hippocampal Acetylcholine Release in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Lisa M.; Hall, Joseph M.; Vetreno, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are important for learning and memory as damage to this region produces a persistent amnestic syndrome. Dense connections between the ATN and the hippocampus exist, and importantly, damage to the ATN can impair hippocampal functioning. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key neurotransmitter in the hippocampus, and in vivo…

  1. Acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to active cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress in humans. Given that acetylcholine is released from cholinergic nerves during whole body heating, coupled with evidence that acetylcholine causes vasodilation via NO mechanisms, it is possible that release of acetylcholine in the dermal space contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress. To test this hypothesis, in seven subjects skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were simultaneously monitored over three microdialysis membranes placed in the dermal space of dorsal forearm skin. One membrane was perfused with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (10 microM), the second membrane was perfused with the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 10 mM) dissolved in the aforementioned neostigmine solution (l-NAME(Neo)), and the third membrane was perfused with Ringer solution as a control site. Each subject was exposed to approximately 20 min of whole body heating via a water-perfused suit, which increased mean body temperature from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves is capable of modulating cutaneous vasodilation via NO synthase mechanisms early in the heat stress but not after substantial cutaneous vasodilation.

  2. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya (Stanford-MED); (Kyoto); (Gakushuin); (Kyushu)

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  3. Effect of vecuronium on the release of acetylcholine after nerve stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that vasodilation occurs because of the release of a vasoactive substance after a brief muscle contraction and to determine whether acetylcholine spillover from the motor nerve is involved in contraction-induced hyperemia, tetanic muscle contractions were produced by sciatic n

  4. Demonstration of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-like immunoreactivity in the rat forebrain and upper brainstem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Matsuyama, T.; Strosberg, A.D.; Traber, J.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor protein (mAChR) in the rat forebrain and upper brainstem was described by using a monoclonal antibody (M35) raised against mAChR purified from bovine forebrain homogenates. A method is investigated for light microscopic (LM) and electronmicroscop

  5. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of DHβE analogs as neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Tue H.; Jensen, Anders A.; Lund, Mads Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) is a member of the Erythrina family of alkaloids and a potent competitive antagonist of the α4β2-subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Guided by an X-ray structure of DHβE in complex with an ACh binding protein, we detail the design, synthesis...

  6. Theoretical investigation of interaction between the set of ligands and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Prytkova, T. R.; Shmygin, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are neuron receptor proteins that provide a transmission of nerve impulse through the synapses. They are composed of a pentametric assembly of five homologous subunits (5 α7 subunits for α7nAChR, for example), oriented around the central pore. These receptors might be found in the chemical synapses of central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the neuromuscular synapses. Transmembrane domain of the one of such receptors constitutes ion channel. The conductive properties of ion channel strongly depend on the receptor conformation changes in the response of binding with some molecule, f.e. acetylcholine. Investigation of interaction between ligands and acetylcholine receptor is important for drug design. In this work we investigate theoretically the interaction between the set of different ligands (such as vanillin, thymoquinone, etc.) and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (primarily with subunit of the α7nAChR) by different methods and packages (AutodockVina, GROMACS, KVAZAR, HARLEM, VMD). We calculate interaction energy between different ligands in the subunit using molecular dynamics. On the base of obtained calculation results and using molecular docking we found an optimal location of different ligands in the subunit.

  7. GABA receptors and benzodiazepine binding sites modulate hippocampal acetylcholine release in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, E; de Boer, P; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, the regulation of acetylcholine release from the ventral hippocampus by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was investigated in vivo. GABA receptor agonists and antagonists were administered locally in the medial septum and the adjacent vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, o

  8. Intersubunit bridge formation governs agonist efficacy at nicotinic acetylcholine alpha4beta2 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Line Aagot Hede; Ahring, Philip Kiær; Jensen, Marianne Lerbech

    2012-01-01

    . Using binding experiments, electrophysiology and X-ray crystallography we have investigated a consecutive series of five prototypical pyridine-containing agonists derived from 1-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,4-diazepane. A correlation between binding affinities at a4ß2 and the acetylcholine binding protein from...

  9. Bradykinin or acetylcholine as vasodilators to test endothelial venous function in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida R. Rabelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique. We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31% were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m². The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13, as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96. The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.

  10. Visualization of cholinoceptive neurons in the rat neocortex : colocalization of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, E.A. van der; Streefland, C.; Strosberg, A.D.; Schröder, H.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present investigation analyzes the cellular distribution of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat neocortex, by use of monoclonal antibodies raised against purified receptor proteins. The degree of colocalization of both types of receptors was determined by way of immunofluores

  11. Implementation of an integrated information system for the management of swine vesicular disease surveillance activities in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Silvia; Ferrarini, Nicola; Santucci, Ugo

    2007-01-01

    In Europe in the last decade, swine vesicular disease (SVD) outbreaks have been steadily reported in Italy where surveillance and eradication activities are in place. To collect and analyse data gathered during SVD surveillance activities, the Italian reference centre for vesicular diseases (CERVES) has implemented an integrated information system for the management of the national surveillance plan. The system was developed using Web-based technology and open source software. It was designed to gather, integrate and manage data generated by the activities of the Veterinary Services, the laboratory information system, herd and animal registers and the relevant technical and scientific information. A geographic information system provides an interface for the system, which facilitates the planning, implementation and evaluation of disease control actions. Access to the system is feasible through a second level domain.

  12. Vesicular Trafficking to the Immune Synapse: How to Assemble Receptor-Tailored Pathways from a Basic Building Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, Anna; Finetti, Francesca; Baldari, Cosima T

    2016-01-01

    The signals that orchestrate T-cell activation are coordinated within a highly organized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC), known as the immune synapse (IS). IS assembly depends on T-cell antigen receptor engagement by a specific peptide antigen-major histocompatibility complex ligand. This primary event leads to polarized trafficking of receptors and signaling mediators associated with recycling endosomes to the cellular interface, which contributes to IS assembly as well as signal termination and favors information transfer from T cells to APCs. Here, we will review recent advances on the vesicular pathways implicated in IS assembly and maintenance, focusing on the spatiotemporal regulation of the traffic of specific receptors by Rab GTPases. Based on accumulating evidence that the IS is a functional homolog of the primary cilium, which coordinates several central signaling pathways in ciliated cells, we will also discuss the similarities in the mechanisms regulating vesicular trafficking to these specialized membrane domains.

  13. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on survival and growth of perennial grasses in lignite overburden in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Call, C.A.; Davies, F.T.

    1988-12-01

    Seedlings of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) were inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and Gigaspora margarita) in a containerized system and transplanted into lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas, U.S.A. After three growing seasons without cultural inputs, plants inoculated with VAM fungi had greater survival percentages, basal diameters, and above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Inoculated plants had higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Root colonization percentages of inoculated plants remained fairly stable while noninoculated plants showed low levels of colonization over the 3-year study period. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the survival and growth of the 3 grass species by making effective use of limited resources in the lignite overburden. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Infective viruses produced from full-length complementary DNA of swine vesicular disease viruses HK/70 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Haixue; FENG Xia; YIN Shuanghui; GUO Jianhong; CONG Guozheng; LIU Zaixin; CHANG Huiyun; MA Junwu; XIE Qingge; LIU Xiangtao; SHANG Youjun; WU Jinyan; BAI Xingwen; JIN Ye; SUN Shiqi; GUO Huichen; TIAN Hong

    2006-01-01

    The full-length cDNA clone of swine vesicular disease virus HK/70 strain named pSVOK12 was constructed in order to study the antigenicity, replication, maturation and pathogenicity of swine vesicular disease virus. In vitro transcription RNA from pSVOK12 transfected IBRS-2 cells and the recovered virus RNA were isolated and sequenced, then indirect hemagglutination test, indirect immunofluorescence assays, eleectron microscope test, 50% tissue culture infecting dose (TCID50) assays and mouse virulence studies were performed to study the antigenicity and virulence of the recovered virus. The result showed that the infectious clones we obtained and the virus derived from pSVOK12 had the same biological properties as the parental strain HK/70. The full-length infectious cDNA clone, pSVOK12, will be very useful in studies of the antigenicity, virulence, pathogenesis, maturation and replication of SVDV.

  15. Multi-vesicular pulmonary hydatid cyst, the potent underestimated factor in the formation of daughter cysts of pulmonary hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokouti, Mohsen; Sokouti, Babak; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary multi-vesicular hydatid disease (HD) with Echinococcus granulosus is rare. A 28-year-old woman presented to our center with cough and respiratory distress. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography scan revealed bilateral giant cysts with water-lily sign (ruptured hydatid cysts). The left cyst was in vicinity of heart. With thoracotomy cysts of both lungs were removed. Thousands of translucent, homogenized small daughter cysts were discovered from the left side cyst. Pathologic examinations revealed the ruptured hydatid cysts of both lungs with daughter cysts on the left lung cyst. To best of our knowledge probably this is the first report of multi-vesicular HD in lung. We suppose that the heart pulsation was effective in the formation of daughter cysts.

  16. Improvement and optimization of a multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection and typing of Vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Kate; Velazquez-Salinas, Lauro; Velazques-Salinas, Lauro; Clavijo, Alfonso

    2010-05-01

    An improvement to a previously reported real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay for the detection of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is described. Results indicate that the new assay is capable of detecting a panel of genetically representative strains of VSV present in North, Central, and South America. The assay is specific for VSV and allows for simultaneous differentiation between Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus and Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus. This real-time RT-PCR is able to detect current circulating strains of VSV and can be used for rapid diagnosis of VSV and differentiation of VSV from other vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease.

  17. Chronic nicotine modifies skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase activity through its interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and phospholemman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Chibalin

    Full Text Available Our previous finding that the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR and the Na,K-ATPase interact as a regulatory complex to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity suggested that chronic, circulating nicotine may alter this interaction, with long-term changes in the membrane potential. To test this hypothesis, we chronically exposed rats to nicotine delivered orally for 21-31 days. Chronic nicotine produced a steady membrane depolarization of ∼3 mV in the diaphragm muscle, which resulted from a net change in electrogenic transport by the Na,K-ATPase α2 and α1 isoforms. Electrogenic transport by the α2 isoform increased (+1.8 mV while the activity of the α1 isoform decreased (-4.4 mV. Protein expression of Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 isoforms and the nAChR did not change; however, the content of α2 subunit in the plasma membrane decreased by 25%, indicating that its stimulated electrogenic transport is due to an increase in specific activity. The physical association between the nAChR, the Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 subunits, and the regulatory subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, phospholemman (PLM, measured by co-immuno precipitation, was stable and unchanged. Chronic nicotine treatment activated PKCα/β2 and PKCδ and was accompanied by parallel increases in PLM phosphorylation at Ser(63 and Ser(68. Collectively, these results demonstrate that nicotine at chronic doses, acting through the nAChR-Na,K-ATPase complex, is able to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity in an isoform-specific manner and that the regulatory range includes both stimulation and inhibition of enzyme activity. Cholinergic modulation of Na,K-ATPase activity is achieved, in part, through activation of PKC and phosphorylation of PLM.

  18. Laboratory bioassay for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on plant growth and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, K.S.; Liberta, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    A laboratory bioassay is described for assessing the effects of sludge supernatant on juvenile corn growth and the ability of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi, indigenous to coal spoil, to form mycorrhizae. The bioassay demonstrated that application rates can be identified that have the potential to promote increased plant dry weight without suppressing the formation of VA mycorrhizae in a plant's root system.

  19. Longitudinal studies in the epidemiology of vesicular stomatitis on Costa Rican dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, L; Pérez, E; Jimenez, A; Vargas, F; Frankena, K; Romero, J J; Salman, M; Herrero, M V

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three Costa Rican dairy herds from an vesicular stomatitis (VS) endemic area were under an active surveillance between April 1997 and March 1999. Ninety-two confirmed cases of VS New Jersey were found. Factors associated with clinical cases of VS virus New Jersey were: Parity (animals of parity 4 or 5 were 5.3 times more likely to present a clinical case than animals of parity 3 and lower; on the other hand, animals of parity 6 and higher showed an odds 4.6 times greater than animals of parity 3 and lower.) Ecological life zone (animals in premountain moist forest were 7.4 times more likely to present clinical cases than animals in lower mountain rain forest). Factors associated with seropositivity at the time of birth were farm and breed (Jersey calves had an odds 14.7 times greater than Holstein calves). Seroconversion, defined as the first twofold increase in the titers of the blood, was associated with farm and showed four peaks during the study period, September (wet season) 1997, February (dry season) 1998, September 1998, and February 1999. Finally, time to event analysis showed difference between farms and age, older animals showed the first seroconversion earlier than younger animals.

  20. Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hullinger, P

    2008-01-28

    development and subsequent rupturing of vesicles at the coronary band and in the oral cavity. Vesicles and ulcerations can also occur on the mammary gland. Recovery in adult animals usually occurs in 8-15 days. Clinical signs for most serotypes are less dramatic in sheep and goats. Swine can develop very severe coronary band lesions and high mortality in piglets has been observed. One of the challenges of diagnosing FMD is that it may be clinically similar to several other vesicular or ulcerative diseases. FMD is clinically indistinguishable from Vesicular stomatitis, Swine vesicular disease and Vesicular exanthema of swine. It may also resemble Bovine viral diarrhea, Mucosal disease, Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Bluetongue, Bovine papular stomatitis, Bovine mammillitis and Rinderpest.

  1. Durability of a vesicular stomatitis virus-based marburg virus vaccine in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus (MARV and Ebola virus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. A promising filovirus vaccine under development is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses individual filovirus glycoproteins (GPs in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. These vaccines have shown 100% efficacy against filovirus infection in nonhuman primates when challenge occurs 28-35 days after a single injection immunization. Here, we examined the ability of a rVSV MARV-GP vaccine to provide protection when challenge occurs more than a year after vaccination. Cynomolgus macaques were immunized with rVSV-MARV-GP and challenged with MARV approximately 14 months after vaccination. Immunization resulted in the vaccine cohort of six animals having anti-MARV GP IgG throughout the pre-challenge period. Following MARV challenge none of the vaccinated animals showed any signs of clinical disease or viremia and all were completely protected from MARV infection. Two unvaccinated control animals exhibited signs consistent with MARV infection and both succumbed. Importantly, these data are the first to show 100% protective efficacy against any high dose filovirus challenge beyond 8 weeks after final vaccination. These findings demonstrate the durability of VSV-based filovirus vaccines.

  2. Durability of a vesicular stomatitis virus-based marburg virus vaccine in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Chad E; Geisbert, Joan B; Agans, Krystle N; Satterfield, Benjamin A; Versteeg, Krista M; Fritz, Elizabeth A; Feldmann, Heinz; Hensley, Lisa E; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. A promising filovirus vaccine under development is based on a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses individual filovirus glycoproteins (GPs) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). These vaccines have shown 100% efficacy against filovirus infection in nonhuman primates when challenge occurs 28-35 days after a single injection immunization. Here, we examined the ability of a rVSV MARV-GP vaccine to provide protection when challenge occurs more than a year after vaccination. Cynomolgus macaques were immunized with rVSV-MARV-GP and challenged with MARV approximately 14 months after vaccination. Immunization resulted in the vaccine cohort of six animals having anti-MARV GP IgG throughout the pre-challenge period. Following MARV challenge none of the vaccinated animals showed any signs of clinical disease or viremia and all were completely protected from MARV infection. Two unvaccinated control animals exhibited signs consistent with MARV infection and both succumbed. Importantly, these data are the first to show 100% protective efficacy against any high dose filovirus challenge beyond 8 weeks after final vaccination. These findings demonstrate the durability of VSV-based filovirus vaccines.

  3. Vesicular-arbuscular-/ecto-mycorrhiza succession in seedlings of. Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Vera Lúcia dos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM and ectomycorrhizae (ECM in the same root system was observed when species of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, E. citriodora Hook f., E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. cloeziana F. Muell. and E. camaldulensis Dehnh were simultaneously inoculated with Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gederman and Pisolithus tinctorius (Per. Cocker & Couch, isolate Pt 90A. The succession between the two fungi was observed. In general ectomycorrhizal colonization increased followed by a decrease in AM. Pisolithus tinctorius was favored in simultaneous inoculation with G. etunicatum, and the positive effect of the simultaneous inoculation of both fungi in the percent colonization by the AM fungus occurred up to 60 days after inoculation. After 120 days, colonization of roots by G. etunicatum decreased in the presence of P. tinctorius. When inoculated simultaneously, the proportion of AM and ECM varied with evaluation time, while the combined percentage of mycorrhizal roots approached the maximum and remained more or less constant after 60 days, suggesting that there could be competition between the fungi for limiting substrate. The maximum percent mycorrhizal colonization varied with Eucalyptus species and the highest value was observed for E. camaldulensis, followed in order by E. citriodora, E. urophylla, E. grandis and E. cloeziana.

  4. Amphiphilic diblock copolymer and polycaprolactone blends to produce new vesicular nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penott-Chang, Evis; Walther, Andreas; Millard, Pierre; Jäger, Alessandro; Jäger, Eliezer; Müller, Axel H E; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2012-04-01

    New Melatonin-loaded vesicular nanocarriers were prepared by interfacial deposition using a blend of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PMMA-b-PDMAEMA, with poly(epsilon-caprolactone), PCL. Particle size and morphology of the nanocarriers was evaluated. Dynamic light scattering shows that the nanocarriers have hydrodynamic radii between 100 and 180 nm, with unimodal particle size distribution for each formulation. Shape and structure were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cryogenic TEM and scanning electron microscopy. Standard TEM for nanocapsules showed an oily core surrounded by a thin layer composed by PCL/PMMA-b-PDMAEMA. Cryo-TEM also indicated the presence of spherical nano-objects with a diffuse polymer corona. Encapsulation efficiencies were determined assaying the nanoparticles by HPLC and higher values of ca. 25% are shown by the nanocapsules. We could successfully incorporate platinum nanoparticles into the nanocarrier as evidenced by TEM, which opens up the possibility for promising applications like monitoring the encapsulated drug in the body.

  5. Seasonality of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in sedges in a semi-arid tropical grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, T.; Udaiyan, K.

    2002-10-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of Cyperus iria L. and C. rotundus L., growing in a semi-arid tropical grassland, was studied during the 1993 and 1994 monsoons. In addition, climatic and chemical properties of the soils were determined in order to investigate their influence on mycorrhizal variables. VAM fungal association in the sedges was confirmed by plant- and root-trap culture techniques. The soil nutrients exhibited seasonal variations, but were highly variable between years. Intercellular hyphae and vesicles with occasional intraradical spores characterized mycorrhizal association in sedges. Dark septate fungi also colonized roots of sedges. Temporal variations in mycorrhizal colonization and spore numbers occurred, indicating seasonality. However, the patterns of mycorrhizal colonization and spore numbers were different during both the years. The VAM fungal structures observed were intercellular hyphae and vesicles. Changes in the proportion of root length with VAM structures, total colonization levels and spore numbers were related to climatic and edaphic factors. However, the intensity of influence of climatic and soil factors on VAM tended to vary with sedge species.

  6. Survey of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in lettuce production in relation to management and soil factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.L.; Jackson, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) root colonization and spore number in soil was assessed for 18 fields under intensive lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in California during July and August of 1995. Data on management practices and soil characteristics were compiled for each field, and included a wide range of conditions. The relationship between these factors and the occurrence of VAM in these fields was explored with multivariate statistical analysis. VAM colonization of lettuce tended to decrease with the use of chemical inputs, such as pesticides and high amounts of P and N fertilizers. Addition of soil organic matter amendments, the occurrence of other host crops in the rotation, and soil carbon:phosphorus and carbon:nitrogen ratios, were positively associated with VAM colonization of lettuce roots. The number of VAM spores in soil was strongly correlated with the number of other host crops in the rotation, the occurrence of weed hosts and sampling date, but was more affected by general soil conditions than by management inputs. Higher total soil N, C and P, as well as CEC, were inversely related to soil spore number. A glasshouse study of the two primary lettuce types sampled in the field showed no significant differences in the extent of root colonization under similar growing conditions. The results of this study are compared with other studies on the effects of management and soil conditions on mycorrhizal occurrence in agriculture.

  7. A plausible mechanism of biosorption in dual symbioses by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Rafia; Hamid, Neelofer

    2015-03-01

    Dual symbioses of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi with growth of Momordica charantia were elucidated in terms of plausible mechanism of biosorption in this article. The experiment was conducted in green house and mixed inoculum of the VAM fungi was used in the three replicates. Results demonstrated that the starch contents were the main source of C for the VAM to builds their hyphae. The increased plant height and leaves surface area were explained in relation with an increase in the photosynthetic rates to produce rapid sugar contents for the survival of plants. A decreased in protein, and amino acid contents and increased proline and protease activity in VAM plants suggested that these contents were the main bio-indicators of the plants under biotic stress. The decline in protein may be due to the degradation of these contents, which later on converted into dextrose where it can easily be absorbed by for the period of symbioses. A mechanism of C chemisorption in relation with physiology and morphology of plant was discussed.

  8. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vectors expressing filovirus glycoproteins lack neurovirulence in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, cause severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality in humans and nonhuman primates. Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G. The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. To address this concern, we performed a neurovirulence study using 21 cynomolgus macaques where the vaccines were administered intrathalamically. Seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV GP; seven animals received a rVSV vector expressing the Lake Victoria marburgvirus (MARV GP; three animals received rVSV-wild type (wt vector, and four animals received vehicle control. Two of three animals given rVSV-wt showed severe neurological symptoms whereas animals receiving vehicle control, rVSV-ZEBOV-GP, or rVSV-MARV-GP did not develop these symptoms. Histological analysis revealed major lesions in neural tissues of all three rVSV-wt animals; however, no significant lesions were observed in any animals from the filovirus vaccine or vehicle control groups. These data strongly suggest that rVSV filovirus GP vaccine vectors lack the neurovirulence properties associated with the rVSV-wt parent vector and support their further development as a vaccine platform for human use.

  9. Root Respiration and Growth in Plantago major as Affected by Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, R; van der Werf, A; Lambers, H

    1989-09-01

    Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) infection and P on root respiration and dry matter allocation were studied in Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger). By applying P, the relative growth rate of non-VAM controls and plants colonized by Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxt. sensu Gerdemann) Gerdemann and Trappe was increased to a similar extent (55-67%). However, leaf area ratio was increased more and net assimilation rate per unit leaf area was increased less by VAM infection than by P addition. The lower net assimilation rate could be related to a 20 to 30% higher root respiration rate per unit leaf area of VAM plants. Root respiration per unit dry matter and specific net uptake rates of N and P were increased more by VAM infection than by P addition. Neither the contribution of the alternative respiratory path nor the relative growth rate could account for the differences in root respiration rate between VAM and non-VAM plants. It was estimated that increased fungal respiration (87%) and ion uptake rate (13%) contributed to the higher respiratory activity of VAM roots of P. major.

  10. Investigating the potential of employing bilosomes as a novel vesicular carrier for transdermal delivery of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahallawi, Abdulaziz M; Abdelbary, Aly A; Aburahma, Mona H

    2015-05-15

    Bilosomes represent an evolving vesicular carrier that have been explored for oral vaccines delivery based on its ability to resist enzymes and bile salts in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Bilosomes vesicles are formed of bilayer membrane of non-ionic surfactant molecules encompassing bile salts. Although, bilosomes have not been proposed for transdermal drug delivery, this carrier seems to have promising potential in this regard. Accordingly, the aim of this investigation was to assess the capability and safety of utilizing bilosomes for transdermal delivery of tenoxicam (TX) as a model drug. A 3(1)2(2) full factorial design was adopted to study the effects of different formulation parameters on bilosomes properties and select the optimal formulation using Design-Expert(®) software. The selected formulation displayed nano-sized spherical vesicles (242.5 ± 6.43nm) with reasonable entrapment efficiency percent (68.33 ± 2.33%). Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the capability of the flourolabeled bilosomes to penetrate deep within the skin. Both, ex vivo permeation and in vivo skin deposition studies confirmed the superiority of bilosomes over drug solution in delivering TX transdermally. In addition, in vivo histopathological study proved the safety of topically applied bilosomes. In summary, the highlighted results confirmed that bilosomes can be further adopted for delivering drugs transdermally.

  11. A vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus expressing the surface glycoproteins of influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheresiz, S V; Kononova, A A; Razumova, Yu V; Dubich, T S; Chepurnov, A A; Kushch, A A; Davey, R; Pokrovsky, A G

    2014-10-01

    Pseudotyped viruses bearing the glycoprotein(s) of a donor virus over the nucleocapsid core of a surrogate virus are widely used as safe substitutes for infectious virus in virology studies. Retroviral particles pseudotyped with influenza A virus glycoproteins have been used recently for the study of influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase-dependent processes. Here, we report the development of vesicular-stomatitis-virus-based pseudotypes bearing the glycoproteins of influenza A virus. We show that pseudotypes bearing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of H5N1 influenza A virus mimic the wild-type virus in neutralization assays and sensitivity to entry inhibitors. We demonstrate the requirement of NA for the infectivity of pseudotypes and show that viruses obtained with different NA proteins are significantly different in their transduction activities. Inhibition studies with oseltamivir carboxylate show that neuraminidase activity is required for pseudovirus production, but not for the infection of target cells with H5N1-VSV pseudovirus. The HA-NA-VSV pseudoviruses have high transduction titers and better stability than the previously reported retroviral pseudotypes and can replace live influenza virus in the development of neutralization assays, screening of potential antivirals, and the study of different HA/NA reassortants.

  12. A single nucleotide polymorphism of porcine MX2 gene provides antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Tungtrakoolsub, Pullop; Morozumi, Takeya; Uenishi, Hirohide; Kawahara, Manabu; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MX2 gene affect its antiviral potential. MX proteins are known to suppress the multiplication of several viruses, including influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). In domestic animals possessing highly polymorphic genome, our previous research indicated that a specific SNP in chicken Mx gene was responsible for its antiviral function. However, there still has been no information about SNPs in porcine MX2 gene. In this study, we first conducted polymorphism analysis in 17 pigs of MX2 gene derived from seven breeds. Consequently, a total of 30 SNPs, of which 11 were deduced to cause amino acid variations, were detected, suggesting that the porcine MX2 is very polymorphic. Next, we classified MX2 into eight alleles (A1-A8) and subsequently carried out infectious experiments with recombinant VSVΔG*-G to each allele. In A1-A5 and A8, position 514 amino acid (514 aa) of MX2 was glycine (Gly), which did not inhibit VSV multiplication, whereas in A6 and A7, 514 aa was arginine (Arg), which exhibited the antiviral ability against VSV. These results demonstrate that a SNP at 514 aa (Gly-Arg) of porcine MX2 plays a pivotal role in the antiviral activity as well as that at 631 aa of chicken Mx.

  13. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

  14. Factors influencing survival of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza propagules during topsoil storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.M.; Carnes, B.A.; Moorman, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    The survival dynamics of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were determined, (using a bioassay procedure) for soils stored from 0.5 to 6.0 years in topsoil stockpiles associated with a coal surface-mine in the western United States. Propagule mortality could best be related to in situ soil moisture potential using a piecewise regression model (R/sup 2/ = 0.57; P less than or equal to 0.001) with the breaking point occurring at -2 MPa. The addition of length of storage time was found to contribute significantly to the accuracy of the model (R/sup 2/ = 0.70; P less than or equal to 0.001). In addition, the piece-wise nature of the data suggested two separate populations of VAM fungi - those propagules found in soils with moisture potentials less than -2 MPa and those occurring in soils with moisture potentials greater than -2 MPa. Soil moisture and length of storage time had differing effects on each of these populations. When water potential was less than -2 MPa, moisture was an important predictor of inoculum (P < 0.001), while length of storage had little predictive capability (P = 0.17). However, when water potentials were greater than -2 MPa, the predictive importance of soil moisture (P = 0.86) and length of storage (P = 0.04) were reversed. The significance of these findings to topsoil replacement and subsequent plant community development are discussed. 28 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Ethosomes - novel vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: characterization and skin penetration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, E; Dayan, N; Bergelson, L; Godin, B; Eliaz, M

    2000-04-03

    This work describes a novel carrier for enhanced skin delivery, the ethosomal system, which is composed of phospholipid, ethanol and water. Ethosomal systems were much more efficient at delivering a fluorescent probe to the skin in terms of quantity and depth, than either liposomes or hydroalcoholic solution. The ethosomal system dramatically enhanced the skin permeation of minoxidil in vitro compared with either ethanolic or hydroethanolic solution or phospholipid ethanolic micellar solution of minoxidil. In addition, the transdermal delivery of testosterone from an ethosomal patch was greater both in vitro and in vivo than from commercially available patches. Skin permeation of ethosomal components, ethanol and phospholipid, was demonstrated in diffusion-cell experiments. Ethosomal systems composed of soy phosphatidylcholine 2%, ethanol 30% and water were shown by electron microscopy to contain multilamellar vesicles. 31P-NMR studies confirmed the bilayer configuration of the lipids. Calorimetry and fluorescence measurements suggested that the vesicular bilayers are flexible, having a relatively low T(m) and fluorescence anisotropy compared with liposomes obtained in the absence of ethanol. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicated that ethanol imparted a negative charge to the vesicles. The average vesicle size, as measured by dynamic light scattering, was modulated by altering the ethosome composition. Experiments using fluorescent probes and ultracentrifugation showed that the ethosomes had a high entrapment capacity for molecules of various lyophilicities.

  16. Production of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Inoculum in Aeroponic Culture †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ling-Ling L.; Sylvia, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) and industrial sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) colonized by Glomus deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices were grown in aeroponic cultures. After 12 to 14 weeks, all roots were colonized by the inoculated vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Abundant vesicles and arbuscules formed in the roots, and profuse sporulation was detected intra-and extraradically. Within each fungal species, industrial sweet potato contained significantly more roots and spores per plant than bahia grass did, although the percent root colonization was similar for both hosts. Mean percent root colonization and sporulation per centimeter of colonized root generally increased with time, although with some treatments colonization declined by week 14. Spore production ranged from 4 spores per cm of colonized root for G. etunicatum to 51 spores per cm for G. intraradices. Infectivity trials with root inocula resulted in a mean of 38, 45, and 28% of bahia grass roots colonized by G. deserticola, G. etunicatum, and G. intraradices, respectively. The germination rate of G. etunicatum spores produced in soil was significantly higher than that produced in aeroponic cultures (64% versus 46%) after a 2-week incubation at 28°C. However, infectivity studies comparing G. etunicatum spores from soil and aeroponic culture indicated no biological differences between the spore sources. Aeroponically produced G. deserticola and G. etunicatum inocula retained their infectivity after cold storage (4°C) in either sterile water or moist vermiculite for at least 4 and 9 months, respectively. PMID:16347548

  17. Fabrication of Photofunctional Nanoporous Membrane and Its Photoinactivation Effect of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Kyun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication and photophysical study of photofunctional nanoporous alumina membrane (PNAM were performed, and its application of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT was investigated. Nanoporous alumina membrane (NAM was fabricated by two-step aluminium anodic oxidation process. Surface of the fabricated NAM was modified with organo-silane agent to induce covalent bonding between NAM and a photosensitizer (PtCP: [5,10,15-triphenyl-20-(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl-porphyrin] platinum. PtCP was covalently bonded to the surface of the modified NAM by nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction process. The morphology and the photophysical properties of the fabricated PNAM were confirmed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, steady-state spectroscopies, and nanosecond laser-induced time-resolved spectroscopy. For the efficacy study of PNAM in PACT, an enveloped animal virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, was utilized as a target organism. Antiviral effect of the PNAM-PACT was measured by the extent of suppression of plaque-forming units (PFU after the light irradiation. In the cultures inoculated with PACT-treated VSV, the suppression of PFU was prominent, which demonstrates that PNAM is a potential bio clean-up tool.

  18. Electrophysiological characterization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cat petrosal ganglion neurons in culture: effects of cytisine and its bromo derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Valdés, Viviana; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Cassels, Bruce K; Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Alcayaga, Julio

    2006-02-09

    Petrosal ganglion neurons are depolarized and fire action potentials in response to acetylcholine and nicotine. However, little is known about the subtype(s) of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors involved, although alpha4 and alpha7 subunits have been identified in petrosal ganglion neurons. Cytisine, an alkaloid unrelated to nicotine, and its bromo derivatives are agonists exhibiting different affinities, potencies and efficacies at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing alpha4 or alpha7 subunits. To characterize the receptors involved, we studied the effects of these agonists and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists hexamethonium and alpha-bungarotoxin in isolated petrosal ganglion neurons. Petrosal ganglia were excised from anesthetized cats and cultured for up to 16 days. Using patch-clamp technique, we recorded whole-cell currents evoked by 5-10 s applications of acetylcholine, cytisine or its bromo derivatives. Agonists and antagonists were applied by gravity from a pipette near the neuron surface. Neurons responded to acetylcholine, cytisine, 3-bromocytisine and 5-bromocytisine with fast inward currents that desensitized during application of the stimuli and were reversibly blocked by 1 microM hexamethonium or 10 nM alpha-bungarotoxin. The order of potency of the agonists was 3-bromocytisine > acetylcholine approximately = cytisine > 5-bromocytisine, suggesting that homomeric alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptors predominate in cat petrosal ganglion neurons in culture.

  19. Assessment of a novel recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus with triple mutations in its matrix protein as a vaccine for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xinkui; Qi, Bing; Ma, Yufang; Zhou, Xinchu; Zhang, Shikuan; Sun, Tao

    2015-11-17

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes a serious vesicular disease responsible for economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently, there are no suitable vaccines to prevent VSV infection. Although the structural matrix (M) protein of VSV has been shown to be a virulence factor in rodent models, its role in the pathogenicity of VSV infection in livestock species is unknown. We hypothesized that VSV with mutations in the M protein represents a novel live attenuated vaccine candidate. To test this, we introduced mutations into VSV M protein using reverse genetics and assessed their attenuation both in vitro and in pigs, an important natural host of VSV. A recombinant VSV with a triple amino acid mutation in M protein (VSVMT) demonstrated a significantly reduced ability to inhibit the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway and to shutoff host gene expression compared to WT-VSV and a mutant virus with a single amino acid deletion (VSVΔM51). Inoculation of pigs with VSVMT induced no apparent vesicular lesions but stimulated virus-neutralizing antibodies and animals were protected against virulent VSV challenge infection. These data demonstrate that the M protein is an important virulence factor for VSV in swine and VSVMT represents a novel vaccine candidate for VSV infections in pigs.

  20. Recent Duplication and Functional Divergence in Parasitic Nematode Levamisole-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B Duguet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species. The pentameric levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor has been characterized from C. elegans, comprised of five different subunits. More recently, cognate receptors have been reconstituted from multiple parasitic nematodes that are found to vary in subunit composition. In order to understand the implications of receptor composition change and the origins of potentially novel drug targets, we investigated a specific example of subunit duplication based on analysis of genome data for 25 species from the 50 helminth genome initiative. We found multiple independent duplications of the unc-29, acetylcholine receptor subunit, where codon substitution rate analysis identified positive, directional selection acting on amino acid positions associated with subunit assembly. Characterization of four gene copies from a model parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, demonstrated that each copy has acquired unique functional characteristics based on phenotype rescue of transgenic C. elegans and electrophysiology of receptors reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. We found evidence that a specific incompatibility has evolved for two subunits co-expressed in muscle. We demonstrated that functional divergence of acetylcholine receptors, driven by directional selection, can occur more rapidly than previously thought and may be mediated by alteration of receptor assembly. This phenomenon is common among the

  1. Recent Duplication and Functional Divergence in Parasitic Nematode Levamisole-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguet, Thomas B; Charvet, Claude L; Forrester, Sean G; Wever, Claudia M; Dent, Joseph A; Neveu, Cedric; Beech, Robin N

    2016-07-01

    Helminth parasites rely on fast-synaptic transmission in their neuromusculature to experience the outside world and respond to it. Acetylcholine plays a pivotal role in this and its receptors are targeted by a wide variety of both natural and synthetic compounds used in human health and for the control of parasitic disease. The model, Caenorhabditis elegans is characterized by a large number of acetylcholine receptor subunit genes, a feature shared across the nematodes. This dynamic family is characterized by both gene duplication and loss between species. The pentameric levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor has been characterized from C. elegans, comprised of five different subunits. More recently, cognate receptors have been reconstituted from multiple parasitic nematodes that are found to vary in subunit composition. In order to understand the implications of receptor composition change and the origins of potentially novel drug targets, we investigated a specific example of subunit duplication based on analysis of genome data for 25 species from the 50 helminth genome initiative. We found multiple independent duplications of the unc-29, acetylcholine receptor subunit, where codon substitution rate analysis identified positive, directional selection acting on amino acid positions associated with subunit assembly. Characterization of four gene copies from a model parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus, demonstrated that each copy has acquired unique functional characteristics based on phenotype rescue of transgenic C. elegans and electrophysiology of receptors reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. We found evidence that a specific incompatibility has evolved for two subunits co-expressed in muscle. We demonstrated that functional divergence of acetylcholine receptors, driven by directional selection, can occur more rapidly than previously thought and may be mediated by alteration of receptor assembly. This phenomenon is common among the clade V parasitic

  2. Skin penetration and deposition of carboxyfluorescein and temoporfin from different lipid vesicular systems: In vitro study with finite and infinite dosage application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiangli; Fahr, Alfred

    2011-04-15

    The aim of the present research is to evaluate the influence of different lipid vesicular systems as well as the effect of application mode on skin penetration and deposition behaviors of carboxyfluorescein (hydrophilic model drug) and temoporfin (lipophilic model drug). All of the lipid vesicular systems, including conventional liposomes, invasomes and ethosomes, were prepared by film hydration method and characterized for particle size distribution, ζ-potential, vesicular shape and surface morphology, in vitro human skin penetration and skin deposition. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) defined that all of lipid vesicles had almost spherical structures with low polydispersity (PDI ethosomes and invasomes, compared with non-vesicular systems, can significantly improve the delivery of hydrophilic drug such as carboxyfluorescein into skin deep layers or across the skin. While in the case of mTHPC with finite and infinite dose application, most of drug accumulation was observed in the skin superficial layer for both lipid vesicular systems and non-vesicular systems. The results also revealed that the factors influencing the drug skin distribution concern the physicochemical characteristics of the drug, the choice of the vehicle formulation and the application mode applied.

  3. Chikungunya, Influenza, Nipah, and Semliki Forest Chimeric Viruses with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus: Actions in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Pol, Anthony N; Mao, Guochao; Chattopadhyay, Anasuya; Rose, John K; Davis, John N

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein (G) gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain, including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya (CHIKV), and influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene. We also test a virus-like vesicle (VLV) in which the VSV glycoprotein gene is expressed from a replicon encoding the nonstructural proteins of Semliki Forest virus. VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV were all safe in the adult mouse brain, as were VSVΔG viruses expressing either the Nipah F or G glycoprotein. In contrast, a complementing pair of VSVΔG viruses expressing Nipah G and F glycoproteins were lethal within the brain within a surprisingly short time frame of 2 days. Intranasal inoculation in postnatal day 14 mice with VSVΔG-CHIKV or VLV evoked no adverse response, whereas VSVΔG-H5N1 by this route was lethal in most mice. A key immune mechanism underlying the safety of VSVΔG-CHIKV, VSVΔG-H5N1, and VLV in the adult brain was the type I interferon response; all three viruses were lethal in the brains of adult mice lacking the interferon receptor, suggesting that the viruses can infect and replicate and spread in brain cells if not blocked by interferon-stimulated genes within the brain.IMPORTANCE Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) shows considerable promise both as a vaccine vector and as an oncolytic virus. The greatest limitation of VSV is that it is highly neurotropic and can be lethal within the brain. The neurotropism can be mostly attributed to the VSV G glycoprotein. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses of VSV with glycoprotein genes from Nipah

  4. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar

    2013-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  5. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against Bundibugyo ebolavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad E Mire

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics for human use. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV-based vaccine vectors, which encode an EBOV glycoprotein in place of the VSV glycoprotein, have shown 100% efficacy against homologous Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV or Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV challenge in NHPs. In addition, a single injection of a blend of three rVSV vectors completely protected NHPs against challenge with SEBOV, ZEBOV, the former Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, and Marburg virus. However, recent studies suggest that complete protection against the newly discovered Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV using several different heterologous filovirus vaccines is more difficult and presents a new challenge. As BEBOV caused nearly 50% mortality in a recent outbreak any filovirus vaccine advanced for human use must be able to protect against this new species. Here, we evaluated several different strategies against BEBOV using rVSV-based vaccines. Groups of cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated with a single injection of a homologous BEBOV vaccine, a single injection of a blended heterologous vaccine (SEBOV/ZEBOV, or a prime-boost using heterologous SEBOV and ZEBOV vectors. Animals were challenged with BEBOV 29-36 days after initial vaccination. Macaques vaccinated with the homologous BEBOV vaccine or the prime-boost showed no overt signs of illness and survived challenge. In contrast, animals vaccinated with the heterologous blended vaccine and unvaccinated control animals developed severe clinical symptoms consistent with BEBOV infection with 2 of 3 animals in each group succumbing. These data show that complete protection against BEBOV will likely require incorporation of BEBOV glycoprotein into the vaccine or employment of a prime-boost regimen. Fortunately, our results demonstrate that heterologous rVSV-based filovirus vaccine

  6. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Attenuation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV by Phosphoprotein Deletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phonphimon Wongthida

    Full Text Available Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is highly immunogenic and able to stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, its ability to induce adverse effects has held back the use of VSV as a potential vaccine vector. In this study we developed VSV-ΔP, a safe yet potent replication-defective recombinant VSV in which the phosphoprotein (P gene was deleted. VSV-ΔP replicated only in supporting cells expressing P (BHK-P cells and at levels more than 2 logs lower than VSV. In vivo studies indicated that the moderate replication of VSV-ΔP in vitro was associated with the attenuation of this virus in the mouse model, whereas mice intracranially injected with VSV succumbed to neurotoxicity. Furthermore, we constructed VSV and VSV-ΔP expressing a variety of antigens including hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN from Newcastle disease virus (NDV, hemagglutinin (HA from either a 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pdm/09 or the avian H7N9. VSV and VSV-ΔP incorporated the foreign antigens on their surface resulting in induction of robust neutralizing antibody, serum IgG, and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI titers against their corresponding viruses. These results indicated that VSV with P gene deletion was attenuated in vitro and in vivo, and possibly expressed the foreign antigen on its surface. Therefore, the P gene-deletion strategy may offer a potentially useful and safer approach for attenuating negative-sense RNA viruses which use phosphoprotein as a cofactor for viral replication.

  8. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based ebola vaccine is well-tolerated and protects immunocompromised nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Geisbert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is a significant human pathogen that presents a public health concern as an emerging/re-emerging virus and as a potential biological weapon. Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in developing candidate preventive vaccines that can protect nonhuman primates against EBOV. Among these prospects, a vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is particularly robust, as it can also confer protection when administered as a postexposure treatment. A concern that has been raised regarding the replication-competent VSV vectors that express EBOV glycoproteins is how these vectors would be tolerated by individuals with altered or compromised immune systems such as patients infected with HIV. This is especially important as all EBOV outbreaks to date have occurred in areas of Central and Western Africa with high HIV incidence rates in the population. In order to address this concern, we evaluated the safety of the recombinant VSV vector expressing the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein (VSVDeltaG/ZEBOVGP in six rhesus macaques infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV. All six animals showed no evidence of illness associated with the VSVDeltaG/ZEBOVGP vaccine, suggesting that this vaccine may be safe in immunocompromised populations. While one goal of the study was to evaluate the safety of the candidate vaccine platform, it was also of interest to determine if altered immune status would affect vaccine efficacy. The vaccine protected 4 of 6 SHIV-infected macaques from death following ZEBOV challenge. Evaluation of CD4+ T cells in all animals showed that the animals that succumbed to lethal ZEBOV challenge had the lowest CD4+ counts, suggesting that CD4+ T cells may play a role in mediating protection against ZEBOV.

  9. Emerging role of vesicular carriers for therapy of visceral leishmaniasis: conventional versus novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Gupta, Swati; Dube, Anuradha; Vyas, Suresh P

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a systemic protozoan infection that infects a million people living in subtropical and tropical areas. Drugs are the major treatment available against this fatal infection. Conventional chemotherapy of VL involves treatment with pen- tavalent antimonials, pentamidine, paromomycin, miltefosine, etc., but this treatment is challenging because of the failure of drugs to penetrate macrophages where the parasite hides, toxic side effects, and drug resistance due to incomplete treatment schedules. The newer therapeutic approach of combination therapy employing multi-drug combinations provides improved treatment of VL because the combination reduces length of treatment, relapse, and risk of toxicity and increases the therapeutic index. Although considerable success has been attained using combination therapies, none has yet achieved commercial status. Therefore, there is an urgent need of designing novel, site-specific leishmanicidal drug carriers for safe and effective management of VL. Colloidal carriers such as liposomes, niosomes, emulsomes, and their engineered versions offer superior therapeutic efficacy over the conventional treatment in terms of site-specific drug delivery related to absolute treatment of disease with reduced side effects and toxicity. The control over spatial and sequential distribution of drug molecules after systemic or localized administration represents the major dispute in drug-delivery systems, and this can be resolved by the use of these colloidal carriers. The present review describes current conventional and combination drug therapies with special consideration given to the emerging role of novel vesicular colloidal carriers designed against VL. Colloidal carriers employing drugs in combination could lead to reductions in the duration of conventional treatment, better patient compliance, and the prevention of anti-leishmanial drug resistance or toxicity.

  10. [Serological examinations for swine vesicular disease (SVD) in a closed pig breeding herd using ELISA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannwitz, Gunter; Haas, Bernd; Hoffmann, Bernd; Fischer, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    In a closed pig establishment housing about 18,000 pigs, 2895 gilts were tested pre-export for SVD (swine vesicular disease) antibodies using Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. 130 gilts (4.5%) tested positive. In addition, 561 animals of this farm were sampled per random for SVD serology. One in 241 weaners (0.4%), eight in 150 gilts (5.3%) and 18 in 170 (10.6%) pregnant sows tested ELISA SVD-antibody positive. Of the ELISA positive samples, 23 tested positive in VNT (virus neutralization test). Of these, 20 VNT-positive animals were re-sampled two weeks later and re-tested via ELISA and VNT in different laboratories, displaying falling titres with one to two animals remaining VNT-positive. Epidemiological investigations and clinical examinations on site did not yield any evidence for SVD. 745 faecal samples taken from individual pigs and collected from pens tested negative in SVDV-RNA-PCR. 40 of these samples tested negative in virus isolation on cell culture. Pathological examinations on fallen pigs did not reveal any evidence for SVD either. After comparing our ELISA results with data recorded in the ELISA validation by Chenard et al. (1998), we propose that the published test performance is perhaps not currently applicable for the commercial test. Provided that SVD-antibody negative pigs were tested, a specificity of 99.6% in weaners, 95.5% in gilts and 89.4% in pregnant sows would appear to be more appropriate for the Ceditest/PrioCHECK SVDV-AB ELISA. Details are provided for all examined pigs regarding husbandry, breed, age, weeks pregnant and previous vaccinations. The results of other serological tests on the same sera are given. Possible clusterings of false-positive SVD-ELISA results are discussed.

  11. Dromedary milk exosomes as mammary transcriptome nano-vehicle: Their isolation, vesicular and phospholipidomic characterizatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya M. Yassin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles that play a role in cellular trafficking and communication. Camel milk exosomes might carry the potential of recovery of several illnesses that coins the dromedary milk. This study shows for the first time their isolation and fine characterization. The differential ultracentrifugation was used for their isolation. Their recovery from dromedary milk during different lactation periods was evaluated. The vesicular characterization and stability testing of the recovered exosome were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The proteome footprinting was resolved by gel electrophoresis prior to their specific protein biomarker analysis. The immunoblotting of their specific protein biomarker TSG101 unexpectedly revealed a truncated 35 KDa protein specific for dromedary milk exosome rather than the previously reported 43 KDa mammalian one. The reversed-phase HPLC screening of their phospholipid makeup was compared with that of cattle milk exosomes at different lactation periods. Since dromedary milk exosomes reflect their mammary transcriptome outcome, further assessment of their content of αs1casein, αs2casein β-casein κ-casein mRNAs parallel with a constitutive glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (GAPD gene was performed using real-time PCR. The TEM scanning indicated that dromedary milk exosomes are freeze-stress unstable homogeneous with average size of 30 nm. There was no significant difference in expression level of different casein genes in mid lactation period in dromedary milk exosomes over late lactation period. The phospholipidomic survey proved that phosphatidylcholine is the major candidate of the examined phospholipids in dromedary milk exosomes. The obtained data give novel interpretation about the content of camel milk exosomes with possible insight for use as potentially-safe nano carrier.

  12. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza response to crossed carbon and phosphorus resource gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitbeck, J.L. (Pennyslvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Employing the annual herb Hemizonia luzulaefolia, native to nutrient limited grassland ecosystem in California, and a community of indigenous vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, this study examined mycorrhizal response to interacting plant- and fungus-acquired resources. Plant carbon supply was manipulated through atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) concentration, and substrate phosphorus (P) supply was varied in the nutrient solution. H. luzulaefolia responded strongly to VAM association, showing increased root and shoot biomass, greater leaf area, higher shoot P content and lower specific root length relative to non-mycorrhizal plants. Elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] plants had lower mass, lower root:shoot ratios and slightly greater specific root length than ambient pCO[sub 2]-grown plants. VAM colonization of roots was stimulated by elevated CO[sub 2] early in the experiment. Low P plants showed greater leaf mass per area and lower shoot P concentration than plus-P plants. P effects on measures of VAM changed over time. While ambient pCO[sub 2]-grown plants responsed to added P with increased biomass, plants grown at elevated CO[sub 2] showed equivalent or lower biomass in plus-P treatments than in those with no added P. At the same time, ambient pCO[sub 2]-grown plants developed greater VAM colonization of roots in low P treatments, while at 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. VAM colonization was higher in plus-P treatments. It appears that atmospheric pCO[sub 2] affects the patterns of belowground allocation in H. luzulaefolia: ambient pCO[sub 2] plants direct carbon resources to VAM when P is low and to roots when P is available, while elevated CO[sub 2] plants maintain VAM colonization regardless of P environment and allocate to roots when P is low.

  13. Cell type mediated resistance of vesicular stomatitis virus and Sendai virus to ribavirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirav R; Sunderland, Amanda; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z

    2010-06-22

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a synthetic nucleoside analog with broad spectrum antiviral activity. Although RBV is approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Lassa fever virus infections, its mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy remains highly controversial. Recent reports show that the development of cell-based resistance after continuous RBV treatment via decreased RBV uptake can greatly limit its efficacy. Here, we examined whether certain cell types are naturally resistant to RBV even without prior drug exposure. Seven different cell lines from various host species were compared for RBV antiviral activity against two nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a rhabdovirus) and Sendai virus (SeV, a paramyxovirus). Our results show striking differences between cell types in their response to RBV, ranging from virtually no antiviral effect to very effective inhibition of viral replication. Despite differences in viral replication kinetics for VSV and SeV in the seven cell lines, the observed pattern of RBV resistance was very similar for both viruses, suggesting that cellular rather than viral determinants play a major role in this resistance. While none of the tested cell lines was defective in RBV uptake, dramatic variations were observed in the long-term accumulation of RBV in different cell types, and it correlated with the antiviral efficacy of RBV. While addition of guanosine neutralized RBV only in cells already highly resistant to RBV, actinomycin D almost completely reversed the RBV effect (but not uptake) in all cell lines. Together, our data suggest that RBV may inhibit the same virus via different mechanisms in different cell types depending on the intracellular RBV metabolism. Our results strongly point out the importance of using multiple cell lines of different origin when antiviral efficacy and potency are examined for new as well as established drugs in vitro.

  14. Enhanced immunosurveillance for animal morbilliviruses using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nicola; Dundon, William G; Diallo, Adama; Baron, Michael D; James Nyarobi, M; Cleaveland, Sarah; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2016-11-11

    The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of PPRV on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Serological responses against the four distinct lineages of PPRV could be measured simultaneously and cross-neutralising responses against other morbilliviruses compared. Using this approach, we observed that titres of neutralising antibodies induced by vaccination with live attenuated PPRV were lower than those induced by wild type virus infection and the level of cross-lineage neutralisation varied between vaccinates. By comparing neutralising responses from animals infected with either PPRV or RPV, we found that responses were highest against the homologous virus, indicating that retrospective analyses of serum samples could be used to confirm the nature of the original pathogen to which an animal had been exposed. Accordingly, when screening sera from domestic livestock and wild ruminants in Tanzania, we detected evidence of cross-species infection with PPRV, canine distemper virus (CDV) and a RPV-related bovine morbillivirus, suggesting that exposure to animal morbilliviruses may be more widespread than indicated previously using existing diagnostic techniques.

  15. Cell type mediated resistance of vesicular stomatitis virus and Sendai virus to ribavirin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav R Shah

    Full Text Available Ribavirin (RBV is a synthetic nucleoside analog with broad spectrum antiviral activity. Although RBV is approved for the treatment of hepatitis C virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and Lassa fever virus infections, its mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy remains highly controversial. Recent reports show that the development of cell-based resistance after continuous RBV treatment via decreased RBV uptake can greatly limit its efficacy. Here, we examined whether certain cell types are naturally resistant to RBV even without prior drug exposure. Seven different cell lines from various host species were compared for RBV antiviral activity against two nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a rhabdovirus and Sendai virus (SeV, a paramyxovirus. Our results show striking differences between cell types in their response to RBV, ranging from virtually no antiviral effect to very effective inhibition of viral replication. Despite differences in viral replication kinetics for VSV and SeV in the seven cell lines, the observed pattern of RBV resistance was very similar for both viruses, suggesting that cellular rather than viral determinants play a major role in this resistance. While none of the tested cell lines was defective in RBV uptake, dramatic variations were observed in the long-term accumulation of RBV in different cell types, and it correlated with the antiviral efficacy of RBV. While addition of guanosine neutralized RBV only in cells already highly resistant to RBV, actinomycin D almost completely reversed the RBV effect (but not uptake in all cell lines. Together, our data suggest that RBV may inhibit the same virus via different mechanisms in different cell types depending on the intracellular RBV metabolism. Our results strongly point out the importance of using multiple cell lines of different origin when antiviral efficacy and potency are examined for new as well as established drugs in vitro.

  16. Insulin replacement restores the vesicular secretory apparatus in the diabetic rat lacrimal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: In the lacrimal gland (LG acinar cells, signaling regulates the release of secretory vesicles through specific Rab and SNARE exocytotic proteins. In diabetes mellitus (DM, the LGs are dysfunctional. The aim of this work was to determine if secretory apparatus changes were associated with any effects on the secretory vesicles (SV in diabetic rats as well as the expression levels of constituent Rab and members of the SNARE family, and if insulin supplementation reversed those changes. Methods: DM was induced in male Wistar rats with an intravenous dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. One of the two diabetic groups was then treated every other day with insulin (1 IU. A third control group was injected with vehicle. After 10 weeks, Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to compared the Rab and SNARE secretory factor levels in the LGs. Transmission electron microscopy evaluated acinar cell SV density and integrity. Results: In the diabetes mellitus group, there were fewer and enlarged SV. The Rab 27b, Rab 3d, and syntaxin-1 protein expression declined in the rats with diabetes mellitus. Insulin treatment restored the SV density and the Rab 27b and syntaxin expression to their control protein levels, whereas the Vamp 2 mRNA expression increased above the control levels. Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus LG changes were associated with the declines in protein expression levels that were involved in supporting exocytosis and vesicular formation. They were partially reversed by insulin replacement therapy. These findings may help to improve therapeutic management of dry eye in diabetes mellitus.

  17. Mechanism of membrane fusion induced by vesicular stomatitis virus G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene S; Jenni, Simon; Stanifer, Megan L; Roth, Eatai; Whelan, Sean P J; van Oijen, Antoine M; Harrison, Stephen C

    2017-01-03

    The glycoproteins (G proteins) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and related rhabdoviruses (e.g., rabies virus) mediate both cell attachment and membrane fusion. The reversibility of their fusogenic conformational transitions differentiates them from many other low-pH-induced viral fusion proteins. We report single-virion fusion experiments, using methods developed in previous publications to probe fusion of influenza and West Nile viruses. We show that a three-stage model fits VSV single-particle fusion kinetics: (i) reversible, pH-dependent, G-protein conformational change from the known prefusion conformation to an extended, monomeric intermediate; (ii) reversible trimerization and clustering of the G-protein fusion loops, leading to an extended intermediate that inserts the fusion loops into the target-cell membrane; and (iii) folding back of a cluster of extended trimers into their postfusion conformations, bringing together the viral and cellular membranes. From simulations of the kinetic data, we conclude that the critical number of G-protein trimers required to overcome membrane resistance is 3 to 5, within a contact zone between the virus and the target membrane of 30 to 50 trimers. This sequence of conformational events is similar to those shown to describe fusion by influenza virus hemagglutinin (a "class I" fusogen) and West Nile virus envelope protein ("class II"). Our study of VSV now extends this description to "class III" viral fusion proteins, showing that reversibility of the low-pH-induced transition and architectural differences in the fusion proteins themselves do not change the basic mechanism by which they catalyze membrane fusion.

  18. Covalent Trapping of Methyllycaconitine at the α4-α4 Interface of the α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absalom, Nathan L; Quek, Gracia; Lewis, Trevor M;

    2013-01-01

    The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are widely expressed in the brain and are implicated in a variety of physiological processes. There are two stoichiometries of the α4β2 nAChR, (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2, with different sensitivities to acetylcholine (ACh), but their pharmacologi......The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are widely expressed in the brain and are implicated in a variety of physiological processes. There are two stoichiometries of the α4β2 nAChR, (α4)2(β2)3 and (α4)3(β2)2, with different sensitivities to acetylcholine (ACh...

  19. Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2002-01-01

    muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10-300 microg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 microg....../kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2-C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100....... Intravenously administered atropine, in a dose that produced hyperalgesia (5000 microg/kg) in the tail-flick test, significantly decreased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Our results suggest an association between pain threshold and acetylcholine release in spinal cord. It is also suggested...

  20. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzidaki, A.; D Oyley, J. M.; Gill-Thind, J. K.; Sheppard, T. D.; Millar, N S

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have divers...

  1. The influence of allosteric modulators and transmembrane mutations on desensitisation and activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzidaki, Anna; D'Oyley, Jarryl M; Gill-Thind, JasKiran K.; Sheppard, Tom D; Millar, Neil S.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by binding at an extracellular orthosteric site. Previous studies have described several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that are selective for homomeric α7 nAChRs. These include type I PAMs, which exert little or no effect on the rate of receptor desensitisation, and type II PAMs, which cause a dramatic loss of agonist-induced desensitisation. Here we report evidence that transmembrane mutations in α7 nAChRs have divers...

  2. Strains of Lentinula edodes suppress growth of phytopathogenic fungi and inhibit Alagoas serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus Linhagens de Lentinula edodes inibem fungos fitopatogênicos e o vírus da estomatite vesicular, sorotipo Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma H. Sasaki

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Four Lentinula edodes strains (Le10, 46, K2, Assai were assessed for their antagonistic effect on four filamentous fungus species of agricultural importance (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp, Fusarium solani and Phomopsis sojae and on Alagoas serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSA. The L. edodes strains studied had variable effects on the filamentous fungi and on VSA. The K2 and Le10 strains were antagonistic on the fungi assessed and the 46 and K2 strains were efficient on the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. The results widened the list of beneficial effects of L. edodes on the control and prevention of animal pathogenic virus and filamentous fungi.Quatro linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Le10, 46, K2, ASSAI foram avaliadas quanto ao seu efeito inibitório sobre quatro espécies de fungos filamentosos de importância agrícola (Helminthosporium euphorbiae, Helminthosporium sp., Fusarium solani, Phomopsis sojae e sobre o sorotipo Alagoas vírus da estomatite vesicular (VSA. Foi observado que as linhagens de L. edodes estudadas apresentaram variabilidade quanto ao seu efeito, tanto sobre os fungos filamentosos quanto sobre o vírus VSA. As linhagens K2 e Le10 apresentaram-se antagônicas sobre os fungos e as linhagens 46 e K2 foram eficientes na inibição do vírus VSA. Os resultados obtidos permitem ampliar a lista de efeitos benéficos de algumas linhagens de L. edodes no controle e prevenção de vírus patogênicos animais e de fungos filamentosos.

  3. Theoretical studies of interaction models of human acetylcholine esterase with different inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease(AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly.Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors(AChEI) are the main drugs used in the treatment of AD.In this work,docking studies have been performed in order to understand the interaction between a number of inhibitors(tacrine,rivastigmine,huperzine A,TV-3326(ladostigil),donepezil and anseculin) and acetylcholine esterase(AChE).The calculated binding affinities between inhibitors and AChE increase in the order tacrine

  4. Acetylcholine secretion by motor neuron-like cells from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueyuan Liu; Dehua Li; Dong Jiang; Yan Fang

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s were isolated by a double enzyme digestion method. The third passage of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s was induced with heparin and/or basic fi-broblast growth factor. Results confirmed that cel morphology did not change after induction with basic fibroblast growth factor alone. However, neuronal morphology was visible, and microtu-bule-associated protein-2 expression and acetylcholine levels increased fol owing induction with heparin alone or heparin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor. Hb9 and choline acetyl-transferase expression was high fol owing inductive with heparin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor. Results indicate that the inductive effect of basic fibroblast growth factor alone was not obvious. Heparin combined with basic fibroblast growth factor noticeably promoted the differen-tiation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s into motor neuron-like cel s. Simultaneously, um-bilical cord mesenchymal stem cel s could secrete acetylcholine.

  5. Functional Characterization of CCHamide and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Guilin Robin

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large and ancient superfamily of membraneproteins responsible for the transduction of extracellular signals to the inside of the cells. In thisPh.D. thesis, Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) was used as a model organism to investigate a numberof topics...... is a newly discovered insect peptide hormone. The function of this novel peptide hasnot been well characterised. In this Ph.D. thesis, I identified CCHamide-2 peptides in endocrinecells of the gut and neurones of the brain of larvae and endocrine cells of the gut of adultDrosophila. Behavioural assays...... little is known about muscarinic acetylcholine receptorsignalling in insects. In this study, I found that two types of mAChRs occur in D. melanogaster, onecoupling to Gq (A-type) and the other to Gi (B-type). Both A- and B-type Dm-mAChRs can beactivated by acetylcholine (ACh), but the classical...

  6. Acetylcholine produces contraction mediated by cyclooxigenase pathway in arterial vessels in the marine fish (Isacia conceptionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Moraga

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies showed that dorsal artery contraction mediated by acetylcholine (ACh is blocked with indomethacin in intertidal fish (G. laevifrons. Our objective was to characterize the cholinergic pathway in several artery vessels of the I. conceptionis. Afferent and efferent branchial, dorsal and mesenteric arteries were dissected of 6 juvenile specimens, isometric tension studies were done using doses response curves (DRC for Ach (10–13 to 10–3 M, and cholinergic pathways were obtained by blocking with atropine or indomethacin. CRC to ACh showed a pattern of high sensitivity only in efferente branchial artery and low sensibility in all vessels. Furthermore, these contractions were blocked in the presence of atropine and indomethacin in all vessels. Our results corroborate previous results observed in intertidal species that contraction induced by acetylcholine is mediated by receptors that activate a cyclooxygenase contraction pathway.

  7. Evidence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the retinal centrifugal system of the chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calaza K.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we characterize the presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR in the isthmo-optic nucleus (ION of chicks by immunohistochemistry with the M35 antibody. Some M35-immunoreactive fibers were observed emerging from the retinal optic nerve insertion, suggesting that they could be centrifugal fibers. Indeed, intraocular injections of cholera toxin B (CTb, a retrograde tracer, and double-labeling with M35 and CTb in the ION confirmed this hypothesis. The presence of M35-immunoreactive cells and the possible mAChR expression in ION and ectopic neuron cells in the chick brain strongly suggest the existence of such a cholinergic system in this nucleus and that acetylcholine release from amacrine cells may mediate interactions between retinal cells and ION terminals.

  8. Magnesium sulfate enhances non-depolarizing muscle relaxant vecuronium action at adult muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong WANG; Qi-sheng LIANG; Lan-ren CHENG; Xiao-hong LI; Wei FU; Wen-tao DAI; Shi-tong LI

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of magnesium sulfate and its interaction with the non-depolarizing muscle relaxant vecuronium at adult muscle-type acetylcholine receptors in vitro.Methods:Adult muscle-type acetylcholine receptors were expressed in HEK293 cells.Drug-containing solution was applied via a gravity-driven perfusion system.The inward currents were activated by brief application of acetylcholine (ACh),and recorded using whole-cell voltage-clamp technique.Results:Magnesium sulfate (1-100 mmol/L) inhibited the inward currents induced ACh (10 μmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner (IC5o=29.2 mmol/L).The inhibition of magnesium sulfate was non-competitive.In contrast,vecuronium produced a potent inhibition on the adult muscle-type acetylcholine receptor (IC50=8.7 nmol/L) by competitive antagonism.Magnesium sulfate at the concentrations of 1,3,and 6 mmol/L markedly enhanced the inhibition of vecuronium (10 nmol/L) on adult muscle-type acetylcholine receptors.Conclusion:Clinical enhancement of vecuronium-induced muscle relaxation by magnesium sulfate can be attributed partly to synergism between magnesium sulfate and non-depolarizing muscle relaxants at adult muscle-type acetylcholine receptors.

  9. Activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the nucleus accumbens core is necessary for the acquisition of drug reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Jose A; Sturm, Katja; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2006-05-31

    Neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens core (NACore) during the acquisition of remifentanil or cocaine reinforcement was determined in an operant runway procedure by simultaneous tandem mass spectrometric analysis of dopamine, acetylcholine, and remifentanil or cocaine itself. Run times for remifentanil or cocaine continually decreased over the five consecutive runs of the experiment. Intra-NACore dopamine, acetylcholine, and drug peaked with each intravenous remifentanil or cocaine self-administration and decreased to pre-run baseline with half-lives of approximately 10 min. As expected, remifentanil or cocaine peaks did not vary between the five runs. Surprisingly, however, drug-contingent dopamine peaks also did not change over the five runs, whereas acetylcholine peaks did. Thus, the acquisition of drug reinforcement was paralleled by a continuous increase in acetylcholine overflow in the NACore, whereas the overflow of dopamine, the expected prime neurotransmitter candidate for conditioning in drug reinforcement, did not increase. Local intra-accumbens administration by reverse microdialysis of either atropine or mecamylamine completely and reversibly blocked the acquisition of remifentanil reinforcement. Our findings suggest that activation of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the NACore by acetylcholine volume transmission is necessary during the acquisition phase of drug reinforcement conditioning.

  10. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-02-03

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach), a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  11. Abundance, distribution, mobility and oligomeric state of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in live cardiac muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nenasheva, Tatiana A.; Neary, Marianne; Gregory I. Mashanov; Birdsall, Nigel J.M.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cardiac rhythm via regulation of the inward potassium current. To increase our understanding of M2 receptor physiology we used Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy to visualize individual receptors at the plasma membrane of transformed CHOM2 cells, a cardiac cell line (HL-1), primary cardiomyocytes and tissue slices from pre- and post-natal mice. Receptor expression levels between individual cells in dissociated cardiomyocytes and he...

  12. Annulated heterocyclic bioisosteres of norarecoline. Synthesis and molecular pharmacology at five recombinant human muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Ebert, B; Brann, M R;

    1995-01-01

    A series of O-alkylated analogs of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4H-isoxazolo[4,5-c]azepin-3-ol (THAO) were synthesized and characterized as ligands for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). O-Methyl-THAO (4a), O-ethyl-THAO (4b), O-isopropyl-THAO (4c), and O-propargyl-THAO (4d) were shown to be poten...

  13. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew K.; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Steeve H Thany; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldw...

  14. Chemical Stimulation of Adherent Cells by Localized Application of Acetylcholine from a Microfluidic System

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Zibek; Britta Hagmeyer; Alfred Stett; Martin Stelzle

    2010-01-01

    Chemical stimulation of cells is inherently cell type selective in contrast to electro-stimulation. The availability of a system for localized application of minute amounts of chemical stimulants could be useful for dose related response studies to test new compounds. It could also bring forward the development of a novel type of neuroprostheses.In an experimental setup micro-droplets of an acetylcholine solution were ejected from a fluidic microsystem and applied to the bottom of a nanoporou...

  15. Acetylcholine receptors from human muscle as pharmacological targets for ALS therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Eleonora; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Lopergolo, Diego; Roseti, Cristina; Bertollini, Cristina; Ruffolo, Gabriele; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Onesti, Emanuela; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease leading to motor neuron degeneration and progressive paralysis. Other studies have revealed defects in skeletal muscle even in the absence of motor neuron anomalies, focusing on acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and supporting the so-called “dying-back” hypothesis. Our results indicate that the endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) reduces the rundown of AChRs currents in ALS muscle and can clinically improve patients’ pulmonary funct...

  16. BDNF Up-Regulates α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Levels on Subpopulations of Hippocampal Interneurons

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Kerri A; Zago, Wagner M.; Berg, Darwin K.

    2006-01-01

    In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates a number of synaptic components. Among these are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs), which are interesting because of their relative abundance in the hippocampus and their high relative calcium permeability. We show here that BDNF elevates surface and intracellular pools of α7-nAChRs on cultured hippocampal neurons and that glutamatergic activity is both necessary and sufficient for the ef...

  17. Acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to active cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress in humans. Given that acetylcholine is released from cholinergic nerves during whole body heating, coupled with evidence that acetylcholine causes vasodilation via NO mechanisms, it is possible that release of acetylcholine in the dermal space contributes to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress. To test this hypothesis, in seven subjects skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were simultaneously monitored over three microdialysis membranes placed in the dermal space of dorsal forearm skin. One membrane was perfused with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (10 microM), the second membrane was perfused with the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 10 mM) dissolved in the aforementioned neostigmine solution (l-NAME(Neo)), and the third membrane was perfused with Ringer solution as a control site. Each subject was exposed to approximately 20 min of whole body heating via a water-perfused suit, which increased mean body temperature from 36.4 +/- 0.1 to 37.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C (P vasodilation was significantly lower at the neostigmine-treated site relative to the other sites (neostigmine: 36.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C, l-NAME(Neo): 37.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C, control: 36.9 +/- 0.1 degrees C), whereas no significant threshold difference was observed between the l-NAME(Neo)-treated and control sites. At the end of the heat stress, SkBF was not different between the neostigmine-treated and control sites, whereas SkBF at the l-NAME(Neo)-treated site was significantly lower than the other sites. These results suggest that acetylcholine released from cholinergic nerves is capable of modulating cutaneous vasodilation via NO synthase mechanisms early in the heat stress but not after substantial cutaneous vasodilation.

  18. Posttranslational modifications of human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: zooming in its functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Fernández, Wilber

    2011-01-01

    The human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) regulates many important physiological roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, representing attractive potential pharmacological target for intervention. However, the lack of structural information on this receptor hampered the development of new potent antagonist with increased selectivity and lower side effects. Such structural inf...

  19. Acetylcholine increases the breakdown of triphosphoinositide of rabbit iris muscle prelabelled with [32P] phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, A A; Akhtar, R A; Hawthorne, J N

    1977-01-15

    1. Paired iris smooth muscles from rabbits were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in an iso-osmotic salt medium containg glucose, inositol, cytidine and [32P]phosphate. 2. One of the pair was then incubated at 37 degrees C for 10 min in unlabelled medium containing 10mM-2-deoxyglucose and the other was incubated in the presence of acetylcholine plus eserine (0.05mM each). 2-Deoxyglucose, which was included in the incubation medium to minimize the biosynthesis of triphosphoinositide from ATP and diphosphoinositide, decreased the amount of labelled ATP by 71% and inhibited further 32P incorporation from ATP into triphosphoinositide by almost 30%. 3. Acetylcholine (0.05mM) increased significantly the loss of 32P from triphosphoinositide (the 'triphosphoinositide effect') in 32P-labelled iris muscle. This effect was measured both chemically and radiochemically. It was also observed when 32Pi was replaced by myo-[3H]inositol in the incubation medium. 4. The triphosphoinositide effect was blocked by atropine but not by D-tubocurarine. Further, muscarinic but not nicotinic agonists were found to provoke this effect. 5. Acetylcholine decreased by 28% the 32P incorporation into triphosphoinositide, presumably by stimulating its breakdown. This decrement in triphosphoinositide was blocked by atropine, but not by D-tubocurarine. 6. The triphosphoinositide effect was accompanied by a significant increase in 32P labelling, but not tissue concentration, of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid. The possible relationship between the loss of 32P label from triphosphoinositide in response to acetylcholine and the concomitant increase in that of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid is discussed. 7. The presence of triphosphoinositide phosphomonoesterase, the enzyme that might be stimulated in the iris smooth muscle by the neurotransmitter, was demonstrated, and, under our methods of homogenization and assay, more than 80% of its activity was localized in the

  20. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Signalling: Roles in Alzheimer's Disease and Amyloid Neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the major contributor to dementia in the elderly, involves accumulation in the brain of extracellular plaques containing the β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. AD is also characterized by a loss of neurons, particularly those expressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), thereby leading to a reduction in nAChR numbers. The Aβ1–42 protein, which is toxic to neurons, is critical to the onset and...

  1. Dopamine modulates acetylcholine release via octopamine and CREB signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suo

    Full Text Available Animals change their behavior and metabolism in response to external stimuli. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB is a signal-activated transcription factor that enables the coupling of extracellular signals and gene expression to induce adaptive changes. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters regulate CREB and such regulation is important for long-term changes in various nervous system functions, including learning and drug addiction. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the amine neurotransmitter octopamine activates a CREB homolog, CRH-1, in cholinergic SIA neurons, whereas dopamine suppresses CREB activation by inhibiting octopamine signaling in response to food stimuli. However, the physiological role of this activation is unknown. In this study, the effect of dopamine, octopamine, and CREB on acetylcholine signaling was analyzed using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. Mutants with decreased dopamine signaling exhibited reduced acetylcholine signaling, and octopamine and CREB functioned downstream of dopamine in this regulation. This study demonstrates that the regulation of CREB by amine neurotransmitters modulates acetylcholine release from the neurons of C. elegans.

  2. Monkey adrenal chromaffin cells express α6β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Hernández-Vivanco

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs that contain α6 and β4 subunits have been demonstrated functionally in human adrenal chromaffin cells, rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, and on noradrenergic terminals in the hippocampus of adolescent mice. In human adrenal chromaffin cells, α6β4* nAChRs (the asterisk denotes the possible presence of additional subunits are the predominant subtype whereas in rodents, the predominant nAChR is the α3β4* subtype. Here we present molecular and pharmacological evidence that chromaffin cells from monkey (Macaca mulatta also express α6β4* receptors. PCR was used to show the presence of transcripts for α6 and β4 subunits and pharmacological characterization was performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology in combination with α-conotoxins that target the α6β4* subtype. Acetylcholine-evoked currents were sensitive to inhibition by BuIA[T5A,P6O] and MII[H9A,L15A]; α-conotoxins that inhibit α6-containing nAChRs. Two additional agonists were used to probe for the expression of α7 and β2-containing nAChRs. Cells with currents evoked by acetylcholine were relatively unresponsive to the α7-selctive agonist choline but responded to the agonist 5-I-A-85380. These studies provide further insights into the properties of natively expressed α6β4* nAChRs.

  3. Possible role of acetylcholine in regulating spatial novelty effects on theta rhythm and grid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caswell eBarry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological and lesion data indicate that acetylcholine plays an important role in memory formation. Increased levels of acetylcholine in the hippocampal formation are associated with successful encoding while disruption of the cholinergic system leads to impairments on a range of mnemonic tasks. Cholinergic signalling from the medial septum also plays a central role in generating and pacing theta-band oscillations throughout the hippocampal formation. New results suggest a potential link between these distinct phenomena. Environmental novelty, a condition associated with strong cholinergic drive, has been shown to induce an expansion in the firing pattern of entorhinal grid cells and a reduction in the frequency of theta measured from the LFP. Computational modelling suggests the spatial activity of grid cells is produced by interference between neuronal oscillators; scale being determined by theta-band oscillations in entorhinal stellate cells, the frequency of which are modulated by acetylcholine. We propose a causal link: increased cholinergic signalling in response to environmental novelty triggers grid expansion. Cholinergic induced grid expansion may enhance, or even induce, encoding by producing a mismatch between spatial inputs to the hippocampus, such as barrier cells and grids cell with different scales.

  4. Effects of dichlorobenzene on acetylcholine receptors in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ren-Ming; Chiung, Yin-Mei; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jenn-Hwa; Liu, Pei-Shan

    2008-11-20

    para-Dichlorobenzene (DCB), a deodorant and an industrial chemical, is a highly volatile compound and is known to be an indoor air contaminant. Because of its widespread use and volatility, the toxicity of DCB presents a concern to industrial workers and public. Some toxic aspects of DCB have already been focused but its effects on neuronal signal transduction have been hitherto unknown. The effects of DCB on the cytosolic calcium homeostasis are investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in this study. DCB, above 200 microM, was found to induce a rise in cytosolic calcium concentration that could not be counteracted by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists but was partially inhibited by thapsigargin. To understand the actions of DCB on the acetylcholine receptors, we investigated its effects on the changes of cytosolic calcium concentration following nicotinic AChR stimulation with epibatidine and muscarinic AChR stimulation with methacholine in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. DCB inhibited the cytosolic calcium concentration rise induced by epibatidine and methacholine with respective IC(50)s of 34 and 294 microM. The inhibitions of DCB were not the same as thapsigargin's inhibition. In the electrophysiological observations, DCB blocked the influx currents induced by epibatidine. Our findings suggest that DCB interferes with the functional activities of AChR, including its coupling influx currents and cytosolic calcium elevations.

  5. Binding of N-methylscopolamine to the extracellular domain of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubík, Jan; Randáková, Alena; Zimčík, Pavel; El-Fakahany, Esam E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Interaction of orthosteric ligands with extracellular domain was described at several aminergic G protein-coupled receptors, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The orthosteric antagonists quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and N-methylscopolamine (NMS) bind to the binding pocket of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor formed by transmembrane α-helices. We show that high concentrations of either QNB or NMS slow down dissociation of their radiolabeled species from all five subtypes of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, suggesting allosteric binding. The affinity of NMS at the allosteric site is in the micromolar range for all receptor subtypes. Using molecular modelling of the M2 receptor we found that E172 and E175 in the second extracellular loop and N419 in the third extracellular loop are involved in allosteric binding of NMS. Mutation of these amino acids to alanine decreased affinity of NMS for the allosteric binding site confirming results of molecular modelling. The allosteric binding site of NMS overlaps with the binding site of some allosteric, ectopic and bitopic ligands. Understanding of interactions of NMS at the allosteric binding site is essential for correct analysis of binding and action of these ligands.

  6. Potential of vesicular stomatitis virus as an oncolytic therapy for recurrent and drug-resistant ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joshua F. Heiber; Xiang-Xi Xu; Glen N. Barber

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade,we have gained significant understanding of the mechanism by which vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) specifically kills cancer cells.Dysregulation of translation and defective innate immunity are beth thought to contribute to VSV oncolysis.Safety and efficacy are important objectives to consider in evaluating VSV as a therapy for malignant disease.Ongoing efforts may enable VSV virotherapy to be considered in the near future to treat drug-resistant ovarian cancer when other options have been exhausted.In this article,we review the development of VSV as a potential therapeutic approach for recurrent or drug-resistant ovarian cancer.

  7. Echinococcus granulosus: first report of microcysts formation from protoscoleces of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular culture technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissondo, M C; Dopchiz, M C; Brasesco, M; Denegri, G

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this work was the achievement of microcysts formation from protoscoleces of E. granulosus of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular culture technique. Vesiculated protoscoleces and protoscoleces with posterior bladders appeared during the first week of incubation. After 14 days of culture, a laminated layer appeared like a fine membrane in one of the extremes of the protoscoleces. On day 20, some microcysts with a complete laminated layer were observed. By day 48, microcysts completely developed could be observed. This is the first study where microcysts formation was obtained using protoscoleces of E. granulosus of cattle origin.

  8. Echinococcus granulosus: first report of microcysts formation from protoscoleces of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular culture technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissondo M.C.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the achievement of microcysts formation from protoscoieces of E. granulosus of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular culture technique. Vesiculated protoscoieces and protoscoieces with posterior bladders appeared during the first week of incubation. After 14 days of culture, a laminated layer appeared like a fine membrane in one of the extremes of the protoscoieces. On day 20, some microcysts with a complete laminated layer were observed. By day 48, microcysts completely developed could be observed. This is the first study where microcysts formation was obtained using protoscoieces of E. granulosus of cattle origin.

  9. Mecanismos moleculares de resistencia a las enfermedades vesiculares virales del ganado criollo colombiano blanco orejinegro (BON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia circulan dos virus que producen enfermedad vesicular en bovinos: Fiebre Aftosa (VFA y Estomatitis Vesicular (VEV. El genoma de estos es ssRNA, el cual durante la replicación da lugar a dsRNA, que es el más potente inductor de interferón (IFN tipo I

  10. Nicotine-morphine interactions at α4β2, α7 and α3(⁎) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talka, Reeta; Salminen, Outi; Whiteaker, Paul; Lukas, Ronald J; Tuominen, Raimo K

    2013-02-15

    Nicotine and opioids share several behavioral and rewarding properties. Although both opioids and nicotine have their own specific mechanism of action, there is empirical and experimental evidence of interactions between these drugs. We studied receptor-level interactions of nicotine and morphine at α4β2, α7 and α3(⁎) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. [(3)H]epibatidine displacement was used to determine if morphine binds competitively to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional interactions of morphine and nicotine were studied with calcium fluorometry and (86)Rb(+) efflux assays. Morphine displaced [(3)H]epibatidine from nicotinic agonist binding sites in all cell lines studied. The Ki values for morphine were 13.2μM in SH-EP1-hα4β2 cells, 0.16μM and 126μM in SH-SY5Y cells and 43.7μM in SH-EP1-hα7 cells. In SH-EP1-hα4β2 cells expressing α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, morphine acted as a partial agonist of (86)Rb(+) efflux comparable to cytisine (with EC50 values of 53.3μM for morphine and 5.38μM for cytisine). The effect of morphine was attenuated concentration-dependently by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine. In the SH-SY5Y cell line expressing several subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors morphine had an inhibitory effect on nicotine induced (86)Rb(+) ion efflux mediated by α3(⁎) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These results suggest that morphine acts as a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and as a weak antagonist at α3(⁎) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  11. Intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ influx are both required for BDNF to rapidly increase quantal vesicular transmitter release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Michelle D; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is well known as a survival factor during brain development as well as a regulator of adult synaptic plasticity. One potential mechanism to initiate BDNF actions is through its modulation of quantal presynaptic transmitter release. In response to local BDNF application to CA1 pyramidal neurons, the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) increased significantly within 30 seconds; mEPSC amplitude and kinetics were unchanged. This effect was mediated via TrkB receptor activation and required both full intracellular Ca(2+) stores as well as extracellular Ca(2+). Consistent with a role of Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels of the TRPC family, the inhibitor SKF96365 prevented the BDNF-induced increase in mEPSC frequency. Furthermore, labeling presynaptic terminals with amphipathic styryl dyes and then monitoring their post-BDNF destaining in slice cultures by multiphoton excitation microscopy revealed that the increase in frequency of mEPSCs reflects vesicular fusion events. Indeed, BDNF application to CA3-CA1 synapses in TTX rapidly enhanced FM1-43 or FM2-10 destaining with a time course that paralleled the phase of increased mEPSC frequency. We conclude that BDNF increases mEPSC frequency by boosting vesicular fusion through a presynaptic, Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism involving TrkB receptors, Ca(2+) stores, and TRPC channels.

  12. Intracellular Ca2+ Stores and Ca2+ Influx Are Both Required for BDNF to Rapidly Increase Quantal Vesicular Transmitter Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is well known as a survival factor during brain development as well as a regulator of adult synaptic plasticity. One potential mechanism to initiate BDNF actions is through its modulation of quantal presynaptic transmitter release. In response to local BDNF application to CA1 pyramidal neurons, the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC increased significantly within 30 seconds; mEPSC amplitude and kinetics were unchanged. This effect was mediated via TrkB receptor activation and required both full intracellular Ca2+ stores as well as extracellular Ca2+. Consistent with a role of Ca2+-permeable plasma membrane channels of the TRPC family, the inhibitor SKF96365 prevented the BDNF-induced increase in mEPSC frequency. Furthermore, labeling presynaptic terminals with amphipathic styryl dyes and then monitoring their post-BDNF destaining in slice cultures by multiphoton excitation microscopy revealed that the increase in frequency of mEPSCs reflects vesicular fusion events. Indeed, BDNF application to CA3-CA1 synapses in TTX rapidly enhanced FM1-43 or FM2-10 destaining with a time course that paralleled the phase of increased mEPSC frequency. We conclude that BDNF increases mEPSC frequency by boosting vesicular fusion through a presynaptic, Ca2+-dependent mechanism involving TrkB receptors, Ca2+ stores, and TRPC channels.

  13. Didelphis marsupialis como un reservorio potencial u hospedero amplificador del virus de la estomatitis vesicular, serotipo new jersey en Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Arboleda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available

    La Estomatitis Vesicular (EV es una enfermedad viral, aguda
    y autolimitante que afecta principalmente bovinos, equinos y
    porcinos. Es producida por el virus de estomatitis vesicular (VEV, serotipos New Jersey (VEV-NJ e Indiana (VEV-IN, que son los as importantes epidemiológicamente (1. Los estudios serológicos demuestran que VEV-NJ y VEV-IN infectan en forma natural una gran variedad de animales silvestres, que están posiblemente implicados en la  coepizootiología de la EV, como hospederos portadores, mplificadores o reservorios (2.

    La zarigüeya (Didelphis marsupialis es un buen candidato
    para cumplir esta función, debido a que es la especie silvestre
    mayormente capturada en zonas enzoóticas; presenta altos
    porcentajes de infección natural (3, resiste la antropización y
    además, su comportamiento le permite interactuar con
    diferentes poblaciones de vectores u otros reservorios en los
    bosques y servir como fuente de infección para las especies
    domésticas susceptibles.

     

     

  14. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hypoxia/ Reoxygenation-Induced Mitochondrial and Cytosolic ROS Formation in H9c2 Cells via M2 Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Miao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anti-infammatory and cardioprotective effect of acetylcholine (ACh has been reported; nevertheless, whether and how ACh exhibits an antioxidant property against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R-induced oxidative stress remains obscure. Methods: In the present study, H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R to mimic I/R injury. We estimated intracellular different sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS by measuring mitochondrial ROS (mtROS, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number, xanthine oxidase (XO and NADPH oxidase (NOX activity and expression of rac 1. Cell injury was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release and cleaved caspase-3 expression. The siRNA transfection was performed to knockdown of M2 acetylcholine receptor (M2 AChR expression. Results: 12-h hypoxia followed by 2-h reoxygenation resulted in an abrupt burst of ROS in H9c2 cells. Administration of ACh reduced the levels of ROS in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to the H/R group, ACh decreased mtROS, recovered mtDNA copy number, diminished XO and NOX activity, rac 1 expression as well as cell injury. Co- treatment with atropine rather than hexamethonium abolished the antioxidant and cardioprotective effect of ACh. Moreover, knockdown of M2 AChR by siRNA showed the similar trends as atropine co-treatment group. Conclusions: ACh inhibits mitochondria-, XO- and NOX-derived ROS production thus protecting H9c2 cells against H/R-induced oxidative stress, and these benefcial effects are mainly mediated by M2 AChR. Our findings suggested that increasing ACh release could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment and prevention of I/R injury.

  15. Effects of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muzaffar; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2016-07-15

    Evidence indicates that microglial activation contributes to the pathophysiology and maintenance of neuroinflammatory pain involving central nervous system alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of 3a,4,5,9b-Tetrahydro-4-(1-naphthalenyl)-3H-cyclopentan[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (TQS), an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), on tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation in hippocampus, a neuroinflammatory pain model in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of TQS on microglial activation marker, an ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), in the hippocampus may be associated with neuroinflammatory pain. Pretreatment of TQS (4mg/kg) significantly reduced LPS (1mg/kg)-induced tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Moreover, pretreatment of methyllycaconitine (3mg/kg) significantly reversed TQS-induced antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic responses indicating the involvement of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pretreatment of TQS significantly decreased LPS-induced increased in hippocampal Iba-1 expression. Overall, these results suggest that TQS reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammatory pain like symptoms via modulating microglial activation likely in the hippocampus and/or other brain region by targeting alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Therefore, alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PAM such as TQS could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of neuroinflammatory pain.

  16. Limitations of RNAi of α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits for assessing the in vivo sensitivity to spinosad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank D.Rinkevich; Jeffrey G.Scott

    2013-01-01

    Spinosad is a widely used insecticide that exerts its toxic effect primarily through interactions with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.The α6 nicotinic acetyl-choline receptor subunit is involved in spinosad toxicity as demonstrated by the high levels of resistance observed in strains lacking α6.RNAi was performed against the Dα6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in Drosophila melanogaster using the Ga14-UAS system to examine if RNAi would yield results similar to those of Dα6 null mutants.These Dα6-deficient flies were subject to spinosad contact bioassays to evaluate the role of the Dα6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit on spinosad sensitivity.The expression of Dα6 was reduced 60%-75% as verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.However,there was no change in spinosad sensitivity in D.melanogaster.We repeated RNAi experiments in Tribolium castaneum using injection of dsRNA for Tcasα6.RNAi of Tcasα6 did not result in changes in spinosad sensitivity,similar to results obtained with D.melanogaster.The lack of change in spinosad sensitivity in both D.melanogaster and T.castaneum using two routes of dsRNA administration shows that RNAi may not provide adequate conditions to study the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits on insecticide sensitivity due to the inability to completely eliminate expression of the α6 subunit in both species.Potential causes for the lack of change in spinosad sensitivity are discussed.

  17. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine stimulate exocrine secretion of epidermal growth factor from the rat submandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the rat salivary glands was investigated. VIP in doses of 3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-8) mol/kg per h stimulated secretion of saliva and total output of EGF dose-dependently. Acet......The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the rat salivary glands was investigated. VIP in doses of 3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-8) mol/kg per h stimulated secretion of saliva and total output of EGF dose......-dependently. Acetylcholine also stimulated salivation and output of EGF. VIP in a dose of 3 X 10(-11) to 3 X 10(-10) mol/kg per h enhanced the stimulatory effect of acetylcholine, but this effect disappeared when the dose of VIP was increased. Adrenalectomy decreased acetylcholine stimulated total output of EGF...

  18. Partial nicotinic acetylcholine (α4β2 agonists as promising new medications for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety of partial agonists of a4β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Data Sources: Primary literature and review articles were obtained via a PUBMED search (1988-August 2006 using the key terms smoking cessation, partial agonist alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, varenicline, cytisine and SSR591813. Additional studies and abstracts were identified from the bibliographies of reviewed literature. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Studies and review articles related to varenicline, cytisine and the partial agonist alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were reviewed. Data Synthesis: Smoking is widely recognized as a serious health problem. Smoking cessation has major health benefits. According to the US Public Health Services, all patients attempting to quit smoking should be encouraged to use one or more effective pharmacotherapy. Currently, along with nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, nortriptyline and clonidine, are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy. More than ¾ of patients receiving treatment for smoking cessation return to smoking within the first year. Nicotine, through stimulating α4β 2 nAChR, releases dopamine in the reward pathway. Partial agonist of α4β 2 nAChR elicits moderate and sustained release of dopamine, which is countered during the cessation attempts; it simultaneously blocks the effects of nicotine by binding with α4β 2 receptors during smoking. Recently, varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β 2 nAChR, has been approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation. Conclusion: Partial agonist α4β 2 nAChR appears to be a promising target in smoking cessation. Varenicline of this group is approved for treatment of smoking cessation by the FDA in May 2006.

  19. The effect of acetylcholine-like biomimetic polymers on neuronal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qin; Li, Li; Zhang, Yanrong; Wang, Jianchun; Liu, Rui; Li, Manlin; Liu, Wenming; Wang, Xueqin; Ren, Li; Wang, Jinyi

    2011-04-01

    Driven by clinical needs, nerve regeneration studies have recently become the focus of research and area of growth in tissue engineering. Biomimetic polymer synthesis and functional interface construction is a promising solution to induce neuritic sprouting and guide the regenerating nerve. However, few studies have been made on primary hippocampal neurons. In this study, a new type of acetylcholine-like biomimetic polymers for their potential in biomaterial-modulated nerve regeneration application is synthesized using click chemistry and free radical polymerization. The structure of the synthesized polymers includes a "bioactive" unit (acetylcholine-like unit) and a "bioinert" unit [poly(ethylene glycol) unit]. To explore the effects of the bioactive unit and the bioinert unit on neuronal growth, different ratios of the two initial monomers poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether-glycidyl methacrylate (MePEG-GMA) and dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) were employed and five different polymers were synthesized. Their chemical structures were characterized using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and their physical properties (including molecular weight, polydispersity, glass transition temperature, and melting point) were determined using gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. Culturing of the primary rat hippocampal neurons on the polymeric surfaces show that the ratio of the two initial monomers utilized for polymer synthesis significantly affects neuronal growth. Rat hippocampal neurons show different growth morphologies on different polymeric surfaces. The polymeric surface prepared with 1:60 (mol/mol) of MePEG-GMA to DMAEMA induces neuronal regenerative responses similar to that on poly-l-lysine, a very common benchmark material for nerve cell cultures. These results suggest that acetylcholine-like biomimetic polymers are potential biomaterials for neural engineering applications

  20. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns.