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Sample records for acetate lactate propionate

  1. The voluntary intake of hay and silage by lactating cows in response to ruminal infusion of acetate or propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by a balloon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H; Forbes, J M

    1993-05-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that negative feedback signals from abdominal receptors are integrated in an additive manner in the control of voluntary food intake, cows with rumen fistulas were given intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate or sodium propionate, or both, with or without distension of the rumen by balloon. Intakes were monitored during the 3 h experimental period and for 2 h after and samples of rumen fluid were taken for estimation of short-chain fatty acid concentrations and osmolality. Six cows in mid-lactation were fed on hay and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 5.5 mol sodium acetate, 5.2 mol sodium propionate and 7.5 l of distension. Compared with the control (water infusion), neither acetate, propionate nor distension significantly depressed hay intake when given separately. When given in combination, however, the following significantly depressed intake during the 3 h treatment period: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Seven cows in early lactation were fed on silage and concentrates and given, into the rumen, 9.0 mol sodium acetate, 4.0 mol sodium propionate and 10.0 litres of distension. Again, none of the three given alone depressed silage intake to a significant extent during the 3 h treatment period, whereas the following combinations had a significant effect: propionate + distension, acetate + distension, acetate + propionate + distension. Basal rumen osmolalities were similar for the two types of feed but infusion of the sodium salts caused a very much greater increase with silage than with hay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of acetate and propionate esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.; Guthmuller, Julien; MacDonald, Michael A.; Zuin, Lucia; Delwiche, Jacques; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Lesniewski, Tadeusz; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    The electronic state and photoionization spectroscopy of a series of acetate esters: methyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate and pentyl acetate as well as two propionates: methyl propionate and ethyl propionate, have been determined using vacuum-ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. These experimental investigations are complemented by ab initio calculations. The measured first adiabatic and vertical ionization energies were determined as: 10.21 and 10.45 eV for methyl acetate, 9.99 and 10.22 eV for isopropyl acetate, 10.07 and 10.26 eV for butyl acetate, 10.01 and 10.22 eV for pentyl acetate, 10.16 and 10.36 eV for methyl propionate and 9.99 and 10.18 eV for ethyl propionate. For the four smaller esters vibrational transitions were calculated and compared with those identified in the photoelectron spectrum, revealing the most distinctive ones to be a Csbnd O stretch combined with a Cdbnd O stretch. The ionization energies of methyl and ethyl esters as well as for a series of formates and acetates were compared showing a clear dependence of the value of the ionization energy on the size of the molecule with very little influence of its conformation.

  3. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  4. Bacterial populations and processes involved in acetate and propionate consumption in anoxic brackish sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; De Graaf, W.; Köster, M.; Meyer-Reil, L.A.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial populations and pathways involved in acetate and propionate consumption were studied in anoxic brackish sediment from the Grosser Jasmunder Bodden, German Baltic Sea. Uptake of acetate and propionate from the porewater was studied using stable carbon isotope-labeled compounds. Labeled acet

  5. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  6. Conversion regular patterns of acetic acid,propionic acid and butyric acid in UASB reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Min; REN Nan-qi; CHEN Ying; ZHU Wen-fang; DING Jie

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of continuous tests and batch tests, conversion regular patterns of acetate, propionate and butyrate in activated sludge at different heights of the UASB reactor were conducted. Results indicated that the conversion capacity of the microbial is decided by the substrate characteristic when sole VFA is used as the only substrate. But when mixed substrates are used,the conversion regulations would have changed accordingly. Relationships of different substrates vary according to their locations. In the whole reactor, propionate's conversion is restrained by acetate and butyrate of high concentration. On the top and at the bottom of the reactor, conversion of acetate, but butyrate, is restrained by propionate. And in the midst, acetate's conversion is accelerated by propionate while that of butyrate is restrained. It is proved, based on the analysis of specific conversion rate, that the space distribution of the microbe is the main factor that affects substrates' conversion. The ethanol-type fermentation of the acidogenic-phase is the optimal acid-type fermentation for the two-phase anaerobic process.

  7. Temporal Microbial Community Dynamics in Microbial Electrolysis Cells – Influence of Acetate and Propionate Concentration

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2017-07-20

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are widely considered as a next generation wastewater treatment system. However, fundamental insight on the temporal dynamics of microbial communities associated with MEC performance under different organic types with varied loading concentrations is still unknown, nevertheless this knowledge is essential for optimizing this technology for real-scale applications. Here, the temporal dynamics of anodic microbial communities associated with MEC performance was examined at low (0.5 g COD/L) and high (4 g COD/L) concentrations of acetate or propionate, which are important intermediates of fermentation of municipal wastewaters and sludge. The results showed that acetate-fed reactors exhibited higher performance in terms of maximum current density (I: 4.25 ± 0.23 A/m), coulombic efficiency (CE: 95 ± 8%), and substrate degradation rate (98.8 ± 1.2%) than propionate-fed reactors (I: 2.7 ± 0.28 A/m; CE: 68 ± 9.5%; substrate degradation rate: 84 ± 13%) irrespective of the concentrations tested. Despite of the repeated sampling of the anodic biofilm over time, the high-concentration reactors demonstrated lower and stable performance in terms of current density (I: 1.1 ± 0.14 to 4.2 ± 0.21 A/m), coulombic efficiency (CE: 44 ± 4.1 to 103 ± 7.2%) and substrate degradation rate (64.9 ± 6.3 to 99.7 ± 0.5%), while the low-concentration reactors produced higher and dynamic performance (I: 1.1 ± 0.12 to 4.6 ± 0.1 A/m; CE: 52 ± 2.5 to 105 ± 2.7%; substrate degradation rate: 87.2 ± 0.2 to 99.9 ± 0.06%) with the different substrates tested. Correlating reactor\\'s performance with temporal dynamics of microbial communities showed that relatively similar anodic microbial community composition but with varying relative abundances was observed in all the reactors despite differences in the substrate and concentrations tested. Particularly, Geobacter was the predominant bacteria on the anode biofilm of all MECs over time suggesting its

  8. Structure and Rotational Dynamics of Isoamyl Acetate and Methyl Propionate Studied by Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, W.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Sutikdja, L. W.; Jelisavac, D.; Mouhib, H.; Kleiner, I.

    2012-06-01

    The microwave spectra of a number of organic aliphatic esters have been recorded for the first time in the 3-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave (MB-FTMW) spectrometer in Aachen, with an instrumental uncertainty of a few kHz for unblended lines. The combined use of ab initio quantum chemical calculations and spectral analysis allowed us to determine the spectroscopic parameters and potential barriers to internal rotation of the methyl groups for the lowest energy conformers. We will compare here the results from ab initio calculations and from two different hamiltonian methods (the XIAM and BELGI codes) for isoamyl acetate H3C-COO-(CH2)2-CH(CH3)2, an one-top internal rotor molecule with a C1 symmetry and for methyl propionate CH3CH2COOCH3 containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), with different barrier heights. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the structures of the lowest energy conformers for a serie of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavour or perfume applications.

  9. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (λ) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (μ) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning λ, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning μ, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for μ and λ will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage.

  10. Acetate and propionate in landfill leachates: Implications for the recognition of microbiological influences on the composition of waters in sedimentary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, D. A. C.

    1997-03-01

    Routine monitoring of landfill leachates provides information concerning aqueous systems in which anaerobic microbiological processes influence water chemistry. Propionate and acetate are substrate and product, respectively, of metabolism by bacteria that have an obligate syntrophic relationship with sulfate-reducing bacteria. The stoichiometry of the bacteriological metabolic reactions indicates a 1:1 molar proportionality for acetate and propionate. This is observed for landfill leachates, consistent with the known biological control on their organic acid anion contents. Similar data for oil-field waters show the same 1:1 molar proportionality for reservoirs where bacterial sulfate reduction is known to take place, at temperatures up to about 95 °C, in contrast to the 3:2 proportionality (acetic acid:propionic acid) observed in higher temperature systems. These observations suggest that 1:1 molar proportionality for acetate and propionate may be characteristic of natural systems where anaerobic bacterial activity occurs, including bacterial sulfate reduction.

  11. Determination of low-ppt levels of acetate, propionate, and formate in semiconductor-grade deionized water via ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanatta, L E

    2010-08-01

    The goals of this research were the development of a method to determine acetate, propionate, and formate at low part-per-trillion (ppt; w/w) levels in deionized water, and the assessment of sources of variability and contamination associated with the method; both objectives were met. A calibration study involving six replicates of each of four standards (blank, 20, 50, and 80 ppt) resulted in straight-line (with ordinary-least-squares fitting) curves for all analytes. At 95% confidence, the half-widths of the prediction intervals were +/- 30, 14, and 14 ppt for the three analytes, respectively. Much of the acetate and formate seen in blanks was found to originate in the deionized water system itself. For formate, peak heights increased with water temperature.

  12. Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Natalie L; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis. Treatments were 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d continuously infused into the rumen for 4 d. Rumen short-chain FAs, plasma hormones and metabolites, milk fat concentration, and milk FA profile were analyzed on day 4 of each treatment. Polynomial contrasts were used to test the linear and quadratic effects of increasing acetate supply.Results: Acetate increased milk fat yield quadratically (P synthesis pathways. Apparent transfer of acetate to milk fat was 33.4%, 36.2%, and 20.6% for 5, 10, and 15 mol/d, respectively. Acetate infusion linearly increased the relative concentration of rumen acetate (P synthesis, suggesting that nutritional strategies that increase ruminal acetate absorption would be expected to increase milk fat by increasing de novo FA synthesis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. The source of inoculum plays a defining role in the development of MEC microbial consortia fed with acetic and propionic acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vianey; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Kang, Dae-Wook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Buitrón, Germán

    2014-07-20

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used as a downstream process to dark fermentation to further capture electron in volatile fatty acids that remain after fermentation, improving this way the viability of the overall process. Acetic and propionic acid are common products of dark fermentation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different initial concentrations of a mixture of acetic and propionic acids on MECs microbial ecology and hydrogen production performance. To link microbial structure and function, we characterized the anode respiring biofilm communities using pyrosequencing and quantitative-PCR. The best hydrogen production rates (265mL/d/Lreactor) were obtained in the first block of experiments by MEC fed with 1500mg/L acetic acid and 250mg/L propionic acid. This reactor presents in the anode biofilm an even distribution of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and Arcobacter was the dominant genera. The above fact also correlated to the highest electron load among all the reactors. It was evidenced that although defined acetic and propionic acid concentrations fed affected the structure of the microbial consortia that developed at the anode, the initial inoculum played a major role in the development of MEC microbial consortia.

  14. 铑催化乙酸乙酯羰基化合成丙酸的研究%Rh Catalyzed Carbonylation of Ethyl Acetate to Propionic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌晨; 黄志军

    2013-01-01

    以乙酸乙酯为原料,在金属铑催化下与一氧化碳进行羰基化反应,生成丙酸.研究了碘化物添加剂和反应条件对丙酸产率的影响.由于避免了乙醇在酸性条件下的酯化和分子间脱水等副反应,丙酸产率显著提高.乙酸乙酯羰基化具有与甲醇羰基化相似的动力学行为.碘化物添加剂的加入能有效提高反应速率和丙酸选择性.通过优化反应条件,丙酸产率大于95%.%Rhodium was used to catalyze the carbonylation of ethyl acetate with carbon monoxide to propionic acid.The effect of iodide additives and reaction conditions on yield of propionic acid was studied.Because of avoiding the esterification and intermolecular dehydration of ethanol the yield of propionic acid was improved significantly.The kinetic behavior of ethyl acetate carbonylation was similar with methanol carbonylation.The reaction rate and propionic acid selectivity were increased obviously with the introduction of iodide additives.The propionic acid yield is greater than 95% under the optimum conditions.

  15. Comparison of lactate, formate, and propionate as hydrogen donors for the reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene in a continuous-flow column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F.; Marshall, Ian P. G.; Behrens, Sebastian; Spormann, Alfred M.; Semprini, Lewis

    2010-04-01

    A continuous-flow column study was conducted to analyze the reductive dehalogenation of trichloroethene (TCE) with aquifer material with high content of iron oxides. The column was bioaugmented with the Point Mugu (PM) culture, which is a mixed microbial enrichment culture capable of completely transforming TCE to ethene (ETH). We determined whether lactate, formate, or propionate fermentation resulted in more effective dehalogenation. Reductive dehalogenation, fermentation, and sulfate, Fe(III), and Mn(IV) reduction were all exhibited within the column. Different steady-states of dehalogenation were achieved based on the concentration of substrates added, with effective transformation to ETH obtained when ample electron donor equivalents were provided. Most of the metabolic reducing equivalents were channeled to sulfate, Fe(III), and Mn(IV) reduction. When similar electron reducing equivalents were added, the most effective dehalogenation was achieved with formate, with 14% of the electron equivalents going towards dehalogenation reactions, compared to 6.5% for lactate and 9.6% for propionate. Effective dehalogenation was maintained over 1000 days of column operation. Over 90% of electron equivalents added could be accounted for by the different electron accepting processes in the column, with 50% associated with soluble and precipitated Fe(II) and Mn(II). Bulk Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction was rather associated with lactate and propionate addition than formate addition. Sulfate reduction was a competing electron acceptor reaction with all three electron donors. DNA was extracted from solid coupon samples obtained during the course of the experiment and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and quantitative PCR. Lactate and propionate addition resulted in a significant increase in Geobacter, Spirochaetes, and Desulfitobacterium phylotypes relative to " Dehalococcoides" when compared to formate addition. Results from the molecular biological analyses support

  16. Formate, acetate, and propionate as substrates for sulfate reduction in sub-arctic sediments of Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Jaussi, Marion; Røy, Hans;

    2015-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are key intermediates in the anaerobic mineralization of organic matter in marine sediments. We studied the role of VFAs in the carbon and energy turnover in the sulfate reduction zone of sediments from the sub-arctic Godthåbsfjord (SW Greenland) and the adjacent...... continental shelf in the NE Labrador Sea. VFA porewater concentrations were measured by a new two-dimensional ion chromatography-mass spectrometry method that enabled the direct analysis of VFAs without sample pretreatment. VFA concentrations were low and surprisingly constant (4–6 μmol L−1 for formate...... to −16 kJ (mol formate)−1, −68 to −31 kJ (mol acetate)−1, and −124 to −65 kJ (mol propionate)−1. Thus, ΔGr is apparently not determining the in-situ VFA concentrations directly. However, at the bottom of the sulfate zone of the shelf station, acetoclastic sulfate reduction might operate at its energetic...

  17. The temperature dependence of the retention index for n-alkyl esters of acetic, propionic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, benzoic and phenylacetic acid on DB-1 and DB-5 capillary columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN Z. MIJIN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the retention index was studied for n-alkyl esters of acetic, propionic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, benzoic and phenylacetic acid on DB-1 and DB-5 capillary columns. The study was performed over various temperature ranges depending on the volatility of the ester. Two linear equations of the temperature dependence of the retention data on the column temperature and its reciprocal as variables were studied. Agood linearity of the retention index versus column temperature was found.

  18. The formation of propionate and acetate as terminal processes in the energy metabolism of the adult liver fluke Fasciola hepatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, F. van; Meer, P. van der; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1979-01-01

    1. 1. The formation of propionate from succinate occurs in the mitochondria of the adult common liver fluke essentially by a reversal of the pathway operating in mammalian mitochondria in the conversion of propionate into succinate. 2. 2. The conversion of succinate into its CoA ester is linked by

  19. Effects of pH and acetic acid on homoacetic fermentation of lactate by Clostridium formicoaceticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, I C; Okos, M R; Yang, S T

    1989-10-20

    Clostridium formicoaceticum homofermentatively converts lactate to acetate at 37 degrees C and pH 6.6-9.6. However, this fermentation is strongly inhibited by acetic acid at acidic pH. The specific growth rate of this organism decreased from a maximum at pH 7.6 to zero at pH 6.6. This inhibition effect was found to be attributed to both H(+) and undissociated acetic acid. At pH values below 7.6, the H(+) inhibited the fermentation following non-competitive inhibition kinetics. The acetic acid inhibition was found to be stronger at a lower medium pH. At pH 6.45-6.8, cell growth was found to be primarily limited by a maximum undissociated acetic acid concentration of 0.358 g/L (6mM). This indicates that the undissociated acid, not the dissociated acid, is the major acid inhibitor. At pH 7.6 or higher, this organism could tolerate acetate concentrations of higher than 0.8M, but salt (Na(+)) became a strong inhibitor at concentrations of higher than 0.4M. Acetic acid inhibition also can be represented by noncompetitive inhibition kinetics. A mathematical model for this homoacetic fermentation was also developed. This model can be used to simulate batch fermentation at any pH between 6.9 and 7.6.

  20. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of undissociated lactic, acetic, citric and propionic acid for Listeria monocytogenes under conditions relevant to cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmenhove, Ellen; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Zwietering, Marcel H; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2016-09-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of undissociated lactic acid were determined for six different Listeria monocytogenes strains at 30 °C and in a pH range of 4.2-5.8. Small increments in pH and acid concentrations were used to accurately establish the growth/no growth limits of L. monocytogenes for these acids. The MICs of undissociated lactic acid in the pH range of 5.2-5.8 were generally higher than at pH 4.6 for the different L. monocytogenes strains. The average MIC of undissociated lactic acid was 5.0 (SD 1.5) mM in the pH range 5.2-5.6, which is relevant to Gouda cheese. Significant differences in MICs of undissociated lactic acid were found between strains of L. monocytogenes at a given pH, with a maximum observed level of 9.0 mM. Variations in MICs were mostly due to strain variation. In the pH range 5.2-5.6, the MICs of undissociated lactic acid were not significantly different at 12 °C and 30 °C. The average MICs of undissociated acetic acid, citric acid, and propionic acid were 19.0 (SD 6.5) mM, 3.8 (SD 0.9) mM, and 11.0 (SD 6.3) mM, respectively, for the six L. monocytogenes strains tested in the pH range 5.2-5.6. Variations in MICs of these organic acids for L. monocytogenes were also mostly due to strain variation. The generated data contribute to improved predictions of growth/no growth of L. monocytogenes in cheese and other foods containing these organic acids.

  1. Effects of injection of acetic acid and propionic acid for total phosphorus removal at high temperature in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, C Y; Kwon, K H; Kim, S W; Min, K S; Lee, T U; Park, D J

    2014-01-01

    In summer, wastewater treatment plant total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency is low in South Korea. The reason is because of high temperatures or significant fluctuation of inflow characteristics caused by frequent rainfall. Hence, this study tried to raise TP removal efficiency by injecting fixed external carbon sources in real sewage. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) compete to occupy microorganisms at high temperature. Propionate is known to restrain GAOs. Thus, acetate and propionate were chosen as the external carbon source in this study to find out the suitable volume and ratio of carbon source which ensured the dominance of PAOs. An external carbon source was supplied in the anaerobic reactor of the biological phosphorus removal process at high temperature (above 25 °C). TP removal efficiency was improved by injecting an external carbon source compared to that without an external carbon source. Also, it remained relatively stable when injecting an external carbon source, despite the variation in temperature. TP removal efficiency was the highest when injecting acetate and propionate in the proportion of 2:1 (total concentration as chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 12 mg/L in influent).

  2. Effect of mesenteric vein infusion of propionate on splanchnic metabolism in primiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, E A; Rulquin, H; Huntington, G B

    1994-11-01

    Our objective was to assess the effects of increased propionate supply on gut and liver function in lactating cows. Four multicatheterized, primiparous cows (30.4 +/- .5 kg/d of milk) were fed for ad libitum intake a diet of 50% alfalfa hay and 50% concentrate (20.6 +/- 1.9 kg/d of DM, 226 +/- 21 MJ/d of metabolizable energy, and 611 +/- 56 g/d of N). Each cow received intramesenteric infusions of NaCl (control) or Na-propionate (150 mmol/h of a 2.5 M solution) in a reversal design. After 72 h of infusion, blood flow (by indicator dilution) and net flux (venoarterial differences multiplied by blood flow) were measured across portal-drained viscera and the liver. Energy supply from feed consumed and from infusion was similar between treatments. Energy that was excreted as milk decreased with propionate infusion. Propionate infusion increased arterial concentration of propionate; decreased absorption of acetate, butyrate, and valerate; and decreased hepatic removal of L-lactate, butyrate, valerate, NEFA, and oxygen. Propionate infusion decreased splanchnic release of glucose and increased splanchnic release of acetate and alanine. Net flux of urea, BHBA, insulin, or glucagon was unaffected by treatments. Our data show a link between a greater proportion of energy supplied as propionate and decreased energy excreted as milk. This response was associated with decreased net removal of glucogenic and ketogenic substrates by the liver and increased supply of acetate for use by peripheral tissues.

  3. Densities and Viscosities of the Ternary Mixtures Water + Butyl Acetate + Methanol and Water + Ethyl Propionate + Methanol at 303.15 K

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran P. Visak; Ferreira, Abel G. M.; Fonseca, Isabel M. A.

    2000-01-01

    The excess molar volumes, VE, and viscosity deviations, Δη, were calculated from the measured density and viscosity values over the whole miscibility composition ranges for the ternary systems water + butyl acetate + methanol and water + ethyl propionate + methanol and their constituent binaries, at 303.15 K and atmospheric pressure. A Redlich−Kister type equation was used to correlate binary VE and Δη data, as well as the ternary data. This equation was used to calculate the above referred p...

  4. Preliminary Observations on Safety of Children Whose Mother Use Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate During Lactation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小菲; 雷贞武; 袁晓蓉; 杜桂来; 李梅; 赵玉琼; 刘光海; 吴尚纯

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the safety of the children breast-fed by the mothers receiving depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) during lactation Methods A total of 180 children were divided into two groups. The children in the experimental group (n= 90) included those whose mothers were given DMPA injection during lactation while mothers of the children in the control group (n = 90), at the same time, did not use DMPA. The body weight, height, head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral adaptation of children in the two groups were measured and compared.Results There were no significant differences (P> 0. 05) in the body weight, height,head circumference, chest circumference, sitting-height, intelligence and behavioral in two groups.Conclusion DMPA can be safely used in breast-feeding women without harmful effects on physical and intellectual developments and behavioral adaptation of their offspring.

  5. Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control. The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W, while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt. Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05 in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail, prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P0.05 in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, testes, epididymal (head, body weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05 in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of

  6. Development of an Acetate-Fed or Sugar-Fed Microbial Power Generator for Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose • Acetate Propionate • Hydrogen gas • Lactate • Formate • !so-butyrate Unknown fbiomass -’-soluble products ) KM. 80 60 I" 20 DavO...lactate and acetate as fermentation products and is ready for test in the MFC modules. 1. Anode materials We compared the performances of acetate-fed...microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with graphite rods and stainless steel meshes as anodes to select the optimum material for use in MFC modules to

  7. Metabolic side-effects of injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, 150 mg three-monthly, in undernourished lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Results of a study on the metabolic side-effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in undernourished lactating women, compared with non-lactating women, in three centres in India and Thailand are reported. Analysis of the data on anthropometric and biochemical parameters at the time of recruitment indicated that the lactating women were lighter and had lower plasma glucose and triglyceride levels and a higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Serum cholesterol levels tended to be higher during the first six months of lactation. Use of DMPA over a period of one year was not associated with any alteration in glucose tolerance and in the serum triglyceride, total protein and albumin levels. The observed fall in the cholesterol level and alkaline phosphatase activity in DMPA users might be attributed to waning lactation. PMID:3490928

  8. Concentration Changes of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate in Serum and Milk in Lactating Woman Who Used Depo Geston

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua FANG; Dan-li SUN; Hai-ying JIANG; Hong-ying LUO

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the concentration changes of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in serum and milk in the Chinese lactating women who used Depo Geston Methods Ten postpartum and breastfeeding women received an injectable contraceptive of Depo Geston (depo medroxyprogesterone acetate, DMPA, 150 mg/ampoule). Serum and milk samples were collected in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th 10th and 12th week after contraceptive injection. The concentrations of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in serum and milk were determined by radioimmunoassay.Results The highest MPA concentration in serum was observed at the 1st week and then the level of serum MPA decreased obviously at the 2nd and 4th week. After the 4th week, the decline of serum MPA level slowed down. The concentration of milk MPA reached the highest level at 1st week. But at the 2nd week the average level of MPA in milk dropped by half The MPA concentration in the milk was changed in the range of 5.2 -8.3 ng/mL in the following 10 weeks. During observation, the average ratios of concentration and area under curve (AUC) in milk/serum were both 0.55. There was a wide variation in MPA concentrations and ratios of milk/serum between subjects.Conclusion MPA concentrations maintained a certaim level at the 12th week after DMPA injection. However, whether mather's intake of DMPA during feeding period has effect on children 's growth, espcially pubertal growth, deserves further studies.

  9. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  10. Effect of treating lactating rats with lead acetate and its interaction with vitamin E or C on neurobehavior, development and some biochemical parameters in their pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the effect of administration of vitamin E (600mg/ kg diet concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally and vitamin C (100mg/kg, orally concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally to the female lactating rats on the neurobehavioral, landmarks development and some biochemical tests in their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in open field activity test including (the number of squares crossed and rearing test within 3 minutes, olfactory discrimination test, triglycerides and malondialdehyde brain tissue, with a significant decrease in glutathione brain tissue and high density lipoproteins in their pups. The present study demonstrated that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin C and lead acetate produced a significant decrease in righting reflex test in their pups. Administration of vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in glutathione level accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and triglycerides levels in their pups. The present study showed that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin E or C with lead acetate produced a significant decrease in rearing test, whereas a significant increase in high density lipoproteins in their pups. It is concluded that administration vitamin E or C to the female lactating rats reverse the adverse effects produced by lead acetate on neurobehavioral. Vitamin E had positive effect on the levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, triglyceride and high density lipoproteins in their lactating pups.

  11. Acetate, lactate, propionate, and isobutyrate as electron donors for iron and sulfate reduction in Arctic marine sediments, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finke, Niko; Vandieken, Verona; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as e--donors for anaerobic terminal oxidation of organic carbon through iron and sulfate reduction was studied in Arctic fjord sediment. Dissolved inorganic carbon, Fe2+, VFA concentrations, and sulfate reduction were monitored in slurries from...

  12. Propionic acid production by cofermentation of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans in sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chonggang; Brandt, Markus J; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate was formed in sourdough with medium ash content, but only 9 and 28 mM propionate were formed in sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour or whole wheat flour, respectively. Acetate levels were comparable in all three sourdoughs and ranged from 160 to 175 mM. Sourdough fermented with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans was used in breadmaking and its effect on fungal spoilage was compared to traditional sourdough or propionate addition to straight doughs. Bread slices were inoculated with Aspergillus clavatus, Cladosporium spp., Mortierella spp. or Penicillium roquefortii. The use of 20% experimental sourdough inhibited growth of three of the four moulds for more than 12 days. The use of 10% experimental sourdough deferred growth of two moulds by one day. Bread from traditional sourdough with added acetate had less effect in inhibiting mould growth. In conclusion, cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans represents a process to increase antifungal capacities of bread.

  13. Depot-medroxy progesterone acetate as an effective contraception method in lactating mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Monish Babre

    2016-10-01

    Methods: This is retrospective study performed at Family Planning Association of India's Kutumb Sudhar Kendra. Mumbai Central. Result: Patients who had received first dose at 6 weeks of postpartum period and those who received between 6 weeks to one year showed lactation in 84.16% and non-lactation in 15.84%. 28.71% lactating patients had taken injection at 6 weeks of post-partum period and 71.29% had taken between 6 weeks to 1 year. Lactating patients who had taken injection at 6 weeks and continued DMPA for more than 4 injections were 48.27%. 36.84% non-lactating patients had continued for more than 4 injections. This signifies that acceptance and continuation rate of DMPA is more in lactating patients than in non-lactating patients. Conclusions: DMPA is an effective method of contraception in lactating mothers; proper counseling will increase awareness and acceptance of DMPA in lactating mothers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3422-3424

  14. Intravenous supplementation of acetate, glucose or essential amino acids to an energy and protein deficient diet in lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, S.; Nielsen, M. O.

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiment we aimed to study, if milk synthesis is more sensitive toward deficiency in supply of amino acids in early (EL) versus late lactation (LL), and if energy yielding substrates in the form of acetate (but not glucose) can contribute to sustain milk (protein) synthesis, when...... amino acid supply is suboptimal. Goats were fed a basal diet deficient in energy (90% of requirements) and protein (80% of requirements), and were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of 4-d continuous intravenous infusions of isoosmotic...... protein energy recommendations for ruminants across the lactation period. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Effects of Maternal Lead Acetate Exposure during Lactation on Postnatal Development of Testis in Offspring Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Dorostghoal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDuring recent years, there has been an increasing interest in contribution of environmental pollutants as heavy metals to human male infertility. Present study was aimed to investigate the effects of maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation on postnatal development of testis in offspring rats.Materials and MethodsA total of 60 female rats randomly divided into four equal groups; control and three treatment groups received 20, 100 and 300 mg/kg/day lead acetate via drinking water from day 2 to day 21 of lactation. At 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90 and 120 days after birth, the testis weight and volume of offspring were measured and their epididymal semen analyzed. Following tissue processing, 5 μm sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and evaluated with quantitative techniques. Testicular parameters in different groups were compared by one-way ANOVA.ResultsTestis weight and volume of offspring decreased significantly in a dose-related manner in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups. Dose-dependent significant reductions were seen in seminiferous tubules diameter and germinal epithelium height during neonatal, prepubertal and postpubertal periods in moderate (P< 0.05 and high (P< 0.01 doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in mean sperm density of offspring at puberty in moderate and high doses groups until 90 and 120 days after birth, respectively. Testosterone levels decreased significantly in a dose-related manner at puberty in moderate and high doses groups. ConclusionPresent study showed maternal lead acetate exposure during lactation caused dose-related and long-term alterations of testicular parameters in offspring rats.

  16. Propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces NKG2D ligand expression on human-activated T lymphocytes and cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Hansen, Karen Aagaard; Jensen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    We found that propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B on activated T lymphocytes and different cancer cells, without affecting MICA/B expression on resting peripheral blood cells. Growth supernatant from propionibacteria or propionate alone could...... activity. Other short-chain fatty acids such as lactate, acetate, and butyrate could also induce MICA/B expression. We observed a striking difference in the molecular signaling pathways that regulate MICA/B. A functional glycolytic pathway was essential for MICA/B expression after exposure to propionate...... that propionate, produced either by bacteria or during cellular metabolism, has significant immunoregulatory function and may be cancer prophylactic....

  17. Simultaneous determination of 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and 3-4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid in human urine by Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongli; Liu, Fan; Wan, Yiqun

    2017-03-27

    A simple and reliable method was established for simultaneous determination of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, and 3-4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Solid-phase extraction was used to eliminate the interferences in urine. The separation of three analytes was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase formed by a 95:5 v/v mixture of 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer at pH 6.8 that contained 5 mmol/L tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and acetonitrile. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid, and 3-4-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid were 4.8 × 10(-3) , 8.80 × 10(-3) , and 9.00 × 10(-3) mg/L, respectively, and the recoveries were in the range of 85.0-120.0% with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.1%. This method was used to analyze urine samples from breast cancer patients, healthy people and postsurgery breast cancer patients. Significant differences of urinary levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid could be found between the breast cancer patients group and other two groups. No effect of age and sex was observed on the urinary levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid. This method might be helpful for cancer biomarkers discovery in urine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1

  19. Pharmacodynamic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) administered to lactating women on their male infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virutamasen, P; Leepipatpaiboon, S; Kriengsinyot, R; Vichaidith, P; Muia, PN; SekaddeKigondu, CB; Mati, JKG; Forest, MG; Dikkeschei, LD; Wolthers, BG; dArcangues, C

    1996-01-01

    Normal postpartum women, who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery of one full-term male infant, free of congenital abnormalities and other diseases, were recruited for this study. Thirteen women received 150 mg depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), intramuscularly on days 42 + 1 and 126 + 1 postpa

  20. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G Bako

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary

  1. Effects of calcium propionate supplementation on lactation performance and metabolites in early lactation Holstein dairy cows%丙酸钙对泌乳早期奶牛泌乳性能和代谢产物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王聪; 黄应祥; 刘强; 郭刚; 张延利

    2009-01-01

    选用32头经产奶牛,根据泌乳期、上个泌乳期305 d产奶量和预产期,采用随机区组设计分为4组,对照组饲喂基础日粮,处理1、2、3组分别在基础日粮基础上添加丙酸钙100、200、300 g/d.结果显示,日粮添加丙酸钙对奶牛的采食量、乳脂率、乳蛋白率、乳糖率和乳干物质率无显著影响,200、300 g/d组产奶量和饲料转化效率显著高于对照组(P0.05).Milk yield and feed efficiency of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were higher than those of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 100 g/d and fed control diet significantly(P<0.05).Concentrations of glucose and insulin in plasma of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were higher than those cows fed control diet significantly(P<0.05).Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in plasma of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were lower than of cows fed control diet significantly (P<0.05).Concentrations of urine ketones of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 200 g/d and 300 g/d were lower than that of cows supplemented calcium propionate at 100 g/d and fed control diet significantly(P<0.05).These results indicated that the optimal dose of was 200 g/d calcium propionate supplementation.

  2. 离子色谱法测定工业废气中的甲酸、乙酸和丙酸%Industrial waste gas by ion chromatography determination of formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红星

    2013-01-01

    建立了用离子色谱法测定工业废气中甲酸、乙酸和丙酸的新方法,常规无机阴离子对本方法的测定没有干扰。本方法分析速度快,所需样品量少,且无需要复杂的前处理,简便、灵敏、可靠。%established by ion chromatography determination of formic acid , acetic acid and propionic acid in industrial waste gas , a new method for the determination of inorganic anions , the conventional method without interference .This method is fast , small quantity of sam-ple, and no need of complicated pretreatment , simple, sensitive, reliable.

  3. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: juan.rromero@uclm.es

    2006-02-15

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  4. Effects of RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation during the transition period on vitamin status in blood and milk of organic dairy cows during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, H; Nadeau, E; Persson Waller, K;

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of daily supplementation with RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate, during the transition period around calving, on concentrations of α-tocopherol in plasma and milk from prepartum to mid-late lactation of dairy cows. Retinol and β-carotene contents also were measured. The study...... included 2 experiments, where all cows were fed 100% organic diets, with high proportions of grass-legume forage. The experimental design was a randomised complete block. In experiment 1, the basal diet contained 70 and 60IU of RRR-α-tocopherol/kg DM (dry period and lactation, respectively...... calving. Retinol concentrations in plasma in experiment 1 were generally low (transition period), indicating that vitamin A supplementation also is necessary, especially during the transition period...

  5. Mixing Study of Poly( lactic acid ) /Cellulose Acetate Propionate Composites%聚乳酸/乙酸丙酸纤维素复合材料共混研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明明; 程增会; 金立维

    2012-01-01

    采用双螺杆挤出工艺制备聚乳酸( PLA)/乙酸丙酸纤维素(CAP)简单共混复合材料.通过力学性能、吸水性、扫描电子显微镜、动态热机械分析和热重分析等手段,研究了CAP用量对复合材料拉伸强度、微观形态及松弛行为的影响.结果表明,随着CAP用量的增加,其拉伸强度出现峰值,加入CAP使复合材料具有较好的力学性能,同时没有影响PLA的链段运动.%The binary mixing composites of poly ( 1 actic acid) ( PLA ) / cellulose acetate propionate ( CAP ) were prepared by twin-screw extrusion process. The effects of CAP content on tensile strength, morphology and relaxation behavior of the composites were studied by mechanical property test, water absorption, SEM, DMA and TG analysis. The research showed that with increase of CAP content, a peak occured during the curve of tensile strength. The composites had better mechanical properties with adding CAP. Meanwhile, the CAP molecules did not affect the relaxation activity of PLA chains.

  6. A Thermodynamic Model for Acetate, Lactate, and Oxalate Complexation with Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), and U(VI) Valid to High Ionic Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bynaum, R.V.; Free, S.J.; Moore, R.C.

    1999-01-15

    The organic ligands acetate, lactate, oxalate and EDTA have been identified as components of wastes targeted for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in Southeastern New Mexico. The presence of these ligands is of concern because complexation of the actinides with the ligands may increase dissolved actinide concentrations and impact chemical retardation during transport. The current work considers the complexation of Am(III), Th (IV), Np(V), and U(W) with two of the organic ligands, acetate and lactate, in NaCl media from dilute through high concentration. A thermodynamic model for actinide complexation with the organic ligands has been developed based on the Pitzer activity coefficient formalism and the Harvie-Moller-Weare, Felmy-Weare database for describing brine evaporite systems. The model was parameterized using first apparent stability constant data from the literature. Because of complexation of other metal ions (Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, etc.) present in the WIPP disposal room with the organic ligands, preliminary results from model calculations indicate the organic ligands do not significantly increase dissolved actinide concentrations.

  7. 14C-labeled propionate metabolism in vivo and estimates of hepatic gluconeogenesis relative to Krebs cycle flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, B R; Schumann, W C; Chandramouli, V; Magnusson, I; Kumaran, K; Wahren, J

    1993-10-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to estimate in humans, using 14C-labeled propionate, the rate of hepatic gluconeogenesis relative to the rate of Krebs cycle flux; 2) to compare those rates with estimates previously made using [3-14C]lactate and [2-14C]acetate; 3) to determine if the amount of ATP required for that rate of gluconeogenesis could be generated in liver, calculated from that rate of Krebs cycle flux and splanchnic balance measurements, previously made, and 4) to test whether hepatic succinyl-CoA is channeled during its metabolism through the Krebs cycle. [2-14C]propionate, [3-14C]-propionate, and [2,3-14C]succinate were given along with phenyl acetate to normal subjects, fasted 60 h. Distributions of 14C were determined in the carbons of blood glucose and of glutamate from excreted phenylacetylglutamine. Corrections to the distributions for 14CO2 fixation were made from the specific activities of urinary urea and the specific activities in glucose, glutamate, and urea previously found on administering [14C]-bicarbonate. Uncertainties in the corrections and in the contributions of pyruvate and Cori cyclings limit the quantitations. The rate of gluconeogenesis appears to be two or more times the rate of Krebs cycle flux and pyruvate's decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA, metabolized in the cycle, less than one-twenty-fifth the rate of its decarboxylation. Such estimates were previously made using [3-14C]lactate. The findings support the use of phenyl acetate to sample hepatic alpha-ketoglutarate. Ratios of specific activities of glucose to glutamate and glucose to urinary urea and expired CO2 indicate succinate's extensive metabolism when presented in trace amounts to liver. Utilizations of the labeled compounds by liver relative to other tissues were in the order succinate = lactate > propionate > acetate. ATP required for gluconeogenesis and urea formation was approximately 40% of the amount of ATP generated in liver. There was no channeling of succinyl-CoA in

  8. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids.

  9. Fragrance material review on phenethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fragrance material review on 2-phenoxyethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenoxyethyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenoxyethyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenoxyethyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fragrance material review on anisyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 饲用酸化剂中甲酸、乙酸、丙酸、乳酸、柠檬酸的同步测定%Determination of formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, citric acid in feed acidifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索德成; 李兰; 樊霞

    2012-01-01

    A method of the simultaneous determination of the contents of formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, citric acid in feed acidifier by HPLC was established. The separation was performed on Grom-Silorg acid(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase of hydrochloric acid solution (pH 2.5)/The detection wave length was 210 nm.The flow rate was 1,0 ml/min and the column temperature was 30 ℃.Good linearities of five acid were showed. The average recoveries were greater than 85% respectively, RSD was less than 10.0%.The result of real sample have been shown: the method was simple, rapid and reliable for the simultaneous determination of formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, citric acid in organic acids.%实验建立利用高效液相色谱同时测定饲用酸化剂中甲酸、乙酸、丙酸、乳酸、柠檬酸含量的方法.采用Grom-Sil org acid柱(250 mm×2.1 mm,5μm)进行分析.流动相为pH值2.5磷酸水溶液;流速为1.0 ml/min;检测波长为210 nm;柱温为30℃.在此色谱条件下,5种有机酸分离良好.平均回收率均大于85%,RSD小于10.0%.对实际样品的检测结果表明:该方法操作简便易行,准确可靠.

  13. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose...... of succinate-propionate pathway which consumes reducing power (NADH) via conversion of succinate to propionyl-CoA and produce propionate. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. The common gut microbe Eubacterium hallii also contributes to intestinal propionate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eEngels

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Eubacterium hallii is considered an important microbe in regard to intestinal metabolic balance due to its ability to utilize glucose and the fermentation intermediates acetate and lactate, to form butyrate and hydrogen. Recently, we observed that E. hallii is capable of metabolizing glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA, reuterin with reported antimicrobial properties. The key enzyme for glycerol to 3-HPA conversion is the cobalamin-dependent glycerol/diol dehydratase PduCDE which also utilizes 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD to form propionate. Therefore our primary goal was to investigate glycerol to 3-HPA metabolism and 1,2-PD utilization by E. hallii along with its ability to produce cobalamin. We also investigated the relative abundance of E. hallii in stool of adults using 16S rRNA and pduCDE based gene screening to determine the contribution of E. hallii to intestinal propionate formation. We found that E. hallii utilizes glycerol to produce up to 9 mM 3-HPA but did not further metabolize 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD. Utilization of 1,2-PD in the presence and absence of glucose led to the formation of propanal, propanol and propionate. E. hallii formed cobalamin and was detected in stool of 74% of adults using 16S rRNA gene as marker gene (n = 325. Relative abundance of the E. hallii 16S rRNA gene ranged from 0 to 0.59% with a mean relative abundance of 0.044%. E. hallii PduCDE was detected in 63 to 81% of the metagenomes depending on which subunit was investigated beside other taxons such as Ruminococcus obeum, Ruminococcus gnavus, Flavonifractor prautii, Intestinimonas butyriciproducens, and Veillonella spp. In conclusion, we identified E. hallii as a common gut microbe with the ability to convert glycerol to 3-HPA, a step that requires the production of cobalamin, and to utilize 1,2-PD to form propionate. Our results along with its ability to use a broad range of substrates point at E. hallii as a key species within the intestinal

  15. Experimental feed induction of ruminal lactic, propionic, or butyric acidosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettat, A; Nozière, P; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P; Berger, C; Martin, C

    2010-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility to induce rumen acidosis with propionate, butyrate, or lactate as the major fermentation end products. Three rumen-cannulated Texel wethers were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. Each period consisted of 11 d of adaptation where wethers were daily fed at 90% of ad libitum intake a hay and wheat-based concentrate diet (4:1 ratio on a DM basis) in 2 equal portions followed by 3 d of acidosis induction. During the challenge, the morning feeding was replaced by an intraruminal supply of wheat (readily fermentable starch), corn (slowly fermentable starch), or beet pulp (easily digestible fiber), dosed at 1.2% of BW. Ruminal liquid samples were taken daily 1 h before (-1) and 1, 3, 5, and 6 h after intraruminal feed supply to measure pH, VFA, and lactic acid concentration. The differences between treatments accentuated throughout the 3-d challenge, being maximal and significant on d 3. Indeed, 6 h after the third day of the challenge, mean ruminal pH was less for wheat (4.85) than for corn (5.61; P = 0.008) and beet pulp (6.09; P = 0.001), and total VFA tended to be less for wheat (48.7 mM) than for corn and beet pulp (84.7 mM on average; P = 0.08). At the same time, the proportion of acetate was greater for wheat than for corn (75.5 and 62.2%, respectively; P = 0.005) but did not differ from beet pulp challenge (69.0%). The proportion of propionate was greatest for beet pulp compared with corn and wheat (21.0, 17.3, and 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03), whereas the butyrate proportion was greatest for corn, intermediate for wheat, and least for beet pulp (16.3, 10.8, and 8.3%, respectively; P = 0.05). Lactate concentration was greatest for wheat (45.5 mM) compared with corn and beet pulp (8.3 mM on average; P = 0.01). Under our experimental conditions, ruminal lactic acidosis was successfully induced by wheat, whereas butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis were respectively provoked by corn and beet pulp. We

  16. Monitoring electron donor metabolism under variable electron acceptor conditions using 13C-labeled lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Three sets of flow-through columns constructed with aquifer sediment from Hanford (WA) were used to study reduction of Cr(VI) to poorly soluble Cr(III) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing/fermentative, and iron-reducing conditions with lactate as the electron donor. In order to understand the relationship between electron donors and biomarkers, and to determine the differences in carbon isotope fractionation resulting from different microbial metabolic processes, we monitored the variation in carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in total organic carbon (TOC), and in lactate, acetate and propionate. The greatest enrichment in 13C in columns was observed under denitrifying conditions. The δ13C of DIC increased by ~1750 to ~2000‰ fifteen days after supplementation of natural abundance lactate with a 13C-labeled lactate tracer (for an influent δ13C of ~2250‰ for the lactate) indicating almost complete oxidation of the electron donor. The denitrifying columns were among the most active columns and had the highest cell counts and the denitrification rate was highly correlated with Cr(VI) reduction rate. δ13C values of DIC ranged from ~540 to ~1170‰ for iron-reducing conditions. The lower enrichment in iron columns was related to the lower biological activity observed with lower yields of RNA and cell numbers in the column effluents. The carbon isotope shift in the sulfate-reducing ~198 to ~1960‰ for sulfate-reducing conditions reflecting the lower levels of the lactate in these columns. Additionally, in two of the sulfate columns, almost complete fermentation of the lactate occurred, producing acetate and propionate with the labeled carbon signature, but relatively smaller amounts of inorganic carbon. For all electron-accepting conditions, TOC yielded similar δ13C values as lactate stock solutions. Differences in C use efficiency, metabolic rate or metabolic pathway contributed to the differing TOC δ13C to DIC δ13C ratios between treatments

  17. Supplementing transition cows with calcium propionate-propylene glycol drenching or organic trace minerals: implications on reproductive and lactation performances Suplementación de vacas en periodo de transición con propionato-propilen glicol o minerales traza orgánicos: implicancias para la eficiencia reproductiva y la lactancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OA Peralta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of the supplementation of a calcium propionate-propylene glycol drenching and a commercial organic trace mineral formulation (4-Plex on reproductive and lactation performances in cows during the post-partum period. In trial 1, lactating dairy cows (n = 37 were randomly assigned either to a calcium propionate-propylene glycol drenching (DR or to a control (CODR. Both groups were treated at 12 h post-partum and at 30 DIM. In trial 2, (n = 33 cows were treated with either a trace mineral (TM formula or a placebo (COTM daily from 12 h post-partum until 60 DIM. Blood samples were collected to evaluate calcium, phosphorus and non-esterified fatty acids serum levels. Milk samples were obtained for fat, protein, somatic cell, and ketone bodies composition. Liver biopsies were taken for zinc and copper content. Estruses were detected using a HeatWatch system and ovulations were estimated by detecting progesterone concentrations in milk samples. Supplementation with DR resulted in higher (P El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de evaluar los efectos de una suplementación de propionato de calcio-propilen glicol y una formulación de minerales traza orgánicos (4-Plex en la eficiencia reproductiva y productiva de vacas durante el periodo postparto. En el ensayo 1 se suplementó aleatoriamente a vacas en lactancia (n = 37 con una mezcla de propionato de calcio-propilen glicol (DR o con un control (CODR, al parto (día 0 y al pico de lactancia (día 30. En el ensayo 2 se trató a las vacas (n = 33 con una fórmula de minerales trazas (TM o un placebo (COTM durante el postparto. Los niveles de calcio, fósforo y ácidos grasos no esterificados (NEFA fueron detectados en suero. Se evaluó la composición de grasa, proteína, células somáticas y cuerpos cetónicos en la leche. Los estros fueron detectados utilizando un sistema HeatWatch y las ovulaciones fueron estimadas mediante detección de progesterona

  18. [Faecal lactate as a disease activity index of ulcerative colitis: application to assessment of efficacy in the treatment with total parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M

    1989-08-01

    I investigated changes of faecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in 52 hospitalized patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who had bloody diarrhoea (severe and moderate colitis). The results suggest that molar ratios of faecal lactate could be helpful to monitor the disease activity of UC patients. Faecal SCFA output correlated directly with faecal output. This finding reflected an increase in output of lactate and acetate. In severe colitis, concentrations of faecal lactate were increased, whereas those of faecal major components of SCFA (acetate, propionate and n-buty-rate) were markedly reduced. Further, faecal lactate concentrations were increased in cases with bloody diarrhoea and reduced in those with formed stool. Patients were divided into two groups according with their treatments: patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or low-residue UC diet. The molar ratio of faecal lactate in the TPN group was reduced below 2% in four weeks, whereas that in the UC diet group was reduced into the 2% mark in eight weeks. These findings support that patients in the former group were more rapidly induced into remission.

  19. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-07-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57-96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0-2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  20. Multiple paths of electron flow to current in microbial electrolysis cells fed with low and high concentrations of propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-03-03

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57–96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0–2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations.

  1. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  2. Formation of propionate and butyrate by the human colonic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2017-01-01

    The human gut microbiota ferments dietary non-digestible carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). These microbial products are utilized by the host and propionate and butyrate in particular exert a range of health-promoting functions. Here an overview of the metabolic pathways utilized by gut microbes to produce these two SCFA from dietary carbohydrates and from amino acids resulting from protein breakdown is provided. This overview emphasizes the important role played by cross-feeding of intermediary metabolites (in particular lactate, succinate and 1,2-propanediol) between different gut bacteria. The ecophysiology, including growth requirements and responses to environmental factors, of major propionate and butyrate producing bacteria are discussed in relation to dietary modulation of these metabolites. A detailed understanding of SCFA metabolism by the gut microbiota is necessary to underpin effective strategies to optimize SCFA supply to the host.

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoates of Different Structure Synthesized by Activated Sludge with Acetate and Propionate as Sole Carbon Source%以乙酸钠、丙酸钠为碳源的活性污泥合成聚羟基脂肪酸酯的结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东恩; 张逸伟; 孙东成; 沈家瑞

    2003-01-01

    聚羟基脂肪酸酯(Polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs)是临时储藏于活性污泥的微生物体内的能量和碳源聚合物,是完全可生物降解的热塑性塑料.为了研究碳源对PHAs结构的影响,本文采用乙酸钠、丙酸钠为碳源在厌氧条件下培养活性污泥得到2种不同的PHAs样品,通过1H NMR、13C NMR和GC-MS谱图确定其组成和比例:以乙酸钠培养活性污泥得到PHAs样品的单体组成以3-羟基丁酸酯(3-hydroxybutyrate,3HB)为主,x(3HB)/x(3HV)(3-hydroxyvalerate,3-羟基戊酸酯)为93.91∶6.09;以丙酸钠培养活性污泥得到PHAs样品的单体组成主要以3HV为主,除3HB、3HV外,另外还有2-甲基-3-羟基丁酸酯(2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyrate,2M3HB)和2-甲基-3-羟基戊酸酯(2-methyl-3-hydroxyvalerate,2M3HV), 3HB/3HV/2M3HB/2M3HV的摩尔比为28.66∶63.13∶2.55∶5.66.由此可见采用不同碳源培养活性污泥所得到的PHAs的单体组成是不同的.%Polyhydroxyalkanoates(PHAs) are Polyesters synthesized by numerous bacteria in sludge as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds under the condition of unbalance growth. Another important aspect of PHAs is thermoplastic polyester with the remarkable characteristics of biodegradability. In this paper, in order to research the relations of carbon sources to structure of PHAs, using acetate(Ⅰ) and propionate(Ⅱ) as the unique carbon source, two kinds of PHAs samples were obtained by assimilated sludge as PHAs synthesis strains in the anaerobic process. Their structures were determined by 1H NMR 13C NMR and GC-MS. When the carbon source was acetate, the unit composition of PHAs was 93.91%(mole fraction,x) 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and x=6.09% 3-hydroxyvalerate(3HV); When the carbon source was propionate, the unit composition of PHAs was x=28.66% 3HB, x=63.13% 3HV, x=2.55% 2-methy-3-hydroxybutyrate(2M3HB) and x=5.66% 2-methyl-3-hydroxyvalerate(2M3HV). It showed that PHAs obtained by activated sludge with different carbon sources

  4. An in vitro model of the horse gut microbiome enables identification of lactate-utilizing bacteria that differentially respond to starch induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Biddle

    Full Text Available Laminitis is a chronic, crippling disease triggered by the sudden influx of dietary starch. Starch reaches the hindgut resulting in enrichment of lactic acid bacteria, lactate accumulation, and acidification of the gut contents. Bacterial products enter the bloodstream and precipitate systemic inflammation. Hindgut lactate levels are normally low because specific bacterial groups convert lactate to short chain fatty acids. Why this mechanism fails when lactate levels rapidly rise, and why some hindgut communities can recover is unknown. Fecal samples from three adult horses eating identical diets provided bacterial communities for this in vitro study. Triplicate microcosms of fecal slurries were enriched with lactate and/or starch. Metabolic products (short chain fatty acids, headspace gases, and hydrogen sulfide were measured and microbial community compositions determined using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing over 12-hour intervals. We report that patterns of change in short chain fatty acid levels and pH in our in vitro system are similar to those seen in in vivo laminitis induction models. Community differences between microcosms with disparate abilities to clear excess lactate suggest profiles conferring resistance of starch-induction conditions. Where lactate levels recover following starch induction conditions, propionate and acetate levels rise correspondingly and taxa related to Megasphaeraelsdenii reach levels exceeding 70% relative abundance. In lactate and control cultures, taxa related to Veillonellamontpellierensis are enriched as lactate levels fall. Understanding these community differences and factors promoting the growth of specific lactate utilizing taxa may be useful to prevent acidosis under starch-induction conditions.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 as food additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food (ANS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA ANS Panel provides a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of propionic acid (E 280, sodium propionate (E 281, calcium propionate (E 282 and potassium propionate (E 283 which are authorised as food additives in the EU and have been previously evaluated by the SCF and JECFA. JECFA allocated an ADI “not limited”. The SCF concluded that potassium propionate could be added to the list of preservatives and established an ADI ”not specified”. Propionates are naturally occurring substances in the normal diet. The Panel considered that forestomach hyperplasia reported in long-term studies in rodents is not a relevant endpoint for humans because humans lack this organ. Based on the reported presence of reversible diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the oesophagus the LOAEL for a 90-day study in dogs was considered by the Panel to be 1 % propionic acid in the diet and the NOAEL to be 0.3 % propionic acid in the diet. The Panel considered that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The Panel concluded that the present database did not allow allocation of an ADI for propionic acid - propionates. The overall mean and 95th percentile exposures to propionic acid - propionates resulting from their use as food additives (major contributor to exposure ranged from 0.7-21.1 and 3.6-40.8 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. The Panel noted that the concentration provoking site of contact effect in the 90-day study in dogs (1 % propionic acid in the diet is a factor of three higher than the concentration of propionic acid - propionates in food at the highest permitted level and concluded that for food as consumed, there would not be a safety concern from the maximum concentrations of propionic acid and its salts at their currently authorised uses and use levels as food additives.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: propionic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Propionic acidemia affects about 1 in 100,000 people in the United States. The condition appears to be more common in several populations worldwide, including the Inuit population of Greenland, some Amish communities, and Saudi Arabians. Related Information What information ...

  7. Evidence of In Vivo Absorption of Lactate and Modulation of Short Chain Fatty Acid Absorption from the Reticulorumen of Non-Lactating Cattle Fed High Concentrate Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qumar, Muhammad; Khiaosa-ard, Ratchaneewan; Pourazad, Poulad; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Kandler, Wolfgang; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactate are endproducts of rumen fermentation and important energy sources for the host ruminant. Because their rapid accumulation results in ruminal acidosis, enhancement of the absorption of SCFA and lactate across reticuloruminal wall is instrumental in increasing energy supply and preventing ruminal acidosis in cattle. This study investigated whether the reticuloruminal absorption of SCFAs and lactate was altered by different strategies of high concentrate feeding. Eight rumen-cannulated, non-lactating Holstein cows were fed a forage-only diet (baseline) and then gradually adapted over 6 d to a 60% concentrate level. Thereafter, this concentrate-rich diet was fed for 4 wk either continuously (Con; n = 8) or interruptedly (Int; n = 8). Absorption of SCFAs and lactate was determined in vivo from the experimental buffer introduced into the washed reticulorumen. The buffer contained acetate, propionate, butyrate and lactate at a concentration of 60, 30, 10 and 5 mmol/L, respectively and Cr-EDTA as a marker for correcting ruminal water fluxes. The reticuloruminal absorption after 35 and 65 min of buffer incubation was measured at the baseline, after 1 wk of 60% concentrate feeding in the interrupted model (Int-1) and after 4 wk of concentrate feeding in both feeding models (Int-4 and Con-4). Data showed that the absorption rates of individual and total SCFAs during the first 35 min of incubation of Con-4 were highest (~1.7 times compared to baseline), while Int-1 and Int-4 were similar to respective baseline. Lactate was not absorbed during forage-only baseline and 1-wk concentrate feeding, but after 4-wk feeding of concentrates in both models. In conclusion, SCFAs absorption across the reticulorumen of non-lactating cattle was enhanced by the 4-wk continuous concentrate feeding, which seems to be more advantageous in terms of rumen acidosis prevention compared to the interrupted feeding model. The study provides evidence of

  8. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given intraruminally at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural .... In Experiment 1, twelve four-month-old Dorset × Small-Tail-Han ..... Science Foundation of China (Project No.

  9. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.; Venema, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser extent

  10. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.H.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Roelofsen, H.; Vonk, R.J.; Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced. However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser

  11. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.H.; Peppelenbosch, M.P.; Roelofsen, H.; Vonk, R.J.; Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced. However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser exten

  12. Biological effects of propionic acid in humans; metabolism, potential applications and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, Sa'ad H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.; Venema, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Undigested food is fermented in the colon by the microbiota and gives rise to various microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including acetic, propionic and butyric acid, are the principal metabolites produced However, most of the literature focuses on butyrate and to a lesser extent

  13. Clinical Spectrum of Propionic Acidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the clinical features, physical findings, diagnosis, and laboratory parameters of the patients with propionic acidaemia (PA. Methods. The records of diagnosed cases of propionic acidaemia were reviewed, retrospectively. Results. Twenty-six patients with PA had 133 admissions. The majority (85% of the patients exhibited clinical manifestations in the 1st week of life. Regarding clinical features, lethargy, fever, poor feeding, vomiting, dehydration, muscular hypotonia, respiratory symptoms, encephalopathy, disturbance of tone and reflexes, and malnutrition were observed in 51–92% admissions. Metabolic crises, respiratory diseases, hyperammonaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypoalbuminaemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed in 30–96% admissions. Pancytopenia, ketonuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoglycaemia, and mildly disturbed liver enzymes were found in 12–41% admissions. Generalised brain oedema was detected in 17% and cerebral atrophy in 25% admissions. Gender-wise odd ratio analysis showed value of 1.9 for lethargy, 1.99 for respiratory diseases, 0.55 for anaemia, and 1.82 for hypocalcaemia. Conclusion. Propionic acidaemia usually presents with wide spectrum of clinical features and disturbances of laboratory parameters in early neonatal age. It is associated with significant complications which deteriorate the patients’ quality of life. Perhaps with early diagnosis of the disease and in time intervention, these may be preventable.

  14. Modelling anaerobic digestion in an industrial biogas digester: Application of lactate-including ADM1 model (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Preseela; Biernacki, Piotr; Cypionka, Heribert; Steinigeweg, Sven

    2016-12-05

    A modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1xp) including lactate was applied to a full-scale biogas plant. This model considers monosaccharides to degrade through lactic acid, which further degrades majorly into acetate followed by propionate and butyrate. Experimental data were derived from the previous works in the same laboratory, and the proposed parameters were validated against batch experiments. After successful validation, the biogas plant bearing a fermenter size of 7 dam(3) and operated with food waste and cattle manure was simulated. The biogas production and methane content were reliably simulated, and a good fit could be obtained against the experimental data with an average difference of less than 1%. When compared to the original ADM1 model, the performance of the lactate-incorporated model was found to be improved. Inclusion of lactate as a parameter in the ADM1xp model is recommended for an increased sensitivity and enhanced prediction principally for systems dealing with high carbohydrate and lactate loads.

  15. Rice genotypes evaluate under the interactive phytotoxic effect of acetic, propionic and butyric acidsAvaliação de genótipos de arroz sob o efeito fitotóxico interativo dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of 20 rice genotypes to acetic, pripionic and butyric acid, a phytotoxic compounds produced in low drainage soils with high organic matter content. This work was performed in hydroponics with four acid doses (0; 3; 6 e 9 mM and 6:3:1 relationship acetic, propionic and butyric respectively. A factorial random block design with three replications were performed. The variables measured were root (CR and shoot (CPA length, number of roots (NR and root (MSR and shoot (MSPA dry matter. The data relative to the measured variables were subjected to an analysis of variance in a factorial model (4x20 and regression fitting, considering dose and genotype as fixed factors. Significance for the interaction (genotype vs. dose was found only for CR and CPA. The variable CR was the most influenced by the acid and the regression stablished for the variables CR and CPA revealed 2 genotypes with root length stability and 3 with shoot length stability front to organic acid stress. Genotypes with higher rusticity and developed for irrigated systems were more tolerant. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de 20 genótipos de arroz aos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, compostos fitotóxicos produzidos em solos de deficiente drenagem e alto teor de matéria orgânica. O trabalho foi executado em sistema de hidroponia com 4 doses (0; 3; 6 e 9 mM dos ácidos na relação 6:3:1 acético, propiônico e butírico respectivamente. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados com 3 repetições num esquema fatorial. As variáveis mensuradas foram comprimento de raízes (CR e parte aérea (CPA, número de raízes (NR e massa seca de raízes (MSR e parte aérea (MSPA. Os dados relativos às variáveis mensuradas foram submetidos à análise de variância em um modelo fatorial (4x20, considerando dose e genótipo como fatores fixos e ajuste de regressões. A variável CR foi a mais afetada

  16. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bangsoe; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiaer [Bioprocess Science and Technology, BioCentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation acetate increased significantly during the feeding periods from a level of 2-4 to 12-17 mM, but the concentration generally dropped to about the same level as before feeding. The fluctuations in the propionate were more moderate than for acetate but the average level rose during 1 week of operation from 0.6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best describe the normalizing of the process. In a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor experiment, with manure as main substrate, the prospective of using either propionate concentration or methane production as single process indicators was studied. Propionate was found to be the best indicator. Thus, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate was used as process indicator. (author)

  17. Dynamics of Microbial Community Structure of and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal by Aerobic Granules Cultivated on Propionate or Acetate▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafter, an exponential increase in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity was observed in the propionate granules, but a linear and erratic increase was detected in the acetate ones. Besides Accumulibacter and Competibacter, other bacterial populations found in both granules were associated with Chloroflexus and Acidovorax. The EBPR activity in the propionate granules was high and stable, whereas EBPR in the acetate granules was erratic throughout the study and suffered from a deterioration period that could be readily reversed by inducing hydrolysis of polyphosphate in presumably saturated Accumulibacter cells. Using a new ppk1 gene-based dual terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach revealed that Accumulibacter diversity was highest in the floccular sludge inoculum but that when granules were formed, propionate readily favored the dominance of Accumulibacter type IIA. In contrast, acetate granules exhibited transient shifts between type I and type II before the granules were dominated by Accumulibacter type IIA. However, ppk1 gene sequences from acetate granules clustered separately from those of propionate granules. Our data indicate that the mere presence of Accumulibacter is not enough to have consistently high EBPR but that the type of Accumulibacter determines the robustness of the phosphate removal process. PMID:21926195

  18. Thermal decomposition of lutetium propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of lutetium(III) propionate monohydrate (Lu(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) in argon was studied by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Dehydration takes place around 90 °C. It is followed by the decomposition of the anhydrous ...... of the oxycarbonate to the rare-earth oxide proceeds in a different way, which is here reminiscent of the thermal decomposition path of Lu(C3H5O2)·2CO(NH2)2·2H2O...

  19. Splanchnic metabolism of dairy cows during the transition from late gestation through early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C K; Aikman, P C; Lupoli, B; Humphries, D J; Beever, D E

    2003-04-01

    Blood flow and net nutrient fluxes for portal-drained viscera (PDV) and liver (total splanchnic tissues) were measured at 19 and 9 d prepartum and at 11, 21, 33, and 83 d in milk (DIM) in 5 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. Cows were fed a grass silage-based gestation ration initially and a corn silage-based lactation ration peripartum and postpartum. Meals were fed at 8-h intervals and hourly (n = 8) measures of splanchnic metabolism were started before (0730 h and 0830 h) feeding at 0830 h. Dry matter intakes (DMI) at 19 and 9 d prepartum were not different. Metabolism changes measured from 19 to 9 d prepartum were lower arterial insulin and acetate, higher arterial nonesterified fatty acids and increased net liver removal of glycerol. After calving, PDV and liver blood flow and oxygen consumption more than doubled as DMI and milk yield increased, but 85 and 93% of the respective increases in PDV and liver blood flow at 83 DIM had occurred by 11 DIM. Therefore, factors additional to DMI must also contribute to increased blood flow in early lactation. Most postpartum changes in net PDV and liver metabolism could be attributed to increases in DMI and digestion or increased milk yield and tissue energy loss. Glucose release was increasingly greater than calculated requirements as DIM increased, presumably as tissue energy balance increased. Potential contributions of lactate, alanine, and glycerol to liver glucose synthesis were greatest at 11 DIM but decreased by 83 DIM. Excluding alanine, there was no evidence of an increased contribution of amino acids to liver glucose synthesis is required in early lactation. Increased net liver removal of propionate (69%), lactate (20%), alanine (8%), and glycerol (4%) can account for increased liver glucose release in transition cows from 9 d before to 11 d after calving.

  20. Pathway engineering of Propionibacterium jensenii for improved production of propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Guan, Ningzi; Zhu, Gexin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-27

    Propionic acid (PA) is an important chemical building block widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. In our previous study, a shuttle vector was developed as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, and two key enzymes-glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase-were overexpressed to improve PA titer. Here, we aimed to improve PA production further via the pathway engineering of P. jensenii. First, the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene (ppc) from Klebsiella pneumoniae was overexpressed to access the one-step synthesis of oxaloacetate directly from phosphoenolpyruvate without pyruvate as intermediate. Next, genes encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) and pyruvate oxidase (poxB) were deleted to block the synthesis of the by-products lactic acid and acetic acid, respectively. Overexpression of ppc and deleting ldh improved PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g·L(-1) to 33.21 ± 1.92 g·L(-1) and 30.50 ± 1.63 g·L(-1), whereas poxB deletion decreased it. The influence of this pathway engineering on gene transcription, enzyme expression, NADH/NAD(+) ratio, and metabolite concentration was also investigated. Finally, PA production in P. jensenii with ppc overexpression as well as ldh deletion was investigated, which resulted in further increases in PA titer to 34.93 ± 2.99 g·L(-1) in a fed-batch culture.

  1. Autism in patients with propionic acidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witters, P.; Debbold, E.; Crivelly, K.; Kerckhove, K. Vande; Corthouts, K.; Debbold, B.; Andersson, H.; Vannieuwenborg, L.; Geuens, S.; Baumgartner, M.; Kozicz, L.T.; Settles, L.; Morava, E.

    2016-01-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve

  2. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in cured deli-style Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathleen A; McDonnell, Lindsey M; Von Tayson, Roxanne; Wanless, Brandon; Badvela, Mani

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes growth can be controlled on ready-to-eat meats through the incorporation of antimicrobial ingredients into the formulation or by postlethality kill steps. However, alternate approaches are needed to provide options that reduce sodium content but maintain protection against pathogen growth in meats after slicing. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition of L. monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in high-moisture, cured turkey stored at 4 or 7°C. Six formulations of sliced, cured (120 ppm of NaNO2 ), deli-style turkey were tested, including control without antimicrobials, 3.2% lactate-diacetate blend (LD), 0.4% of a liquid propionate-benzoate-containing ingredient, or 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of a liquid propionate-containing ingredient. Products were inoculated with 5 log CFU L. monocytogenes per 100-g package (3 log CFU/ml rinsate), vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4 or 7°C for up to 12 weeks; and populations were enumerated by plating on modified Oxford agar. As expected, the control without antimicrobials supported rapid growth, with >2 log average per ml rinsate increase within 4 weeks of storage at 4°C, whereas growth was observed at 6 weeks for the LD treatment. For both replicate trials, all treatments that contained liquid propionate or propionate-benzoate limited L. monocytogenes growth to an increase of 1-log increase) was observed in individual samples for all propionate-containing treatments at weeks 10, 11, and 12. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew more rapidly when products were stored at 7°C, but trends in relative inhibition were similar to those observed at 4°C. These results verify that propionate-based ingredients inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes on sliced, high-moisture, cured turkey and can be considered as an alternative to reduce sodium-based salts while maintaining food safety.

  3. N-carbamylglutamate augments ureagenesis and reduces ammonia and glutamine levels in patients with propionic acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, Nicholas Ah; McCarter, Robert; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Itzhak; Yudkoff, Marc; Tuchman, Mendel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether N-carbamylglutamate reduces plasma levels of ammonia and glutamine and increases ureagenesis rate in patients with propionic acidemia Patients and Methods Identical four-hour studies were performed before and immediately after a 3-day trial of oral N-carbamylglutamate in 7 patients with propionic acidemia. An oral bolus of [13C]-sodium acetate was administered at the start of each study, and sequential blood samples were obtained to measure [13C]-urea, ammonia, urea and amino acids. Results With longitudinal mixed effects linear regression, peak [13C]urea increased following treatment with N-carbamylglutamate (from 2.2 μM to 3.8 μM; p carbamylglutamate augments ureagenesis and decreases plasma ammonia and glutamine in patients with propionic acidemia. The drug may serve as an important therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of acute hyperammonemia in this disorder. PMID:20566609

  4. Effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on the concentrations of ammonia and insulin in peripheral blood of cows receiving an intraruminal infusion of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    1995-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that propionate can reduce hepatic capacity to detoxify ammonia, effects of the inclusion of propionate in intraruminal infusions of urea on the concentrations of ammonia, other metabolites and insulin in peripheral blood were investigated in two experiments with non-lactating dairy cows. Both experiments were of a 4 x 4 Latin square design with four animals, four treatments and four experimental periods of 7 d; feed was given in two equal meals each day, all intraruminal infusions were given for 1 h at the time of the morning feed, and propionic acid was partly neutralized with NaOH. In Expt 1, the treatments were a basal diet of pelleted lucerne and chopped hay alone or with the following infusions (g/d): urea 80, propionic acid 350, urea 80 plus propionic acid 350. The inclusion of propionate in the urea infusion markedly increased (P infusion of urea alone. Moreover, the inclusion of urea with the propionate infusion abolished (P infusion of propionate alone. In Expt 2, less severe treatments were imposed, the aim being to reproduce metabolic loads of propionate and ammonia that might be expected from a diet of high-protein grass silage rich in lactic acid. The treatments were a basal diet of grass silage alone or with the following infusions (g/d): NaCl 145, NaCl 145 plus urea 50, propionic acid 200, urea 50 plus propionic acid 200. Effects were less pronounced than in Expt 1 but, in the period immediately after infusion, similar effects were seen. It is concluded that propionate-ammonia interactions may have potentially important effects on milk production especially for diets with high proportions of grass silage containing high levels of protein and lactic acid.

  5. Modelling anaerobic digestion in a biogas reactor: ADM1 model development with lactate as an intermediate (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Preseela; Biernacki, Piotr; Uhlenhut, Frank; Cypionka, Heribert; Steinigeweg, Sven

    2016-12-05

    The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was extended to include lactate, a crucial metabolic product during sugar fermentation. This study tests the validity of the modified ADM1 model in improving the predictions of a standard biogas reactor. This reactor was prepared in the laboratory with simple organic substrates with an intention to represent an 'average biogas plant'. Kinetic parameters were determined from a lactic acid enriched steady-state reactor. The parameters were adjusted further in order to acquire satisfying simulation results systematically with the batch experiments and then against the standard biogas reactor. Arresting methanogenesis revealed that lactate degradation occurred majorly via acetate followed by propionate, and a non-negligible proportion of butyrate too was found, which were further updated in the model. The modified ADM1 provided a successful correlation with the experimental results for the batch and continuous experiments. We justified that inclusion of lactate in the model resulted in optimized simulation for both biogas and methane content in the standard biogas reactor.

  6. Propionic acidemia associated with visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Taghreed; Al-Hashmi, Nadia; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; Megdad, Eman; Abebe, Dejene; Al-Saif, Amr; Doubi, Alaa; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Abouzied, Mohei Eldin; Al-Owain, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Propionic acidemia, an autosomal recessive disorder, is a common form of organic aciduria resulting from the deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. It is characterized by frequent and potentially lethal episodes of metabolic acidosis often accompanied by hyperammonemia. A wide range of brain abnormalities have been reported in propionic acidemia. We report recurrent visual hallucinations in 2 children with propionic acidemia. Four visual hallucination events were observed in the 2 patients. Three episodes were preceded by an intercurrent illness, and 2 were associated with mild metabolic decompensation. The 2 events in one patient were associated with a seizure disorder with abnormal electroencephalogram. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal basal ganglia and faint temporo-occipital swelling bilaterally. This is probably the first report of visual hallucinations in propionic acidemia and should alert the treating clinicians to look for visual hallucinations in patients with organic acidurias, especially in an unusually anxious child.

  7. Association Mechanism Between Propionic Acid and Trioctylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 秦炜; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    Tertiary amines dissolved in diluents are attractive extractants for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Quantitative Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of organic solutions containing various concentrations of trioctylamine (TOA), n-octanol, and propionic acid was carried out, and liquid-liquid equilibrium was investigated using TOA in n-octanol as the solvent. The fraction of ion-pair association between TOA and propionic acid in the organic phase was quantitatively determined by FTIR. The apparent reactive extraction equilibrium constant, K11, was calculated using the quantitative FTIR spectrum and the equilibrium data. The results show that the fraction of ion-pair association depends on diluent concentration, complex dissolution for propionic acid, and association between TOA and propionic acid. The K11 based on quantitative FTIR has the same loading trend as that from the equilibrium data.

  8. Kinetics of wet oxidation of propionic and 3-hydroxypropionic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shende, R.V.; Levec, J. [National Inst. of Chemistry, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Lab. for Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering]|[Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    Oxidation of aqueous solutions of 3-hydroxypropionic (3-HPA) and propionic acids (PA) was studied in a titanium high-pressure reactor at 280--310 C using oxygen partial pressures between 10 and 45 bar. Oxidation of both acids was found to obey first-order kinetic with respect to their concentrations as well as to their lumped TOC concentrations. Oxidation rate revealed a half order dependence with respect to oxygen for oxidation of both acids. In the case of 3-HPA oxidation, the activation energy was found to be 135 kJ/mol, and it was 140 kJ/mol when lumped concentration TOC was used. The activation energy for PA oxidation is 150 kJ/mol, and it is slightly higher, 158 kJ/mol, for TOC reduction. Almost complete conversion of 3-HPA was achieved at 300 C after 1 h, whereas 95% conversion of PA acid was obtained at 310 C after 3 h. During oxidation of 3-HPA, 3-oxopropionic and acetic acids were identified as intermediate products. Oxidation of PA yielded acetic and formic acids as intermediates; at oxygen partial pressures above 25 bar and 310 C, the formation of acetic acid was appreciably reduced. In both cases, however, direct oxidation to carbon dioxide and water was found to be the main reaction route.

  9. Comparison of Field Groundwater Biostimulation Experiments Using Polylactate and Lactate Solutions at the Chromium-Contaminated Hanford 100-H Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, T. C.; Faybishenko, B.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Steefel, C.; Larsen, J.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Christensen, J. N.; Brown, S. T.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S. E.; Geller, J. T.; Chakraborty, R.; Nico, P. S.; Long, P. E.; Newcomer, D. R.; Arntzen, E.

    2011-12-01

    The primary contaminant of concern in groundwater at the DOE Hanford 100 Area (Washington State) is hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in Hanford coarse-grained sediments. Three lactate injections were conducted in March, August, and October 2010 at the Hanford 100-H field site to assess the efficacy of in situ Cr(VI) bioreductive immobilization. Each time, 55 gal of lactate solution was injected into the Hanford aquifer. To characterize the biogeochemical regimes before and after electron donor injection, we implemented a comprehensive plan of groundwater sampling for microbial, geochemical, and isotopic analyses. These tests were performed to provide evidence of transformation of toxic and soluble Cr(VI) into less toxic and poorly soluble Cr(III) by bioimmobilization, and to quantify critical and interrelated microbial metabolic and geochemical mechanisms affecting chromium in situ reductive immobilization and the long-term sustainability of chromium bioremediation. The results of lactate injections were compared with data from two groundwater biostimulation tests that were conducted in 2004 and 2008 by injecting Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC°), a slow-release glycerol polylactate, into the Hanford aquifer. In all HRC and lactate injection tests, 13C-labeled lactate was added to the injected solutions to track post-injection carbon pathways. Monitoring showed that despite a very low initial total microbial density (from 107 cells/mL (including sulfate- and nitrate-reducing bacteria), resulting in a significant decrease in soluble Cr(VI) concentrations to below the MCL. In all tests, lactate was consumed nearly completely within the first week, much faster than HRC. Modeling of biogeochemical and isotope fractionation processes with the reaction-transport code TOUGHREACT captured the biodegradation of lactate, fermentative production of acetate and propionate, the evolution of 13C in bicarbonate, and the rate of sulfate reduction. In contrast to the slow-release HRC

  10. Performance of feedlot steers fed diets containing laidlomycin propionate or monensin plus tylosin, and effects of laidlomycin propionate concentration on intake patterns and ruminal fermentation in beef steers during adaptation to a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Malcolm, K J; Duff, G C

    1992-10-01

    Two hundred eighty-eight beef steers (British x Continental x Brahman) were fed a 90% concentrate diet containing either no ionophore (control), laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of dietary DM, or monensin plus tylosin (31 and 12 mg/kg of DM, respectively). Neither of the two levels of laidlomycin propionate nor monensin plus tylosin affected (P greater than .10) ADG or feed:gain ratio. Monensin plus tylosin reduced (P less than .01) daily DMI for the 161-d trial period compared with the other three treatments. Laidlomycin propionate at 6 mg/kg increased (P less than .05) DMI relative to the control, laidlomycin propionate at 12 mg/kg, and monensin plus tylosin diets during the 2nd wk of the trial and from d 57 to 84. Treatments did not affect carcass measurements. In a second experiment, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets containing no ionophore or laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of DM. Samples were obtained for two consecutive days while the dietary concentrate level was 75%, after which the diet was switched abruptly to 90% concentrate, and samples were collected on several days during a 21-d period. The rate at which steers consumed their daily allotment of feed was not altered markedly by laidlomycin propionate. Likewise, laidlomycin propionate did not affect total ruminal VFA concentrations or proportions. Ruminal concentrations of D-lactate were reduced (P less than .10) by 6 but not by 12 mg/kg of laidlomycin propionate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Efficient reduction of the formation of by-products and improvement of production yield of 2,3-butanediol by a combined deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase, acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase, and lactate dehydrogenase genes in metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca in mineral salts medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Khunnonkwao, Panwana; Chan, Sitha; Sangproo, Maytawadee; Khor, Kirin; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn

    2015-07-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca KMS005 (∆adhE∆ackA-pta∆ldhA) was metabolically engineered to improve 2,3-butanediol (BDO) yield. Elimination of alcohol dehydrogenase E (adhE), acetate kinase A-phosphotransacetylase (ackA-pta), and lactate dehydrogenase A (ldhA) enzymes allowed BDO production as a primary pathway for NADH re-oxidation, and significantly reduced by-products. KMS005 was screened for the efficient glucose utilization by metabolic evolution. KMS005-73T improved BDO production at a concentration of 23.5±0.5 g/L with yield of 0.46±0.02 g/g in mineral salts medium containing 50 g/L glucose in a shake flask. KMS005-73T also exhibited BDO yields of about 0.40-0.42 g/g from sugarcane molasses, cassava starch, and maltodextrin. During fed-batch fermentation, KMS005-73T produced BDO at a concentration, yield, and overall and specific productivities of 117.4±4.5 g/L, 0.49±0.02 g/g, 1.20±0.05 g/Lh, and 27.2±1.1 g/gCDW, respectively. No acetoin, lactate, and formate were detected, and only trace amounts of acetate and ethanol were formed. The strain also produced the least by-products and the highest BDO yield among other Klebsiella strains previously developed.

  12. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of sodium propionate, calcium propionate and potassium propionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa

    2008-06-01

    The effects of different treatments with food preservatives, sodium propionate (SP), calcium propionate (CP) and potassium propionate (PP), on the cytology and DNA content of Allium cepa were investigated. Five concentrations of these additives - 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000ppm - were applied for 24, 48, and 72h. All concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root-tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities in test material. Among these abnormalities were C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, binucleated cells, stickiness, laggards, and chromosome breaks. The nuclear DNA contents decreased when compared with control groups.

  13. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  14. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  15. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Rachel J; Borders, Candace B; Cline, Gary W;

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, pyruvate kinase (PK) plays a key role in regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; however, in vivo regulation of PK flux by gluconeogenic hormones and substrates is poorly understood. To this end, we developed a novel NMR-liquid chromatography....../tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-(13)C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously...... glucagon suppressed VPyr-Cyc/VMito These data show that under fasting conditions, when hepatic gluconeogenesis is stimulated, pyruvate recycling is relatively low in liver compared with VMito flux and that liver metabolism, in particular pyruvate cycling, is sensitive to propionate making it an unsuitable...

  16. Fragrance material review on 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,1-Dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (submitted for publication) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetics of Homoacetic Fermentation of Lactate by Clostridium formicoaceticum

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shang-Tian; Tang, I-Ching; Okos, Martin R.

    1987-01-01

    Clostridium formicoaceticum homofermentatively converted lactate to acetate at mesophilic temperatures (30 to 42°C) and at pHs between 6.6 and 9.6. The production of acetate was found to be growth associated. Approximately 0.96 g of acetic acid and 0.066 g of cells were formed from each gram of lactic acid consumed at 37°C. The concentration of the substrate (lactate) had little or no effect on the growth rate; however, the fermentation was inhibited by acetic acid. The bacterium grew at an o...

  18. Microbial production of Propionic and Succinic acid from Sorbitol using Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Juliana C; Valença, Gustavo P; Moran, Paulo J S; Rodrigues, J Augusto R

    2015-01-01

    Three sequential fermentative batches were carried out with cell recycle in four simultaneously operating bioreactors maintained at pH 6.5, 30°C, and 100 rpm. P. acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was able to produce propionic and succinic acid from sorbitol. The concentration of propionic acid decreased slightly from 39.5 ± 5.2 g L(-1) to 34.4 ± 1.9 g L(-1), and that of succinic acid increased significantly from 6.1 ± 2.1 g L(-1) to 14.8 ± 0.9 g L(-1) through the sequential batches. In addition, a small amount of acetic acid was produced that decreased from 3.3 ± 0.4 g L(-1) to 2.0 ± 0.3 g L(-1) through the batches. The major yield for propionic acid was 0.613 g g(-1) in the first batch and succinic acid it was 0.212 g g(-1) in the third batch. The minor yield of acetic acid was 0.029 g g(-1), in the second and third batches.

  19. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  20. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  1. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propionic acid. 582.3081 Section 582.3081 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium propionate. 582.3221 Section 582.3221 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic... Substances § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl...

  5. Interactions of alfalfa hay and sodium propionate on dairy calf performance and rumen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nabipour, A; Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Homayouni, A; Kargar, S

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of different levels of alfalfa hay (AH) and sodium propionate (Pro) added to starter diets of Holstein calves on growth performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and rumen development. Forty-two male Holstein calves (40±2kg of birth weight) were used in a complete randomized design with a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) control = concentrate only; (2) Pro = concentrate with 5% sodium propionate [dry matter (DM) basis]; (3) 5% AH = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay (DM basis); (4) 5% AH + Pro = concentrate + 5% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis); (5) 10% AH = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay (DM basis); and (6) 10% AH + Pro = concentrate + 10% alfalfa hay + 5% sodium propionate (DM basis). All calves were housed in individual pens bedded with sawdust until 10wk of age. They were given ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the experiment and were fed 2L of milk twice daily. Dry matter intake was recorded daily and body weight weekly. Calves from the control, 10% AH, and 10% AH + Pro treatments were euthanized after wk 10, and rumen wall samples were collected. Feeding of forage was found to increase overall dry matter intake, average daily gain, and final weight; supplementing sodium propionate had no effect on these parameters. Calves consuming forage had lower feed efficiency than those on the Pro diet. Rumen fluid in calves consuming forage had higher pH and greater concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and molar acetate. Morphometric parameters of the rumen wall substantiated the effect of AH supplementation, as plaque formation decreased macroscopically. Overall, the interaction between forage and sodium propionate did not affect calf performance parameters measured at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, inclusion of AH in starter diets positively enhanced the growth performance of male Holstein calves and influenced

  6. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  7. Acetate intolerance and an inhibitor of acetate utilization in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, J.D.; Wells, I.C.

    1979-03-01

    Diminished ability to utilize acetate (acetate intolerance) developed in a male patient on chronic hemodialysis after five years of maintenance dialysis. His ability to utilize lactate was also subnormal. We studied acetate metabolism in vitro by isolating lymphocytes from the patient's blood before dialysis and measuring their ability to convert (1-/sub 14/C)acetate to /sub 14/CO2. His cells metabolized acetate only 35% as well as did lymphocytes from normal adults. The inhibition appeared when the patient's lymphocytes were cultured, and the ability of normal lymphocytes to oxidize acetate decreased after they had been incubated in the patient's plasma. We conclude that an inhibitor of acetate utilization is present in the plasma and in (or on) the cells of this acetate-intolerant patient. The diminished ability of the patient to utilize lactate and the presence of normal concentrations of pyruvate, citrate, and ketone bodies in his blood suggest that the inhibitor functions at the cell surface to impede the entrance of acetate into the cells. The inhibitor appears to be dialyzable; its nature is unknown. Its accumulation in the plasma of chronic hemodialysis patients has not been thus far associated with any deleterious effects other than prolonging the metabolic acidosis of such patients.

  8. Corn steep liquor and fermented ammoniated condensed whey as protein sources for lactating cows and yearling heifers grazing winter native range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.J.; Lusby, K.S.; Horn, G.W.; Dvorak, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    Corn steep liquor (CSL) and fermented ammoniated condensed whey (FACW) were compared to cottonseed meal (CSM) as protein sources for wintering 61 lactating first-calf Hereford heifers and 32 yearling Hereford heifers on native range. Cattle were allotted by weight and individually fed 6 days per week for 12 weeks one of four protein treatments: negative control (NC), positive control (PC), CSL and FACW to provide .7, 1.5, .15 and 1.5 lb crude protein (CP) per day, respectively, to the lacating heifers and .2, .4, .4 and .4lb cP per day, respectively, to the yearling heifers. CMS was supplied in the CSL and FACW treatments at the same level as in the negative control. Lactating heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight and body condition (120 lb and 1.6 units) than those fed the PC (45.8 lb and .9 units). Weight and condition losses were similar (P more than .05) for lactating heifers fed PC, CSL and FACW. Yearling heifers fed the NC lost more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (49.4 vs 10.6 lb). Yearling heifers fed CSL and FACW gained more (P less than .005) weight than those fed the PC (17.6 and 9.3 vs - 10.6 lb). Feeding CSL resulted in signficantly lower rumen pH, lower ruminal acetate and higher ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and caproate levels than did feeding either control. Supplementing with FACW produced significantly lower rumen pH, higher rumen ammonia and soluble carbohydrate levels, lower ruminal acetate, and higher ruminal propionate and butyrate concentrations than did either control supplement. Corn steep liquor and FDCW appear to be effective protein sources for cows and heifers grazing winter native range.

  9. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin;

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  10. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p < 0.05). In addition, propionic acid and milk production increased while acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, methane production, methanogens and protozoal population decreased with RPM and/or PO supplementation. Furthermore, addition of PO and RPO in the diets increased milk fat while supplementation of RPM resulted in greater milk protein and Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers (p < 0.05). The population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminococcus albus were not affected by any treatments. The findings on the present study showed that supplementation with RPM and RPO to diets of cows improved the rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat.

  11. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  12. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the

  13. Effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on methane emission, digestion, and energy and nitrogen balance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kindermann, M; Duval, S; Steinberg, W

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to measure effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (3 NP) on methane production of lactating dairy cows and any associated changes in digestion and energy and N metabolism. Six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid-lactation were fed twice daily a total mixed ration with maize silage as the primary forage source. Cows received 1 of 3 treatments using an experimental design based on two 3 × 3 Latin squares with 5-wk periods. Treatments were a control placebo or 500 or 2,500 mg/d of 3 NP delivered directly into the rumen, via the rumen fistula, in equal doses before each feeding. Measurements of methane production and energy and N balance were obtained during wk 5 of each period using respiration calorimeters and digestion trials. Measurements of rumen pH (48 h) and postprandial volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were made at the end of wk 4. Daily methane production was reduced by 3 NP, but the effects were not dose dependent (reductions of 6.6 and 9.8% for 500 and 2,500 mg/d, respectively). Dosing 3 NP had a transitory inhibitory effect on methane production, which may have been due to the product leaving the rumen in liquid outflow or through absorption or metabolism. Changes in rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids indicated that the pattern of rumen fermentation was affected by both doses of the product, with a decrease in acetate:propionate ratio observed, but that acetate production was inhibited by the higher dose. Dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, N, and energy digestibility were reduced at the higher dose of the product. The decrease in digestible energy supply was not completely countered by the decrease in methane excretion such that metabolizable energy supply, metabolizable energy concentration of the diet, and net energy balance (milk plus tissue energy) were reduced by the highest dose of 3 NP. Similarly, the decrease in N digestibility at the higher dose of the product was associated with a decrease in body N

  14. A continuous acetic acid system for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gliadins and other prolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, R L

    1988-02-01

    A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system buffered by acetic acid alone was developed for electrophoresis of prolamines. When applied to gliadin electrophoresis, the acetic acid system produces more bands than does a conventional aluminum lactate-lactic acid system (using 12% acrylamide gels). The acetic acid system is relatively simple, requiring a single buffer component that is universally available in high purity.

  15. An economical biorefinery process for propionic acid production from glycerol and potato juice using high cell density fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishisha, Tarek; Ståhl, Åke; Lundmark, Stefan; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-05-01

    An economically sustainable process was developed for propionic acid production by fermentation of glycerol using Propionibacterium acidipropionici and potato juice, a by-product of starch processing, as a nitrogen/vitamin source. The fermentation was done as high-cell-density sequential batches with cell recycle. Propionic acid production and glycerol consumption rates were dependent on initial biomass concentration, and reached a maximum of 1.42 and 2.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, from 50 g L(-1) glycerol at initial cell density of 23.7 gCDW L(-1). Halving the concentration of nitrogen/vitamin source resulted in reduction of acetic and succinic acids yields by ~39% each. At glycerol concentrations of 85 and 120 g L(-1), respectively, 43.8 and 50.8 g L(-1) propionic acid were obtained at a rate of 0.88 and 0.29 g L(-1) h(-1) and yield of 84 and 78 mol%. Succinic acid was 13 g% of propionic acid and could represent a potential co-product covering the cost of nitrogen/vitamin source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuit, Wouter; Minton, Nigel P; López-Contreras, Ana M; Eggink, Gerrit

    2012-05-01

    In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to the wild type. In this work, a C. acetobutylicum mutant strain with a selectively disrupted ack gene, encoding AK, was constructed and genetically and physiologically characterized. The ack (-) strain showed a reduction in acetate kinase activity of more than 97% compared to the wild type. The fermentation profiles of the ack (-) and wild-type strain were compared using two different fermentation media, CGM and CM1. The latter contains acetate and has a higher iron and magnesium content than CGM. In general, fermentations by the mutant strain showed a clear shift in the timing of peak acetate production relative to butyrate and had increased acid uptake after the onset of solvent formation. Specifically, in acetate containing CM1 medium, acetate production was reduced by more than 80% compared to the wild type under the same conditions, but both strains produced similar final amounts of solvents. Fermentations in CGM showed similar peak acetate and butyrate levels, but increased acetoin (60%), ethanol (63%) and butanol (16%) production and reduced lactate (-50%) formation by the mutant compared to the wild type. These findings are in agreement with the proposed regulatory function of butyryl phosphate as opposed to acetyl phosphate in the metabolic switch of solventogenic clostridia.

  17. Fundamental Insights into Propionate Oxidation in Microbial Electrolysis Cells Using a Combination of Electrochemical, Molecular biology and Electron Balance Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-11-01

    dynamics of microbial communities in MECs fed with low or high concentration of acetate or propionate relating to the reactor performance. Overall, the findings from these studies provides new knowledge on propionate oxidation in MECs. The discovery of such findings may shed light on the development of an energy positive wastewater treatment process capable of producing a high quality effluent.

  18. Alterações morfológicas induzidas por butirato, propionato e lactato sobre a mucosa ruminal e epiderme de bezerros: II. Aspectos ultra-estruturais Lactate, propionate, and butyrate induced morphological alterations on calf ruminal mucosa and epidermis: II. Ultra-structurals aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Costa

    2008-02-01

    infusion was the opposite to that observed in the rumen. No histological lesion was observed on nasolabial surface, epicera, and perioplum, demonstrating that these are consequences of VFA direct effect on ruminal epithelium. Butyrate and lactate induced more alterations on the ruminal epithelium. Indirect and direct VFA effects on keratinized epithelium tissues morphology were not identical. Tegumentary biopsies may be useful as indicators of morphological alterations of ruminal mucosa.

  19. Microparticulate based topical delivery system of clobetasol propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badıllı, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effects of the drug. Clobetasol propionate loaded-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size analysis, morphological characterization, DSC and XRD analyses and in vitro drug release studies were performed on the microparticle formulations. Emulgel formulations were prepared as an alternative for topical delivery of clobetasol propionate. In vitro drug release studies were carried out from the emulgel formulations containing pure drug and drug-loaded microspheres. In addition, the same studies were performed to determine the drug release from the commercial cream product of clobetasol propionate. The release of clobetasol propionate from the emulgel formulations was significantly higher than the commercial product. In addition, the encapsulation of clobetasol propionate in the PLGA microspheres significantly delayed the drug release from the emulgel formulation. As a result, the decrease in the side effects of clobetasol propionate by the formulation containing PLGA microspheres is expected.

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    A series of mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis were constructed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities ranging from below 1% to 133% of the wild-type activity level. The mutants with 59% to 133% of lactate dehydrogenase activity had growth rates similar to the wild-type and showed...... a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...

  1. Heme electron transfer in peroxidases: the propionate e-pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallar, Victor

    2008-10-23

    Computational modeling offers a new insight about the electron transfer pathway in heme peroxidases. Available crystal structures have revealed an intriguing arrangement of the heme propionate side chains in heme-heme and heme-substrate complexes. By means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics calculations, we study the involvement of these propionate groups into the substrate oxidation in ascorbate peroxidase and into the heme to heme electron transfer in bacterial cytochrome c peroxidase. By selectively turning on/off different quantum regions, we obtain the electron transfer pathway which directly involves the porphyrin ring and the heme propionates. Furthermore, in ascorbate peroxidase the presence of the substrate appears to be crucial for the activation of the electron transfer channel. The results might represent a general motif for electron transfer from/to the heme group and change our view for the propionate side chains as simple electrostatic binding anchors. We name the new mechanism "the propionate e-pathway".

  2. Conversion of L-lactate into n-caproate by a continuously fed reactor microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucek, Leo A; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-04-15

    Conversion of lactate to n-caproate had been described for the type strain Megasphaera elsdenii in batch systems. Recently, investigators have also described production of n-caproate from endogenous or exogenous lactate with batch-fed reactor microbiome systems. However, no reports exist of lactate to n-caproate conversion within a continuously fed bioreactor. Since continuously fed systems are advantageous for biotechnology production platforms, our objective was to develop such a system. Here, we demonstrated continuous lactate to n-caproate conversion for more than 165 days. The volumetric n-caproate production rate (productivity) was improved when we decreased the operating pH from 5.5 to 5.0, and was again improved when we utilized in-line product recovery via pertraction (membrane-based liquid-liquid extraction). We observed a maximum n-caproate productivity of 6.9 g COD/L-d for a period of 17 days at an L-lactate loading rate of 9.1 g COD/L-d, representing the highest sustained lactate to n-caproate conversion rate ever reported. We had to manage two competing lactate conversion pathways: 1) the reverse β-oxidation pathway to n-caproate; and 2) the acrylate pathway to propionate. We found that maintaining a low residual lactate concentration in the bioreactor broth was necessary to direct lactate conversion towards n-caproate instead of propionate. These findings provide a foundation for the development of new resource recovery processes to produce higher-value liquid products (e.g., n-caproate) from carbon-rich wastewaters containing lactate or lactate precursors (e.g., carbohydrates).

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  4. The acetate kinase of Clostridum acetobutylicum strain P262.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Gonzalez, F; Russell, J B; Hunter, J B

    1996-12-01

    Clostridum acetobutylicum strain P262 fermented glucose, pyruvate, or lactate, and the butyrate production was substrate-dependent. Differences in butyrate yield could not be explained by changes in butyrate kinase activities, but the butyrate production was inversely related to acetate kinase activity. The acetate kinase had a pH optimum of 8.0, a Km for acetate of 160 mM, and a kcat of 16, 800 min-1. The enyzme had a native molecular mass of 78 kDa; the size of 42 kDa on SDS-PAGE indicated that the acetate kinase of strain P262 was a homodimer.

  5. Influence of by-product feeds and tallow on lactation performance of Holstein cows during two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, H G; Spain, J N; Ellersieck, M R

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of fibrous by-product feeds and tallow on lactation performance and ruminal fermentation. Diets were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial of low and high NDF with or without added tallow. Corn and soybean meal were replaced with corn gluten feed, soyhulls, wheat middlings, and high moisture, whole ear corn. Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in two seasonal replicates of a randomized block design. Addition of tallow decreased intake of the low fiber diet, but not the high fiber diet, during winter. Intake was unaffected by diet during summer. Dietary NDF percentage did not change DMI. Milk production was unaffected by addition of tallow but was more persistent for cows fed low fiber diets. Tallow reduced milk protein percentage but did not change milk fat percentage. Fibrous feeds did not influence milk composition. Four fistulated cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Fibrous by-product feeds decreased total VFA concentration. Acetate to propionate ratio increased when tallow was added to high fiber diets but decreased when tallow was added to low fiber diets. Tallow and fibrous by-product feeds can be used to support milk production.

  6. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetics of Homoacetic Fermentation of Lactate by Clostridium formicoaceticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S T; Tang, I C; Okos, M R

    1987-04-01

    Clostridium formicoaceticum homofermentatively converted lactate to acetate at mesophilic temperatures (30 to 42 degrees C) and at pHs between 6.6 and 9.6. The production of acetate was found to be growth associated. Approximately 0.96 g of acetic acid and 0.066 g of cells were formed from each gram of lactic acid consumed at 37 degrees C. The concentration of the substrate (lactate) had little or no effect on the growth rate; however, the fermentation was inhibited by acetic acid. The bacterium grew at an optimal pH of 7.6 and an optimal temperature of 37 degrees C. Small amounts of bicarbonate were stimulatory to bacterial growth. Bacterial growth was enhanced, however, by the use of higher concentrations of bicarbonate in the media, only because higher buffer capacities were obtained and proper medium pH could be maintained for growth. Based on its ability to convert lactate to acetate, this homoacetic bacterium may be important in the anaerobic methanogenic process when lactate is a major intermediary metabolite.

  11. Propionate uptake by rumen microorganisms: the effect of ruminal infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Nozière, P; Gachon, S.; DOREAU, M.

    2003-01-01

    International audience; We assessed the ability of rumen microbes to significantly incorporate propionate when they are subjected in vivo to no infusion, long-term infusion of minerals, and short- and long-term infusion of high amounts of propionate. Four ruminally cannulated sheep fed 1000 g hay (8 meals per d) were used in a $4 \\times 4$ Latin square design. The treatments consisted of no infusion (C), ruminal infusion of propionate (86 g$\\cdot$d$^{-1}$) for 1 (P1) and 7 d (P7), and of mine...

  12. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  13. Amylase addition increases starch ruminal digestion in first-lactation cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, P; Steinberg, W; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exogenous amylase preparation on digestion of low- and high-starch diets in dairy cattle. Rumen and total-tract nutrient digestibility were measured in a 4×4 Latin square design with 28-d periods using 4 first-lactation cows cannulated at the rumen and duodenum. Corn silage-based diets had 20 or 30% starch, attained by changing the composition of concentrate, with or without addition of an exogenous amylase preparation. Effects of the enzyme additive were observed on ruminal digestibility but not at the total-tract level. Ruminal digestibility of starch increased from 75% in control to 81% with amylase supplementation. This difference in ruminal starch digestion was compensated postruminally, so that the total-tract digestibility of starch was almost complete and did not differ between treatments. The amylase supplement also increased the true ruminal digestibility of organic matter but did not affect microbial N flow to the duodenum. Amylase supplement reduced the proportion of acetate and butyrate and increased that of propionate, particularly in the high-starch diet, where it tended to increase the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Other effects were a higher amylase activity in the solid-associated microbial community and a tendency for lower numbers of protozoa. In contrast, we observed no changes in intake, production, dry matter and fiber (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) digestibility, or ruminal digestion, and no or small changes on selected fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria and on the microbial community in general. We conclude that the exogenous amylase improved starch digestion in the rumen in first-lactation cows with moderate intake and production levels.

  14. Lactate storm marks cerebral metabolism following brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Sanju; Auer, Roland N; Tyson, Randy; Gallagher, Clare N; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2014-07-18

    Brain metabolism is thought to be maintained by neuronal-glial metabolic coupling. Glia take up glutamate from the synaptic cleft for conversion into glutamine, triggering glial glycolysis and lactate production. This lactate is shuttled into neurons and further metabolized. The origin and role of lactate in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. Using a modified weight drop model of severe TBI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy with infusion of (13)C-labeled glucose, lactate, and acetate, the present study investigated the possibility that neuronal-glial metabolism is uncoupled following severe TBI. Histopathology of the model showed severe brain injury with subarachnoid and hemorrhage together with glial cell activation and positive staining for Tau at 90 min post-trauma. High resolution MR spectroscopy of brain metabolites revealed significant labeling of lactate at C-3 and C-2 irrespective of the infused substrates. Increased (13)C-labeled lactate in all study groups in the absence of ischemia implied activated astrocytic glycolysis and production of lactate with failure of neuronal uptake (i.e. a loss of glial sensing for glutamate). The early increase in extracellular lactate in severe TBI with the injured neurons rendered unable to pick it up probably contributes to a rapid progression toward irreversible injury and pan-necrosis. Hence, a method to detect and scavenge the excess extracellular lactate on site or early following severe TBI may be a potential primary therapeutic measure.

  15. Chronic kidney disease in an adult with propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, H J; Bagnasco, S; Hamosh, A; Sperati, C J

    2014-01-01

    We report an adult male with classic propionic acidemia (PA) who developed chronic kidney disease in the third decade of his life. This diagnosis was recognized by an increasing serum creatinine and confirmed by reduced glomerular filtration on a (99m)Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) scan. Histopathology of the kidney showed moderate glomerulo- and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with very segmental mesangial IgA deposits. This is the second reported case of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia possibly indicating that chronic kidney disease may be a late-stage complication of propionic acidemia. Additionally, this is the first description of the histopathology of kidney disease in an individual with propionic acidemia. As more cases emerge, the clinical course and spectrum of renal pathology in this disorder will be better defined.

  16. Microparticulate Based Topical Delivery System of Clobetasol Propionate

    OpenAIRE

    Badıllı, Ulya; Şen, Tangül; Tarımcı, Nilüfer

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, autoimmune skin disease affecting approximately 2% of the world's population. Clobetasol propionate which is a superpotent topical corticosteroid is widely used for topical treatment of psoriasis. Conventional dosage forms like creams and ointments are commonly prefered for the therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop a new topical delivery system in order to provide the prolonged release of clobetasol propionate and to reduce systemic absorption and side effe...

  17. PROPIONIC ACIDURIA IN A 5-MONTH-OLD CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Fominykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Propionic aciduria is a rare hereditary metabolic disease with autosomal-recessive inheritance mode associated with organic acid metabolic disorder. Early diagnostics is difficult as clinical symptoms caused by metabolic defects are often observed at hypoxicischemic central nervous system lesion, brain malformations and intrauterine infections. Laboratory examination reveals increased concentration of organic acids in blood and urine. The article presents observation of propionic aciduria in a 5-month-old child.

  18. Effects of supplementing condensed tannin extract on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dschaak, C M; Williams, C M; Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Min, B R

    2011-05-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of quebracho condensed tannin extract (CTE) on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows. The cows were fed a high forage (HF) or a low forage (LF) diet with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 59:41 or 41:59 on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (62 ± 8.8 d in milk) were used. The design of the experiment was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and each period lasted 21 d (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). Four dietary treatments were tested: HF without CTE, HF with CTE (HF+CTE), LF without CTE, and LF with CTE (LF+CTE). Commercial quebracho CTE was added to the HF+CTE and the LF+CTE at a rate of 3% of dietary DM. Intake of DM averaged 26.7 kg/d across treatments, and supplementing CTE decreased intakes of DM and nutrients regardless of forage level. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by CTE supplementation. Milk yield averaged 35.3 kg/d across treatments, and yields of milk and milk component were not influenced by CTE supplementation. Negative effects of CTE supplementation on feed intake resulted in increased feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake). Although concentration of milk urea N (MUN) decreased by supplementing CTE in the diets, efficiency of N use for milk N was not affected by CTE supplementation. Feeding the LF diet decreased ruminal pH (mean of 6.47 and 6.33 in HF and LF, respectively). However, supplementation of CTE in the diets did not influence ruminal pH. Supplementing CTE decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration regardless of level of forage. With CTE supplementation, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased in the HF diet, but not in the LF diet, resulting in interactions between forage level and CTE supplementation. Concentration of ammonia-N tended to decrease with supplementation of

  19. Contraception during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badraoui, M H; Hefnawi, F; Bahgat, R; Fawzi, G; El Gaali, O; Ismail, H; Hegab, M

    1982-01-01

    Seven hundred and seventy-two lactating mothers were studied from delivery for 1 year to select the best contraceptive method (oral drug, injected drug, or IUD) which did not affect lactation. Ten groups of mothers were studied, including 234 control subjects. The injectable progestational contraceptives caused an improvement in the amount of milk and its protein concentration, whereas the IUCDs did not influence the lactation pattern. Sulpiride was an ineffective contraceptive but a potent lactation stimulant. The side effects of each method (effects on milk yield, protein content and prolactin concentrations) were also noted; it was concluded that IUCDs are the ideal contraceptive method during lactation, with the use of a lactation stimulant when indicated.

  20. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Call, D. F.

    2011-10-14

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metaland electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Effects of the method of conservation of timothy on nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Lapierre, H; Ouellet, D R; Pellerin, D; Berthiaume, R

    2007-06-01

    Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating primiparous Holstein cows were used to study the effects of different methods of conservation of timothy on N metabolism. Cows were assigned randomly to 2 replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares (35-d periods). Because of missing data from 2 cows, data were analyzed as a 3 x 4 Youden square. Diets contained a similar concentrate (44% of total ration on a dry matter basis) plus first-cut timothy conserved as hay, or as restrictively (formic) or extensively fermented silage (inoc). Crude protein contents were 10.4, 13.6, and 14.8% for hay, formic, and inoc, respectively. Hay and formic had a high soluble carbohydrate content (> or =8.0% of dry matter) and formic and inoc had a high soluble protein content (> or =8.0% of dry matter). Haying and restricting fermentation resulted in increased efficiency of partition to milk N (30.9, 28.2, 24.7% of N intake for hay, formic, and inoc, respectively). Despite a 14% lower N intake with hay, no effects of treatments were detected on microbial protein synthesis and apparent intestinal digestion of essential AA. Haying reduced feed protein degradation in the rumen, whereas this effect was not observed when restricting fermentation in the silage. Haying and restricting fermentation induced a lipogenic fermentation pattern in the rumen (4.55, 4.23, and 3.78 ratio of acetate to propionate for hay, formic, and inoc), but no effects on milk fat yield and plasma glucose were observed. Whole-body protein metabolism was unaffected by treatments.

  2. Studies of pituitary function in lactating ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, B J; Kearins, R D; Starr, B G

    1977-03-01

    The release of LH from the pituitary of lactating ewes was studied. In Exp. 1, ewes were injected with 50 microng oestradiol benzoate (OB), 2-0 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or oil only (control) on days 5, 10, or 20 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples obtained 20-38 h after treatment, and the ovulations were recorded. The number of ewes in which an LH release was detected, and the amount released, declined between Day 5 and 20 after OB treatment but increased after TP treatment. The releases of LH were not always accompanied by ovulation and the incidence of ovulation was higher in ewes treated with TP. In Exp. 2, lactating ewes were injected with 1 or 5 (at 2-h intervals) doses of 50 microng Gn-RH, on Days 12 or 25 after lambing. LH was measured in peripheral plasma samples collected every 2 h for 10 h and every 3 h for a further 70 h. Release of LH occurred in all ewes, the amount being greater in ewes receiving multiple injections and in ewes treated on Day 25. The incidence of ovulation was higher after treatment on Day 25. Multiple injections of Gn-RH appeared to reduce the incidence of abnormal corpora lutea.

  3. Evaluation of models to predict the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid profiles in rumen fluid of lactating Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morvay, Y.; Bannink, A.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), produced in the rumen by microbial fermentation, are the main energy source for ruminants. The VFA profile, particularly the nonglucogenic (acetate, Ac; butyrate, Bu) to glucogenic (propionate, Pr) VFA ratio (NGR), is associated with effects on methane production, milk co

  4. Evaluation of models to predict the stoichiometry of volatile fatty acid profiles in rumen fluid of lactating Holstein cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morvay, Y.; Bannink, A.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA), produced in the rumen by microbial fermentation, are the main energy source for ruminants. The VFA profile, particularly the nonglucogenic (acetate, Ac; butyrate, Bu) to glucogenic (propionate, Pr) VFA ratio (NGR), is associated with effects on methane production, milk co

  5. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  6. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  7. Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xianbin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA and monobromoacetate (MBA. While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems.

  8. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present.

  9. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  10. Purification of Peptide Components including Melittin from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chon Choi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out Purification of Melittin and other peptide components from Bee Venom using gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Methods : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. Results : Melittin and other peptide components were separated from bee venom by using gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column in 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer. The fractions obtained from gel filtration chromatography was analyzed by using SDS-PAGE and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The melittin obtained from the gel filtration contained residual amount of phospholipase A2 and a protein with molecular weight of 6,000. The contaminating proteins were removed by the second gel filtration chromatography. Conclusion : Gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are useful to separate peptide components including melittin from bee venom.

  11. Ammonium Lactate Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using ammonium lactate, call your doctor.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to natural or artificial sunlight to the affected skin area and to ...

  12. Effects of feeding crude glycerin on performance and ruminal kinetics of lactating Holstein cows fed corn silage- or cottonseed hull-based, low-fiber diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Wang, D; Kim, S C; Adesogan, A T; Staples, C R

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to determine whether crude glycerin could partially replace concentrate ingredients in corn silage- or cottonseed hull-based diets formulated to support minimal milk fat production without reducing milk production. Multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=24; 116 ± 13d in milk) were assigned to dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design; namely, 2 dietary roughage sources (cottonseed hulls or corn silage) and 3 dietary concentrations of glycerin [0, 5, or 10% on a dry matter (DM) basis]. Four different cows received each dietary treatment in each of 3 periods such that each diet was evaluated using 12 cows. Crude glycerin, produced using soybean oil, contained 12% water, 5% oil, 6.8% sodium chloride, and 0.4% methanol. Glycerin partially replaced ground corn, corn gluten feed, and citrus pulp. Diets of minimum fiber concentrations were fed to lactating dairy cows and resulted in low concentrations of milk fat (averaging 3.12% for cows fed diets without glycerin). The effects of glycerin on cow performance and ruminal measurements were the same for both dietary roughage sources with the exception of feed efficiency. Replacing concentrate with crude glycerin at 5% of dietary DM increased DM intake without increasing milk yield. Concentration and yield of milk fat were reduced when glycerin was fed at 10% of dietary DM. This was accompanied by a 30% reduction in apparent total-tract digestion of dietary neutral detergent fiber. Crude glycerin affected the microbial population in the rumen as evidenced by increased molar proportions of propionic, butyric, and valeric acids and decreased molar proportions of acetic acid. Efficiency of N utilization was improved as evidenced by lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and ruminal ammonia-N. Cows fed cottonseed hull-based diets consumed 5.3 kg/d more DM but produced only 1.7 kg/d more milk, resulting in reduced efficiency. Increased production of ruminal microbial protein, molar

  13. Secondary mitochondrial dysfunction in propionic aciduria: a pathogenic role for endogenous mitochondrial toxins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwab, M.A.; Sauer, S.W.; Okun, J.G.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Drose, S.; Brandt, U.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Laak, H.J. ter; Kolker, S.; Smeitink, J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction during acute metabolic crises is considered an important pathomechanism in inherited disorders of propionate metabolism, i.e. propionic and methylmalonic acidurias. Biochemically, these disorders are characterized by accumulation of propionyl-CoA and metabolites of alternat

  14. [On the nonexistence of propionic acid in various kinds of breeds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lück, E; Oeser, H; Remmert, K H; Sabel, J

    1975-05-30

    Analyses of 45 samples of sour dough and various kinds of bread have shown that no appreciable amounts of propionic acid are formed during sour dough fermentation. Bread has no natural propionic acid content.

  15. 78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Fluticasone Propionate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Fluticasone Propionate; Salmeterol Xinafoate'', published in... for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Fluticasone Propionate; Salmeterol...

  16. ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

    2010-06-01

    High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

  17. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Kawazoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and unfolded protein response (UPR has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v. Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  18. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  19. Living-donor liver transplantation for propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Mureo; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Karaki, Chiaki; Kakiuchi, Toshihiko; Shigeta, Takanobu; Fukuda, Akinari; Kosaki, Rika; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Ishige, Mika; Nagao, Masayoshi; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yorifuji, Tohru; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-05-01

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids because of a genetic defect in PCC. Despite the improvements in medical treatment with protein restriction, sufficient caloric intake, supplementation of l-carnitine, and metronidazole, patients with the severe form of propionic acidemia have life-threatening metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and cardiomyopathy, which results in serious neurologic sequelae and sometimes death. This study retrospectively reviewed three children with neonatal-onset propionic acidemia who received LDLT. Between November 2005 and December 2010, 148 children underwent LDLT, with an overall patient survival of 90.5%, in our center. Three patients were indicated for transplantation because of propionic acidemia. All recipients achieved a resolution of metabolic derangement and better quality of life with protein restriction and medication, although urine methylcitrate and serum propionylcarnitine levels did not decrease markedly. LT can reduce the magnitude of progressive cardiac/neurologic disability as a result of poor metabolic control. Further evaluation is therefore required to determine the long-term suitability of this treatment modality. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Response of preschool children with asthma symptoms to fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roorda, R J; Mezei, G; Bisgaard, H;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many uncertainties remain in the diagnosis and treatment of preschool children with asthma symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the subgroups of preschool children (aged 12-47 months) with recurrent asthma symptoms most likely to respond to inhaled fluticasone propionate (200...... the management of preschool children with recurrent asthma symptoms....

  1. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; Jonker, M.R.; de Vries, M; van Oosterhout, A J M; Telenga, E; Ten Hacken, N H T; Postma, D S; van den Berge, M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. METHODS:

  2. Budesonide and fluticasone propionate differentially affect the airway epithelial barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I. H.; Jonker, M.R.; Vries, de Maaike; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Telenga, E.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Postma, D. S.; van den Berge, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: COPD patients have a higher risk of pneumonia when treated with fluticasone propionate (FP) than with placebo, and a lower risk with budesonide (BUD). We hypothesized that BUD and FP differentially affect the mucosal barrier in response to viral infection and/or cigarette smoke. Methods:

  3. The treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans with testosterone propionate ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasieczny, T A

    1977-01-01

    Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and kraurosis penis are thought to be synonymous. Clinically and histopathologically they probably represent the same disease process as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) but also involve the urethral mucosa. The treatment of choice is considered to be 2 1/2% testosterone propionate ointment which gives better results than strong corticosteroid applications, yet without their side effects.

  4. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  5. In vitro evaluation of cashew nut shell liquid as a methane-inhibiting and propionate-enhancing agent for ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Suzuki, R; Koike, S; Nagashima, K; Mochizuki, M; Forster, R J; Kobayashi, Y

    2010-11-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) containing antibacterial phenolic compounds was evaluated for its potency as a feed additive for ruminants. In experiment 1, ruminal responses to CNSL supplementation were assessed using a batch culture system. Rumen fluid from cattle was diluted with artificial saliva and incubated for 18h in a batch culture with a mixed diet containing a 30:70 hay:concentrate diet to which raw or heated CNSL was added at a final concentration of 500 μg/mL. In experiment 2, a Rusitec, using rumen fluid from the same cattle, was operated over a period of 7 d during which only raw CNSL was tested at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL, and variations in fermentation and bacterial population were assessed. In experiment 3, a pure culture study was conducted using selected bacteria to determine their susceptibility to CNSL. In experiment 1, methane production was inhibited by raw CNSL (56.9% inhibition) but not by heated CNSL. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was not affected, whereas increased concentrations of propionate and decreased concentrations of acetate and butyrate were observed using either raw or heated CNSL. These changes were more obvious when raw CNSL was tested. In experiment 2, raw CNSL inhibited methanogenesis and increased propionate production in a dose-dependent manner, showing maximum methane inhibition (70.1%) and propionate enhancement (44.4%) at 200 μg/mL supplementation. Raw CNSL increased total volatile fatty acid concentration and dry matter digestibility. Raw CNSL also appeared to induce a dramatic shift in the population of rumen microbiota, based on decreased protozoa numbers and changes in quantitative PCR assay values for representative bacterial species. In experiment 3, using pure cultures, raw CNSL prevented the growth of hydrogen-, formate-, and butyrate-producing rumen bacteria, but not the growth of bacteria involved in propionate production. Based on these data, raw CNSL, rich in the antibacterial

  6. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  7. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  8. Lactation in Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk.

  9. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of propionic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of Schiff bases (1–17 and esters (18–24 of propionic acid was synthesized in appreciable yield and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by tube dilution method. Results of antimicrobial screening indicated that besides having good antibacterial activity, the synthesized compounds also displayed appreciable antifungal activity and compound 10 emerged as the most active antifungal agent (pMICca and pMICan = 1.93. The results of QSAR studies demonstrated that antibacterial, antifungal and overall antimicrobial activities of synthesized propionic acid derivatives were governed by the topological parameters, Kier’s alpha first order shape index (κα1 and valence first order molecular connectivity index (1χv.

  10. Regulation and evolution of malonate and propionate catabolism in proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, I A; Ravcheev, D A; Gelfand, M S

    2012-06-01

    Bacteria catabolize malonate via two pathways, encoded by the mdc and mat genes. In various bacteria, transcription of these genes is controlled by the GntR family transcription factors (TFs) MatR/MdcY and/or the LysR family transcription factor MdcR. Propionate is metabolized via the methylcitrate pathway, comprising enzymes encoded by the prp and acn genes. PrpR, the Fis family sigma 54-dependent transcription factor, is known to be a transcriptional activator of the prp genes. Here, we report a detailed comparative genomic analysis of malonate and propionate metabolism and its regulation in proteobacteria. We characterize genomic loci and gene regulation and identify binding motifs for four new TFs and also new regulon members, in particular, tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporters. We describe restructuring of the genomic loci and regulatory interactions during the evolution of proteobacteria.

  11. Set anode potentials affect the electron fluxes and microbial community structure in propionate-fed microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Hari Ananda

    2016-12-09

    Anode potential has been shown to be a critical factor in the rate of acetate removal in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), but studies with fermentable substrates and set potentials are lacking. Here, we examined the impact of three different set anode potentials (SAPs; −0.25, 0, and 0.25 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode) on the electrochemical performance, electron flux to various sinks, and anodic microbial community structure in two-chambered MECs fed with propionate. Electrical current (49–71%) and CH4 (22.9–41%) were the largest electron sinks regardless of the potentials tested. Among the three SAPs tested, 0 V showed the highest electron flux to electrical current (71 ± 5%) and the lowest flux to CH4 (22.9 ± 1.2%). In contrast, the SAP of −0.25 V had the lowest electron flux to current (49 ± 6%) and the highest flux to CH4 (41.1 ± 2%). The most dominant genera detected on the anode of all three SAPs based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing were Geobacter, Smithella and Syntrophobacter, but their relative abundance varied among the tested SAPs. Microbial community analysis implies that complete degradation of propionate in all the tested SAPs was facilitated by syntrophic interactions between fermenters and Geobacter at the anode and ferementers and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in suspension.

  12. Set anode potentials affect the electron fluxes and microbial community structure in propionate-fed microbial electrolysis cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P.; Logan, Bruce E.; Saikaly, Pascal E.

    2016-01-01

    Anode potential has been shown to be a critical factor in the rate of acetate removal in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), but studies with fermentable substrates and set potentials are lacking. Here, we examined the impact of three different set anode potentials (SAPs; −0.25, 0, and 0.25 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode) on the electrochemical performance, electron flux to various sinks, and anodic microbial community structure in two-chambered MECs fed with propionate. Electrical current (49–71%) and CH4 (22.9–41%) were the largest electron sinks regardless of the potentials tested. Among the three SAPs tested, 0 V showed the highest electron flux to electrical current (71 ± 5%) and the lowest flux to CH4 (22.9 ± 1.2%). In contrast, the SAP of −0.25 V had the lowest electron flux to current (49 ± 6%) and the highest flux to CH4 (41.1 ± 2%). The most dominant genera detected on the anode of all three SAPs based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing were Geobacter, Smithella and Syntrophobacter, but their relative abundance varied among the tested SAPs. Microbial community analysis implies that complete degradation of propionate in all the tested SAPs was facilitated by syntrophic interactions between fermenters and Geobacter at the anode and ferementers and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in suspension. PMID:27934925

  13. Propionate alters ion transport by rabbit distal colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, P.J.; Weiser, M.M.; Duffey, M.E.

    1986-03-01

    The primary anions of the colon are short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by intestinal microorganisms from endogenous secretions and dietary fiber. The effects of the SCFA propionate on ion transport by the epithelium of rabbit distal colon were studied on tissues stripped of underlying musculature and mounted in Ussing chambers. When tissues were bathed with NaCl Ringer's solutions at 37/sup 0/C (5% CO/sub 2/-21mM HCO/sub 3/, pH 7.4) replacement of 33mM Cl/sup -/ in both tissue baths by propionate reduced short-circuit current (Isc) from 86 to 35 ..mu..A/cm/sup 2/ and increased transepithelial conductance (G/sub t/) from 3.6 to 5.6mS/cm/sup 2/. Unidirectional /sup 14/C-propionate flux measurements revealed that this ion was secreted at a rate of 0.5..mu..Eq/cm/sup 2/hr. Intracellular measurements with potential and pH sensitive microelectrodes showed that propionate reduced intracellular pH (PH/sub i/) from 6.84 to 6.68 (P < 0.02), depolarized the apical membrane potential (phi/sub a/) by 4mV (P < 0.02) and decreased the membrane fractional resistance (f/sub R/) from .78 to .71 (P < 0.001). Addition of 0.1mM amiloride to the mucosal bath reversed Isc to -18..mu..A/cm/sup 2/, decreased G/sub t/ to 5.3mS/cm/sup 2/, hyperpolarized phi/sub a/ by 5mV (P < 0.05) and increased f/sub R/ to 0.85 (P < 0.001). Amiloride had no effect on pH/sub i/. These results show that propionate can be secreted by rabbit distal colon and that exposure to this SCFA causes cell acidification and electrophysiological changes consistent with H/sup +/ secretion.

  14. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary...

  17. Development and validation of stability indicating TLC densitometric and spectrophotometric methods for determination of Clobetasol propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Farouk Bassuoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two simple analytical techniques that manipulate the inherent spectroscopic properties of the drug differently were developed for Clobetasol propionate (CP determination in the presence of its alkaline hydrolytic degradation products. The first method depends on TLC-densitometric determination of the UV–visualized bands after TLC separation of CP in the presence of its alkaline degradation products in its bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Separation was performed on preactivated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates using ethyl acetate:hexane:ammonia (5:5:0.2, by volume as a developing system followed by scanning at 240 nm. Linear correlation was obtained in the range of 0.10–0.50 μg/band. The second method was ratio difference spectrophotometry. It was applied by measuring the difference in peak amplitude of the ratio spectra at 243.40 and 256.40 nm. The selectivity of both methods was checked by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different concentrations of CP and its alkaline degradation products. The methods were validated in compliance with ICH guidelines. The methods determined CP in its bulk powder with average percentage recoveries of 99.60% ± 1.09 and 99.44% ± 1.60 for densitometry and ratio difference, respectively. Both methods were successfully applied for quantification of CP in its commercial cream.

  18. Linseed oil and DGAT1 K232A polymorphism: Effects on methane emission, energy and nitrogen metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen microbial composition of Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Visker, M H P W; Edwards, J E; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Bovenhuis, H; Smidt, H; Dijkstra, J

    2017-09-13

    DGAT1 AA genotype. The LSO diet tended to decrease CH4 production (g/d) by 8%, and significantly decreased CH4 yield (g/kg of DM intake) by 6% and CH4 intensity (g/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk) by 11%, but did not affect H2 emission. The LSO diet also decreased ruminal acetate molar proportion, the acetate to propionate ratio, and the archaea to bacteria ratio, whereas ruminal propionate molar proportion and milk N efficiency increased. Ruminal bacterial and archaeal composition tended to be affected by diet in terms of the whole community, with several bacterial genera found to be significantly affected by diet. These results indicate that DGAT1 does not affect enteric CH4 emission and production pathways, but that it does affect traits other than lactation characteristics, including metabolizability, N efficiency, and the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium. Additionally, linseed oil reduces CH4 emission independent of DGAT1 and affects the rumen microbiota and its fermentative activity. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  19. Lactate metabolism in acute uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverve, Xavier; Mustafa, Iqbal; Novak, Ivan; Krouzecky, Ales; Rokyta, Richard; Matejovic, Martin; Ichai, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Lactate is a key metabolite that is produced by every cell and oxidized by most of them, provided that they do contain mitochondria. Its metabolism is connected to energetic homeostasis and the cellular redox state. It is well recognized as an indicator of severe outcome in severely ill patients, however, it is not a detrimental factor per se. Conversely, some recent data tend even to indicate a beneficial effect in several metabolic disorders. Although the liver has long been recognized as a key organ in lactate homeostasis, the kidney also plays a major role as a gluconeogenic organ significantly involved in the glucose-lactate cycle. In acute renal failure, sodium lactate is widely used as a buffer in replacement fluids because the anion (lactate - ) is metabolized and the cation (Na + ) remains, leading to decreased water dissociation and proton concentration. The metabolic disorders related to acute renal failure or associated with it, such as liver failure, may affect lactate metabolism, and therefore they are often regarded as limiting factors for the use of lactate-containing fluids in such patients. By investigating endogenous lactate production in severe septic patients with acute renal failure, we found that an acute exogenous load of lactate did not affect the basal endogenous lactate production and metabolism. This indicates that exogenous lactate is well metabolized even in patients suffering from acute renal failure and severe sepsis with a compromised hemodynamic status.

  20. Improved biological phosphorus removal performance driven by the aerobic/extended-idle regime with propionate as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yan; Zeng, Tianjing; Zeng, Guangming

    2012-08-01

    Our previous studies proved that biological phosphorus removal (BPR) could be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process employing two typical substrates of glucose and acetate as the carbon sources. This paper further evaluated the feasibility of another important substrate, propionate, serving as the carbon source for BPR in the AEI process, and compared the BPR performance between the AEI and anaerobic/oxic (A/O) processes. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, respectively, as the AEI and A/O regimes for BPR using propionate as the sole substrate. The results showed that the AEI-reactor removed 2.98 ± 0.04-4.06 ± 0.06 mg of phosphorus per g of total suspended solids during the course of the steady operational trial, and the phosphorus content of the dried sludge was reached 8.0 ± 0.4% after 56-day operation, demonstrating the good performance of phosphorus removal. Then, the efficiencies of BPR and the transformations of the intracellular storages were compared between two SBRs. It was observed that the phosphorus removal efficiency was maintained around 95% in the AEI-reactor, and about 83% in the A/O-reactor, although the latter showed much greater transformations of both polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen. The facts clearly showed that BPR could be enhanced by the AEI regime using propionate as the carbon source. Finally, the mechanisms for the propionate fed AEI-reactor improving BPR were investigated. It was found that the sludge cultured by the AEI regime had more polyphosphate containing cells than that by the A/O regime. Further investigation revealed that the residual nitrate generated in the last aerobic period was readily deteriorated BPR in the A/O-SBR, but a slight deterioration was observed in the AEI-SBR. Moreover, the lower glycogen transformation measured in the AEI-SBR indicated that the biomass cultured by the AEI regime contained less glycogen accumulating organisms activities than that by the A/O regime

  1. Effect of feeding Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product on milk production and composition, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H; Wang, J Q; Kang, H Y; Dong, S H; Sun, P; Bu, D P; Zhou, L Y

    2012-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and milk production and composition in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 29 ± 6 days, parity = 2.8 ± 1.1) were blocked by DIM and parity and then randomly assigned to three treatments (12 per treatment) in a 9-week trial. Cows in control, DFM1 and DFM2 were fed TMR diets supplemented with 0, 6 and 12 g of B. subtilis natto solid-state fermentation product per day per cow respectively. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids were lower (p = 0.03) in DFM1 and DFM2 compared with control cows (633 and 639 vs. 685 μm). Ruminal propionate increased (23.9 vs. 26.3 and 26.9/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) and acetate decreased (64.2 vs. 62.7 and 62.1/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) with increasing B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation. DMI of the cows in three treatments was not affected by B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation, but milk yield was 3.1 and 3.2 kg/day higher for DFM1 and DFM2 than that for control cows on average across the 9-week trial, and significant differences were observed during weeks 5-9 of the trial, which resulted in 9.5% and 11.7% increase in feed efficiency. B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation did not affect milk fat percentage and protein yield but increased (p < 0.05) milk fat yield and lactose percentage (p < 0.01) and tended to decrease protein percentage (p = 0.06). The findings show that B. subtilis natto fermentation product was effective in increasing lactation performance of early lactation dairy cows possibly by altering the rumen fermentation pattern without any negative effects on blood metabolites.

  2. Propionate metabolism in the rat heart by 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A D; Malloy, C R; Roby, R E; Rajagopal, A; Jeffrey, F M

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution 13C n.m.r. spectroscopy has been used to examine propionate metabolism in the perfused rat heart. A number of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are observable by 13C n.m.r. in hearts perfused with mixtures of pyruvate and propionate. When the enriched 13C-labelled nucleus originates with pyruvate, the resonances of the intermediates appear as multiplets due to formation of multiply-enriched 13C-labelled isotopomers, whereas when the 13C-labelled nucleus originates with propionate, these same intermediates appear as singlets in the 13C spectrum since entry of propionate into the TCA cycle occurs via succinyl-CoA. An analysis of the isotopomer populations in hearts perfused with [3-13C]pyruvate plus unlabelled propionate indicates that about 27% of the total pyruvate pool available to the heart is derived directly from unlabelled propionate. This was substantiated by perfusing a heart for 2 h with [3-13C]propionate as the only available exogenous substrate. Under these conditions, all of the propionate consumed by the heart, as measured by conventional chemical analysis, ultimately entered the oxidative pathway as [2-13C] or [3-13C]pyruvate. This is consistent with entry of propionate into the TCA cycle intermediate pools as succinyl-CoA and concomitant disposal of malate to pyruvate via the malic enzyme. 13C resonances arising from enriched methylmalonate and propionylcarnitine are also detected in hearts perfused with [3-13C] or [1-13C]propionate which suggests that 13C n.m.r. may be useful as a non-invasive probe in vivo of metabolic abnormalities involving the propionate pathway, such as methylmalonic aciduria or propionic acidaemia. PMID:3178775

  3. L-carnitine enhances excretion of propionyl coenzyme A as propionylcarnitine in propionic acidemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, C R; Millington, D S; Maltby, D A; Bohan, T P; Hoppel, C L

    1984-01-01

    Treatment with L-carnitine greatly enhanced the formation and excretion of short-chain acylcarnitines in three patients with propionic acidemia and in three normal controls. The use of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and linked scanning at constant magnetic (B) to electric (E) field ratio identified the acylcarnitine as propionylcarnitine in patients with propionic acidemia. The normal children excreted mostly acetylcarnitine. Propionic acidemia and other organic acidurias are charact...

  4. Products of Leishmania braziliensis glucose catabolism: release of D-lactate and, under anaerobic conditions, glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, T.N.; Davis, D.G.; London, R.E.; Blum, J.J.

    1987-10-01

    Leishmania braziliensis panamensis promastigotes were incubated with glucose as the sole carbon source. About one-fifth of the glucose consumed under aerobic conditions was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies with (1-/sup 13/C)glucose showed that the other products released were succinate, acetate, alanine, pyruvate, and lactate. Under anaerobic conditions, lactate output increased, glycerol became a major product, and, surprisingly, glucose consumption decreased. Enzymatic assays showed that the lactate formed was D(-)-lactate. The release of alanine during incubation with glucose as the sole carbon source suggested that appreciable proteolysis occurred, consistent with our observation that a large amount of ammonia was released under these conditions. The discoveries that D-lactate is a product of L. braziliensis glucose catabolism, that glycerol is produced under anaerobic conditions, and that the cells exhibit a reverse Pasteur effect open the way for detailed studies of the pathways of glucose metabolism and their regulation in this organism.

  5. Ammonia, a selective agent for methane production by syntrophic acetate oxidation at mesophilic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, A; Nordberg, A

    2008-01-01

    In biogas processes, methane production from acetate proceeds by either aceticlastic methanogenesis or through syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO). In the present study, the pathway for methane production from acetate was analysed; i) during a gradual increase of the ammonia concentration (final concentration 7 g NH(4)(+) -N/L) in a semi-continuous lab-scale anaerobic digester (4.3 L), operating at mesophilic temperature (37 degrees C) or ii) in diluted enrichment cultures (100 ml) experiencing a gradual increase in ammonia, sodium, potassium and propionic acid. The pathway for methane formation was determined by calculating the (14)CO(2)/(14)CH(4) ratio after incubating samples with (14)C-2-acetate. In the anaerobic digester, as well as in the enrichment cultures, the (14)CO(2)/(14)CH4 ratio clearly increased with increasing ammonium-nitrogen concentration, i.e. as the ammonia concentration increased, a shift from the aceticlastic mechanism to the syntrophic pathway occurred. The shift was very distinct and occurred as the NH(4)(+) -N concentration rose above 3 g/l. No shift in pathway was seen during increasing concentrations of sodium, potassium or propionic acid. The shift to SAO in the biogas digester resulted in a twofold decrease in the specific gas and methane yield.

  6. Gas chromatographic determination of propionates as paranitrobenzyl ester in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, K; Sakai, K

    1982-07-01

    A procedure was developed to determine propionates used as mold inhibitors and preservatives in bakery products. Propionates were extracted from the sample with water alkalinized by potassium carbonate. Water was evaporated, and the residue was reacted with paranitrobenzyl bromide in dimethyl-formamide-water (90 + 10) at room temperature to convert propionates to paranitrobenzyl ester, which was determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. Bakery products, such as bread, sponge cake, cookies, and biscuits, were analyzed by this procedure. Recoveries from samples fortified with propionates ranged from 94 to 101%, with a standard deviation of 3.32. The concentrations determined were 50 to 2500 micrograms/g sample.

  7. Propionylcarnitine excretion is not affected by metronidazole administration to patients with disorders of propionate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S P; Iles, R A; Saudubray, J M; Chalmers, R A

    1996-01-01

    Propionylcarnitine (PC) excretion has been measured during a clinical trial of metronidazole therapy in two patients with propionic acidaemia and two patients with methylmalonic aciduria. All patients were in good metabolic control and were receiving L-carnitine. While total propionate excretion was reduced by up to 40% in all four patients during metronidazole therapy, the excretion of propionylcarnitine remained largely unchanged. PC comprised up to 80% of total propionate excretion in patients with propionic acidaemia. These results suggest an extra-hepatic source and/or differing compartmentation for PC formation from those for the production of other metabolites of propionyl-CoA.

  8. Effect of replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with high-oil traditional canola, high-oleic acid canola, or high-erucic acid rapeseed meals on rumen fermentation, digestibility, milk production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Domitrovich, C; Wachter, A; Cassidy, T; Lee, C; Shingfield, K J; Kairenius, P; Davis, J; Brown, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of replacing conventional, solvent-extracted canola meal (control; CTRL) with high oil content; conventional, mechanically extracted canola meal (CMEC); high-oleic, low polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA) canola meal (HOLL); and high-erucic acid, low-glucosinolate rapeseed meal (RPS) on rumen function, digestibility, milk production, and milk FA composition in lactating dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 8 lactating dairy cows. Four of the cows were ruminally cannulated. All oilseed meals were included at approximately 12 to 13% of dietary dry matter (DM). Crude protein and fat concentrations (% of DM) of the meals were 43 and 3.1%, 32.8 and 16.1%, 45.2 and 13.7%, and 34.3 and 17.9% for CTRL, CMEC, HOLL, and RPS, respectively. All diets were formulated to supply net energy of lactation in excess of requirements. The CMEC and RPS diets were predicted to be about 1% deficient in metabolizable protein. Relative to the CTRL, inclusion of high-oil seed meals in the diet lowered ruminal acetate concentration and the molar acetate:propionate ratio and decreased DM intake. Milk yield generally followed DM intake and was lower for CMEC and RPS than the CTRL. Treatments had no effect on milk composition, other than an increase in milk urea nitrogen concentration for HOLL. Fat-corrected milk (3.5%) feed efficiency was increased by HOLL and RPS compared with CTRL. Urinary urea nitrogen losses were increased by HOLL, which, as a consequence, increased the ammonia-emitting potential of manure. The ratio of milk N-to-N intake was greater for CMEC and RPS. Replacing solvent-extracted canola meal with the high-oil meal decreased milk fat 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, and total saturated FA content and enhanced cis-9 18:1 and total monounsaturated FA concentrations. Relative to the CTRL, canola increased total trans FA in milk, whereas inclusion of HOLL in the diet increased trans-11 18:1 and

  9. Isolation of mutants deficient in acetyl-CoA synthetase and a possible regulator of acetate induction in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy-Lewis, H M; Fairhurst, V

    1998-07-01

    Acetate-non-utilizing mutants in Aspergillus niger were selected by resistance to 1.2% propionate in the presence of 0.1% glucose. Mutants showing normal morphology fell into two complementation groups. One class of mutant lacked acetyl-CoA synthetase but had high levels of isocitrate lyase, while the second class showed reduced levels of both acetyl-CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase compared to the wild-type strain. By analogy with mutants selected by resistance to 1.2% propionate in Aspergillus nidulans, the properties of the mutants in A. niger suggest that the mutations are either in the structural gene for acetyl-CoA synthetase (acuA) or in a possible regulatory gene of acetate induction (acuB). A third class of mutant in a different complementation group was obtained which had abnormal morphology (yellow mycelium and few conidia); the specific lesion in these mutants has not been determined.

  10. Microwave Spectra of Fluorinated Propionic Acids and Their Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grubbs, G. S. Grubbs, Ii; Novick, Stewart E.; Cooke, Stephen A.; Serrato, Agapito Serrato, Iii; Lin, Wei

    2013-06-01

    The microwave spectra of three fluorinated propionic acids, namely pentafluoropropionic acid, 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid, and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid have been observed and assigned. The spectra of pentafluoropropionic acid and its monohydrate were reported in this meeting last year. The conformational analysis of 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropionic acid will be compared to that of pentafluoropropionic acid. The structures of the three monohydrates will be discussed in terms of hydrogen bonding.

  11. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, R.; L. Rodello; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  13. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    suspicion of poisoning are illnesses in a number of pre- viously healthy animals, at the same time, and showing. *Corresponding ... hepatocytes, the major cell type in the liver. ALT is often ... level is also increased in cases of liver cell death resulting from ...... Acetate on the Neural Development of Chick Embryos. Radostitis ...

  14. MR spectroscopy-based brain metabolite profiling in propionic acidaemia: metabolic changes in the basal ganglia during acute decompensation and effect of liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKiernan Patrick J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionic acidaemia (PA results from deficiency of Propionyl CoA carboxylase, the commonest form presenting in the neonatal period. Despite best current management, PA is associated with severe neurological sequelae, in particular movement disorders resulting from basal ganglia infarction, although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. The role of liver transplantation remains controversial but may confer some neuro-protection. The present study utilises quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS to investigate brain metabolite alterations in propionic acidaemia during metabolic stability and acute encephalopathic episodes. Methods Quantitative MRS was used to evaluate brain metabolites in eight children with neonatal onset propionic acidaemia, with six elective studies acquired during metabolic stability and five studies during acute encephalopathic episodes. MRS studies were acquired concurrently with clinically indicated MR imaging studies at 1.5 Tesla. LCModel software was used to provide metabolite quantification. Comparison was made with a dataset of MRS metabolite concentrations from a cohort of children with normal appearing MR imaging. Results MRI findings confirm the vulnerability of basal ganglia to infarction during acute encephalopathy. We identified statistically significant decreases in basal ganglia glutamate+glutamine and N-Acetylaspartate, and increase in lactate, during encephalopathic episodes. In white matter lactate was significantly elevated but other metabolites not significantly altered. Metabolite data from two children who had received liver transplantation were not significantly different from the comparator group. Conclusions The metabolite alterations seen in propionic acidaemia in the basal ganglia during acute encephalopathy reflect loss of viable neurons, and a switch to anaerobic respiration. The decrease in glutamine + glutamate supports the hypothesis that they are consumed to

  15. Effects of feeding three types of corn-milling coproducts on milk production and ruminal fermentation of lactating Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelzer, J M; Kononoff, P J; Gehman, A M; Tedeschi, L O; Karges, K; Gibson, M L

    2009-10-01

    intake and milk production were not different across treatments and averaged 26.1 +/- 2.3 and 28.3 +/- 3.9 kg/d. Ruminal pH (6.26 +/- 0.08) and total concentration of volatile fatty acids (125.3 +/- 4.2 mM) were similar. Acetate concentration was higher for the control treatment than the DDGS, germ, and HPDDG treatments (81.7 vs. 75.8, 75.0, and 78.4 mM). Concentrations of propionate and butyrate were not different and averaged 27.8 +/- 1.2 and 14.3 +/- 0.9 mM across treatments. The acetate:propionate ratios for the control, germ, and HPDDG treatments were greater than for the DDGS treatment (3.02, 2.88, and 2.91 vs. 2.62). Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were similar across treatments and averaged 63.5 +/- 2.7, 67.3 +/- 2.2, and 43.5 +/- 4.2%. Milk production followed DM intake in experiment 1, and yield of major milk components was not affected. Results of these experiments indicate that dairy rations can be successfully formulated to include 15% of diet DM as corn-milling coproducts while maintaining or increasing DM intakes and yields of milk and milk components.

  16. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous lactate...

  17. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia.

  18. Research Intensity Synthesis of Propionic Acid and Vitamin B12 Propionibacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Tatyana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conducted the selection and breeding of strains of Propionibacterium shermanii ability to synthesize vitamin B12 and propionic acid. Dedicated 9 propionibacteria strains synthesize vitamin B12 (180-1200 mcgr/ml and propionic acid (0,63- 2,53 g/l.

  19. Microbial Community Shifts during Biogas Production from Biowaste and/or Propionate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoran Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Propionate is the most delicate intermediate during anaerobic digestion as its degradation is thermodynamically unfavorable. To determine its maximum possible degradation rates during anaerobic digestion, a reactor was fed Monday to Friday with an organic loading rate (OLR of 12/14 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 plus propionate up to a final OLR of 18 kg COD·m−3·d−1. No feed was supplied on weekends as it was the case in full-scale. To maintain permanently high propionate oxidizing activity (POA, a basic OLR of 3 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 all week + 11 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday was supplied. Finally a reactor was operated with an OLR of 12 kg CODbiowaste·m−3·d−1 from Monday to Friday and 5 kg CODpropionate·m−3·d−1 from Friday night to Monday morning to maintain a constant gas production for permanent operation of a gas engine. The propionate degradation rates (PDRs were determined for biowaste + propionate feeding. Decreasing PDRs during starvation were analyzed. The POA was higher after propionate supply than after biowaste feeding and decreased faster during starvation of a propionate-fed rather than a biowaste-fed inoculum. Shifts of the propionate-oxidizing and methanogenic community were determined.

  20. Monitoring and control of the biogas process based on propionate concentration using online VFA measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Steyer, J.P.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Simple logic control algorithms were tested for automatic control of a lab-scale CSTR manure digester. Using an online VFA monitoring system, propionate concentration in the reactor was used as parameter for control of the biogas process. The propionate concentration was kept below a threshold...

  1. Kinetics and mathematical modeling of homoacetic fermentation of lactate by Clostridium formicoaceticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S T; Tang, I C; Okos, M R

    1988-09-05

    Fermentation kinetics of Clostridium formicoaceticum grown on lactate at pH 7.0 and 35 degrees C was studied. Acetate was the only fermentation product and its production was growth associated. The growth of this bacterium was insensitive to the lactate concentrations studied, but was inhibited by acetic acid. A Monod-type expression with product inhibition similar to the noncompetitive inhibition of enzyme kinetics was used to model the batch fermentation. An integrated equation was developed and used to help estimating the kinetic parameters in the model. This mathematical model can be used to simulate the homoacetic fermentation of lactate by C. formicoaceticum at pH 7.0 and 35 degrees C.

  2. Recent Advancements and Biological Activities of Aryl Propionic Acid Derivatives: (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Dhall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aryl propionic acid derivatives belong to an important class of NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Ibuprofen, chemically called 2-(4-isobutyl phenyl propionic acid, is a well known NSAID. Aryl propionic acid derivatives possesses a wide range of biological activities including anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-cancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Apart from very potent compounds in the field of analgesics and antipyrectics as Ibuprofen, Oxaprozin, Ketoprofen, Fenoprofen; aryl propionic acid derivatives plays important role to treat other ailments also. Through this review, an attempt has been made to emphasize on recent work done and recent advancements in arena of aryl propionic acid derivatives in view of medicinal chemistry.

  3. Mechanism and controlling strategy of the production and accumulation of propionic acid for anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任南琪; 李建政; 赵丹; 陈晓蕾

    2002-01-01

    The production and accumulation of propionic acid affect significantly anaerobic wastewater treatment system, but the reasons are not approached until now. Based on the results of continuous-flow tests and the analysis of biochemistry and ecology, two mechanisms of producing propionic acid have been put forward. It is demonstrated that the reasons of propionic acid production and accumulation are not caused by higher hydrogen partial pressure. The combination of specific pH value and ORP is the ecological factor affecting propionic acid production, and the equilibrium regulation of NADH/NAD+ ratio in cells is the physiological factor. Meanwhile, it is put forward that using the two-phase anaerobic treatment process and the ethanol type fermentation in anaerobic reactor to avoid propionic acid accumulation are efficient methods.

  4. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  5. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or derm

  6. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  7. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated ...

  8. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    2011-01-01

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  9. Empirical prediction of net portal appearance of volatile fatty acids, glucose, and their secondary metabolites (beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate) from dietary characteristics in ruminants: A meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncke, C; Ortigues-Marty, I; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2009-01-01

    The current trend in energy feeding systems for ruminants toward a nutrient-based system requires dietary energy supply to be determined in terms of amount and nature of absorbed energy-yielding nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations on the net portal appearance (NPA) of VFA and glucose, and their secondary metabolites beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and lactate, to changes in intake level and chemical dietary characteristics based on the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Feed Evaluation System for Ruminants. Meta-analyses were applied on published data compiled from the FLORA database, which pools the results on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes in multi-catheterized ruminants from international publications. For each nutrient, several prediction variables were tested. We obtained robust models for intakes up to 30 g of DM x d(-1) x kg of BW(-1) and diets containing less than 70 g of concentrate per 100 g of DM. These models were designed to predict the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of total VFA based on the amount of ruminally fermented OM (RfOM) intake [adjusted R(2) (R(2)(adj)) = 0.95; residual means square errors (RMSE) = 0.24], to predict VFA profile (mol/100 mol of total VFA) based on type of RfOM intake (acetate: R(2)(adj) = 0.85, RMSE = 2.2; propionate: R(2)(adj) = 0.76, RMSE = 2.2; butyrate: R(2)(adj) = 0.76, RMSE = 1.09), and to predict the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of glucose based on the starch digested in the small intestine independent of ruminant species, and while presenting no interfering factors on the residuals and individual slopes. The model predicting the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of BHBA based on the amount of RfOM intake (R(2)(adj) = 0.91; RMSE = 0.036) was species-dependent, and the model predicting NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of BW(-1)) of lactate based on starch digested in the rumen (R(2)(adj) = 0.77; RMSE = 0.042) presented a wide dispersion. However, the NPA (mmol x h(-1) x kg of

  10. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions lactate dehydrogenase deficiency lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the ...

  11. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6H10FeO6... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid...

  13. Preparing Process of Cerium Acetate and Rare Earth Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Jun; Ma Ying; Xu Yanhui; Zhang Jun; Chang Shu; Hao Xianku

    2004-01-01

    Preparing process was presented and the influences of concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature, the ratio of cerium carbonate and acetic acid, heat preservation time to the yield of cerium acetate were discussed.The crystalline cerium acetate and rare earth acetate such as ( La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Pr, Nd, Er,Y) (Ac) 3 and yttrium acetate were prepared under this condition.The shape, structure and composition of the crystals were determined by the methods of SEM, TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis.The optimum prepared conditions of cerium acetate were described.This prepared process has characteristics such as simple process route, low cost, high yield, good quality, no pollution to environment, etc.

  14. Decreased activity of a propionate degrading community in a UASB reactor fed with synthetic medium without molybdenum, tungsten and selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, P.; Fermoso, F.G.; Lens, P.N.L.; Plugge, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The composition and dynamics of the propionate degrading community in a propionate-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor with sludge originating from an alcohol distillery wastewater treating UASB reactor was studied. The rather stable propionate degrading microbial community comprised rela

  15. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Binod Raj; AlAbbad, Mohammed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-11-01

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976-1300 K and pressures of 825-1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting C2H4 near 10.532 μm using CO2 gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that C2H4 elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  16. Chiral Building Blocks: Enantioselective Syntheses of Benzyloxymethyl Phenyl Propionic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustum S. Boyce

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of (2S-2-benzyloxymethyl-3-(2-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl- propionic acid, (2S-2-benzyloxymethyl-3-(2-fluoro-4-methylphenylpropionic acid and (2S-2-benzyl-oxymethyl-3-(2,4-dimethylphenylpropionic acid has been achieved by TiCl4 mediated alkylation of the corresponding (4R-4-benzyl-3-[3-(2-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl-, 2-fluoro-4-methylphenyl-, 2,4- dimethylphenyl-propionyl]-2-oxazolidinones, followed by hydrolysis of the chiral auxiliary. The stereochemistry of the alkylation reaction was confirmed by an X-ray crystal structure of (4R-4-benzyl-3-[(2S-2-benzyloxymethyl-3-(2- fluoro-4-methylphenylpropionyl]-2-oxazolidinone.

  17. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod Raj

    2016-10-09

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting CH near 10.532 μm using CO gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that CH elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  18. Thermal decomposition of yttrium(III) propionate and butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of yttrium(III) propionate monohydrate (Y(C2H5CO2)3·H2O) and yttrium(III) butyrate dihydrate (Y(C3H7CO2)3·2H2O) were studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage microscopy. These two...... of CO2 and a symmetrical ketone consisting of 3-pentanone and 4-heptanone respectively. Final conversion to Y2O3 takes pace with release of CO2. Elemental carbon that is left as a by-product is finally slowly burned by the residual oxygen present in the Ar atmosphere. Fusion is observed at ≈110°C...

  19. N-carbamylglutamate for neonatal hyperammonaemia in propionic acidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Reed, C A B; Vijay, S; Walter, J H; Morris, A A M

    2008-12-01

    Hyperammonaemia is common in neonates with branched-chain organic acidaemias, primarily due to the inhibition of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthetase; NAG is an activator for carbamylphosphate synthetase I, the first enzyme of the urea cycle. N-Carbamylglutamate, a NAG analogue, has been reported to correct hyperammonaemia in neonates with organic acidaemias. It is, however, uncertain how the ammonia concentrations in these neonates would have progressed without the drug. We report a neonate with propionic acidaemia, whose plasma ammonia concentration responded dramatically to N-carbamylglutamate, having previously been over 950 μmol/L for 33 h. Our patient presented with poor feeding, hypoglycaemia, acidosis and hyperammonaemia (1044 μmol/L at 65 h of age). The patient was treated with intravenous glucose (12 mg/kg per min), insulin, sodium benzoate, sodium phenylbutyrate, carnitine and continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH). In spite of these measures, the plasma ammonia concentration remained above 950 μmol/L. After 30 h of CVVH, N-carbamylglutamate (250 mg/kg) was given through a nasogastric tube. Over the following 4 h, the plasma ammonia fell from 1410 μmol/L to 267 μmol/L. Despite stopping CVVH, the ammonia level dropped to 137 μmol/L over the next 2 h and it continued to fall while the intravenous drug doses were reduced. The patient was readmitted, aged 4 weeks, with hyperammonaemia (347 μmol/L) and again this responded to N-carbamylglutamate. In contrast, we report a previous patient with propionic acidaemia who showed no response to a lower dose of N-carbamylglutamate (25 mg/kg).

  20. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82Δ, ato2Δ, and ssa3Δ) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance.

  1. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2Δmutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid.

  2. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    and also in other tissues. Studies using lactate isotopes have shown that skeletal muscle extracts lactate from the circulation despite a substantial net lactate release, and that skeletal muscle has a large capacity for lactate oxidation; these processes being enhanced with exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...... and lactate production associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later, it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only plays an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this in turn has led to a renewed interest in the metabolic fate of lactate in skeletal muscle...

  3. Determination of degradation products of squalamine lactate using LC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong-Jun; Kari, U Prasad; Noecker, Lincoln A; Jones, Stephen R; Sabo, Andrew M; McCormick, Timothy J; Johnston, Sean M

    2003-04-24

    Heat, acid and base stress methods were applied to study the stability of squalamine lactate. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to analyze the degraded samples and tentative structural identifications were assigned based on their molecular weight measurements, reactivity and MS/MS fragmentation. Solid squalamine lactate generated a new amide, namely lactyl squalamide, when heated to 80 degrees C. Chemical structure for this new compound has been established by NMR and MS data interpretation and confirmed by direct comparison between the degradant and the synthesized compound. Squalamine lactate in pH 4 acetate buffer solution produced more degradants under stressed conditions. These degradants are formed due to the loss of the sulfate functionality. Squalamine lactate is stable in refrigerated conditions as well as in basic solution.

  4. Inhibition of oxidative metabolism by propionic acid and its reversal by carnitine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, E P; Fennessey, P V; Miller, L V

    1986-01-01

    The present study was designed to study the interaction of propionic acid and carnitine on oxidative metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes. Propionic acid (10 mM) inhibited hepatocyte oxidation of [1-14C]-pyruvate (10 mM) by 60%. This inhibition was not the result of substrate competition, as butyric acid had minimal effects on pyruvate oxidation. Carnitine had a small inhibitory effect on pyruvate oxidation in the hepatocyte system (210 +/- 19 and 184 +/- 18 nmol of pyruvate/60 min per mg of protein in the absence and presence of 10 mM-carnitine respectively; means +/- S.E.M., n = 10). However, in the presence of propionic acid (10 mM), carnitine (10 mM) increased the rate of pyruvate oxidation by 19%. Under conditions where carnitine partially reversed the inhibitory effect of propionic acid on pyruvate oxidation, formation of propionylcarnitine was documented by using fast-atom-bombardment mass spectroscopy. Propionic acid also inhibited oxidation of [1-14C]palmitic acid (0.8 mM) by hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. The degree of inhibition caused by propionic acid was decreased in the presence of 10 mM-carnitine (41% inhibition in the absence of carnitine, 22% inhibition in the presence of carnitine). Propionic acid did not inhibit [1-14C]palmitic acid oxidation by hepatocytes isolated from 48 h-starved rats. These results demonstrate that propionic acid interferes with oxidative metabolism in intact hepatocytes. Carnitine partially reverses the inhibition of pyruvate and palmitic acid oxidation by propionic acid, and this reversal is associated with increased propionylcarnitine formation. The present study provides a metabolic basis for the efficacy of carnitine in patients with abnormal organic acid accumulation, and the observation that such patients appear to have increased carnitine requirements ('carnitine insufficiency'). PMID:3790065

  5. Influence of intrajugular administration of insulin, glucagon and propionate on voluntary feed intake of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, L E; Wangsness, P J

    1981-08-01

    The effect of intrajugular injections of insulin, glucagon and propionate, administered singly and in combination, as possible peripheral feedbacks in the control of feed intake in wethers was studied. A complete mixed diet (25% chopped hay: 75% cracked corn) was fed ad libitum. The treatments were saline, 6 mU insulin/kg body weight (BW), 9 ng glucagon/kg BW and 1.3 mg propionate/kg BW. In Exp. 1, five wethers were given the treatments at the beginning of each spontaneous meal over a 24-hr period, and total daily feed intakes were measured. The average number of injections per sheep for a 24-hr period was eight. In Exp. 2, the effects of the treatments on plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, propionate and glucose at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection were measured in six other wethers. In Exp. 1, insulin (P less than .01), glucagon (P less than .01), insulin plus propionate (P less than .05) and glucagon plus propionate (P less than .05) decreased 24-hr feed intake by 18.5, 15.8, 11.0 and 11.8%, respectively, compared to the saline control. In Exp. 2, plasma insulin concentrations were increased (P less than .05) at 15 min after administration of insulin and insulin plus propionate, to 2.0 and 2.1 times the preinjection levels, respectively. Glucagon concentrations in plasma were increased (P less than .01) at 15 min after the injection of glucagon, to 2.0 times the pretreatment values. Insulin and glucagon concentrations in plasma were increased only slightly (P less than .10) after administration of glucagon plus propionate. No treatments affected glucose or propionate concentrations in the plasma. Increases in plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon and propionate may interact directly or initiate other mechanisms involved in the short-term control of feed intake by sheep on a concentrate diet.

  6. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  7. [Kinetic model of enhanced biological phosphorus removal with mixed acetic and propionic acids as carbon sources. (I): Model constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Yin-Guang

    2013-03-01

    Based on activated sludge model No. 2 (ASM2), the anaerobic/aerobic kinetic model of phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAO) was established with mixed short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as the base substance in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The characteristic of the PAO model was that the anaerobic metabolism rates of glycogen degradation, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates synthesis and polyphosphate hydrolysis were expressed by SCFAs uptake equation, and the effects of anaerobic maintenance on kinetics and stoichiometry were considered. The PAO kinetic model was composed of 3 soluble components, 4 particulate components and a pH parameter, which constituted the matrix of stoichiometric coefficients. On the basis of PAO model, the GAO kinetic model was established, which included 7 processes, and phosphorus content influenced the aerobic metabolism only.

  8. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  9. N-carbamylglutamate protects patients with decompensated propionic aciduria from hyperammonaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, B; Dittrich, S; Parbel, S; Vlaho, S; Matsika, O; Bohles, H

    2005-01-01

    In patients with propionic aciduria, the accumulating metabolite propionyl-CoA causes a disturbance of the urea cycle via the inhibition of N-acetylglutamate synthesis. Lack of this allosteric activator results in an inhibition of carbamoylphosphate synthase (CPS). This finally leads to hyperammonaemia. In two patients with decompensated propionic aciduria the CPS activator carbamylglutamate was tested for its ability to antagonize the propionyl-CoA associated hyperammonaemia. Oral carbamyl glutamate administration resulted in a significant increase in ammonia detoxification and could avoid further dialysis therapy. Safe, fast and easy to administer, carbamyl glutamate improves the acute therapy of decompensated propionic aciduria by increasing ammonia detoxification and avoiding hyperammonaemia.

  10. Threshold Acetate Concentrations for Acetate Catabolism by Aceticlastic Methanogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Marked differences were found for minimum threshold concentrations of acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri 227 (1.180 mM), Methanosarcina mazei S-6 (0.396 mM), and a Methanothrix sp. (0.069 mM). This indicates that the aceticlastic methanogens responsible for the conversion of acetate to methane in various ecosystems might be different, depending on the prevailing in situ acetate concentrations.

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  12. Kallolide A acetate pyrazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escudero, Idaliz; Marrero, Jeffrey; Rodríguez, Abimael D

    2012-01-01

    IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF KALLOLIDE A ACETATE PYRAZOLINE [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 7-methyl-16-oxo-4,10-bis-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-17,18-dioxa-14,15-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[9.4.2.1(6,9).0(1,12)]octa-deca-6,8,14-trien-5-yl acetate], C(23)H(28)N(2)O(5), there is a 12-member-ed carbon macrocyclic structure. In addition, there is a tris-ubstituted furan ring, an approximately planar γ-lactone ring [maximum deviation of 0.057 (3) Å] and a pyraz-oline ring, the latter in an envelope conformation. The pyrazoline and the γ-lactone rings are fused in a cis configuration. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also present.

  13. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    K2CO3 increased the overall ruminal turnover rate. Ruminal ammonia concentrations declined linearly and pH increased linearly as K supplementation increased. As a molar percentage of total volatile fatty acids, acetate increased linearly as dietary K increased, though propionate declined. Increasing dietary K2CO3 and total K in the diets of lactating dairy cows increased water consumption and modified ruminal measures in ways suggesting that both liquid and total ruminal turnover were increased as both water and K intake increased.

  14. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake...

  15. Lactating Adenoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco Nebreda, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Fraile, Manel; Canales, Lydia; González, Clarisa; Giménez, Nuria; García-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Lactating adenoma is an uncommon breast palpable lesion occurring in pregnancy or lactation. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires core biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. As with other solid lesions in pregnancy and lactation, lactating adenoma needs an accurate evaluation in order to ensure its benign nature. Work-up must include both imaging and histologic findings. Ultrasound evaluation remains the first step in assessing the features of the lesion. Some authors consider magnetic resonance imaging as a useful tool in cases of inconclusive evaluation after ultrasound and histologic exam in an attempt to avoid surgery. Most lactating adenomas resolve spontaneously, whereas others persist or even increase in size and must be removed. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old woman at 6 months postpartum with a lactating adenoma in her right breast. After surgical removal, breastfeeding was perfectly continued within the next 24 hours, which highlights the fact that breast surgery is most often compatible with breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Joanne R.; Cleveland, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacen...

  17. Overview of the effects of Ringer's acetate solution and a new concept: renal ketogenesis during hepatic inflow occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, T

    2001-11-01

    Developments in infusion therapy with sodium lactate administered with its isomer, and developments in acetate utilization, both as an infusate or a dialysate, have been previously described, as have the various effects of sodium acetate on cardiovascular function, metabolism and fluid replacement. Unfavorable effects of acetate infusate or dialysate, such as cardiovascular depression, have also been reported, and although the number of studies reporting favorable effects on cardiovascular metabolism is increasing, it is still a matter of controversy. It is clear, however, that acetate can be metabolized in the liver as well as in extrahepatic organs yielding bicarbonate, which can be utilized as an alkalizing agent. Recently, the authors reported new experimental findings that sodium acetate was metabolized to ketone bodies by the kidney during hepatic inflow occlusion. Ketone bodies attract considerable attention as energy substrates in the stress phase and in the reduced redox state. Administration of sodium acetate under such conditions may therefore contribute as substrate supply.

  18. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  19. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  20. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  1. Regulation and optimization of the biogas process: Propionate as a key parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators in biogas reactors treating manure together with industrial waste was studied. At a full-scale biogas plant, an online VFA sensor was installed in order to study VFA dynamics during stable and unstable operation. During stable operation......, a process breakdown caused by organic overloading with meat and bone meal and lipids was indicated by changes in propionate concentration 12-18 days before a decrease in methane production was observed. Furthermore, a more efficient and stable utilization of the substrate was observed when propionate.......6 to 2.9 mM. A process disturbance caused by overloading with industrial waste was reflected by a significant increase in all VFA concentrations. During the recovery of the process, the return of propionate back to the steady-state level was 2-3 days slower than any other VFA and propionate could best...

  2. Pharmacological investigation of an Ayurvedic formulation on testosterone propionate-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Hardik

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study concludes that Herbo-mineral formulation has promising effect on testosterone propionate-induced BPH in male wistar rats. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(2.000: 131-136

  3. Production responses by early lactation cows to whole sunflower seed or tallow supplementation of a diet based on barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, S B; Wittenberg, K M; Ingalls, J R; Undi, M

    1996-10-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate the effectiveness of whole sunflower seed as a source of fat was conducted with 18 primiparous and 31 multiparous Holstein cows. The three diets evaluated were a basal diet based on barley (control), a basal diet supplemented with 2.7% tallow, and a basal diet supplemented with 7.1% whole sunflower seeds. The DMI of lactating cows during the 16-wk test period was not influenced by supplementation with either sunflower seeds or tallow. Milk production was 34.4, 34.6, and 35.5 kg/d for cows fed the control diet or the diets supplemented with sunflower or tallow, respectively, and was not influenced by diet. The production and concentrations of milk protein, fat, and SNF also were not influenced by diet. The concentrations of C6:0 to C14:1 fatty acids were highest in the milk of cows fed the control diet. The concentrations of C10:0 to C16:1 were higher when cows were fed the diet with the tallow supplement than when they were fed the diet with the sunflower supplement. However, the concentrations of C18:0 to C18:2 and C20:0 were higher in the milk of cows that were fed the sunflower supplement than in the milk of cows that were fed the tallow supplement or the control diet. Concentrations of individual VFA and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not influenced by diet. Body weight, body condition score, and reproduction parameters were similar for all diets, suggesting that there were no effects on subsequent production. The performance of cows fed whole sunflower seeds as a source of energy appeared to be similar to the performance of cows fed traditional high energy diets based on barley. The fatty acid profile of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds was more favorable than that of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with tallow.

  4. Response of lactating dairy cows to degree of steam-flaked barley grain in low-forage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Kh; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Yang, W Z

    2017-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of processing method (grinding vs. steam flaking) and increasing densities of steam-flaked barley grain on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen pH and fermentation characteristics, digestibility of dry matter in the total digestive tract (DDTT), and milk production of dairy cows. Eight multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows averaging 103 ± 24 DIM, 44.5 ± 4.7 kg milk/day and weighing 611 ± 43 kg at the start of the experiment were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day periods. Cows were fed diets consisting of (DM basis) 23.8% corn silage, 13.5% chopped alfalfa hay and 62.7% concentrate. The dietary treatments were either ground barley (GB) using a hammer mill or steam-flaked barley (SFB) - varying density at 390, 340 or 290 g/l. Processing method (GB vs. SFB) did not affect DMI (23.6 kg/day on average), DDTT (71.0% on average), milk yield (43.4 kg/day on average), milk components, rumen pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate and sorting activity. Ruminal isovalerate concentration tended (p = 0.06) to be higher for cows fed GB than those fed SFB-based diets. Decreasing the density of SFB from 390, 340 to 290 g/l tended to linearly increase DMI (p = 0.09), decrease total solids percentage of milk (p = 0.10) and linearly decreased milk urea nitrogen (12.8, 12.4 and 12.1 mg/dl; p = 0.04); also, the sorting index (SI) of the particles retained on the 19.0-mm sieve without affecting the SI of the particles retained on 8.0-mm, 1.18-mm or passed through 1.18-mm sieve (p = 0.05). These results indicated the limited effects of processing method (grinding vs. steam flaking) and densities of SFB (390, 290 or 290 g/l) on cows' performance and feed utilization for dairy cows fed low-forage diets. Therefore, both processing methods could be recommended under current feeding conditions of dairy cows. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell

  5. The Orphan G protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and GPR43 are activated by propionate and other short chain carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew J; Goldsworthy, Susan M; Barnes, Ashley A; Eilert, Michelle M; Tcheang, Lili; Daniels, Dion; Muir, Alison I; Wigglesworth, Mark J; Kinghorn, Ian; Fraser, Neil J; Pike, Nicholas B; Strum, Jay C; Steplewski, Klaudia M; Murdock, Paul R; Holder, Julie C; Marshall, Fiona H; Szekeres, Philip G; Wilson, Shelagh; Ignar, Diane M; Foord, Steve M; Wise, Alan; Dowell, Simon J

    2003-03-28

    GPR41 and GPR43 are related members of a homologous family of orphan G protein-coupled receptors that are tandemly encoded at a single chromosomal locus in both humans and mice. We identified the acetate anion as an agonist of human GPR43 during routine ligand bank screening in yeast. This activity was confirmed after transient transfection of GPR43 into mammalian cells using Ca(2+) mobilization and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding assays and by coexpression with GIRK G protein-regulated potassium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Other short chain carboxylic acid anions such as formate, propionate, butyrate, and pentanoate also had agonist activity. GPR41 is related to GPR43 (52% similarity; 43% identity) and was activated by similar ligands but with differing specificity for carbon chain length, with pentanoate being the most potent agonist. A third family member, GPR42, is most likely a recent gene duplication of GPR41 and may be a pseudogene. GPR41 was expressed primarily in adipose tissue, whereas the highest levels of GPR43 were found in immune cells. The identity of the cognate physiological ligands for these receptors is not clear, although propionate is known to occur in vivo at high concentrations under certain pathophysiological conditions.

  6. High cell density propionic acid fermentation with an acid tolerant strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongqiang; Jin, Ying; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-03-01

    Propionic acid is an important chemical with wide applications and its production via fermentation is of great interest. However, economic production of bio-based propionic acid requires high product titer, yield, and productivity in the fermentation. A highly efficient and stable high cell density (HCD) fermentation process with cell recycle by centrifugation was developed for propionic acid production from glucose using an acid-tolerant strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici, which had a higher specific growth rate, productivity, and acid tolerance compared to the wild type ATCC 4875. The sequential batch HCD fermentation at pH 6.5 produced propionic acid at a high titer of ∼40 g/L and productivity of 2.98 g/L h, with a yield of ∼0.44 g/g. The product yield increased to 0.53-0.62 g/g at a lower pH of 5.0-5.5, which, however, decreased the productivity to 1.28 g/L h. A higher final propionic acid titer of >55 g/L with a productivity of 2.23 g/L h was obtained in fed-batch HCD fermentation at pH 6.5. A 3-stage simulated fed-batch process in serum bottles produced 49.2 g/L propionic acid with a yield of 0.53 g/g and productivity of 0.66 g/L h. These productivities, yields and propionic acid titers were among the highest ever obtained in free-cell propionic acid fermentation.

  7. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  8. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  9. Effect of propionic acid on Campylobacter jejuni attached to chicken skin during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fandos, Elena; Maya, Naiara; Pérez-Arnedo, Iratxe

    2015-09-01

    The ability of propionic acid to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Chicken legs were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. After dipping legs in either water (control), 1% or 2% propionic acid solution (vol/vol), they were stored at 4ºC for 8 days. Changes in C. jejuni, psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts were evaluated. Washing in 2% propionic acid significantly reduced C. jejuni counts compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.62 log units after treatment. Treatment of chicken legs with 1 or 2% propionic acid significantly reduced numbers of psychrotrophs 1.01 and 1.08 log units and Pseudomonas counts 0.75 and 0.96 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. The reduction in psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas increased throughout storage. The highest reductions obtained for psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts in treated legs were reached at the end of storage, day 8, being 3.3 and 2.93 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. Propionic acid treatment was effective in reducing psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts on chicken legs throughout storage. It is concluded that propionic acid is effective for reducing C. jejuni populations in chicken.

  10. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Oh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C, 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1, 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2 and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3 of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05 by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration.

  11. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of relevance to o

  12. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from mangrove swamps. 2. Their ecology and physiology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Oak, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been enumerated and physiologically characterized in three mangrove stations along the Zuari Estuary, Goa, India. The substrates for counting were lactate, acetate, propionate, butyrate and benzoate. Benzoate...

  13. Interaction of propionate and carnitine metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brass, E.P.; Beyerinck, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Propionate (P) and its metabolic products P-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA can disrupt normal hepatic metabolism. Carnitine (Cn) has been shown to partially restore cellular function in the presence of P. This effect of Cn may result from removal of propionyl groups as propionylcarnitine (P-Cn). The present study examined the kinetics of P-Cn formation in rat hepatocytes, and the consequence of P-Cn formation on P and Cn metabolism. /sup 14/C-P was converted to CO/sub 2/, glucose and P-Cn in the hepatocyte system. Increasing concentrations of Cn up to 10.0 mM increased P-Cn formation from P without affecting CO/sub 2/ or glucose formation. Thus, 10.0 mM Cn increased total P metabolism by 40%. Metabolism of P was associated with a decrease in Cn concentration and an increase in short chain acylcarnitines (SCCn). In the absence of added Cn, 60 min incubation with P decreased Cn from 6.8 to 2.5 ..mu..M with a corresponding increase in SCCn. This effect of P to deplete free Cn was not seen to the same degree with butyrate in place of P. Similar increases in the formation of SCCn in the presence of P at the expense of free Cn were seen when the incubation Cn concentration was increased to 50 ..mu..M or 150 ..mu..M. HPLC methodologies to study specific acylcarnitines demonstrated the accumulation of large amounts of P-Cn in the incubations containing P, accounting for the depletion of free Cn.

  14. Precipitation of fluticasone propionate microparticles using supercritical antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vatanara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The ability of supercritical fluids (SCFs, such as carbon dioxide, to dissolve and expand or extract organic solvents and as result lower their solvation power, makes it possible the use of SCFs for the precipitation of solids from organic solutions. The process could be the injection of a solution of the substrate in an organic solvent into a vessel which is swept by a supercritical fluid. The aim of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of supercritical processing to prepare different particulate forms of fluticasone propionate (FP, and to evaluate the influence of different liquid solvents and precipitation temperatures on the morphology, size and crystal habit of particles. Method: The solution of FP in organic solvents, was precipitated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 at two pressure and temperature levels. Effects of process parameters on the physicochemical characteristics of harvested microparticles were evaluated. Results: Particle formation was observed only at the lower selected pressure, whilst at the higher pressure, no precipitation of particles was occurred due to dissolution of FP in supercritical antisolvent. The micrographs of the produced particles showed different morphologies for FP obtained from different conditions. The results of thermal analysis of the resulted particles showed that changes in the processing conditions didn't influence thermal behavior of the precipitated particles. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the size distribution of particles showed that increase in the temperature from 40 oC to 50 oC, resulted in reduction of the mean particle size from about 30 µm to about 12 μm. ‍Conclusion: From the results of this study it may be concluded that, processing of FP by supercritical antisolvent could be an approach for production of diverse forms of the drug and drastic changes in the physical characteristics of microparticles could be achieved by changing the

  15. Analysis of fluticasone propionate in induced sputum by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John B; Taylor, Robert L; Kita, Hirohito; Singh, Ravinder J

    2011-01-01

    Although evaluation of induced sputum has shown promise as a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects, most studies, to date, do not adequately address the potential effect that inhaled corticosteroids may have on sputum eosinophilia. This study was designed to prospectively evaluate analysis of fluticasone propionate (FP) in whole sputum by mass spectrometry as a tool to determine recent administration of inhaled FP. Induced sputum of nonsmoking asthmatic subjects was prospectively analyzed 16-24 hours after witnessed administration of orally inhaled FP. FP was extracted from whole sputum via an acetonitrile protein precipitation followed by methylene chloride liquid extraction of the supernatant (AB 4000; AB Sciex). A portion of the reconstituted sample was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quad tandem mass spectrometer. Results were compared with those from nonsmoking asthmatic subjects not receiving inhaled FP. Twenty-two asthmatic subjects on FP and 9 asthmatic subjects without FP underwent sputum induction 16-24 hours following witnessed administration of FP. Sufficient sputum for analysis was obtained from 30 of 31 subjects. FP was detected in 22 of 22 asthmatic subjects receiving FP (range, 29-133,000 pg/mL) and was undetectable in 8 of 8 subjects not receiving FP. The sensitivity and specificity of tandem mass spectrometry's ability to detect FP in sputum was 100% and 100%, respectively. Analysis of FP in induced sputum is a reliable method to verify recent administration of inhaled FP. Induced asthmatic sputum from one induction may be used to concomitantly assess sputum eosinophilia as well as recent administration of FP.

  16. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.; Yang, S.T. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  17. Acetate accumulation enhances mixed culture fermentation of biomass to lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Coma, Marta; Vervaeren, Han; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-10-01

    Lactic acid is a high-in-demand chemical, which can be produced through fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstock. However, fermentation of complex substrate produces a mixture of products at efficiencies too low to justify a production process. We hypothesized that the background acetic acid concentration plays a critical role in lactic acid yield; therefore, its retention via selective extraction of lactic acid or its addition would improve overall lactic acid production and eliminate net production of acetic acid. To test this hypothesis, we added 10 g/L of acetate to fermentation broth to investigate its effect on products composition and concentration and bacterial community evolution using several substrate-inoculum combinations. With rumen fluid inoculum, lactate concentrations increased by 80 ± 12 % (cornstarch, p 69 % lactic acid bacteria (LAB), predominantly Lactobacillaceae. Higher acetate concentration promoted a more diverse LAB population, especially on non-inoculated bottles. In subsequent tests, acetate was added in a semi-continuous percolation system with grass as substrate. These tests confirmed our findings producing lactate at concentrations 26 ± 5 % (p lactic acid production from waste biomass to levels more attractive for application.

  18. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joanne R; Cleveland, John L

    2013-09-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.

  19. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According to...... of the favorable effects on the brain resulting from physical exercise......., such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...

  20. Response of Syntrophic Propionate Degradation to pH Decrease and Microbial Community Shifts in an UASB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liguo; Ban, Qiaoying; Li, Jianzheng; Jha, Ajay Kumar

    2016-08-28

    The effect of pH on propionate degradation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor containing propionate as a sole carbon source was studied. Under influent propionate of 2,000 mg/l and 35ºC, propionate removal at pH 7.5-6.8 was above 93.6%. Propionate conversion was significantly inhibited with stepwise pH decrease from pH 6.8 to 6.5, 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and then to 4.0. After long-term operation, the propionate removal at pH 6.5-4.5 maintained an efficiency of 88.5%-70.1%, whereas propionate was hardly decomposed at pH 4.0. Microbial composition analysis showed that propionate-oxidizing bacteria from the genera Pelotomaculum and Smithella likely existed in this system. They were significantly reduced at pH ≤5.5. The methanogens in this UASB reactor belonged to four genera: Methanobacterium, Methanospirillum, Methanofollis, and Methanosaeta. Most detectable hydrogenotrophic methanogens were able to grow at low pH conditions (pH 6.0-4.0), but the acetotrophic methanogens were reduced as pH decreased. These results indicated that propionate-oxidizing bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens were more sensitive to low pH (5.5-4.0) than hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

  1. [Drugs and lactation. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerany Pardo, C; Bassons Boncompte, M T; Font Pous, M

    1986-01-01

    This document lists categories of drugs and provides brief descriptions of the effects on lactation and nursing infants of specific drugs within categories. Because any drug may pass to some extent to the mother's milk, the effect on the infant must always be considered before a drug is given to the mother. This review provides information on the excretion of drugs through breast milk and identifies drugs that are contraindicated for nursing mothers. The medications considered include drugs for gastrointestinal pathology, drugs for the central nervous system, hormones and hormone substitution drugs, radioisotopes, vitamins and minerals, foods and additives, social toxics such as nicotine and caffeine, and environmental agents. Among hormones and hormone substitution drugs, combinations of estrogens, estrogens and progestins, or estrogens and androgens at high doses may suppress lactation. Low doses of oral contraceptives (OCs) have slight effects on the volume of milk but may suppress lactation in women in whom lactation is not established. OCs also alter the composition of milk, although the changes are within normal limits and their clinical significance is not clear. Cases have been described in which OCs have caused breast development in boys and proliferation of vaginal epithelium in girls, although the causal relationship has not been proven. Androgens are contraindicated because they may cause masculinization of girls or precocious development in boys. Doses of over 50 mcg/day of ethinyl estradiol diminish milk production and may produce feminization of boys. Mestranol at doses of under 100 mcg/day produces insignificant levels in milk.

  2. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udipi, S A; Ghugre, P; Antony, U

    2000-09-01

    Nutrition at optimal levels is fundamental in the maintenance of positive health. Matemal nutrition is very important for the course and outcome of pregnancy. Lactation represents a stage wherein health and nutritional status of the infant are dependent on the mother. Successful pregnancy and lactation require adjustments in maternal body composition, metabolism and function of various physioogical systems. A diet that meets matemal nutritional needs is required for these adjustments, so that maternal well-being is safeguarded with birth of an healthy infant. Adequate nutrition supports the growth of both matemal and foetal tissues. Chronic undernutrition throughout pregnancy affects birth weights of newborns. Poor nutrition causes intra-uterine growth retardation. Specific nutrients like zinc, iodine and folate are also required for development of the foetus. Foetal iron deficiency exists in maternal iron deficiency anaemia. Maternal nutritional status, breast milk composition and volume are elaborated in the article. Proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins and their requirements are narrated in detail. Additional nutritional requirements during lactation have been tabulated in this article. Thus improving the nutrition and health of girls and younger women and of mothers during pregnancy and lactation will derive benefits in terms of improved health of their children throughout their lives.

  3. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Lar

  4. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  5. Metabolic network rewiring of propionate flux compensates vitamin B12 deficiency in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Emma; Olin-Sandoval, Viridiana; Hoy, Michael J; Li, Chi-Hua; Louisse, Timo; Yao, Victoria; Mori, Akihiro; Holdorf, Amy D; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Ralser, Markus; Walhout, Albertha JM

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic network rewiring is the rerouting of metabolism through the use of alternate enzymes to adjust pathway flux and accomplish specific anabolic or catabolic objectives. Here, we report the first characterization of two parallel pathways for the breakdown of the short chain fatty acid propionate in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using genetic interaction mapping, gene co-expression analysis, pathway intermediate quantification and carbon tracing, we uncover a vitamin B12-independent propionate breakdown shunt that is transcriptionally activated on vitamin B12 deficient diets, or under genetic conditions mimicking the human diseases propionic- and methylmalonic acidemia, in which the canonical B12-dependent propionate breakdown pathway is blocked. Our study presents the first example of transcriptional vitamin-directed metabolic network rewiring to promote survival under vitamin deficiency. The ability to reroute propionate breakdown according to B12 availability may provide C. elegans with metabolic plasticity and thus a selective advantage on different diets in the wild. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17670.001 PMID:27383050

  6. Evaluating the potential impact of proton carriers on syntrophic propionate oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste-Poinapen, Natacha M. S.; Turner, Mark S.; Rabaey, Korneel; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J.

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic propionic acid degradation relies on interspecies electron transfer (IET) between propionate oxidisers and electron acceptor microorganisms, via either molecular hydrogen, formate or direct transfers. We evaluated the possibility of stimulating direct IET, hence enhancing propionate oxidation, by increasing availability of proton carriers to decrease solution resistance and reduce pH gradients. Phosphate was used as a proton carrying anion, and chloride as control ion together with potassium as counter ion. Propionic acid consumption in anaerobic granules was assessed in a square factorial design with ratios (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1) of total phosphate (TP) to Cl-, at 1X, 10X, and 30X native conductivity (1.5 mS.cm-1). Maximum specific uptake rate, half saturation, and time delay were estimated using model-based analysis. Community profiles were analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The strongest performance was at balanced (1:1) ratios at 10X conductivity where presumptive propionate oxidisers namely Syntrophobacter and Candidatus Cloacamonas were more abundant. There was a shift from Methanobacteriales at high phosphate, to Methanosaeta at low TP:Cl ratios and low conductivity. A lack of response to TP, and low percentage of presumptive electroactive organisms suggested that DIET was not favoured under the current experimental conditions.

  7. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  8. Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, J; Frost, G S; Robertson, M D

    2012-07-01

    There is evidence linking oral propionate to a reduction in food intake, which could confer functional food properties in the fight against obesity. However, propionate is typically volatile with a pungent smell and taste and so incorporating into foods naturally, at levels acceptable to the consumer is a novel approach. Twenty healthy, young, normal weight unrestrained eaters underwent an acute feeding study using a palatable sourdough and an identical control bread of a similar palatability, in a randomized cross-over balanced design for the assessment of appetite and energy intake. No difference in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal, 180 min after the bread-based breakfast or in energy and macronutrient intake over the entire 24 h period was found between breads. Visual analogue scale ratings for appetite were not influenced by bread type, except the desire to eat something sweet. Elevated plasma insulin concentrations were observed following the propionate-rich sourdough breakfast (P=0.033 no effects of treatment on postprandial glycaemia were found. These findings suggest propionate-rich sourdough bread does not influence appetite and food intake unlike larger doses of the food preservative N-propionate.

  9. Enzyme IIANtr Regulates Salmonella Invasion Via 1,2-Propanediol And Propionate Catabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woongjae; Kim, Dajeong; Yoon, Hyunjin; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria possess a nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system (PTSNtr) consisting of EINtr, NPr, and EIIANtr (encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively). The PTSNtr plays diverse regulatory roles, but the substrate phosphorylated by EIIANtr and its primary functions have not yet been identified. To comprehensively understand the roles of PTSNtr in Salmonella Typhimurium, we compared the whole transcriptomes of wild-type and a ΔptsN mutant. Genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed that 3.5% of the annotated genes were up- or down-regulated by three-fold or more in the absence of EIIANtr. The ΔptsN mutant significantly down-regulated the expression of genes involved in vitamin B12 synthesis, 1,2-propanediol utilization, and propionate catabolism. Moreover, the invasiveness of the ΔptsN mutant increased about 5-fold when 1,2-propanediol or propionate was added, which was attributable to the increased stability of HilD, the transcriptional regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island-1. Interestingly, an abundance of 1,2-propanediol or propionate promoted the production of EIIANtr, suggesting the possibility of a positive feedback loop between EIIANtr and two catabolic pathways. These results demonstrate that EIIANtr is a key factor for the utilization of 1,2-propanediol and propionate as carbon and energy sources, and thereby modulates the invasiveness of Salmonella via 1,2-propanediol or propionate catabolism. PMID:28333132

  10. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...

  11. Propionic Acid Production from Corn Stover Hydrolysate by Propionibacterium acidipropionici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Xiaoqing [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salvachua Rodriguez, Davinia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sanchez i Nogue, Violeta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bratis, Adam D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dorgan, John R. [Colorado School of Mines

    2017-08-17

    The production of value-added chemicals alongside biofuels from lignocellulosic hydrolysates is critical for developing economically viable biorefineries. Here, the production of propionic acid (PA), a potential building block for C3-based chemicals, from corn stover hydrolysate is investigated using the native PA-producing bacterium Propionibacterium acidipropionici. A wide range of culture conditions and process parameters were examined and experimentally optimized to maximize titer, rate, and yield of PA. The effect of gas sparging during fermentation was first examined, and N2 was found to exhibit improved performance over CO2. Subsequently, the effects of different hydrolysate concentrations, nitrogen sources, and neutralization agents were investigated. One of the best combinations found during batch experiments used yeast extract (YE) as the primary nitrogen source and NH4OH for pH control. This combination enabled PA titers of 30.8 g/L with a productivity of 0.40 g/L h from 76.8 g/L biomass sugars, while successfully minimizing lactic acid production. Due to the economic significance of downstream separations, increasing titers using fed-batch fermentation was examined by changing both feeding media and strategy. Continuous feeding of hydrolysate was found to be superior to pulsed feeding and combined with high YE concentrations increased PA titers to 62.7 g/L and improved the simultaneous utilization of different biomass sugars. Additionally, applying high YE supplementation maintains the lactic acid concentration below 4 g/L for the duration of the fermentation. Finally, with the aim of increasing productivity, high cell density fed-batch fermentations were conducted. PA titers increased to 64.7 g/L with a productivity of 2.35 g/L h for the batch stage and 0.77 g/L h for the overall process. These results highlight the importance of media and fermentation strategy to improve PA production. Overall, this work demonstrates the feasibility of producing PA

  12. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  13. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken;

    2016-01-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. Impact of sodium lactate and vinegar derivatives on the quality of fresh Italian pork sausage links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, C A; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W; Hood, A F; Smith, B S; Campano, S G

    2014-04-01

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their impact on fresh Italian pork sausage using commercial trimmings. Analysis over storage included total plate count (TPC), TBARS, sensory analysis, cooking loss, pH, and color. Treatments included: (a) vinegar and sodium lactate mixture (V), (b) sodium lactate (S), (c) positive control with BHA/BHT (B) and (d) negative control, seasoning only (C). Treatments S and V had lower TPC (P0.05) over time. While CIE a* surface values for redness generally decreased over storage time for all treatments, B maintained more redness. There were few major differences in descriptive sensory evaluation over time, but S and V precluded early onset of rancidity, oxidation and other off-flavors contrary to some of the analytical results. Of consumers tested, 85.6% rated all treatments between like slightly and like very much.

  16. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid.

  17. Fragrance material review on 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  19. Structure and function of enzymes involved in the anaerobic degradation of L-threonine to propionate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhirendra K Simanshu; Sagar Chittori; H S Savithri; M R N Murthy

    2007-09-01

    In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, L-threonine is cleaved non-oxidatively to propionate via 2-ketobutyrate by biodegradative threonine deaminase, 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase (or pyruvate formate-lyase), phosphotransacetylase and propionate kinase. In the anaerobic condition, L-threonine is converted to the energy-rich keto acid and this is subsequently catabolised to produce ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation, providing a source of energy to the cells. Most of the enzymes involved in the degradation of L-threonine to propionate are encoded by the anaerobically regulated tdc operon. In the recent past, extensive structural and biochemical studies have been carried out on these enzymes by various groups. Besides detailed structural and functional insights, these studies have also shown the similarities and differences between the other related enzymes present in the metabolic network. In this paper, we review the structural and biochemical studies carried out on these enzymes.

  20. Expansion of the Phenotypic Spectrum of Propionic Acidemia with Isolated Elevated Propionylcarnitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Gerarda; Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Ugarte, Kiki; Merchant, Nadia; Craigen, William J; Sutton, V Reid; Elsea, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    We report three patients with elevations of propionylcarnitine (C3), one without elevations of 2-methylcitrate and 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis, and the other two showing only mild elevations, all of whom were subsequently confirmed to have propionic acidemia by molecular analysis of PCCA and PCCB genes. To date, they have had a mild clinical course. These cases illustrate the importance of considering high C3 as the only biochemical abnormality in a diagnosis of propionic acidemia. Since mild C3 elevations may be overlooked and considered non-diagnostic in isolation, we advise considering a diagnosis of propionic acidemia even in the absence of significant elevations 2-methylcitrate or 3-hydroxypropionate in urine organic acid analysis.

  1. L-carnitine enhances excretion of propionyl coenzyme A as propionylcarnitine in propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C R; Millington, D S; Maltby, D A; Bohan, T P; Hoppel, C L

    1984-06-01

    Treatment with L-carnitine greatly enhanced the formation and excretion of short-chain acylcarnitines in three patients with propionic acidemia and in three normal controls. The use of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and linked scanning at constant magnetic (B) to electric (E) field ratio identified the acylcarnitine as propionylcarnitine in patients with propionic acidemia. The normal children excreted mostly acetylcarnitine. Propionic acidemia and other organic acidurias are characterized by the intramitochondrial accumulation of short-chain acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) compounds. The substrate specificity of the carnitine acetyltransferase enzyme and its steady state nature appears to facilitate elimination of propionyl groups while restoring the acyl-CoA:free CoA ratio in the mitochondrion. We suggest that L-carnitine may be a useful therapeutic approach for elimination of toxic acyl CoA compounds in several of these disorders.

  2. Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artiifcial Lactations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of

  3. Effect of tungstate on acetate and ethanol production by the electrosynthetic bacterium Sporomusa ovata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Lizak, Dawid Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    successfully converted to their corresponding alcohols 1-propanol and 1-butanol by S. ovata during gas fermentation. Increasing tungstate concentration enhanced conversion efficiency for both propionate and butyrate. Gene expression analysis suggested that tungsten-containing aldehyde ferredoxin...... oxidoreductases (AORs) and a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) were involved in the improved biosynthesis of acetate, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. AORs and FDH contribute to the fatty acids re-assimilation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. This study presented here shows...

  4. Effect of hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] on propionate and carnitine metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, E P; Allen, R H; Ruff, L J; Stabler, S P

    1990-01-01

    The administration in vivo of the cobalamin analogue hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] inhibits hepatic L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity. The current studies characterize in vivo and in vitro the hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rat as a model of disordered propionate and methylmalonic acid metabolism. Treatment of rats with hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] (2 micrograms/h by osmotic minipump) increased urinary methylmalonic acid excretion from 0.55 mumol/day to 390 mumol/day after 2 weeks. Hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] treatment was associated with increased urinary propionylcarnitine excretion and increased short-chain acylcarnitine concentrations in plasma and liver. Hepatocytes isolated from cobalamin-analogue-treated rats metabolized propionate (1.0 mM) to CO2 and glucose at rates which were only 18% and 1% respectively of those observed in hepatocytes from control (saline-treated) rats. In contrast, rates of pyruvate and palmitate oxidation were higher than control in hepatocytes from the hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rats. In hepatocytes from hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rats, propionylcarnitine was the dominant product generated from propionate when carnitine (10 mM) was present. The addition of carnitine thus resulted in a 4-fold increase in total propionate utilization under these conditions. Hepatocytes from hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-treated rats were more sensitive than control hepatocytes to inhibition of palmitate oxidation by propionate. This inhibition of palmitate oxidation was partially reversed by addition of carnitine. Thus hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] treatment in vivo rapidly causes a severe defect in propionate metabolism. The consequences of this metabolic defect in vivo and in vitro are those predicted on the basis of propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA accumulation. The cobalamin-analogue-treated rat provides a useful model for studying metabolism under conditions of a metabolic defect causing acyl-CoA accretion. PMID:2327967

  5. Zinc Acetate Immobilized on Mesoporous Materials by Acetate Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for Vinyl Acetate Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid containing active ingredient Zn(CH3COO2 was loaded in mesoporous silica gel to form supported ionic liquids catalyst (SILC which was used to synthesize vinyl acetate monomer (VAM. SILC was characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR, TGA, BET, and N2 adsorption/desorption and the acetylene method was used to evaluate SILC catalytic activity and stability in fixed reactor. The result shows that 1-allyl-3-acetic ether imidazole acetate ionic liquid is successfully fixed within mesoporous channel of silica gel. The average thickness of ionic liquid catalyst layer is about 1.05 nm. When the catalytic temperature is 195°C, the acetic acid (HAc conversion is 10.9% with 1.1 g vinyl acetate yield and 98% vinyl acetate (VAc selectivity. The HAc conversion is increased by rise of catalytic temperature and molar ratio of C2H2 : HAc and decreased by mass space velocity (WHSV. The catalyst activity is not significantly reduced within 7 days and VAc selectivity has a slight decrease.

  6. Infrared Spectra and Chemical Abundance of Methyl Propionate in Icy Astrochemical Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaraman, B; Das, A; Gopakumar, G; Majumdar, L; Chakrabarti, S K; Subramanian, K P; Sekhar, B N Raja; Hada, M

    2014-01-01

    We carried out an experiment in order to obtain the InfraRed (IR) spectra of methyl propionate (CH3CH2COOCH3) in astrochemical conditions and present the IR spectra for future identification of this molecule in the InterStellar Medium (ISM). The experimental IR spectrum is compared with the theoretical spectrum and an attempt was made to assign the observed peak positions to their corresponding molecular vibrations in condensed phase. Moreover, our calculations suggest that methyl propionate must be synthesized efficiently within the complex chemical network of the ISM and therefore be present in cold dust grains, awaiting identification.

  7. Efficacy and safety of ciclesonide once daily and fluticasone propionate twice daily in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Engelstätter, Renate; Weber, Hans-Jochen

    2009-01-01

    the efficacy and safety of ciclesonide with fluticasone propionate in children with mainly moderate and severe persistent asthma. METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-four patients (aged 6-11years) were randomized to ciclesonide (80 or 160mug once daily) or fluticasone propionate (88mug twice daily), following a 2...... excretion, in children with moderate and severe asthma.......BACKGROUND: Ciclesonide is a new inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Information about its clinical efficacy and safety in relation to other ICS in children is needed for clinical positioning. OBJECTIVE: This 12-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm, parallel-group study compared...

  8. A genetically encoded FRET lactate sensor and its use to detect the Warburg effect in single cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro San Martín

    Full Text Available Lactate is shuttled between and inside cells, playing metabolic and signaling roles in healthy tissues. Lactate is also a harbinger of altered metabolism and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, neurodegeneration and cancer. Many tumor cells show high rates of lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect, which has diagnostic and possibly therapeutic implications. In this article we introduce Laconic, a genetically-encoded Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET-based lactate sensor designed on the bacterial transcription factor LldR. Laconic quantified lactate from 1 µM to 10 mM and was not affected by glucose, pyruvate, acetate, betahydroxybutyrate, glutamate, citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, malate or oxalacetate at concentrations found in mammalian cytosol. Expressed in astrocytes, HEK cells and T98G glioma cells, the sensor allowed dynamic estimation of lactate levels in single cells. Used in combination with a blocker of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT, the sensor was capable of discriminating whether a cell is a net lactate producer or a net lactate consumer. Application of the MCT-block protocol showed that the basal rate of lactate production is 3-5 fold higher in T98G glioma cells than in normal astrocytes. In contrast, the rate of lactate accumulation in response to mitochondrial inhibition with sodium azide was 10 times lower in glioma than in astrocytes, consistent with defective tumor metabolism. A ratio between the rate of lactate production and the rate of azide-induced lactate accumulation, which can be estimated reversibly and in single cells, was identified as a highly sensitive parameter of the Warburg effect, with values of 4.1 ± 0.5 for T98G glioma cells and 0.07 ± 0.007 for astrocytes. In summary, this article describes a genetically-encoded sensor for lactate and its use to measure lactate concentration, lactate flux, and the Warburg

  9. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaque K. Shaikh; Madhuri D. Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Drug use during pregnancy and lactation is an almost inevitable event. Some of the drugs may have adverse effects on the baby on exposure. It is therefore necessary for the physician to be aware of the changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during pregnancy. Knowledge about the known teratogens and drugs safe to be used during pregnancy is essential on the part of the prescribing physician. There are many factors affecting drug passage into the milk and thus affecting the child in s...

  10. Propionate absorbed from the colon acts as gluconeogenic substrate in a strict carnivore, the domestic cat (Felis catus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbrugghe, A; Hesta, M; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    In six normal-weight and six obese cats, the metabolic effect of propionate absorbed from the colon was assessed. Two colonic infusions were tested in a crossover design with intervals of 4 weeks. The test solution contained 4 mmol sodium propionate per kg ideal body weight in a 0.2% NaCl solution...

  11. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical pr

  12. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical pr

  13. Acidity and complex formation studies of 3-(adenine-9-yl)-propionic and 3-(thymine-1-yl)-propionic acids in ethanol-water media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammud, Hassan H.; El Shazly, Shawky; Sonji, Ghassan; Sonji, Nada; Bouhadir, Kamal H.

    2015-05-01

    The ligands 3-(adenine-9-yl)propionic acid (AA) and 3-(thymine-1-yl)propionic acid (TA) were prepared by N9-alkylation of adenine and N1-alkylation of thymine with ethylacrylate in presence of a base catalyst, followed by acid hydrolysis of the formed ethyl esters to give the corresponding propionic acid derivatives. The products were characterized by spectral methods (FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), which confirm their structures. The dissociation constants of ligands, were potentiometrically determined in 0.3 M KCl at 20-50 °C temperature range. The work was extended to study complexation behavior of AA and TA with various biologically important divalent metal ions (Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and Pb2+) in 50% v/v water-ethanol medium at four different temperatures, keeping ionic strength constant (0.3 M KCl). The order of the stability constants of the formed complexes decreases in the sequence Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+ > Co2+ > Mn2+ > Cd2+ for both ligands. The effect of temperature was also studied and the corresponding thermodynamic functions (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) were derived and discussed. The formation of metal complexes has been found to be spontaneous, and the stability constants were dependant markedly on the basicity of the ligands.

  14. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  15. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  16. Effect of propionic and lactic acids on in vitro ruminal bacteria growth Efeito dos ácidos láctico e propiônico sobre o crescimento de bactérias ruminais in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silva de Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the levels of lactic and propionic acids on in vitro fermentation of ruminal microorganisms. In experiment 1, the levels, in a total of 12 were the following: addition of 0 (control 1, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM of lactic acid and 0 (control 2, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mM of propionic acid, respectively, in incubation flasks, which contained ruminal inoculum, glucose and synthetic culture medium, with two repetitions for each combination. In experiment 2, the combinations, in a total of 4, were the following: presence of 12 and 24 mM of propionic acid and 0 mg of glucose, respectively; presence of 12 and 24 mM of propionic acid and 40 mg of glucose, respectively, to the incubation flasks which contained ruminal inoculum, with or without glucose and in synthetic culture medium with two repetitions each. There was no effect on the specific growth velocity of ruminal microorganisms in the presence of lactic acid or propionic acid. However, when there were greater concentrations of these acids in the media, there was a longer lag phase in the microorganism phase. Acid propionic at the concentration of 24 mM inhibited the production of acid acetic and butyric acid in a media with glucose. Despite of not being used as a source of energy by the ruminal microorganisms, propionic acid affects their metabolism. Lactic and propionic acids inhibit growth of some ruminal microorganisms at elevated concentrations.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de níveis de ácido láctico e do ácido propiônico sobre a fermentação de microrganismos ruminais in vitro. No experimento 1, os níveis, em um total de 12, foram os seguintes: adição de 0 (controle 1, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250 mM de ácido láctico e 0 (controle 2, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mM de ácido propiônico, respectivamente, aos tubos de incubação, que continham inóculo ruminal, glicose e meio de cultura sintético, com duas

  17. AB041. Effectiveness and cost impact evaluation of fluticasone propionate/formoterol compared to fluticasone propionate/salmeterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Simon Wan Yau; Small, Iain; Wolfe, Stephanie; Hamil, John; Gruffydd-Jones, Kevin; Daly, Cathal; Soriano, Joan B.; Gardner, Liz; Skinner, Derek; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of asthmatics with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting beta agonist (LABA) is recommended for maintenance treatment according to Step 3 in the GINA guidelines. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) inhalers simplify the dosing regimen and may improve adherence over their separate components. However, the effectiveness and cost impact of FDC devices containing fluticasone propionate/formoterol (FP/FOR) compared to fluticasone/salmeterol (FP/SAL) in asthma patients who initiate or switch to FDC ICS/LABA inhalers have not been studied in real-life patients in the United Kingdom. To determine whether FP/FOR is non-inferior to FP/SAL in patients who initiate or switch to a FDC ICS/LABA therapy with respect to decreasing the occurrence of asthma exacerbations and overall cost impact. Methods This study used a matched, historical cohort design to compare the two FDC ICS/LABA treatments using the Optimal Patient Care Database. Based on a 1-year exploratory analysis of baseline variables such as comorbidities, current treatment, demographics and clinical measurements, cohorts were matched to ensure similar patients were compared over a 1-year outcome. Two cohorts of patients were studied: one of patients initiated on combination therapy (either FP/FOR or FP/SAL) and one of patients either switched from FP/SAL to FP/FOR or who remained on FP/SAL. The primary outcome studied non-inferiority in terms of percentage of patients who were free from severe asthma exacerbations (defined by ATS/ERS position statements) for patients prescribed FP/FORversusFP/SAL in the outcome year. Secondary outcomes included the rate of asthma exacerbations, clinical exacerbations, asthma control, treatment stability, and lower respiratory tract hospitalisations. Cost impact outcomes included a comparison of resource costs, drug costs and combined drug and resource costs. Results The study included 2,472 patients (618 patients in FP/FOR and 1,854 patients in FP/SAL cohorts

  18. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  19. 5-(Chloromethylquinolin-8-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qian Kong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each molecule, the chloromethyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1 and −79.2 (1°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloromethyl groups of the two molecules are 80.9 (2 and −83.1 (2°.

  20. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast at two dosages on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J

    2012-07-01

    The experimental objective was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with live-cell yeast (LCY; Procreatin-7, Lesaffre Feed Additives, Milwaukee, WI) at 2 dosages in high-starch (HS) diets [30% starch in dry matter (DM)] on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows compared with HS or low-starch (LS; 20% starch in DM) non-LCY diets. Sixty-four multiparous Holstein cows (114 ± 37 d in milk and 726 ± 74 kg of body weight at trial initiation) were randomly assigned to 32 electronic gate feeders (2 cows per feeder), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design. A 2-wk covariate adjustment period with cows fed a 50:50 mixture of the HS and LS diets was followed by a 12-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diets. The HS diets were fed without (HS0) and with 2 (HS2) or 4 (HS4) g/cow per day of LCY. The LS diet did not contain LCY (LS0) and was formulated by partially replacing dry ground shelled corn with soy hulls. Cows fed LS0 consumed more DM than cows fed HS diets during wk 3, 10, 11, and 12. Yields of actual (44.5 kg/d, on average), fat-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content tended to be greater for LS0 than for HS0 and HS2 but not different from HS4. Milk urea nitrogen contents were greater for cows fed LS0 than for cows fed the HS diets. Feed conversion (kg of milk/kg of DM intake) was numerically greater for HS diets than for LS0. Ruminal pH was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal molar proportion of acetate was greater, whereas that of propionate was lower, for LS0 compared with HS diets. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were greater for HS2 and HS4 than for HS0. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greater for HS4 than for HS0 and HS2. Dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities were greater for LS0 than for HS diets; starch digestibility was

  2. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calverley, PM; Anderson, JA; Celli, B

    2007-01-01

    Background Long-acting beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids are used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their effect on survival is unknown. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing salmeterol at a dose of 50 µg plus fluticasone propionate at a ...

  3. Bioactivation of morphine-3-propionate, a prodrug of morphine, in tissues from different species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, L.; Jørgensen, A.; Steffansen, B.

    1997-01-01

    rabbit had higher enzymatic activity than those from rat, which again showed higher activity than those from pig. Comparison of the Michaelis-Menten parameters, K(m) and V(max), obtained using pig and rat serum respectively, suggested that morphine-3-propionate has a lower affinity for enzymes present...

  4. Biocatalytic acylation of sugar alcohols by 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croitoru, R.; Fitigau, F.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of aromatic esters of four different sugar alcohols (xylitol, arabitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) with 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was performed in organic solvent medium, using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Novozyme 435), and molecular sieves for control of the wate

  5. Propionic acidemia: clinical course and outcome in 55 pediatric and adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. Although it is one of the most frequent organic acidurias, information on the outcome of affected individuals is still limited. Study design/methods Clinical and outcome data of 55 patients with propionic acidemia from 16 European metabolic centers were evaluated retrospectively. 35 patients were diagnosed by selective metabolic screening while 20 patients were identified by newborn screening. Endocrine parameters and bone age were evaluated. In addition, IQ testing was performed and the patients’ and their families’ quality of life was assessed. Results The vast majority of patients (>85% presented with metabolic decompensation in the neonatal period. Asymptomatic individuals were the exception. About three quarters of the study population was mentally retarded, median IQ was 55. Apart from neurologic symptoms, complications comprised hematologic abnormalities, cardiac diseases, feeding problems and impaired growth. Most patients considered their quality of life high. However, according to the parents’ point of view psychic problems were four times more common in propionic acidemia patients than in healthy controls. Conclusion Our data show that the outcome of propionic acidemia is still unfavourable, in spite of improved clinical management. Many patients develop long-term complications affecting different organ systems. Impairment of neurocognitive development is of special concern. Nevertheless, self-assessment of quality of life of the patients and their parents yielded rather positive results.

  6. Comparison of Once- with Twice-Daily Dosing of Fluticasone Propionate in Mild and Moderate Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Two 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies were performed to compare the efficacy and safety of once- and twice-daily dosing of fluticasone propionate (FP in the treatment of mild to moderate asthma, considered to require the equivalent of either 200 or 500 µg of FP daily.

  7. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria. Sequence ana

  8. The role of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination therapy in preventing exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Yawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara P Yawn1, Ibrahim Raphiou2, Judith S Hurley3, Anand A Dalal21Olmsted Medical Center, University of Minnesota, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA; 3Hurley Consulting, Placitas, New Mexico, USAAbstract: Exacerbations contribute significantly to the morbidity of COPD, leading to an accelerated decline in lung function, reduced functional status, reduced health status and quality of life, poorer prognosis and increased mortality. Prevention of exacerbations is thus an important goal of COPD management. In patients with COPD, treatment with a combination of the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (250 μg and the long-acting β2-agonist salmeterol (50 μg in a single inhaler (250/50 μg is an effective therapy option that has been shown to reduce the frequency of exacerbations, to improve lung function, dyspnea and health status, and to be relatively cost-effective as a COPD maintenance therapy. Importantly, results of various studies suggest that fluticasone propionate and salmeterol have synergistic effects when administered together that improve their efficacy in controlling symptoms and reducing exacerbations. The present non-systematic review summarizes the role of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination therapy in the prevention of exacerbations of COPD and its related effects on lung function, survival, health status, and healthcare costs.Keywords: Advair, COPD, disease exacerbation, fluticasone propionate, salmeterol, combination drug therapy

  9. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate - oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria.

  10. A Practical Synthesis of (S)-(+)-2-(6(-methoxyl-2-naphthyl) propionic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A simplified procedure for enantioselective synthesis of (S)-(+)-2-(6(-methoxyl-2- naphthyl) propionic acid ((S)-(+)-naproxen), starting from (6-methoxy-(-naphthyl) -1-propanone, with D-mannitol as auxiliary catalyzed by SmCl3 in one-pot is described. The yield is 87.5 %(ee value 99 %).

  11. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... urea sulfate and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's.... Urea sulfate is used as a desiccant on ] cotton. No food crop uses remain and all tolerances for...

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-propanol to produce propionic acid using an electrocatalytic membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Bowen; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yang; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2013-05-18

    An electrocatalytic membrane reactor assembled using a nano-MnO2 loading microporous Ti membrane as an anode and a tubular stainless steel as a cathode was used to oxidize n-propanol to produce propionic acid. The high efficiency and selectivity obtained is related to the synergistic effect between the reaction and separation in the reactor.

  13. Phosphorus limitation strategy to increase propionic acid flux towards 3-hydroxyvaleric acid monomers in Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

    2014-02-01

    Properties of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P(3HB-co-3HV)) depend on their 3HV content. 3HV can be produced by Cupriavidus necator from propionic acid. Few studies explored carbon distribution and dynamics of 3HV and 3HB monomers production, and none of them have been done with phosphorus as limiting nutrient. In this study, fed-batch cultures of C. necator with propionic acid, as sole carbon source or mixed with butyric acid, were performed. Phosphorus deficiency allowed sustaining 3HV production rate and decreasing 3HB production rate, leading to an instant production of up to 100% of 3HV. When a residual growth is sustained by a phosphorus feeding, the maximum 3HV percentage produced from propionic acid is limited to 33% (Mole.Mole(-1)). The association of a second carbon source like butyric acid lead to higher conversion of propionic acid into 3HV. This study showed the importance of the limiting nutrient and of the culture strategy to get the appropriate product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate - oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01


    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria. S

  15. 77 FR 31722 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Estradiol; Estradiol Benzoate and Testosterone Propionate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... COMPONENT E-C 522.1940 (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). COMPONENT E-S (progesterone and estradiol benzoate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 118-123 COMPONENT 200 (estradiol benzoate... and testosterone propionate) with TYLAN (tylosin tartrate). 200-221 COMPONENT TE-IS...

  16. In vitro effects of fluticasone propionate on IL-13 production by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticosteroid administration produces multiple immunomodulatory effects, including down-regulation of cytokine production by CD4 T lymphocytes. Fluticasone propionate (FP (Glaxo Smith&Kline, Greenford, UK, a highly lipophilic topical corticosteroid, has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of asthma and of both seasonal and perennial rhinitis.

  17. Propionic acid affects immune status and metabolism in adipose tissue from overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Lahham, S.; Roelofsen, H.; Rezaee, F.; Weening, D.; Hoek, A.; Vonk, R.; Venema, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue is a primary site of obesity-induced inflammation, which is emerging as an important contributor to obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Dietary fibre consumption appears to be protective. Short-chain fatty acids, e.g. propionic acid, are the principal products

  18. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  19. Stat5a increases lactation of dairy cow mammary gland epithelial cells cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Fei; Li, Meng; Li, Qing Zhang; Lu, Li Min; Tong, Hui Li; Gao, Xue Jun

    2012-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a) transduces signals of extracellular cytokines and growth factors to the nucleus of mammary gland epithelial cells and thereby regulates gene transcription during pregnancy, lactation, and weaning. However, its function on the milk production of dairy cows needs further investigation. In this experiment, the effects of Stat5a on lactation ability of dairy cow mammary gland epithelial cells (DCMECs) were analyzed. Eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 was constructed by inserting stat5a gene into the plasmid vector pcDNA3.1+ and replacing CMV promoter with α-S1-casein 5' flanking sequence. The recombinant vector was stably transfected into DCMECs after geneticin (G418) selection. The proliferation and viability of DCMECs, expression of β-casein and stat5a gene, and the content of lactose were detected. The results showed that stat5a gene in eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 was highly expressed in DCMECs and could increase the lactation ability of DCMECs. The associativity of Stat5a with nutrients on the lactation ability of DCMECs was also evaluated. Lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), sodium acetate, β-sodium hydroxybutyrate, and glucose all had more positive effects on the lactation function of DCMECs after pcDNA3.1+-stat5a-αS1 transfection. The proliferation and viability of DCMECs, expression of β-casein and stat5a gene, and contents of lactose and triglyceride were detected. The results revealed that nutrients could promote expression of Stat5a gene to increase lactation of DCMECs. These data help to clarify the function of stat5 gene on lactation and gene regulatory networks linking stat5a.

  20. The methylcitric acid pathway in Ralstonia eutropha: new genes identified involved in propionate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämer, C O; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    From Ralstonia eutropha HF39 null-allele mutants were created by Tn5 mutagenesis and by homologous recombination which were impaired in growth on propionic acid and levulinic acid. From the molecular, physiological and enzymic analysis of these mutants it was concluded that in this bacterium propionic acid is metabolized via the methylcitric acid pathway. The genes encoding enzymes of this pathway are organized in a cluster in the order prpR, prpB, prpC, acnM, ORF5 and prpD, with prpR transcribed divergently from the other genes. (i) prpC encodes a 2-methylcitric acid synthase (42720 Da) as shown by the measurement of the respective enzyme activity, complementation of a prpC mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and high sequence similarity. (ii) For the translational product of acnM the function of a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid hydratase (94726 Da) is proposed. This protein and also the ORF5 translational product are essential for growth on propionic acid, as revealed by the propionic-acid-negative phenotype of Tn5-insertion mutants, and are required for the conversion of 2-methylcitric acid into 2-methylisocitric acid as shown by the accumulation of the latter, which could be purified as its calcium salt from the supernatants of these mutants. In contrast, inactivation of prpD did not block the ability of the cell to use propionic acid as carbon and energy source, as shown by the propionic acid phenotype of a null-allele mutant. It is therefore unlikely that prpD from R. eutropha encodes a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid dehydratase as proposed recently for the homologous prpD gene from S. enterica. (iii) The translational product of prpB encodes 2-methylisocitric acid lyase (32314 Da) as revealed by measurement of the respective enzyme activity and by demonstrating accumulation of methylisocitric acid in the supernatant of a prpB null-allele mutant. (iv) The expression of prpC and probably also of the other enzymes is regulated and is induced during

  1. Fluticasone propionate-salmeterol versus inhaled corticosteroids plus montelukast: outcomes study in pediatric patients with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford RH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard H Stanford,1 Manan Shah,2 Anna O D'Souza21GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC, 2Xcenda, Palm Harbor, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study (GSK ADA111194 was to compare asthma-related health care utilization and costs associated with fluticasone propionate (an inhaled corticosteroid [ICS] and salmeterol (a long-acting beta-agonist in a single inhalation device (fluticasone propionate-salmeterol versus the combination of ICS + montelukast in the treatment of pediatric patients with asthma.Methods: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study using a large health insurance claims database spanning January 1, 2000 to January 31, 2008. The target population was patients aged 4–11 years with at least one pharmacy claim for fluticasone propionate-salmeterol, any ICS, or montelukast during the study period. The date of first claim for the medication of interest was deemed the index date. Patients were required to be continuously eligible to receive health care services one year prior to and 30 days after the index date, and have at least one claim with an ICD-9-CM code for asthma (493.xx in the one-year pre-index period. Patients with prescriptions for fluticasone propionate-salmeterol, ICS + montelukast, or long-acting beta-agonists during the pre-index period were excluded. Patients were matched on a 1:1 basis according to three variables, ie, pre-index use of oral corticosteroids, ICS, and presence of pre-index respiratory-related hospitalizations/emergency department visits. The risk of asthma-related hospitalization, combined hospitalization/emergency department visit, and monthly asthma-related costs were assessed using multivariate methods.Results: Of the 3001 patients identified, 2231 patients were on fluticasone propionate-salmeterol and 770 were on ICS + montelukast. After matching, there were 747 pairs of fluticasone propionate-salmeterol and ICS + montelukast patients, which were well matched for

  2. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  3. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...... suggests that lactate may partially replace glucose as a substrate for oxidation. Thus, the notion of the human brain as an obligatory glucose consumer is not without exceptions....... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  4. Contribution of the heme propionate groups to the electron transfer and electrostatic properties of myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Anthony R; Sishta, Bhavini P; Mauk, A Grant

    2006-12-01

    The role of the heme propionate groups in determining the electron transfer and electrostatic properties of myoglobin have been studied by thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies of horse heart myoglobin in which the heme propionate groups are esterified. Spectroelectrochemical analysis has established that the E(m,7) of dimethylester heme-substituted Mb (DME-Mb) (E(m,7)=100.2(2)mV vs. NHE (Normal Hydrogen Electrode) (25 degrees C) is increased approximately 40mV relative to that of the native protein with DeltaH degrees =-12.9(2) kcal/mol and DeltaS degrees =-51.0(8) cal/mol/deg (pH 7.0, mu=0.1M (phosphate)). The second order rate constant for reduction of DME-metMb by Fe(EDTA)(2-) is increased >400-fold relative to that for reduction of native metMb to a value of 1.34(2)x10(3)M(-1)s(-1) with DeltaS(double dagger)=-13(1) cal/mol/deg and DeltaH(double dagger)=9.2(3) (pH 7.0, micro=0.1M (phosphate)). Analysis of the pH dependences of the reduction potential and rate constant for reduction by Fe(EDTA)(2-) demonstrates that heme propionate esterification introduces significant changes into the electrostatic interactions in myoglobin. These changes are also manifested by differences in the pH dependences of the (1)H NMR spectra of native and DME-metMb that reveal shifts in pK(a) values for specific His residues as the result of heme propionate esterification. In sum, the current results establish that heme propionate esterification not only affects the electron transfer properties of myoglobin but also influences the titration behavior of specific His residues.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  6. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  7. Postharvest Propionic Acid and Hot Water Treatment for the Control of Black Spot ntrol of Black Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr. is one of the main postharvest diseases of Chinese Ya pears and causes serious economic loss during storage. The fungi-toxicity of postharvest propionic acid and hot water treatment at different concentrations and temperatures was investigated in vitro and directly on Ya pears. The in vitro results showed that A. alternata was susceptible to propionic acid solutions at all tested temperatures. The toxicity of propionic acid increased linearly and the LC 99 decreased from 13.43 to 4.31 g/L with an increase in temperature from 20 to 45C. The results in Ya pears showed that propionic acid and hot water treatment dramatically controlled black spot disease and 99% inhibition was achieved upon treatment with 9 g/L propionic acid solution for 30 min at 45C. Furthermore, the treatment inhibited the respiration of fruits and did not cause any adverse effects on other quality parameters; however, slight surface injury was noted at 9 g/L. The safety of propionic acid treatment was further confirmed by residue analysis. The results of this study suggest that postharvest propionic acid and hot water treatment is an alternative method for the control of black spot disease in Ya pears.

  8. Acetic Acid, the active component of vinegar, is an effective tuberculocidal disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortesia, Claudia; Vilchèze, Catherine; Bernut, Audrey; Contreras, Whendy; Gómez, Keyla; de Waard, Jacobus; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent; Takiff, Howard

    2014-02-25

    Effective and economical mycobactericidal disinfectants are needed to kill both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-M. tuberculosis mycobacteria. We found that acetic acid (vinegar) efficiently kills M. tuberculosis after 30 min of exposure to a 6% acetic acid solution. The activity is not due to pH alone, and propionic acid also appears to be bactericidal. M. bolletii and M. massiliense nontuberculous mycobacteria were more resistant, although a 30-min exposure to 10% acetic acid resulted in at least a 6-log10 reduction of viable bacteria. Acetic acid (vinegar) is an effective mycobactericidal disinfectant that should also be active against most other bacteria. These findings are consistent with and extend the results of studies performed in the early and mid-20th century on the disinfectant capacity of organic acids. IMPORTANCE Mycobacteria are best known for causing tuberculosis and leprosy, but infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria are an increasing problem after surgical or cosmetic procedures or in the lungs of cystic fibrosis and immunosuppressed patients. Killing mycobacteria is important because Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains can be multidrug resistant and therefore potentially fatal biohazards, and environmental mycobacteria must be thoroughly eliminated from surgical implements and respiratory equipment. Currently used mycobactericidal disinfectants can be toxic, unstable, and expensive. We fortuitously found that acetic acid kills mycobacteria and then showed that it is an effective mycobactericidal agent, even against the very resistant, clinically important Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Vinegar has been used for thousands of years as a common disinfectant, and if it can kill mycobacteria, the most disinfectant-resistant bacteria, it may prove to be a broadly effective, economical biocide with potential usefulness in health care settings and laboratories, especially in resource-poor countries.

  9. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Lactation in Half-lactating Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-cai; ZHONG Guang-hui; WANG Yong; PENG Xian-wen; MAO Yong-jiang; ZOU Si-xiang; CHEN Wei-hua; CHEN Jie

    2002-01-01

    Yaks of two lactating types, the half-lactating yak and the total lactating yak, were investigated in their milk compositions, milk coagulation properties, and contents of three kinds of hormones, glucose,and protein in plasma. The half-lactating Maiwa yak and Jiulong yak contained significantly higher contents of protein, fat, and activities of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in milk than that of the corresponding total-lactating yak breeds, with reduced milk yield and similar lactose level and relative percentages of main milk protein components. The half-lactatin yak resembled yaks in a late stage of lactation in their biochemical composition of milk; however, significant differences were also observed, which indicated that the former was in a special stage of lactation quite different from dairy cows. Milk of the total-lactating or halflactating yaks could be coagulated normally by adding chymosin, with a similar coagulation time. No significant difference was observed between prolactin and progesterone concentrations in plasma of the half-lactating yaks and total-lactating yaks; however, half-lactating yaks had significantly lower level of oestradiol-17 β in plasma than total-lactating yaks.

  10. METABOLISM OF PREGNANT-LACTATING RATS IS ADAPTED TO PREGNANCY RATHER THAN TO LACTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; KOITER, TR

    1992-01-01

    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and weigh

  11. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  12. Ramadan fasting, pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting and malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with deleterious consequences such as hypoglycemia, ketonemia, impaired fetal IQ, low birth weight and even abortion. Comparison of pregnancy length and year duration shows that about 75% of pregnancies coincided with Ramadan. Also, fasting during Ramadan is not equivalent to hunger and malnutrition, however, knowledge of the effects of Ramadan fasting on pregnancy outcome is important. In this review, the results of all studies related to the possible effects of Ramadan fasting in pregnancy and lactation have been collected. Material and Methods: Keywords such as "Ramadan", "Ramadan Fasting", "Islamic Fasting", "Fasting in Ramadan "and Fasting with words Pregnancy, Birth Weight, Lactation, Preterm, Milk Composition, Breast Milk were searched in PubMed Database, SID (Scientific Information Database, and some regional journals and 40 related articles (descriptive cross - sectional, cohort, clinical trial and review articles from 1968 to 2010 were studied. Results: Based on available information, if the maternal nutrition during Ramadan is good, the normal process of pregnancy will be maintained and Ramadan fasting would not have deleterious effects on fetal physical and mental growth. Conclusion: Considering nutritional tips, nursing mothers could also fast during Ramadan.

  13. Role of lactate in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugh Krishan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a common finding in critically ill patients. It has been used as a prognostic marker of the outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients. Lactic acid is produced as a product of anaerobic glycolysis and is reversibly converted to pyruvate in the presence of favorable metabolic environment. All the body tissues can produce and consume lactate with few having predominant function of production and others of consumption. Liver is a major organ for lactate consumption and it is the liver, which metabolizes the increased lactic acid produced in regional tissue beds. The lactate levels can be done on arterial, venous, or mixed venous blood and can be measured by various methods. Serial lactate concentrations and the difference in arterial and mixed venous lactate levels or between the arterial and regional blood lactate levels like jugular venous lactate levels have been shown to have better correlation with the outcome. High initial blood lactate levels and persistently high lactate levels have been correlated with poor outcome. There are various causes of lactic acid overproduction, which may produce either hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis. High blood lactate levels are found in critically ill patients with shock of any etiology and sepsis due to various reasons, which include increased catecholamine induced glucose flux apart from the tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Various other illnesses can cause an increase in blood lactate levels like acute lung/liver injury, severe asthma, poisoning, post cardiac surgery etc. Treating the underlying disease leading to lactic acidosis is the best measure to control lactic acidosis. Some therapeutic choices are available to neutralize the effect of lactic acid on cell function, but none has stood the test of time and are tried only in desperate situations.

  14. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelwicks, J T; Hayes, J M

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  15. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01


    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.

    The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth

  16. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review t

  17. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth were determined and c

  18. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    ]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  19. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria

    2005-01-01

    +-depressed rat soleus muscle. The pH regulation associated with lactate incubation accelerated the Na+-K+ pump. To study whether the protective effect of lactate/lactic acid is a general mechanism, we stimulated muscles to fatigue with and without pre-incubation. None of the incubation solutions improved force...

  20. Efficacy of compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of chronic eczema in 53 cases%复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹53例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟庆; 张婕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹的疗效及安全性。方法:收治慢性湿疹患者107例,随机分为治疗组54例和对照组53例,对照组采用醋酸曲安奈德尿素软膏治疗,治疗组采用复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗,比较两组治疗效果。结果:治疗组痊愈率和有效率明显高于对照组,复发率明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗慢性湿疹疗效显著,不良反应少。%Objective:To explore the efficacy and safety of compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of chronic eczema.Methods:105 patients with chronic eczema were selected.They were randomly divided into the treatment group with 53 cases and the control group with 52 cases.The control group was treated with triamcinolone acetonide acetate urea ointment.The treatment group was treated with compound clobetasol propionate ointment.We compared the therapeutic effect of two groups. Results:In the treatment group,the cure rate and effective rate were significantly higher than the control group,and the recurrence rate was significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:The efficacy of compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of chronic eczema was significant,and adverse reactions were less.

  1. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  4. Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, W.; Minton, N.P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Eggink, G.

    2012-01-01

    In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to

  5. Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, W.; Minton, N.P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Eggink, G.

    2012-01-01

    In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to t

  6. SINGLE-ION CONDUCTIVITY IN POLY(LITHIUM PROPIONATE METHYL SILOXANE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shibi; MA Yanguang; GUO Defan; LI Yongjun; JIANG Yingyan; HUANG Xuejie; CHEN Liquan

    1993-01-01

    Poly(lithium propionate methyl siloxane)as a single-ion carrier source was synthesized.The crosslinked film showed lower lithium ionic conductivity at room temperature (about 10-10S/cm).However,the lithium ionic conductivity was obviously increased by blending with high polar polymers such as polyethylene oxide,poly (methylsiloxane-co-ethylene oxide) and poly (methylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide).In the blend system a high conductivity of 10-7-10-5Scm-1 at room temperature was obtained and the single-ion conductivity was deeply influenced by the content of the poly(lithium propionate methyl siloxane).The dc ionic conductivity of the flexible crosslinked films is more stable over time.

  7. N-carbamylglutamate in emergency management of hyperammonemia in neonatal acute onset propionic and methylmalonic aciduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Luca; Gozzini, Elena; Fiorini, Patrizio; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo; Donati, Maria Alice

    2010-01-01

    In propionic aciduria and methylmalonic aciduria, hyperammonemia as a symptom of metabolic decompensation is one of the major clinical problems. Hyperammonemia is a true neonatal emergency with high mortality and neurological complications in most survivors. It requires a rapid and vigorous treatment in order to normalize the ammonia concentration as fast as possible. We report on two full-term neonates, one with propionic aciduria and the other with methylmalonic aciduria, whose plasma ammonia concentrations responded dramatically to oral N-carbamylglutamate. N-carbamylglutamate, added to the classic treatment, quickly normalized plasma ammonia levels in both patients and avoided the need of hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. A particularly sudden fall of ammonia was obtained in one patient through beginning N-carbamylglutamate treatment precociously.

  8. 2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tommy N; Janin, Yves L; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify new subtype-selective (S)-glutamate (Glu) receptor ligands we have synthesized (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)propionic acid [(RS)-TDPA]. Resolution of (RS)-TDPA by chiral chromatography was performed using a Crownpac CR(+) column affording (R)- and (S......)-TDPA of high enantiomeric purity (enantiomeric excess=99.9%). An X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the early eluting enantiomer has R-configuration. Both enantiomers showed high affinity as well as high agonist activity at (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA...... a remarkably low AMPA receptor stereoselectivity, (S)-TDPA showing the highest affinity and (R)-TDPA the most potent agonist activity. In addition, (S)-TDPA was shown to interact with synaptosomal Glu uptake sites displacing [(3)H](R)-aspartic acid (IC(50 ) approximately 390 microM). An enantiospecific...

  9. Synthesis of nanocrystalline ceria thin films by low-temperature thermal decomposition of Ce-propionate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roura, P., E-mail: pere.roura@udg.es [GRMT, Dept. of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif. PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Farjas, J. [GRMT, Dept. of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, Edif. PII, E17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Ricart, S.; Aklalouch, M.; Guzman, R. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Arbiol, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Puig, T.; Calleja, A.; Pena-Rodriguez, O.; Garriga, M.; Obradors, X. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of Ce-propionate (thickness below 20 nm) have been deposited by spin coating and pyrolysed into ceria at temperatures below 200 Degree-Sign C. After 1 h of thermal treatment, no signature of the vibrational modes of Ce-propionate is detected by infrared spectroscopy, indicating that decomposition has been completed. The resulting ceria films are nanocrystalline as revealed by X-ray diffraction (average grain size of 2-2.5 nm) and confirmed by microscopy. They are transparent in the visible region and show the characteristic band gap absorption below 400 nm. A direct band gap energy of 3.50 {+-} 0.05 eV has been deduced irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature (160, 180 and 200 Degree-Sign C).

  10. iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis reveals the pathways for methanation of propionate facilitated by magnetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jing, Yuhang; Wan, Jingjing; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    by around 44% in batch experiments, and both direct interspecies electron transfer and interspecies H2 transfer were thermodynamically feasible with the addition of magnetite. The methanation of propionate facilitated by magnetite was also demonstrated in a long-term operated continuous reactor. The methane...... enriched with the addition of magnetite. iTRAQ quantitative proteomic analysis, which was used in mixed culture for the first time, showed that magnetite induced the changes of protein expression levels involved in various pathways during the methanation of propionate. The up-regulation of proteins...... electron transfer considering its up-regulation with the addition of magnetite and origination from Thauera. Most of the up-regulated proteins in methane metabolism were originated from Methanosaeta, while most of the enzymes with down-regulated proteins were originated from Methanosarcina. However, the up-regulated...

  11. Determination of solvation and binding site profile within electropolymerised poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glidle, A.; Swann, M.J.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj

    2000-01-01

    Specular neutron reflectivity measurements were performed on electropolymerised films of poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid) to determine the degree to which the solvents are capable of supporting biological macromolecules can penetrate the polymer film. The permeation profile of Ni2+ ions which chela...... to the polymer's carboxylic acid moieties for subsequent modified protein binding was also determined. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Propionic and Methylmalonic Acidemia: Antisense Therapeutics for Intronic Variations Causing Aberrantly Spliced Messenger RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón, A. ; Aguado, C. ; Desviat, L. R. ; Sánchez-Alcudia, R. ; Ugarte, M. ; Pérez, B. 

    2007-01-01

    We describe the use of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs) to restore normal splicing caused by intronic molecular defects identified in methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) and propionic acidemia (PA). The three new point mutations described in deep intronic regions increase the splicing scores of pseudoexons or generate consensus binding motifs for splicing factors, such as SRp40, which favor the intronic inclusions in MUT (r.1957ins76), PCCA (r.1284ins84), or PCCB (r.654ins72) messenger R...

  13. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Meng S; Chen Z; Yang L; Zhang W; Liu D; Guo J; Guan Y; Li J

    2013-01-01

    Shu Meng,1 Zaixing Chen,2 Liqun Yang,1 Wei Zhang,1 Danhua Liu,1 Jing Guo,1 Yanmin Guan,1 Jianxin Li11Liaoning Research Institute of Family Planning, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP) ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modifica...

  14. Propionate Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in Mice by Restoring Blood–Milk Barrier Disruption and Suppressing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary glands, is a major disease affecting dairy animal worldwide. Propionate is one of the main short-chain fatty acid that can exert multiple effects on the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sodium propionate against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced mastitis model in mice. The data mainly confirm that inflammation and blood–milk barrier breakdown contribute to progression of the disease in this model. In mice with LPS, sodium propionate attenuates the LPS-induced histopathological changes, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β production, myeloperoxidase activity in mammary tissues. Given their importance in the blood–milk barrier, tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-3 are further investigated. Our results show that sodium propionate strikingly increases the expressions of occludin and claudin-3 and reduces the blood–milk barrier permeability in this model. Furthermore, in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs, LPS increased the expressions of phosphorylated (p-p65, p-IκB proteins, which is attenuated by sodium propionate. Finally, we examine the possibility that propionate acts as a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, the results show that both sodium propionate and trichostatin A increase the level of histone H3 acetylation and inhibit the increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated mMECs. These data suggest that sodium propionate protects against LPS-induced mastitis mainly by restoring blood–milk barrier disruption and suppressing inflammation via NF-κB signaling pathway and HDAC inhibition.

  15. Production of propionic acid from whey permeate by sequential fermentation, ultrafiltration, and cell recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomban, A; Roger, L; Boyaval, P

    1993-11-05

    This article deals with the production by fermentation of a mycostatic and aromatic food additive based on propionic acid. Membrane bioreactors have been used from laboratory scale up to pilot and industrial production plants. Due to the high cell densities achieved by the sequential recycling mode of operation, a mixed acids solution was rapidly produced from whey permeate. The sterile fermented broth obtained was subsequently concentrated at different levels by evaporation and spray drying according to the projected use. Concentrated Propionibacterium cells (200 g x L(-1) DW) were obtained from the process by periodic bleeds and could be used to good effect as cheese starters, silage preservatives, or probiotics. Propionic acid concentrations from 30 to 40 g x L(-1) were easily achieved with no residual lactose. The highest volumetric productivity was 1.6 g x L(-1) x h(-1) for total acid and 1.2 g x L(-1) x h(-1) for propionic acid with a specific productivity of 0.035 h(-1).

  16. Enhancement of Esterification of Propionic Acid with Isopropyl Alcohol by Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing cost of raw materials and energy, there is an increasing inclination of chemical process industries toward new processes that result in lesser waste generation, greater efficiency, and substantial yield of the desired products. Esterification is a chemical reaction in which two reactants carboxylic acid and alcohol react to form an ester and water. This reaction is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium conversion can be altered by varying the process parameters. Pervaporation reactor can enhance the conversion by shifting the equilibrium of reversible esterification reactions. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyether sulfone composite hydrophilic membrane was used for pervaporation-assisted esterification of propionic acid with isopropyl alcohol. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst at 50°C to 80°C with various reactants ratios. The esterification was carried out for catalyst loadings of 0.089 kmol/m3 to 0.447 kmol/m3. The molar ratios of isopropyl to propionic acid used for the experiment were 1 to 1.5. Maximum conversion was obtained for the ratio of 1.4. Also effect of other parameters such as process temperature and catalyst concentration was discussed. It was found that the use of pervaporation reactor increased the conversion of the propionic acid considerably.

  17. THE EFFECT OF METHANOGENIC INHIBITOR FEED ON PROPIONIC ACID AND LAMB MEAT CHEMICAL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Suryanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA on propionic acids and lamb meat chemical quality. The treatment given was R1: feed without medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, while R2 dan R3 were the feed contained 1.0% and 1.5% of MCFA, respectively. The twelve heads of lambs yearling weight of 16-17 kg were used as materials. Biological trial was done for three months and then was slaughtered. Before being slaughtered, the animal was taken rumen fluid to be analyzed for propionic acid. The carcass was sampled to be analyzed for chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids content. This study showed that methanogenic inhibitor feed with 1.0-1.5% MCFA could be used as sheep feed, and the results: the propionic acid content in rumen increased 29.59 – 36.11%. The cholesterol content decreased 7.14-10.06%. For the meat fatty acids composition, unsaturated fatty acids increased 9.05 – 17.96%. while saturated fatty acid decreased 6.59 – 11.88%.

  18. THE EFFICACY OF CLOBETASOL PROPIONATE WITH VARYING DILUTIONS OF EMOLLIENT DETERMINED BY HISTAMINE WHEAL SUPPRESSION TEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barathi, M; Rai, Reena; Srinivas, C R

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ability of steroids to reduce the histamine wheal was used to assess the efficacy of topical clobetasol propionate with varying dilutions of emollients. Aim: To determine the wheal-suppressing ability of topical clobetasol with varying dilutions of emollient. Materials and Methods: It was a double-blinded randomized study. Twenty-five volunteers were included in the study. Five syringes of 5 ml were taken and the syringes were loaded with either clobetasol propionate 0.05%, emollient, or clobetasol propionate with emollient in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The syringes were coded 1 to 5. Five squares of 3 × 3 cm were marked on the flexor aspect of the forearm of the volunteers. After randomization, half fingertip unit of the cream was applied within each square uniformly. Three hours later histamine prick test was performed by the standard method. The wheal was measured after 15 min and the results were recorded. After decoding, results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance. Result: The decrease in wheal suppression of steroid with emollient (1:1) was same as topical steroid and the wheal suppression decreased with increasing dilutions of steroid. Conclusion: We conclude that steroids and emollients can be mixed in equal proportion (1:1) and the effect is same as steroid alone and increasing dilution of steroids with emollients was not effective in suppressing the wheal. PMID:22121270

  19. The efficacy of clobetasol propionate with varying dilutions of emollient determined by histamine wheal suppression test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability of steroids to reduce the histamine wheal was used to assess the efficacy of topical clobetasol propionate with varying dilutions of emollients. Aim: To determine the wheal-suppressing ability of topical clobetasol with varying dilutions of emollient. Materials and Methods: It was a double-blinded randomized study. Twenty-five volunteers were included in the study. Five syringes of 5 ml were taken and the syringes were loaded with either clobetasol propionate 0.05%, emollient, or clobetasol propionate with emollient in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The syringes were coded 1 to 5. Five squares of 3 × 3 cm were marked on the flexor aspect of the forearm of the volunteers. After randomization, half fingertip unit of the cream was applied within each square uniformly. Three hours later histamine prick test was performed by the standard method. The wheal was measured after 15 min and the results were recorded. After decoding, results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance. Result: The decrease in wheal suppression of steroid with emollient (1:1 was same as topical steroid and the wheal suppression decreased with increasing dilutions of steroid. Conclusion: We conclude that steroids and emollients can be mixed in equal proportion (1:1 and the effect is same as steroid alone and increasing dilution of steroids with emollients was not effective in suppressing the wheal.

  20. The performance efficiency of bioaugmentation to prevent anaerobic digestion failure from ammonia and propionate inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Sun, Yongming; Wu, Shubiao; Kong, Xiaoying; Yuan, Zhenhong; Dong, Renjie

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of bioaugmentation with enriched methanogenic propionate degrading microbial consortia on propionate fermentation under ammonia stress from total ammonia nitrogen concentration (TAN) of 3.0gNL(-1). Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation could prevent unstable digestion against further deterioration. After 45days of 1dosage (0.3g dry cell weight L(-1)d(-1), DCW L(-1)d(-1)) of bioaugmentation, the average volumetric methane production (VMP), methane recovery rate and propionic acid (HPr) degradation rate was enhanced by 70mLL(-1)d(-1), 21% and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the non-bioaugmentation reactor almost failed. Routine addition of a double dosage (0.6g DCW L(-1)d(-1)) of bioaugmentation culture was able to effectively recover the failing digester. The results of FISH suggested that the populations of Methanosaetaceae increased significantly, which could be a main contributor for the positive effect on methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Solid-state structure of 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium propionate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczak, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The single crystals of 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium propionate suitable for the X-ray analysis were grown using a solution growth technique room temperature. The compound crystallises in the centrosymmetric C2/c space group of the monoclinic system. The conformation of the 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium cation is not strictly planar, but slightly twisted. Both planar arms of the cation are oppositely rotated by 2.1(1)° around the Csbnd N bonds involving the central N atom. The propionate(-) anion is also non-planar, the carboxylate group is turned by 4.3(1)° in relation to the planar carbon chain. The arrangement of oppositely charged components, i.e. 1-(diaminomethylene)thiouron-1-ium cations and propionate(-) anions in the crystal is mainly determined by ionic and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions forming two-dimensional network aligned to (100) plane. The neighbouring 2D layers interact via much weaker Nsbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds forming three-dimensional hydrogen bonded network. Hirshfeld surface and the analysis of 2D fingerprint plots are illustrating both quantitatively and qualitatively interactions governing the supramolecular assemblies. The compound was also characterised by the FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational assignments have been supported by the isotopic frequency shift.

  2. Chemical and biologic characteristics of roxatidine acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, M; Herling, A W; Schoelkens, B; Scholtholt, J

    1988-01-01

    Roxatidine acetate is a specific and competitive H2-receptor antagonist, as shown in isolated rabbit gastric glands or guinea pig atria preparations. The antisecretory effect of roxatidine acetate is mediated by its main metabolite, roxatidine. In the rat, roxatidine acetate was equipotent after intraduodenal and intraperitoneal administration, indicating excellent bioavailability. Roxatidine acetate and roxatidine were equipotent in the rat after intravenous administration. In the Heidenhain-pouch dog stimulated by food ingestion or maximal histamine dosing, roxatidine acetate and roxatidine proved to be 3-6 times more potent than cimetidine in inhibiting gastric acid secretion. From in vitro experiments it can be concluded that roxatidine acetate and ranitidine are equipotent. Roxatidine acetate has no antiandrogenic effects and does not influence drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver.

  3. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  4. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-01-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants.

  5. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Yang, S T

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  6. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  7. Medical image of the week: lactate threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalabih MR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lactate or anaerobic threshold in exercise physiology is the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulate as the anaerobic component of metabolism increases and has been used to assess cardiopulmonary fitness. The V-slope method is a non-invasive way of estimating the lactate or anaerobic threshold (1. As lactate accumulates the H+ is mainly buffered by HCO3- and produces CO2. A point can be seen in Figure 1 where CO2 production (VCO2 abruptly increases relative to O2 consumption (VO2 . This represents the point at which anaerobic threshold occurs.

  8. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis.

  9. Specific and efficient N-propionylation of histones with propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester for histone marks characterization by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rijing; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Haibing; Yu, Yanyan; Hu, Min; Zhai, Huili; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhou, Shaolian; Yi, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Histones participate in epigenetic regulation via a variety of dynamic posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on them. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool to investigate histone PTMs. With the bottom-up mass spectrometry approach, chemical derivatization of histones with propionic anhydride or deuterated acetic anhydride followed by trypsin digestion was widely used to block the hydrophilic lysine residues and generate compatible peptides for LC-MS analysis. However, certain severe side reactions (such as acylation on tyrosine or serine) caused by acid anhydrides will lead to a number of analytical issues such as reducing results accuracy and impairing the reproducibility and sensitivity of MS analysis. As an alternative approach, we report a novel derivatization method that utilizes N-hydroxysuccinimide ester to specifically and efficiently derivatize both free and monomethylated amine groups in histones. A competitive inhibiting strategy was implemented in our method to effectively prevent the side reactions. We demonstrated that our method can achieve excellent specificity and efficiency for histones derivatization in a reproducible manner. Using this derivatization method, we succeeded to quantitatively profile the histone PTMs in KMS11 cell line with selective knock out of translocated NSD2 allele (TKO) and the original parental KMS11 cell lines (PAR) (NSD2, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the histone H3 K36 methylation), which revealed a significant crosstalk between H3 protein K27 methylation and adjacent K36 methylation.

  10. The Nitrification Inhibitor Methyl 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)Propionate Modulates Root Development by Interfering with Auxin Signaling via the NO/ROS Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Wang, Ruling; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Qi; Luo, Qiong; Zhu, Yiyong; Xu, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (MHPP) is a root exudate that functions as a nitrification inhibitor and as a modulator of the root system architecture (RSA) by inhibiting primary root (PR) elongation and promoting lateral root formation. However, the mechanism underlying MHPP-mediated modulation of the RSA remains unclear. Here, we report that MHPP inhibits PR elongation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by elevating the levels of auxin expression and signaling. MHPP induces an increase in auxin levels by up-regulating auxin biosynthesis, altering the expression of auxin carriers, and promoting the degradation of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid family of transcriptional repressors. We found that MHPP-induced nitric oxide (NO) production promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in root tips. Suppressing the accumulation of NO or ROS alleviated the inhibitory effect of MHPP on PR elongation by weakening auxin responses and perception and by affecting meristematic cell division potential. Genetic analysis supported the phenotype described above. Taken together, our results indicate that MHPP modulates RSA remodeling via the NO/ROS-mediated auxin response pathway in Arabidopsis. Our study also revealed that MHPP significantly induced the accumulation of glucosinolates in roots, suggesting the diverse functions of MHPP in modulating plant growth, development, and stress tolerance in plants.

  11. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating......OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  12. 乳清发酵法制备乙酸%Preparation of Acetic Acid from Cheese Whey by Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海棠; 韩爱霞; 王兆谦; 任彦蓉; 王海鹏; 郗怡佳; 黄靖; 李春花

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究一种新的两步厌氧发酵法用于从乳清制备乙酸.[方法]以乳清为原料,通过两步发酵法制备出乙酸.在第1步发酵过程中用植物乳杆菌(1.215 8)将乳清中的乳糖发酵成乳酸,在第2步发酵过程中用丙酸杆菌(1.2130)将乳酸发酵成乙酸与丙酸,二者用气相色谱法进行分离,并进行定性与定量分析.[结果]在发酵的第1步过程中,乳酸的转化率达到47.47%;在发酵的第2步过程中用气相色谱仪成功地将乙酸与丙酸进行了分离,分离的乙酸转化率达到5.643%;乙酸浓度在1-8mg/ml范围内时,乙酸进样量与色谱峰面积呈良好的线性关系,方程的相关系数R =0.999 4,回收率为102.7%.[结论]利用该方法从乳清制备乙酸,不仅能合理开发利用乳清,而且还能降低乙酸生产成本,具有良好的开发前景.%[Objective] The object was to study a new two step anaerobic fermentation method for preparing the acetic acid from the cheese whey. [ Method] With the cheese whey as the raw material, the acetic acid was prepared out by the two step fermentation method. In the first step of fermentation process, the lactose in the cheese whey was fermented into the lactic acid by using the plant lactobacillus (1.2158) ; in the second step of fermentation process, the lactic acid were fermented into the acetic acid and propionic acid by using the propionic acid coli (1.2130), both of them were separated by the gas chromatography, and they were made for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. [Result] In the first step of fermentation process, the conversion rates of lactic acid was 47.47%. In the second step of fermentation process, the acetic acid and propionic acid were separated by the gas chromatography successfully, the conversion rates of the separated lactic acid reached 5.643%. When the acetic acid was 1 -8 mg/ml, there was a good linear relationship between the sampling volume of the acetic acid and the

  13. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  14. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  15. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Halobetasol Propionate Lotion, 0.05% Provides Superior Hydration Compared to Halobetasol Propionate Cream, 0.05% in a Double-Blinded Study of Occlusivity and Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Gary; Zerweck, Charles; Houser, Tim; Andrasfay, Anthony; Gauthier, Bob; Holland, Charles; Piacquadio, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    This study measured skin hydration and occlusivity of two test products [halobetasol propionate lotion, 0.05% (HBP Lotion) and Ultravate® (halobetasol propionate) cream, 0.05% (HBP Cream)] at 2, 4, and 6 hours after application to skin test sites previously challenged by dry shaving, which was performed to compromise the integrity of the stratum corneum barrier. Trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), an indicator of skin barrier function, was measured using cyberDERM, inc. RG-1 evaporimeter. Skin hydration was evaluated using IBS SkiCon-200 conductance meter. Test products were applied bilaterally on dry-shaved sites on the volar forearm sites, according to a randomization scheme, with two test sites untreated to serve as "dry-shaved" controls. TEWL and conductance were measured at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-treatment. HBP Lotion displayed a significant increase in skin hydration at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-treatment compared to the baseline values and dry-shaved controls (each, P less than 0.001). However, HBP Cream produced statistically significant increased skin hydration only after 6 hours (P less than 0.05). HBP Lotion was significantly more effective than HBP Cream in increasing skin hydration at 2 and 4 hours post-treatment (each, P less than 0.001), and had a directional advantage (not statistically significant) at 6 hours. Neither test product had a significant occlusive effect as measured by TEWL at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-application. Both formulations of HBP (Lotion and Cream) contributed to skin moisturization, as measured by skin conductance. HBP Lotion produced a significantly more rapid onset and higher level of moisturization at 2 and 4 hours post-application compared to HBP Cream. The TEWL results indicate that neither HBP Lotion nor HBP Cream provided any significant occlusivity to the skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(2):140-144..

  17. Effects on plasma glucose and lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Injection of amylin or amylin agonists, including human and rat amylin, pramlintide, salmon calcitonin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), increases the plasma levels of lactate and glucose in non-diabetic fasting rats and mice. This response can be useful in identifying and defining amylin agonists (amylinomimetic agents) (Cooper et al.) and has been investigated in several studies. Increases in plasma glucose and lactate are not present in all species. In humans, for example, increases in lactate are observed at high pramlintide doses but not at doses that would be used to therapeutically regulate plasma glucose. In species where it occurs, the increase in plasma lactate with amylin is comparable to that observed with exercise or adrenergic agents, and it is distinguishable from the very high levels observed during lactic acidosis (as may occur with biguanides). In contrast to lactic acidosis, the plasma lactate with amylin is derived from skeletal muscle rather than liver. Increases in plasma lactate and glucose in some species may initially appear inconsistent with a glucose-lowering effect of amylin agonists. But glycemic effects are due to actions in skeletal muscle and are present only in some species, whereas glucose-lowering actions are attributable to effects in gastrointestinal systems and are present in all species studied to date. And while glycemic effects are most pronounced in the fasted state, glucose-lowering effects are most pronounced in the postprandial state. Since they were discovered first, effects of higher doses of amylin on plasma glucose, especially in the fasted state, are described first and are related to concomitant changes in plasma lactate. These effects are prominent in rodents but are barely discernible in humans. Effects of lower doses of pramlintide to suppress plasma glucose profiles in the postprandial period are also observable in normal and diabetic rats, however, and are covered here as well. The relationship

  18. Short-term safety assessment of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, atrophogenicity, and ocular safety in subjects with scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Philippe; Poncet, Michel; Farzaneh, Sidou; Soto, Pascale

    2006-04-01

    Clobetasol propionate is known to be a very effective treatment for psoriasis; however, its use is limited by potent corticosteroid class related side effects such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression and atrophogenicity. The aim of this single-center, parallel group, randomized study was to assess the HPA axis suppression potential, atrophogenicity, and ocular tolerability of clobetasol propionate shampoo in 26 patients with scalp psoriasis. Suitable subjects were treated once daily for 4 weeks with clobetasol propionate shampoo, to be rinsed off after 15 minutes or with a leave-on clobetasol propionate gel. The study demonstrated that clobetasol propionate shampoo did not lead to HPA axis suppression or to skin atrophy. Conversely, the gel led to HPA axis suppression and a decrease in skin thickness. Neither formulation had an impact on ocular safety. Despite the short contact application time, the clobetasol propionate shampoo provides similar efficacy results to the gel.

  19. Hepatic metabolism of anaesthetized growing pigs during acute portal infusion of volatile fatty acids and hydroxy-methyl butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    intervals and analyzed for contents of paraamino- hippuric acid (PAH; blood flow marker) and plasma metabolites. Total VFA was infused at a rate of 0 mmol/h (background; Inf1, Inf6), 60 mmol/h (Inf2) or 120 mmol/h (Inf3 to Inf5). Infused VFA contained 70, 20, and 5% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate......, respectively, for Inf2 and Inf3, or 65%, 20%, and 10% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, for Inf4 and Inf5. In addition, for Inf5, HMB was infused at 2 mmol/h. Statistical analysis included fixed effects of infusion and interaction between infusion and samplings within infusion while...... accounting for repeated measurements. A net hepatic uptake of propionate, butyrate, and lactate was observed, whereas the liver released acetate, glucose, and urea. The portal lactate absorption could not account for the net hepatic uptake of lactate, suggesting lactate originated from partial oxidation...

  20. Effect of abomasal ferrous lactate infusion on phosphorus absorption in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Knowlton, K F; Dietrich, A D; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ferrous lactate infusion on postruminal P absorption in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with 14 d per period. Cows were fed a basal diet containing 0.39% P, providing 100% of the calculated P requirement. On d 8 to 14 of each period, each cow was infused with 0, 200, 500, or 1,250mg of Fe/d in the form of ferrous lactate solution (ferrous lactate in 1L of double-distilled water) into the abomasum. Infusate was formulated to approximate 0, 2, 5, or 12.5mg of Fe/L in drinking water with 100L of water intake/d. Total fecal collection was conducted in the last 4 d of each period to measure nutrient digestion and excretion. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by treatment. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing ferrous lactate infusion. Infusion of ferrous lactate did not affect intake and digestibility of total P, inorganic P, or phytate P. In lactating cows, P absorption was not negatively influenced by abomasally infused ferrous lactate up to 1,250mg of Fe/d. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  2. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. 862... Test Systems § 862.1445 Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. A lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase...

  3. Lactate determination in ante- and intrapartum surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg-Itzel, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Lactate concentration is reported to be high in amniotic fluid (AF). Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) occur in about 20% of all pregnancies. The condition is associated with fetal and maternal complications, and might be a marker of imminent delivery. Therefore among women with suspected prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM), it is of great importance to accurately confirm the diagnosis. In our studies we wanted to assess whether lactate determination in vaginal/...

  4. Iodine nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E

    2011-12-01

    Adequate iodine intake is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that are important for normal fetal and infant neurodevelopment. In this review, we discuss iodine physiology during pregnancy and lactation, methods to assess iodine sufficiency, the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, studies of iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, the consequences of hypothyroidism during pregnancy, the current status of iodine nutrition in the United States, the global efforts toward achieving universal iodine sufficiency, and substances that may interfere with iodine use.

  5. A comparison of costs and efficacy of intranasal fluticasone propionate and terfenadine tablets for seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, C M; Schulz, R M; Sclar, D A; Kral, K M; Mackowiak, J I

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares cost-efficacy ratios for intranasal fluticasone propionate and terfenadine tablets within a sample of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms due to mountain cedar allergy. Efficacy was assessed using secondary data analysis of patient ratings of symptoms and their overall assessment of response to treatment within a previously conducted clinical trial. Costs include direct costs of the drugs used for therapy. Patients with documented mountain cedar allergy who were 12 years of age or older (N = 232) had been randomized to either receive intranasal fluticasone propionate, terfenadine, or placebo. The cost-efficacy ratios for intranasal fluticasone propionate 200 micrograms once daily were more favorable than the ratios for terfenadine 60 mg twice daily. This relationship remained throughout the sensitivity analysis. Because intranasal fluticasone propionate is only available in a fixed package size, the number of efficacy-adjusted days of terfenadine therapy that could be purchased to reach break-even costs for a 30-day supply of fluticasone was calculated. Cost efficacy-adjusted days ranged from 11 to 18 days. If cost-efficacy adjustments are not conducted, the upper end of the range increases from 18 to 22 days, since 22 days of terfenadine could be purchased for the price of a 30-day supply of intranasal fluticasone propionate. Depending on which of the efficacy measures the reader believes, if patients use terfenadine for longer than 11 to 22 days, fluticasone propionate is the more cost-efficacious choice. Because most allergies are seasonal and allergy seasons typically last longer than 11 to 22 days, it is likely that fluticasone propionate will frequently be the more cost-efficacious choice in the patient population represented in this study.

  6. Composition of sow milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobasa, F; Werhahn, E; Butler, J E

    1987-05-01

    The composition of sow colostrum and milk was quantitated in 25 sows at 14 time points throughout lactation. All animals belonged to the same experimental herd of German Landrace, farrowed within 4 d, and were of various lactation numbers and various litter sizes. In the first 6 h of lactation colostrum total solids (TS) and protein contents were higher, while fat and lactose contents were lower than in mature milk. Decreased total protein and whey protein contents and concomitantly increased fat and lactose content, with nearly unchanged TS levels, indicate transition from colostrum to mature milk. The high protein content of colostrum was largely due to immunoglobulin (Ig). During the first 6 h, IgG accounts for nearly all the protein in colostrum but plays a decreasing role in sow milk as lactation proceeds. After 2 wk, IgA levels begin to increase and at the end of lactation, IgA constitutes 40% of the total whey protein. No influences of lactation number and litter size on milk composition could be ascertained in this study.

  7. Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be

  8. Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems: p-Xylene + (Acetic Acid, Methyl Acetate and n-Propyl Acetate)and Methyl Acetate + n-Propyl Acetate in an Acetic Acid Dehydration Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiuhui; ZHONG Weimin; PENG Changjun; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of four binary systems(acetic acid + p-xylene,methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate,n-propyl acetate + p-xylene and methyl acetate + p-xylene)are measured at 101.33 kPa with Ellis equilibrium still,and then both the NRTL and UNIQUAC models are used in combination with the HOC model for correlating and estimating the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these four binary systems.The estimated binary VLE results using correlated parameters agree well with the measured data except the methyl acetate + p-xylene system which easily causes bumping and liquid rushing out of the sampling tap due to their dramatically different boiling points.The correlation results by NRTL and UNIQUAC models have little difference on the average absolute deviations of temperature and composition of vapor phase,and the results by NRTL model are slightly better than those by UNIQUAC model except for the methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate system,for which the latter gives more accurate correlations.

  9. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    of lactate in skeletal muscle. With the introduction of lactate isotopes muscle lactate kinetics and oxidation could be studied and a simultaneous lactate uptake and release was observed, not only in muscle but also in other tissues. Therefore, this review will discuss in vivo human: (1) skeletal muscle...... lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  11. Nursing practices and lactation amenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M F; Teas, J; Johnston, J; Bora, C

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that nursing behavior is an independent underlying factor of importance in duration of amenorrhea. Multivariate analysis is applied to information on frequency and duration of nursing practices, maternal age, and nutritional status assessed by weight for height in a sample of 32 middle-class American women with a wide range of nursing behavior. The mothers were followed for 2 years postpartum, data being collected during 8 home visits by interview and by nursing records kept by the mothers. Amenorrhea lasted 1.3 to 27.1 months in the sample as a whole. Those women who nursed frequently (8/day) during exclusive breastfeeding remained amenorrheic longer than infrequent nursers, introduced supplements later, and did not resume menses as promptly thereafter. They continued an hour or more of night nursing during supplemented nursing. Duration of exclusive nursing and night nursing after supplementation were the major influences on duration of amenorrhea. This strong association favors the hypothesis that the underlying factor is nursing behavior. Mother's age, weight-for-height, and nursing frequency before supplementation showed no significant effect. Those women who introduced supplements late and maintained at least an hour of night nursing had a prolonged period of amenorrhea. The median for this group was 6-10 months longer than that for those who started supplements early and/or reduced subsequent night nursing to less than an hour. The recommendation that women must suckle their babies at least 5 times a day with a total suckling duration of more than 65 minutes per day is not sufficient. The findings reported here suggest that if women nurse exclusively for the 1st half year, maintaining night nursing after introducing supplements is important. If they supplement earlier, then they will lose the contraceptive protection of lactation, irrespective of how they nurse.

  12. Ammonia-treated alfalfa silage for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Craig, W M; Satter, L D

    1989-10-01

    Alfalfa was treated (3.3% of forage wet weight) with an aqua-NH3 (14% N) mix prior to ensiling in 2 consecutive yr. In the 1st yr, NH3-treated silage containing 30.5% DM was higher in pH, N, NH3N, acetic acid and butyric acid contents, and lower in amino acids, soluble carbohydrates, and lactic acid than two untreated silages having 32.8 and 47.5% DM. Milk composition and DM intake did not differ among treatments when these silages constituted 50% of the dietary DM and were fed to lactating cows. In situ and in vitro, but not in vivo, digestion of NDF was greater for NH3 silage. Dry matter content of NH3-treated silage in the 2nd yr was 36.1% and that of the two untreated silages was 37.8 and 54.9%. Silage N, NH3N, and acetic acid content were greater in treated silage. However, pH and butyric acid content were similar among treatments and lactic acid was greater for treated silage. Similar to findings in the 1st yr, milk production and DM intake were not different among treatments. Adding NH3 to alfalfa decreased proteolysis; however, when DM was low (30.5%), the buffering effect of NH3 apparently resulted in increased clostridial fermentation. This did not occur when silage DM was increased to 36.1%, presumably due to higher osmotic pressure. Ammonia addition enhanced fiber digestibility but had no effect on milk production.

  13. Microbial Community Dynamics of Lactate Enriched Hanford Groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Drake, Meghan M.; Carroll, Susan L.; Yang, Zamin K.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brown, Stephen D.; Podar, Mircea; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy site at Hanford, WA, has been historically impacted by U and Cr from the nuclear weapons industry. In an attempt to stimulate microbial remediation of these metals, in-situ lactate enrichment experiments are ongoing. In order to bridge the gap from the laboratory to the field, we inoculated triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors with groundwater collected from well Hanford 100-H in order to obtain a stable, enriched community while selecting for metal-reducing bacteria. Each reactor was fed from a single carboy containing defined media with 30 mM lactate at a rate of 0.223 ml/min under continuous nitrogen flow at 9 ml/min. Cell counts, organic acids, gDNA (for qPCR and pyrosequencing) and gases were sampled during the experiment. Cell counts remained low (less than 1x107 cells/ml) during the first two weeks of the experiment, but by day 20, had reached a density greater than 1x108 cells/ml. Metabolite analysis showed a decrease in the lactate concentrations over time. Pyruvate concentrations ranged from 20-40 uM the first week of the experiment then was undetectable after day 10. Likewise, formate appeared in the reactors during the first week with concentrations of 1.48-1.65 mM at day 7 then the concentrations decreased to 0.69-0.95 on day 10 and were undetectable on day 15. Acetate was present in low amounts on day 3 (0.15-0.33 mM) and steadily increased to 3.35-5.22 mM over time. Similarly, carbon dioxide was present in low concentrations early on and increased to 0.28-0.35 mM as the experiment progressed. We also were able to detect low amounts of methane (10-20 uM) during the first week of the experiment, but by day 10 the methane was undetectable. From these results and pyrosequencing analysis, we conclude that a shift in the microbial community dynamics occurred over time to eventually form a stable and enriched microbial community. Comprehensive investigations such as these allow for the examination of not only which

  14. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Zaar, Morten; Homann, Pernille; Evans, Kevin A; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H

    2012-07-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions were combined. We measured cerebral lactate turnover via a tracer dilution method ([1-(13)C]lactate), using arterial to right internal jugular venous differences in 9 healthy individuals (5 males and 4 females), at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (F(i)o(2) 10%, arterial oxygen saturation 72 ± 10%, mean ± sd). Whole-body lactate turnover increased 3.5-fold and 9-fold at two workloads in normoxia and 18-fold during exercise in hypoxia. Although middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity increased during exercise in hypoxia, calculated cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension decreased by 13 mmHg (P<0.001). At the same time, cerebral lactate release increased from 0.15 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.6 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), corresponding to ∼10% of cerebral energy consumption. Concurrently, cerebral lactate uptake was 1.0 ± 0.9 mmol min(-1) (P<0.05), of which 57 ± 9% was oxidized, demonstrating that lactate oxidation may account for up to ∼33% of the energy substrate used by the brain. These results support the existence of a cell-cell lactate shuttle that may involve neurons and astrocytes.

  15. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription of genes encoding factors involved in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) turnover and vascular function was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results demonstrated that omitting the dry period was possible in goats but was not as easy as claimed before. Renewal of MEC was suppressed in CL glands, which resulted in a smaller MEC population in the subsequent lactation. At the time of parturition (and throughout lactation), the mammary glands subjected to CL had smaller alveoli, more fully differentiated MEC, and a substantially larger capillary fraction compared with NL glands. The continuously lactating gland thus resembled a normally lactating gland in an advanced stage of lactation. None of the studied genomic factors could account for these treatment

  16. Hyperoxia decreases muscle glycogenolysis, lactate production, and lactate efflux during steady-state exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Leblanc, Paul J; Hollidge, Melanie G; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the decreased muscle and blood lactate during exercise with hyperoxia (60% inspired O2) vs. room air is due to decreased muscle glycogenolysis, leading to decreased pyruvate and lactate production and efflux. We measured pyruvate oxidation via PDH, muscle pyruvate and lactate accumulation, and lactate and pyruvate efflux to estimate total pyruvate and lactate production during exercise. We hypothesized that 60% O2 would decrease muscle glycogenolysis, resulting in decreased pyruvate and lactate contents, leading to decreased muscle pyruvate and lactate release with no change in PDH activity. Seven active male subjects cycled for 40 min at 70% VO2 peak on two occasions when breathing 21 or 60% O2. Arterial and femoral venous blood samples and blood flow measurements were obtained throughout exercise, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 10, 20, and 40 min of exercise. Hyperoxia had no effect on leg O2 delivery, O2 uptake, or RQ during exercise. Muscle glycogenolysis was reduced by 16% with hyperoxia (267 +/- 19 vs. 317 +/- 21 mmol/kg dry wt), translating into a significant, 15% reduction in total pyruvate production over the 40-min exercise period. Decreased pyruvate production during hyperoxia had no effect on PDH activity (pyruvate oxidation) but significantly decreased lactate accumulation (60%: 22.6 +/- 6.4 vs. 21%: 31.3 +/- 8.7 mmol/kg dry wt), lactate efflux, and total lactate production over 40 min of cycling. Decreased glycogenolysis in hyperoxia was related to an approximately 44% lower epinephrine concentration and an attenuated accumulation of potent phosphorylase activators ADPf and AMPf during exercise. Greater phosphorylation potential during hyperoxia was related to a significantly diminished rate of PCr utilization. The tighter metabolic match between pyruvate production and oxidation resulted in a decrease in total lactate production and efflux over 40 min of exercise during hyperoxia.

  17. Quantitative analysis of growth and volatile fatty acid production by the anaerobic ruminal bacterium Megasphaera elsdenii T81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaspheara elsdenii T81 grew on either DL-lactate or D-glucose at similar rates (0.85 per h), but displayed major differences in the fermentation of these substrates. Lactate was fermented at up to 210-mM concentration to yield acetic, propionic, butyric, and valeric acids. The bacterium was able t...

  18. Nutritional and Pharmacological Management during Chemotherapy in a Patient with Propionic Acidaemia and Rhabdomyosarcoma Botryoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernández, E; Quijada-Fraile, P; Oliveros-Leal, L; García-Silva, Mt; Pérez-Cerdá, C; Baro-Fernández, M; Pérez-Alonso, V; Vivanco, Jl

    2012-01-01

    We present the nutritional and pharmacological management of a 2-year-old girl with a severe form of propionic acidaemia and a genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. This association has not been described before, nor the utilization of chemotherapy in patients with propionic acidaemia.The patient is a girl with neonatal onset of propionic acidaemia, homozygous for the c.2041-2924del3889 mutation in PCCA gene. At 23 months of age she was diagnosed with genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Conservative surgery, brachytherapy and nine cycles of chemotherapy with iphosphamide, vincristine and actinomycin were recommended by oncologists. Due to the possibility that the child could present decompensations, we elaborated three different courses of treatment: when the patient was stable (treatment 1), intermittent bolus feeding through gastrostomy, containing 70 kcal/kg/day and 1.4 g/kg/day of total protein (0.6 g/kg/day of natural protein and 0.8 g/kg/day of amino acid-based formula) was prescribed; on the chemotherapy-days (treatment 2), diet consisted on continuous feeding, with the same energy and amino acid-based formula but half of natural protein intake; in case of decompensation (treatment 3), we increased by 10% the energy intake, and completely stopped natural protein in the diet but maintaining the amino acid-based formula. On chemotherapy- days carnitine was increased from 100 mg/kg/day to 150 mg/kg/day, and N-carbamylglutamate was added.Through the 7 months with chemotherapy the patient did not suffer decompensations, while she maintained good nutritional status.Enteral continuous feeding by gastrostomy, amino acid-based formula, and preventive use of N-carbamylglutamate during chemotherapy-days are the principal measures we propose in these situations.

  19. Multiple dose bioequivalence study with josamycin propionate, a drug with highly variable kinetics, in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoogdalem, E J; Terpstra, I J; Krauwinkel, W J; Volkers-Kamermans, N J; Baven, A L; Verschoor, J S

    1996-05-01

    Josamycin is a macrolide antibiotic with considerable intra- and interindividual variability in kinetics. In the present study bioequivalence of an intact and dispersed josamycin Solutab tablet, containing 1,000 mg of josamycin in the form of josamycin propionate ester, was tested versus a Josacine 1,000 mg reference sachet. The design of this bioequivalence study was adapted to the drug's pharmacokinetic variability, comprising testing in steady-state, testing the reference in replicate, and maintaining a widened bioequivalence margin. The study was performed in a group of 24 male and 12 female healthy subjects, according to a 3-treatment 4-period crossover design. Blood sampling for establishing josamycin propionate and josamycin base serum level profiles were collected during the 12 h dosing interval on day 4. Steady-state serum levels were reached on day 4. With the reference sachet mean peak levels of 1.02 micrograms/ml and 0.36 microgram/ml were observed for parent drug and metabolite, respectively, reached at peak times of 1.5 h and 1.8 h. Comparable profiles were observed with the intact and dispersed Solutab tablets, both tending towards higher serum levels than the sachet. In terms of josamycin propionate levels as well as josamycin base levels, the intact and dispersed Solutab tablet was bioequivalent with the referent sachet within the preset 0.70-1.43 margins. Variability in josamycin kinetics proved to be substantial, maximum differences in peak levels and AUC values being about 10-fold between individuals, and 3-fold within individuals. Retrospectively, the multiple dosing regimen appeared not to result in a clear reduction of intrasubject variability.

  20. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  1. Radiation-induced defects in magnesium lactate as ESR dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, G M; Takaki, S

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium lactate (Mg-lactate: (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COO) sub 2 Mg), magnesium lactate doped with lithium lactate (Mg(Li)-lactate) and nominal pure lithium lactate (CH sub 3 CH(OH)COOLi) doped with Mg-lactate (Li(Mg)-lactate) were irradiated by gamma-rays to study radicals for materials of radiation dosimeter with electron spin resonance (ESR). Quartet spectra were ascribed to lactate radicals in Mg-lactate and Li(Mg)-lactate with the spectroscopic splitting factors (g-factor) of 2.0032+-0.004 and 2.0029+-0.004 and the intensity ratio of 1:3:3:1 due to the hyperfine coupling constants of (A/g beta) of 1.92+-0.06 and 1.82+-0.06 mT, respectively. The response to gamma-ray dose and the thermal stability as well as the effect of UV-illumination have been studied to establish this material as an ESR dosimeter. The number of free radicals per 100 eV (G-value) was obtained to be 1.15+-0.32, 1.35+-0.35, 0.46+-0.14 and 0.78+-0.24 for Mg-lactate, Mg(Li)-lactate, Li-lactate and Lie(Mg)-lactate, respectively. Thermoluminescenc...

  2. Odd-chain fatty acids as a biomarker for dietary fiber intake: a novel pathway for endogenous production from propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Nickel, Daniela; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J; Schulze, Matthias B; Pfeiffer, Andreas Fh; Klaus, Susanne

    2017-06-01

    Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway.Design: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 16 healthy individuals were supplemented with cellulose (30 g/d), inulin (30 g/d), or propionate (6 g/d) for 7 d. In addition, human hepatoma cells were incubated with different propionate concentrations. OCFAs were determined in plasma phospholipids and hepatoma cells by gas chromatography.Results: Cellulose did not affect plasma OCFA levels, whereas inulin and propionate increased pentadecanoic acid by ∼17% (P dietary fiber intake and not only dairy fat. This trial was registered at www.germanctr.de as DRKS00010121. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Propionylcarnitine excretion in propionic and methylmalonic acidurias: a cause of carnitine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, S; Rimoldi, M; Garavaglia, B; Uziel, G

    1984-05-16

    Two patients with propionic acidemia (PA) and two patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) had low plasma free carnitine and increased short-chain acylcarnitines. Urinary excretion of free carnitine was decreased, while the excretion of short-chain acylcarnitines, mostly propionylcarnitine , was increased. Carnitine supplementation markedly increased the short-chain acylcarnitine fractions of both plasma and urine. Total carnitine content was decreased in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from two of the patients. It is suggested that in these organic acidurias mitochondrial propionylcarnitine , formed from free carnitine and excess propionylCoA exchanges with free cytosolic carnitine: propionylcarnitine is then lost in the urine, causing secondary carnitine deficiency in the tissues.

  4. Direct identification of propionylcarnitine in propionic acidaemia: biochemical and clinical results of oral carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, M; Ketting, D; Beckeringh, T E; Leupold, D; Wadman, S K

    1986-01-01

    Urinary short-chain acylcarnitine in a patient with propionic acidaemia and low levels of free carnitine was found to consist mainly of propionylcarnitine. The compound was isolated by sequential paper and thin layer chromatography and identified by ammonia desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Treatment of the patient with oral carnitine supplements led to a near-normalization of the plasma free carnitine concentrations and an increase in his muscle tone. The propionylcarnitine excretion rose and there was a simultaneous decrease in the methylcitrate output. Carnitine treatment did not prevent the occurrence of an episode of metabolic decompensation.

  5. Successful pregnancy and delivery in a woman with propionic acidemia from the Amish community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Scott Schwoerer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acidemia (PA is an inborn error of protein metabolism with a variable clinical presentation ranging from neonatal encephalopathy to seemingly asymptomatic individuals who present with cardiomyopathy or sudden death. PA is recognized in the Amish population, often with an early asymptomatic course and eventual cardiac complications. Thus, Amish women with PA may reach reproductive age without clinical sequelae, but are at increased risk for metabolic decompensation during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period. We describe the care of an Amish woman with PA during her first pregnancy and delivery.

  6. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  7. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  8. Comparison between acetate and hydrogen as electron donors and implications for the reductive dehalogenation of PCE and TCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Bae, Jae-Ho; McCarty, Perry L.

    2007-10-01

    Bioremediation by reductive dehalogenation of groundwater contaminated with tetrachloroethene (PCE) or trichloroethene (TCE) is generally carried out through the addition of a fermentable electron donor such as lactate, benzoate, carbohydrates or vegetable oil. These fermentable donors are converted by fermenting organisms into acetate and hydrogen, either of which might be used by dehalogenating microorganisms. Comparisons were made between H 2 and acetate on the rate and extent of reductive dehalogenation of PCE. PCE dehalogenation with H 2 alone was complete to ethene, but with acetate alone it generally proceeded only about half as fast and only to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE). Additionally, acetate was not used as an electron donor in the presence of H 2. These findings suggest the fermentable electron donor requirement for PCE dehalogenation to ethene can be reduced up to 50% by separating PCE dehalogenation into two stages, the first of which uses acetate for the conversion of PCE to cDCE, and the second uses H 2 for the conversion of cDCE to ethene. This can be implemented with a recycle system in which the fermentable substrate is added down-gradient, where the hydrogen being produced by fermentation effects cDCE conversion into ethene. The acetate produced is recycled up-gradient to achieve PCE conversion into cDCE. With the lower electron donor usage required, potential problems of aquifer clogging, excess methane production, and high groundwater chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be greatly reduced.

  9. Lactate oxidation at the mitochondria: a lactate-malate-aspartate shuttle at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Kane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactate, the conjugate base of lactic acid occurring in aqueous biological fluids, has been derided as a dead-end waste product of anaerobic metabolism. Catalyzed by the near-equilibrium enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the reduction of pyruvate to lactate is thought to serve to regenerate the NAD+ necessary for continued glycolytic flux. Reaction kinetics for LDH imply that lactate oxidation is rarely favored in the tissues of its own production. However, a substantial body of research directly contradicts any notion that LDH invariably operates unidirectionally in vivo. In the current Perspective, a model is forwarded in which the continuous formation and oxidation of lactate serves as a mitochondrial electron shuttle, whereby lactate generated in the cytosol of the cell is oxidized at the mitochondria of the same cell. From this perspective, an intracellular lactate shuttle operates much like the malate-aspartate shuttle; it is also proposed that the two shuttles are necessarily interconnected. Among the requisite features of such a model, significant compartmentalization of LDH, much like the creatine kinase of the PCr shuttle, would facilitate net cellular lactate oxidation under a variety of conditions.

  10. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J;

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying the im...

  11. Design and characterization of a lactate biosensor based on immobilized lactate oxidase onto gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Casero, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, No 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: encarnacion.lorenzo@uam.es

    2006-01-12

    The design and characterization of a lactate biosensor and its application to the determination of this analyte in wine and beer are described. The biosensor is developed through the immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) using two different strategies including direct adsorption and covalent binding. The characterization of the resulting lactate oxidase monolayers was performed in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) techniques. In presence of lactate and using hydroxymethylferrocene as a redox mediator, biosensors obtained by either direct adsorption or by covalent binding exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity, and lactate could be determined amperometrically at 300 mV versus SSCE. Results obtained under these conditions give a linear current response versus lactate concentration up to 0.3 mM, with a detection limit of 10 {mu}M of lactate and a sensitivity of 0.77 {+-} 0.08 {mu}A mM{sup -1}. Finally, biosensors were applied to the determination of lactate in wine and beer. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained by a well-established enzymatic-spectrophotometric assay kit.

  12. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  13. Kinetics of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupo, M.A.; Cefalu, W.T.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1990-04-01

    Lactate clearance by liver plays an important role in lactate homeostasis and in the development of lactic acidosis. The role of lactate delivery to liver as a limiting factor in hepatic uptake of lactate is unclear. Lactate delivery of mechanisms could be important if rates of lactate transport approximate rates of lactate metabolism by liver. The rates of lactate transport into liver have been determined in vitro with isolated liver cells and the results have been conflicting. Therefore, the present studies measure the rate of transport of (14C)-L-lactate, and its poorly metabolizeable stereoisomer, (14C)-D-lactate, into rat liver in vivo using a portal vein injection technique. The transport of (3H)-water and of (14C)-sucrose, an extracellular reference compound, were also studied. Portal blood flow was determined from the kinetics of (3H)-water efflux in liver and was 1.93 +/- 0.22 mL/min/g. The volumes of distribution of (14C)-L-lactate, and (14C)-sucrose were 1.31 +/- 0.22, 0.71 +/- 0.07, and 0.22 +/- 0.07 mL/g, respectively. The extraction of unidirectional influx of (14C)-L-lactate and (14C)-D-lactate by rat liver was 93% +/- 10% and 91% +/- 9%, respectively. The rate of lactate transport into rat liver in vivo, 1.8 mumols.min-1.g-1, is approximately twofold greater than the rate of lactate metabolism by rat liver reported in the literature. Therefore, lactate uptake by liver may not be limited by transport under normal conditions. However, conditions such as decreased portal blood flow, which slow lactate delivery to liver by 50% or more, could cause lactate uptake by liver to be limited by transport of circulating lactate.

  14. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  15. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  16. Rumen fermentation and microbial population in lactating dairy cows receiving diets containing oilseeds rich in C-18 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M; Petit, H V; Chiquette, J; Wright, A-D G

    2013-04-14

    Sixteen Holstein rumen-cannulated primiparous milking dairy cows were fed a control diet (CN) based on maize silage and soyabean meal during a 4-week period before the start of a 21-d experiment with oilseeds containing high concentration of linoleic acid (Linola™) or linolenic acid (NuLin™). Thereafter, four cows received ad libitum one of each of four dietary treatments comprising of CN, Linola (LN), NuLin (NL) and LN/NL (50/50 % combination). Each LN, NL and LN/NL treatment contained 6 % oil of DM. Rumen digesta samples were collected on days 6, 11, 16 and 21 and milk samples on days 13, 15 and 17. There were no effects (P>0.05) of the oilseeds on pH and concentrations of NH3-N and total volatile fatty acids, while the acetate:propionate ratio was decreased (Pdigestion of dietary fibre and increased quality of milk.

  17. Lactation in insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, S H

    1990-01-01

    The ability of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) women to breast-feed has been documented, however, there is little information concerning milk composition or factors that influence successful breastfeeding. Placental lactogen and prolactin levels can be normalized during pregnancy with good metabolic control. These hormones affect the readiness of the mammary gland for lactation. Prolactin maintains mammary gland insulin receptors to ensure anabolism. Lactation in IDDM women may be influenced by hyper- or hypoglycemia as women balance their insulin needs. Milk from diabetic animals has decreased lactose, fat, protein and volume and these effects can be reversed with insulin administration. Mature breast milk of IDDM women has increased glucose and sodium and mammary gland lipid metabolism may be impaired. Milk lactose and citrate, markers of lactogenesis II, suggest delayed lactation occurs in diabetic women. Many factors may influence lactation success and breast milk composition of IDDM women. Some of these include: method of delivery, feeding frequency, fetal condition, gestational age, mastitis incidence, metabolic control and maternal dietary intake. Lactation management of the IDDM woman must address these factors.

  18. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E

    2012-01-01

    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....... volunteers was studied. A lipid emulsion, Intralipid®, was used as the perfusate and linear microdialysis probes with a 2-kDa cutoff were inserted intradermally at the designated sites. The results indicated that Intralipid could be used as a suitable perfusate for in vivo microdialysis of this lipophilic...

  19. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05%: a new option to treat patients with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarratt, Michael; Breneman, Debra; Gottlieb, Alice B; Poulin, Yves; Liu, Yin; Foley, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, papulosquamous condition that affects up to 2% of the U.S. population. Approximately 50% of patients with psoriasis have involvement of the scalp. This was a multicentre, randomized, vehicle-controlled, double-masked and parallel-group study. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo, 0.05% versus its corresponding vehicle in subjects aged 12 years and older with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis over a treatment period of 4 weeks. Recurrence of scalp psoriasis was assessed during a two week follow-up period. A total of 142 subjects were treated. Results after 4 weeks demonstrated that clobetasol propionate shampoo, 0.05% was with a similar safety profile significantly more effective than its vehicle. The novel short contact shampoo formulation of clobetasol propionate is convenient and efficacious and minimizes systemic exposure while being efficient, safe and well-tolerated in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  20. Crystal structure of 3-(2,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugenhagen, Bernhard; Al Jasem, Yosef; AlAzani, Mariam; Thiemann, Thies

    2015-05-01

    In the crystal of the title compound, C11H14O4, the aromatic ring is almost coplanar with the 2-position meth-oxy group with which it subtends a dihedral of 0.54 (2)°, while the 5-position meth-oxy group makes a corresponding dihedral angle of just 5.30 (2)°. The angle between the mean planes of the aromatic ring and the propionic acid group is 78.56 (2)°. The fully extended propionic side chain is in a trans configuration with a C-C-C-C torsion angle of -172.25 (7)°. In the crystal, hydrogen bonding is limited to dimer formation via R 2 (2)(8) rings. The hydrogen-bonded dimers are stacked along the b axis. The average planes of the two benzene rings in a dimer are parallel to each other, but at an offset of 4.31 (2) Å. Within neighbouring dimers along the [101] direction, the average mol-ecular benzene planes are almost perpendicular to each other, with a dihedral angle of 85.33 (2)°.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND CALCIUM PROPIONATE IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GAVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.

  2. Concurrent non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia in an eight year old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kruszka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first reported case of a patient with both non-ketotic hyperglycinemia and propionic acidemia. At 2 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with non-ketotic hyperglycinemia by elevated glycine levels and mutations in the GLDC gene (paternal allele: c.1576_1577insC delT and c.1580delGinsCAA; p.S527Tfs*13, and maternal allele: c.1819G>A; p.G607S. At 8 years of age after having been placed on ketogenic diet, he became lethargic and had severe metabolic acidosis with ketonuria. Urine organic acid analysis and plasma acylcarnitine profile were consistent with propionic acidemia. He was found to have an apparently homozygous mutation in the PCCB gene: c.49C>A; p.Leu17Met. The patient was also treated with natural protein restriction, carnitine, biotin, and thiamine and had subjective and biochemical improvement.

  3. Co-cultivation of Lactobacillus zeae and Veillonella cricetifor the production of propionic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, David; Sabra, Wael; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-05-24

    : In this work a defined co-culture of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus zeae and the propionate producer Veillonella criceti has been studied in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in a dialysis membrane reactor. It is the first time that this reactor type is used for a defined co-culture fermentation. This reactor allows high mixing rates and working with high cell densities, making it ideal for co-culture investigations. In CSTR experiments the co-culture showed over a broad concentration range an almost linear correlation in consumption and production rates to the supply with complex nutrients. In CSTR and dialysis cultures a strong growth stimulation of L. zeae by V. criceti was shown. In dialysis cultures very high propionate production rates (0.61 g L-1h-1) with final titers up to 28 g L-1 have been realized. This reactor allows an individual, intracellular investigation of the co-culture partners by omic-technologies to provide a better understanding of microbial communities.

  4. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria using FTIR Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Nalepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria have been identified at the genus level with the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Bacterial strains of the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were analyzed since they deliver health benefits and are routinely used in the food processing industry. The correctness of bacterial identification by ANNs and FTIR was evaluated at two stages. At first stage, ANNs were tested based on the spectra of 66 reference bacterial strains. At second stage, the evaluation involved 286 spectra of bacterial strains isolated from food products, deposited in our laboratory collection, and identified by genus-specific PCR. ANNs were developed based on the spectra and their first derivatives. The most satisfactory results were reported for the probabilistic neural network, which was built using a combination of W5W4W3 spectral ranges. This network correctly identified the genus of 95 % of the lactic acid bacteria and propionic acid bacteria strains analyzed.

  5. Breath-synchronized plume-control inhaler for pulmonary delivery of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Stephen B; Armer, Thomas A; Newman, Stephen P; Pitcairn, Gary

    2008-05-22

    A novel breath-synchronized, plume-control inhaler (Tempo inhaler) was developed to overcome limitations of a pressurized metered-dose inhaler. This report compared the Tempo inhaler and a commercial inhaler for fine particle distribution and lung deposition of fluticasone propionate. In vitro fine particle distribution was determined using the Andersen Cascade Impactor at inspiration rates of 28.3 and 45L/min. In vivo lung deposition was assessed in a randomized, two-arm, crossover study of (99m)Tc-radiolabeled fluticasone propionate in 12 healthy adult subjects, analyzed by gamma scintigraphy. In vitro: fine particle fractions at 28.3 and 45L/min were 88.6+/-3.6% and 89.2+/-3.0% (Tempo inhaler) versus 40.4+/-4.7% and 43.1+/-4.4% (commercial inhaler). In vivo: lung deposition was 41.5+/-9.8% (Tempo inhaler) versus 13.8+/-7.4% (commercial inhaler) and oropharyngeal deposition was 18.3+/-7.7% (Tempo inhaler) versus 76.8+/-7.1% (commercial inhaler). Variability of lung deposition was reduced from 55% (commercial inhaler) to 24% (Tempo inhaler) of the delivered dose. The Tempo inhaler produced significantly higher fine particle fraction values, reduced oropharyngeal deposition by 75%, and increased whole, central, intermediate, and peripheral lung delivery by more than 200%. Thus, the Tempo inhaler enhances efficient drug delivery to the lungs.

  6. Enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system: proof of principle and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Carballa, Marta; Van De Caveye, Pieter; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-07-01

    Full-scale anaerobic single-phase digesters can be confronted with process instabilities, which often result in the accumulation of propionic acid (HPr). As a solution, an enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system has been conceptually designed and experimentally tested at lab-scale. The system consisted of two components: a liquid/solid separator containing a microfiltration membrane and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor specialized in HPr degradation. Two lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were used, i.e. the CSTR(control) and the CSTR(treatment). Firstly, the CSTRs were stressed by organic overloading to obtain high HPr levels. During the recovery period, besides stop feeding, no actions were taken to decrease the residual HPr concentration in the CSTR(control), while the CSTR(treatment) was connected to EPAD system in order to accelerate its recovery. By the end of the experiment, the CSTR(treatment) completely recovered from HPr accumulation, while no significant decrease of the HPr level in the CSTR(control) was observed. Based on the experimental results, the up-scaling of EPAD system was evaluated and it would only account for about 2% of the volume of the full-scale digester, thus suggesting that the implementation of a mobile EPAD system in full-scale practice should be feasible.

  7. Continuous propionic acid production with Propionibacterium acidipropionici immobilized in a novel xylan hydrogel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Janne; Pahimanolis, Nikolaos; Zoppe, Justin; Kilpeläinen, Petri; Master, Emma; Ilvesniemi, Hannu; Seppälä, Jukka; Eerikäinen, Tero; Ojamo, Heikki

    2015-12-01

    The cell immobilization potential of a novel xylan based disulfide-crosslinked hydrogel matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals was studied with continuous cultivation of Propionibacterium acidipropionici using various dilution rates. The cells were immobilized to hydrogel beads suspended freely in the fermentation broth or else packed into a column connected to a stirred tank reactor. The maximum propionic acid productivity for the combined stirred tank and column was 0.88gL(-1)h(-1) and the maximum productivity for the column was determined to be 1.39gL(-1)h(-1). The maximum propionic acid titer for the combined system was 13.9gL(-1) with a dilution rate of 0.06h(-1). Dry cell density of 99.7gL(-1) was obtained within the column packed with hydrogel beads and productivity of 1.02gL(-1)h(-1) was maintained in the column even with the high circulation rate of 3.37h(-1).

  8. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  9. Predominant contribution of syntrophic acetate oxidation to thermophilic methane formation at high acetate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Ping; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Lei; Shao, Li-Ming

    2011-01-15

    To quantify the contribution of syntrophic acetate oxidation to thermophilic anaerobic methanogenesis under the stressed condition induced by acidification, the methanogenic conversion process of 100 mmol/L acetate was monitored simultaneously by using isotopic tracing and selective inhibition techniques, supplemented with the analysis of unculturable microorganisms. Both quantitative methods demonstrated that, in the presence of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, a large percentage of methane (up to 89%) was initially derived from CO(2) reduction, indicating the predominant contribution of the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway to acetate degradation at high acid concentrations. A temporal decrease of the fraction of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from more than 60% to less than 40% reflected the gradual prevalence of the aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway along with the reduction of acetate. This apparent discrimination of acetate methanization pathways highlighted the importance of the syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria to initialize methanogenesis from high organic loadings.

  10. Dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Since wellbeing and health have become fashionable and widespread polypragmasia is popular, adverse drug reactions are a particularly important medical problem. Pregnant women as well as breast-feeding mothers need very particular care from the physician. Treatment during pregnancy or lactation is a more complicated issue not only because it concerns at least two persons, but also because of the many anatomical and functional differences between the adult and fetus or newborn organism. The safety aspects of dermatological treatment during pregnancy and lactation are presented. Both topical and systemic treatment, mainly for bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic dermatoses and acne, alopecia, psoriasis, and autoimmunological processes, are discussed. Moreover, the most recent methods of dermatological treatment are mentioned taking into consideration their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, the traditional drug classification made by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as the most modern division, which is under construction, are presented.

  11. Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2+·C6HCl2O4−·C4H8O2, the 1-hydroxy-cyclohexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hydroxycyclohexyl and 4-hydroxyphenyl rings is 84.0 (8°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of −171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583 (15: 0.417 (15. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H...(O,O cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H...O interactions occur.

  12. The stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate and other dissolved carbon species in deep subseafloor sediments at the northern Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, V.B.; Pohlman, J.W.; Torres, M.E.; Elvert, M.; Hinrichs, K.-U.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean drilling has revealed the existence of vast microbial populations in the deep subseafloor, but to date little is known about their metabolic activities. To better understand the biogeochemical processes in the deep biosphere, we investigate the stable carbon isotope chemistry of acetate and other carbon-bearing metabolites in sediment pore-waters. Acetate is a key metabolite in the cycling of carbon in anoxic sediments. Its stable carbon isotopic composition provides information on the metabolic processes dominating acetate turnover in situ. This study reports our findings for a methane-rich site at the northern Cascadia Margin (NE Pacific) where Expedition 311 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sampled the upper 190 m of sediment. At Site U1329, ??13C values of acetate span a wide range from -46.0??? to -11.0??? vs. VPDB and change systematically with sediment depth. In contrast, ??13C values of both the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (-21.6 ?? 1.3??? vs. VPDB) and the low-molecular-weight compound lactate (-20.9 ?? 1.8??? vs. VPDB) show little variability. These species are interpreted to represent the carbon isotopic composition of fermentation products. Relative to DOC, acetate is up to 23.1??? depleted and up to 9.1??? enriched in 13C. Broadly, 13C-depletions of acetate relative to DOC indicate flux of carbon from acetogenesis into the acetate pool while 13C-enrichments of pore-water acetate relative to DOC suggest consumption of acetate by acetoclastic methanogenesis. Isotopic relationships between acetate and lactate or DOC provide new information on the carbon flow and the presence and activity of specific functional microbial communities in distinct biogeochemical horizons of the sediment. In particular, they suggest that acetogenic CO2-reduction can coexist with methanogenic CO2-reduction, a notion contrary to the hypothesis that hydrogen levels are controlled by the thermodynamically most favorable electron-accepting process

  13. Breast infections in non-lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Maha S A; Bukharie, Huda A

    2005-09-01

    Breast infection in lactating mothers is a common entity which in the majority of cases can be explained by ascending infections. However, it has been noticed that the number of non lactating women presenting with breast abscesses is rising. This study attempts to explore the sensitivity pattern of organisms and underlying cause of breast infections in non-lactating women. This review was undertaken at King Fahd of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia between 1991-2003. All patients presenting with breast infections were included. Medical records, operative notes, cultures, histopathology reports and outcome were reviewed. The number of patients presenting with breast infections accounted for 179(3.5%) out of the total number of patients 6314 with variable breast complaints. Infection occurred in 136(76%) lactating women (Group I) ,while Non lactating (Group II) breast infections accounted for 43(24%). Age ranged from 24 years to 52 years. Underlying clinical conditions were found in 26 patients(60%) in Group II namely granulomatous mastitis13(50%), duct ectasia4 (15.3%), pregnancy3(11.5%), fat necrosis1(3.8%), diabetes3 (11.5%) and breast cancer 2(7.6%). The pattern of culture results was different in the two groups, from differing causative organisms namely staphylococcus aureus as the commonest organism in both groups, in comparison to such uncommon organisms as Klebsiella pneumonae, Peptococcus magnus, Streptococcus group B, Entro-bacter cloacae, Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurring in group II only. Fortunately, all organisms were sensitive to antimicrobial therapy. Breast infection in non-lactating women is an infrequent but recognized clinical entity that deserves special attention. An underlying clinical condition should always be sought and treated. Indeed, in addition to cultures, radiological modalities such as ultrasonographic imaging may provide specific diagnosis and aid the management.

  14. Salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate versus fluticasone propionate plus montelukast: a randomised controlled trial investigating the effects on airway inflammation in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock Ashley

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared treatment strategies in patients with asthma poorly controlled on low dose inhaled corticosteroids, and little is known about the effects of different treatments on airway inflammation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, we compared the effects of salmeterol plus fluticasone propionate (FP (Seretide™; SFC and FP plus montelukast (FP/M on sputum inflammatory markers, airway responsiveness, lung function, and symptoms in adult asthmatics. Methods Sixty-six subjects were randomised to SFC or FP/M for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was changes in neutrophil, eosinophil, macrophage, lymphocyte, and epithelial cell levels in induced sputum. Additional outcomes included the change in other sputum markers of airway inflammation, airway responsiveness, symptom control, and lung function. Results Both treatments had no significant effect on induced sputum inflammatory cells, although there was a trend for a reduction in sputum eosinophils. Both treatments significantly improved airway responsiveness, whereas SFC generally led to greater improvements in symptom control and lung function than FP/M. FP/M led to significantly greater reductions in sputum cysteinyl leukotrienes than SFC (treatment ratio 1.80; 95% CI 1.09, 2.94. Conclusion Both treatments led to similar control of eosinophilic airway inflammation, although PEF and symptom control were better with SFC. Study number SAM40030 (SOLTA

  15. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley

    2015-12-01

    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol.

  16. Intermittent suckling enables estrus and pregnancy during lactation in sows: Effects of stage of lactation and lactation during early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Hazeleger, W.; Langendijk, P.; Dieleman, S.J.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that pre-ovulatory LH and post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) concentrations in plasma were low and embryo development was retarded when sows were induced to ovulate during lactation by submitting them to intermittent suckling (IS). The present study investigated whether this

  17. Lactate study using umbilical cord blood: agreement between Lactate Pro hand-held devices with blood gas analyser and evaluation of lactate stability over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina Y; Reece, Mifanwy; Chua, Seng C

    2013-08-01

    Lactate measurements have become increasingly preferred over pH analysis in the evaluation of fetal acidaemia in labour. In a busy labour ward, often the umbilical cord may be sampled late and as a result yield unreliable lactate values. To investigate the agreement of hand-held device Lactate Pro with a reference method blood gas analyser and evaluate the stability of umbilical cord lactate values over time. Prospective study carried out at elective caesarean section. Sixteen umbilical cords were double clamped immediately after delivery with paired arterial and venous blood samples collected by an independent researcher, at varying time intervals, and processed by two Lactate Pro devices and a reference method blood gas analyser. A significant difference of -0.41 to 0.10 mmol/L was found when different groups of Lactate Pro devices were compared with blood gas analyser at lactate values up to 5.70 mmol/L, with average lactate value of 2.45 mmol/L. Over time, there is progressive rise in lactate samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Lactate Pro devices have a significant difference, but when used in clinical practice on cord blood after delivery, this is unlikely to be meaningful. In intrapartum fetal surveillance, a systematic overestimation might lead to unnecessary intervention. It is possible to retrospectively predict the likely level of lactate at birth in delayed cord samples. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Keywords: Acetic acid bacteria, acetic acid production, Cocoa fermentation, culture conditions. INTRODUCTION ... assessed by acid forming colony characterized by a ... production capacity to ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid.

  19. Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate cream at home is as effective as treating it with topical silver nitrate in the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Nielsen, Tove; Mølgaard, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: There is a lack of evidence on the best treatment option for umbilical granuloma. The primary aim of this study was to compare three treatments for umbilical granuloma: standard treatment with topical silver nitrate, clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) and ethanol wipes. The secondary aim......%) in the outpatient clinic, 30 infants had topical clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) applied at home, and 34 infants received cleansing with ethanol wipes (82%) at home. RESULTS: Silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%) were significantly superior to ethanol wipes, with shorter healing times...... and higher resolution rates (p = 0.0001). Healing time and resolution rates were identical for silver nitrate and clobetasol propionate cream (0.05%). Mild side effects were occasionally reported, all of which were self-limiting. CONCLUSION: Treating umbilical granuloma with topical clobetasol propionate...

  20. Limitations to ruminal absorption of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian

    gradient of propionate was 3:1 between ruminal fluid and epithelial blood and increased to 4:1 when blood flow increased. On the basis of the presented papers and a review of the existing published data, a revision of current mechanistic models of ruminal VFA production and absorption is suggested. A model...... of production in the medial mat to the site of absorption. b) VFA absorption can be limited by the permeability of the ruminal epithelium to VFA. c) VFA absorption can be limited by the rate of removal of the absorbed VFA from the serosal side of the epithelium with the blood. The Ph.D. thesis is based on two...... experiments with multicatheterized lactating dairy cows and one dynamic model of ruminal absorption of VFA described in three papers as follows. Paper 1 is entitled “Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty...

  1. Acetobacter pasteurianus metabolic change induced by initial acetic acid to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min

    2017-08-02

    Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.

  2. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased gly

  3. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one of the newest additions to the ...

  4. Effects of protocol design on lactate minimum power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M A; Sharpe, G R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to use a validated lactate minimum test protocol and evaluate whether blood lactate responses and the lactate minimum power are influenced by the starting power (study 1) and 1 min inter-stage rest intervals (study 2) during the incremental phase. Study 1: 8 subjects performed a lactate minimum test comprising a lactate elevation phase, recovery phase, and incremental phase comprising 5 continuous 4 min stages with starting power being 40% or 45% of the maximum power achieved during the lactate elevation phase, and with power increments of 5% maximum power. Study 2: 8 subjects performed 2 identical lactate minimum tests except that during one of the tests the incremental phase included 1 min inter-stage rest intervals. The lactate minimum power was lower when the incremental phase commenced at 40% (175±29 W) compared to 45% (184±30 W) maximum power (pvalidity and therefore training status evaluation and exercise prescription.

  5. BREAST CONDITIONS DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day with either an elevated temperature or constitutional symptoms of fever. ... Blood-stained nipple discharge during pregnancy and or lactation is fairly common. .... malignancy during gestation, after cervical cancer.16 ... (after surgery) or neo-adjuvant (prior to surgery). It is best avoided during the first trimester of ...

  6. Cadmium and zinc in pregnancy and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucis, O.J.; Lucis, R.; Shaikh, Z.A.

    1972-07-01

    Radioactive cadmium (/sup 109/Cd) and zinc (/sup 65/Zn) were injected subcutaneously into pregnant rats. More cadmium than zinc was found in the placentae. After birth, newborns showed detectable /sup 109/Cd only in liver, gastrointestinal tract, and in the brain tissue. Zinc 65 was present in all newborns' tissues. During lactation, highest output of /sup 65/Zn was in colostrum and, on subsequent days, /sup 65/Zn in milk declined rapidly. Cadmium 109 in milk was present in low concentration throughout the lactation period. Rats injected with /sup 109/Cd and /sup 65/Zn after parturition excreted these isotopes in milk in a similiar pattern. Newborns nursed on radioactive milk showed rapid absorption of /sup 65/Zn, whereas /sup 109/Cd accumulated primarily in the intestinal tract; a lesser quantity of /sup 109/Cd was deposited in the liver. In other organs, only /sup 65/Zn was found. The lactating mammary gland contained more /sup 109/Cd than /sup 65/Zn; after lactation, /sup 65/Zn was depleted, whereas /sup 109/Cd remained in mammary tissue.

  7. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  8. [Non-lactational mastitis: our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioffrè Florio, Maria Antonietta; Famà, Fausto; Buccheri, Giancarlo; Di Cara, Giovanni; Pollicino, Andrea; Scarfò, Paola; Gullo, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The most frequent breast inflammatory diseases are lactational and non-lactational mastitis. The diagnosis of these lesions is always difficult, as they often mimic breast cancer. The Authors report on their experience about 830 clinical cases of non-lactational mastitis, 804 were superficial abscesses and 24 were phlegmons. In 379 cases an infectious cause was found: in 249 by Streptococcus/Pseudomonas and in 30 by Staphylococcus Aureus. All patients underwent surgical treatment. Diagnosis was obtained by clinical examination, routine investigations (ultrasound, mammography and cytology) and post-operatively by histological evaluation. The non-lactational mastitis are more frequent in the postmenopausal and the menopausal period, but MDAIDS (Mammary Ducts Associated Inflammatory Diseases Sequence) are particularly interesting. MDAIDS was observed in 178 cases, these are very peculiar lesions characterized by ducts ectasia, squamous metaplasia, lymphoid infiltration and strictly correlated with heavy smoking. Sometimes, only surgical treatment clarifies the nature of these lesions. Patients with inflammatory diseases of the breast present with mastalgia and secretions, symptoms which alert patients to consult quickly a specialist. Instrumental investigations often don't clarify the diagnosis and surgical treatment by incision and drainage or excision is definitive.

  9. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  10. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvu

  11. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants : A quality review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Douwe H.; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. METHODS: We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19

  12. Effects of carbon dioxide on cell growth and propionic acid production from glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An; Sun, Jianxin; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian; Zhou, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    The effects of CO2 on propionic acid production and cell growth in glycerol or glucose fermentation were investigated in this study. In glycerol fermentation, the volumetric productivity of propionic acid with CO2 supplementation reached 2.94g/L/day, compared to 1.56g/L/day without CO2. The cell growth using glycerol was also significantly enhanced with CO2. In addition, the yield and productivity of succinate, the main intermediate in Wood-Werkman cycle, increased 81% and 280%, respectively; consistent with the increased activities of pyruvate carboxylase and propionyl CoA transferase, two key enzymes in the Wood-Werkman cycle. However, in glucose fermentation CO2 had minimal effect on propionic acid production and cell growth. The carbon flux distributions using glycerol or glucose were also analyzed using a stoichiometric metabolic model. The calculated maintenance coefficient (mATP) increased 100%, which may explain the increase in the productivity of propionic acid in glycerol fermentation with CO2 supplement.

  13. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygagne, Pascal; Poncet, Michel; Sidou, Farzaneh; Soto, Pascale

    2007-05-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a common dermatosis associating hyperseborrhea, erythema, itching, and dandruff, has frequent scalp involvement. Malassezia furfur infection seems to play an important role in the condition's etiopathology. Treatment of SD usually consists of corticosteroids or antifungals, such as ketoconazole. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% after different short-contact application times compared with its vehicle and ketoconazole foaming gel 2% in the treatment of SD of the scalp. For 4 weeks, 55 subjects received one of the following treatments twice weekly: clobetasol propionate shampoo for 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes; clobetasol propionate vehicle for 10 minutes; or ketoconazole foaming gel for 5 minutes before rinsing off. Efficacy criteria included total severity score (TSS) and individual scores of signs such as itching and global improvement. Safety included reporting of burning, overall tolerance, and adverse events. Results showed that an application of clobetasol propionate for 5 and 10 minutes provided a similar mean percentage decrease of TSS, and the mean percentage decrease of TSS for all active groups was significantly superior to that of the vehicle (P shampoo is effective and safe in the treatment of SD of the scalp.

  14. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  15. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  16. Effect of fluorogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fluorogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges 1 on vaginal bacterial flora of ewes. ... The bacterial flora of the vagina of ten ewes was determined at sponge removal and two days later before insertion of ... Article Metrics.

  17. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens. PMID:28194286

  18. Safety of adding salmeterol to fluticasone propionate in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stempel, D.A.; Szefler, S. J.; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) have been shown to increase the risk of asthmarelated death among adults and the risk of asthma-related hospitalization among children. It is unknown whether the concomitant use of inhaled glucocorticoids with LABAs mitigates those risks. This trial...... prospectively evaluated the safety of the LABA salmeterol, added to fluticasone propionate, in a fixed-dose combination in children. METHODS We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, children 4 to 11 years of age who required daily asthma medications and had a history of asthma exacerbations in the previous year...... children with asthma, salmeterol in a fixed-dose combination with fluticasone was associated with the risk of a serious asthma-related event that was similar to the risk with fluticasone alone. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; VESTRI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01462344.) © 2016 Massachusetts Medical Society....

  19. Lower-leg growth rates in children with asthma during treatment with ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lone, Agertoft; Søren, Pedersen

    2009-01-01

    ) and the ICS fluticasone propionate (FP) on lower-leg growth rate and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis function in children with mild asthma. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-period crossover study, 28 children, aged 6-12 yr, sequentially received daily doses of CIC 320 mug, FP 375 mug (330 mug....... No statistically significant differences were seen in lower-leg growth rates between CIC (0.30 mm/wk) and placebo (0.43 mm/wk) treatments. Lower-leg growth rate during FP treatment (0.08 mm/wk) was significantly reduced compared with both placebo [least squares (LS) mean: -0.35 (95% CI: -0.53, -0.18; p = 0...... no significant effect on lower-leg growth rate in children aged 6-12 yr with mild asthma. In contrast, a similar dose of FP significantly reduced lower-leg growth rate compared with placebo and CIC....

  20. Effects of fluticasone propionate dosage in an experimental model of feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Leah A; DeClue, Amy E; Cohen, Rachael L; Reinero, Carol R

    2010-02-01

    Cats with inflammatory bronchial disease are usually treated with glucocorticoid (GC) drugs to reduce airway inflammation. Inhalant GC delivery can preserve airway effects while systemic effects are minimized. An appropriate dosage regimen for inhaled GC in cats has not been investigated. A blinded, randomized, cross-over study design was used to investigate the ability of three different dosages of the inhalant GC fluticasone propionate delivered by metered dose inhaler to ameliorate eosinophilic airway inflammation in cats with experimentally induced allergic airway inflammation. Further, suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) at each dose was assessed. Fluticasone administered at dosages of 44, 110, or 220 microg q 12h reduced airway eosinophilia by 74%, 82%, or 81%, respectively (no difference). None of the dose regimens tested caused HPAA suppression. We conclude that a twice daily dosage of 44 microg fluticasone should be evaluated for the management of cats with naturally occurring inflammatory bronchial disease.

  1. Fourier transformed infrared spectral investigations of molecular interactions in propionic acid-2-propanol binary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, M; Thomas, Ammu Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    FTIR spectra of propionic acid (PA), 2-propanol (PROH) and its binary mixtures with varying molefraction of the PA were recorded in the region 500-3500 cm(-1), to investigate the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes in a mixed system. The observed features in nu(CO), nu(CO) and delta(COH) of PA, nu(CO) of PROH and delta(COH) of PA+PROH have been explained in terms of the hydrogen bonding interactions between PROH and PA and dipole-dipole interaction. The dipole moment derivative for the above mentioned vibrational modes have also been predicted from the integrated absorbance. The intrinsic linewidth for the vibrational modes nu(CO) and delta(COH) of PA has been elucidated using Bondarev and Mardaeva model.

  2. Acetic acid fermentation of acetobacter pasteurianus: relationship between acetic acid resistance and pellicle polysaccharide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanarach, Watchara; Theeragool, Gunjana; Inoue, Taketo; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Adachi, Osao; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2010-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus strains IFO3283, SKU1108, and MSU10 were grown under acetic acid fermentation conditions, and their growth behavior was examined together with their capacity for acetic acid resistance and pellicle formation. In the fermentation process, the cells became aggregated and covered by amorphous materials in the late-log and stationary phases, but dispersed again in the second growth phase (due to overoxidation). The morphological change in the cells was accompanied by changes in sugar contents, which might be related to pellicle polysaccharide formation. To determine the relationship between pellicle formation and acetic acid resistance, a pellicle-forming R strain and a non-forming S strain were isolated, and their fermentation ability and acetic acid diffusion activity were compared. The results suggest that pellicle formation is directly related to acetic acid resistance ability, and thus is important to acetic acid fermentation in these A. pasteurianus strains.

  3. Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koiter, TR; Moes, H; Valkhof, N; Wijkstra, S

    1999-01-01

    The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance

  4. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: Maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazer, C.D.; Stanley, W.C.; Hickey, R.F.; Neese, R.A.; Cason, B.A.; Demas, K.A.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-09-01

    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. ({sup 14}C)lactate and ({sup 13}C)glucose tracers, or ({sup 13}C)lactate and ({sup 14}C)glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted {sup 14}C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  5. Interaction of late pregnancy and lactation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koiter, TR; Moes, H; Valkhof, N; Wijkstra, S

    The effect of pregnancy on lactation was studied during the third week of lactational pregnancy in postpartum pregnant rats with a delay in implantation of only 1 day (1d-LP rats). In an experimental design in which the suckling litter was prevented from consuming solid food, lactational performance

  6. Lactate dehydrogenase in the cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moezelaar, R.; Teixeira, de M.J.; Stal, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis PCC7806 was found to possess an NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) which catalyzes the reduction of pyruvate to l-lactate. The enzyme required fructose 1,6-bisphosphate for activity and displayed positive cooperativity towards pyruvate. Lactate was not

  7. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for propionic and methylmalonic acidemias during expanded newborn screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A.; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen; Buggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    Background 3-hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) was recently reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profile of propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) patients during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD). Methods The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was reported for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBS) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. Results The final retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program had significantly higher levels of C17 compared to levels detected in controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiencies (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) and 82 false positive for propionylcarnitine (C3) results were also analyzed. Conclusions This paper reports on the characterization of a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. PMID:26368264

  8. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for newborn screening of propionic and methylmalonic acidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen S; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor R; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2015-10-23

    3-Hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) has recently been reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profiles of patients with propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency. The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was determined for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBSs) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. The retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program exhibited significantly higher levels of C17 compared to controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiency (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) samples and 82 false positive for elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) were also analyzed. We have characterized a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced transdermal bioavailability of testosterone propionate via surfactant-modified ethosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shu Meng,1 Zaixing Chen,2 Liqun Yang,1 Wei Zhang,1 Danhua Liu,1 Jing Guo,1 Yanmin Guan,1 Jianxin Li11Liaoning Research Institute of Family Planning, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The current investigation aimed to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel testosterone propionate (TP ethosomes and liposomes prepared by surfactant modification. The effect of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and cremophor EL-35 on the particle size and zeta potential of the prepared vesicles was investigated. The entrapment efficiency and stability, as well as in vitro and in vivo skin permeation, were studied with the various techniques, such as differential scanning calorimetry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and so on. The results indicated that the ethosomes were defined as spherical, unilamellar structures with low polydispersity (0.100 ± 0.015 and nanometric size (156.5 ± 3.5 nm. The entrapment efficiency of TP in ethosomal and liposomal carriers was 92.7% ± 3.7% and 64.7% ± 2.1%, respectively. The stability profile of the prepared TP ethosomal system assessed for 120 days revealed very low aggregation and very low growth in vesicular size. TP ethosomes also provided an enhanced transdermal flux of 37.85 ± 2.8 µg/cm2/hour and a decreased lag time of 0.18 hours across mouse skin. The skin permeation efficiency of the TP ethosomes as further assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed enhanced permeation of rhodamine red-loaded formulations to the deeper layers of the skin (260 µm than that of the liposomal formation (120 µm.Keywords: testosterone propionate, surfactant-modified ethosomes, liposomes, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  10. Comparative cytoprotective effects of carbocysteine and fluticasone propionate in cigarette smoke extract-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Cipollina, Chiara; Gerbino, Stefania; Cigna, Diego; Caputo, Valentina; Balsamo, Rossella; Lanata, Luigi; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) induce oxidative stress, an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and oxidative stress contributes to the poor clinical efficacy of corticosteroids in COPD patients. Carbocysteine, an antioxidant and mucolytic agent, is effective in reducing the severity and the rate of exacerbations in COPD patients. The effects of carbocysteine on CSE-induced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells as well as the comparison of these antioxidant effects of carbocysteine with those of fluticasone propionate are unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of carbocysteine (10(-4) M) in cell survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by flow cytometry) as well as total glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2) expression/activation in CSE-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) and to compare these effects with those of fluticasone propionate (10(-8) M). CSE, carbocysteine or fluticasone propionate did not induce cell necrosis (propidium positive cells) or cell apoptosis (annexin V-positive/propidium-negative cells) in 16-HBE. CSE increased ROS production, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 in 16-HBE. Fluticasone propionate did not modify intracellular ROS production, GSH and HDCA-2 but reduced Nrf2 and HO-1 in CSE-stimulated 16-HBE. Carbocysteine reduced ROS production and increased GSH, HO-1, Nrf2 and HDAC-2 nuclear expression/activity in CSE-stimulated cells and was more effective than fluticasone propionate in modulating the CSE-mediated effects. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the use of carbocysteine may be considered a promising strategy in diseases associated with corticosteroid resistance.

  11. Sensitive simultaneous determination of ciclesonide, ciclesonide-M1-metabolite and fluticasone propionate in human serum by HPLC-MS/MS with APPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Hermann J; Zech, Karl; Mascher, Daniel G

    2008-06-15

    A new and very sensitive analytical method has been developed and validated to jointly determine the anti-inflammatory drug ciclesonide (CIC), its active principle metabolite M1 (CIC-M1) and fluticasone propionate (FP) in human serum, in the low concentration range from 10 to 1000 pg/mL. This was accomplished by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure photo ionisation (HPLC-MS/MS with APPI) using 0.5 mL of serum. Serum was mixed with the internal standards (IS) D11-CIC and D11-CIC-M1 and extracted with diisopropylether. A gradient with acetonitrile (containing 10 mM of acetic acid and 10% of acetone) was used. HPLC-MS/MS of the acetic acid adducts of the analytes was performed in negative mode. The novel aspect of this method is that instead of the dopant being introduced directly into the source by means of an external HPLC pump, it was added to the mobile phase. This provided significantly better sensitivity than the usual method of in-source addition of the dopant, and with no loss in HPLC performance. Sensitivity for the analytes was about four times greater than with either APCI or ESI. Validation was performed in three batches. The inter-batch precision (CV) of the quality control samples in human serum ranged from 4.08% to 6.78% for CIC, from 2.57% to 7.74% for CIC-M1, and from 2.38% to 9.61% for FP. The inter-batch accuracy (with reference to the mean value) of the quality control samples in human serum ranged from 99.3% to 110.0% for CIC, from 101.8% to 104.7% for CIC-M1, and from 100.4% to 101.8% for FP. Calibration data and LLOQ data are also presented in this paper. The analytes were stable in human serum over three freeze/thaw cycles, or for 4h at room temperature, or for at least 18 months when stored at below -20 degrees C. This method was used for quantifying the analytes after inhalation of low-mug amounts of the drugs by patients.

  12. Brain pyruvate recycling and peripheral metabolism: an NMR analysis ex vivo of acetate and glucose metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Sébastien; Bezancon, Eric; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Merle, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The occurrence of pyruvate recycling in the rat brain was studied in either pentobarbital anesthetized animals or awake animals receiving a light analgesic dose of morphine, which were infused with either [1-13C]glucose + acetate or glucose + [2-13C]acetate for various periods of time. Metabolite enrichments in the brain, blood and the liver were determined from NMR analyses of tissue extracts. They indicated that: (i) Pyruvate recycling was revealed in the brain of both the anesthetized and awake animals, as well as from lactate and alanine enrichments as from glutamate isotopomer composition, but only after infusion of glucose + [2-13C]acetate. (ii) Brain glucose was labelled from [2-13C]acetate at the same level in anaesthetized and awake rats (approximately 4%). Comparing its enrichment with that of blood and liver glucose indicated that brain glucose labelling resulted from hepatic gluconeogenesis. (iii) Analysing glucose 13C-13C coupling in the brain, blood and the liver confirmed that brain glucose could be labelled in the liver through the activities of both pyruvate recycling and gluconeogenesis. (iv) The rate of appearance and the amount of brain glutamate C4-C5 coupling, a marker of pyruvate recycling when starting from [2-13C]acetate, were lower than those of brain glucose labelling from hepatic metabolism. (v) The evaluation of the contributions of glucose and acetate to glutamate metabolism revealed that more than 60% of brain glutamate was synthesized from glucose whereas only 7% was from acetate and that glutamate C4-C5 coupling was mainly due to the metabolism of glucose labelled through hepatic gluconeogenesis. All these results indicate that, under the present conditions, the pyruvate recycling observed through the labelling of brain metabolites mainly originates from peripheral metabolism.

  13. Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation performance within the same lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, A C; Østerås, O; Sølverød, L

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between early lactation Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates and milk yield, somatic cell count (SCC), clinical mastitis, and culling in the same lactation. The 178 commercial dairy herds were randomly placed into 3 penicillin- or penicillin-dihydrostreptomycin-based dry-cow treatments and 3 different postmilking teat disinfection groups-negative control, iodine, or external teat sealant. All cows were sampled in early lactation, and Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows were followed throughout the remainder of the lactation. Mixed models, including repeated measurements, with test-day observation as dependent variable, were used to compare milk yield, SCC, and available milk quality variables throughout the remaining lactation. Survival analyses, using a positive frailty model to account for any herd random effects, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for clinical mastitis and culling. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive cows had a significantly higher SCC throughout the lactation compared to culture-negative cows. For primiparous or multiparous cows, respectively, the differences in the geometric mean SCC between Strep. dysgalactiae-positive and culture-negative cows was 197,000 or 280,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the lactation, 24,000 or 46,000 cells/mL in mid lactation, and 39,000 or 111,000 cells/mL at the end of the lactation. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-positive primiparous or multiparous cows produced 334 or 246 kg less milk, respectively, during a 305-d lactation compared with culture-negative cows. Compared with culture-negative cows, the hazard ratios for clinical mastitis in Strep. dysgalactiae-positive cows were 2.3 (1.9 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) for culling. For cows with both Strep. dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates, the hazard ratio for culling significantly increased to 2.5 (1.9 to 3.2).

  14. Redox induced protonation of heme propionates in cytochrome c oxidase: Insights from surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy and QM/MM calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Murat; Woelke, Anna-Lena; Knapp, Ernst Walter; Schlesinger, Ramona; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Weidinger, Inez M

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the coupling between heme reduction and proton translocation in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is still an open problem. The propionic acids of heme a3 have been proposed to act as a proton loading site (PLS) in the proton pumping pathway, yet this proposal could not be verified by experimental data so far. We have set up an experiment where the redox states of the two hemes in CcO can be controlled via external electrical potential. Surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy was applied to simultaneously monitor the redox state of the hemes and the protonation state of the heme propionates. Simulated spectra based on QM/MM calculations were used to assign the resonant enhanced CH2 twisting modes of the propionates to the protonation state of the individual heme a and heme a3 propionates respectively. The comparison between calculated and measured H2OD2O difference spectra allowed a sound band assignment. In the fully reduced enzyme at least three of the four heme propionates were found to be protonated whereas in the presence of a reduced heme a and an oxidized heme a3 only protonation of one heme a3 propionates was observed. Our data supports the postulated scenario where the heme a3 propionates are involved in the proton pathway.

  15. Microbial production of propionic acid with Propionibacterium freudenreichii using an anion exchanger-based in situ product recovery (ISPR) process with direct and indirect contact of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yunshan; Su, Zhiguo

    2012-02-01

    The recovery of an inhibiting product from a bioreactor soon after its formation is an important issue in industrial bioprocess development. In the present study, the potential of the anion exchanger-based in situ product recovery (ISPR) technique for the biocatalytic production of propionic acid was discussed. The focus of the current work was the selection of a suitable configuration of metabolically active cells for application in propionic acid production. Accumulation of propionic acid in fermentation broth caused feedback inhibition of the growth and biotransformation activity of Propionibacterium freudenreichii CICC 10019. Relevant product inhibition kinetics was discussed, and the results showed that keeping the aqueous propionic acid concentration below 10.02 g L⁻¹ was an essential prerequisite for ISPR process. A batch study, in which three ISPR configuration mode designs were compared, was conducted. The comparison indicated that employing an external direct mode had significant advantages over other modes in terms of increased productivity and product yield, with a corresponding decrease in the number of downstream processing steps, as well as in substrate consumption. The fed-batch culture using an external direct mode for the continuous accumulation of propionic acid resulted in a cumulative propionic acid concentration of 62.5 g L⁻¹, with a corresponding product yield of 0.78 g propionic acid/g glucose.

  16. Elevated cerebral lactate: Implications in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosoi, Cristina R; Rose, Christopher F

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, is a frequent complication of liver failure/disease. Increased concentrations of lactate are commonly observed in HE patients, in the systemic circulation, but also in the brain. Traditionally, increased cerebral lactate is considered a marker of energy failure/impairment however alterations in lactate homeostasis may also lead to a rise in brain lactate and result in neuronal dysfunction. The latter may involve the development of brain edema. This review will target the significance of increased cerebral lactate in the pathogenesis of HE.

  17. Monocarboxylate Transporters and Lactate Metabolism in Equine Athletes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pösö AR

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactate is known as the end product of anaerobic glycolysis, a pathway that is of key importance during high intensity exercise. Instead of being a waste product lactate is now regarded as a valuable substrate that significantly contributes to the energy production of heart, noncontracting muscles and even brain. The recent cloning of monocarboxylate transporters, a conserved protein family that transports lactate through biological membranes, has given a new insight into the role of lactate in whole body metabolism. This paper reviews current literature on lactate and monocarboxylate transporters with special reference to horses.

  18. Leg and arm lactate and substrate kinetics during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Jensen-Urstad, M; Rosdahl, H;

    2002-01-01

    To study the role of muscle mass and muscle activity on lactate and energy kinetics during exercise, whole body and limb lactate, glucose, and fatty acid fluxes were determined in six elite cross-country skiers during roller-skiing for 40 min with the diagonal stride (Continuous Arm + Leg) followed...... by 10 min of double poling and diagonal stride at 72-76% maximal O(2) uptake. A high lactate appearance rate (R(a), 184 +/- 17 micromol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) but a low arterial lactate concentration ( approximately 2.5 mmol/l) were observed during Continuous Arm + Leg despite a substantial net lactate...

  19. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  20. Linking supply to demand: the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor GluR2/3 subunit are associated in a common trafficking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Karin; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Parent, Annabelle; Repond, Cendrine; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Di Luca, Monica; Pellerin, Luc

    2009-05-01

    MCT2 is the major neuronal monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) that allows the supply of alternative energy substrates such as lactate to neurons. Recent evidence obtained by electron microscopy has demonstrated that MCT2, like alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors, is localized in dendritic spines of glutamatergic synapses. Using immunofluorescence, we show in this study that MCT2 colocalizes extensively with GluR2/3 subunits of AMPA receptors in neurons from various mouse brain regions as well as in cultured neurons. It also colocalizes with GluR2/3-interacting proteins, such as C-kinase-interacting protein 1, glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 and clathrin adaptor protein. Coimmunoprecipitation of MCT2 with GluR2/3 and C-kinase-interacting protein 1 suggests their close interaction within spines. Parallel changes in the localization of both MCT2 and GluR2/3 subunits at and beneath the plasma membrane upon various stimulation paradigms were unraveled using an original immunocytochemical and transfection approach combined with three-dimensional image reconstruction. Cell culture incubation with AMPA or insulin triggered a marked intracellular accumulation of both MCT2 and GluR2/3, whereas both tumor necrosis factor alpha and glycine (with glutamate) increased their cell surface immunolabeling. Similar results were obtained using Western blots performed on membrane or cytoplasm-enriched cell fractions. Finally, an enhanced lactate flux into neurons was demonstrated after MCT2 translocation on the cell surface. These observations provide unequivocal evidence that MCT2 is linked to AMPA receptor GluR2/3 subunits and undergoes a similar translocation process in neurons upon activation. MCT2 emerges as a novel component of the synaptic machinery putatively linking neuroenergetics to synaptic transmission.

  1. Clinical characteristics of roxatidine acetate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, H G; de Looze, S M; Bender, W; Labs, R

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic studies revealed that 150 mg of roxatidine acetate were optimal in suppressing gastric acid secretion, and that a single bedtime dose of 150 mg was more effective than a dose of 75 mg twice daily in terms of inhibiting nocturnal acid secretion. When administered orally as a capsule containing a granule formulation, the drug displayed modified-release properties, which led to a sustained suppression of gastric acid secretion. Clinical trials revealed that roxatidine acetate, 75 mg twice daily and 150 mg at night, was highly effective in healing duodenal and gastric ulcers and in reducing ulcer pain, over 4, 6, and 8 weeks of therapy. A steady reduction in diameter was observed in those ulcers not completely healed during therapy. The single bedtime dose regimen, while producing the same degree of healing as the divided daily dose during controlled clinical trials, may be of greater value in therapeutic use owing to improved patient compliance. In all efficacy criteria (cure, reduction in ulcer size, and pain relief) there was no significant difference between roxatidine acetate in a total daily dose of 150 mg, ranitidine in a total daily dose of 300 mg, and cimetidine in a total daily dose of 800 mg. Prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcer relapse was achieved by roxatidine acetate, 75 mg at night for 6 months, in about 70% of patients, as determined in open, pilot studies--a rate comparable to those reported for cimetidine and ranitidine. Roxatidine acetate shares with ranitidine an improved safety profile when compared with cimetidine. Human pharmacology studies and short-term and long-term clinical trials have all shown that roxatidine acetate is an exceptionally well tolerated compound, without the antiandrogenic activity and interference with hepatic drug metabolism which have characterized cimetidine treatment. A reason for the improved safety profile of roxatidine acetate may be its greater potency than cimetidine (six times less potent) and

  2. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  3. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  4. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    of different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated...

  5. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  6. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia ePieulle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation though the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant 26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant 32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species.

  7. Initiating or changing to a fixed-dose combination of Fluticasone propionate/Formoterol over Fluticasone propionate/Salmeterol: A real-life effectiveness and cost impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Yau Ming, Simon; Haughney, John; Small, Iain; Wolfe, Stephanie; Hamill, John; Gruffydd-Jones, Kevin; Daly, Cathal; Soriano, Joan B; Gardener, Elizabeth; Skinner, Derek; Stagno d'Alcontres, Martina; Price, David B

    2017-08-01

    Asthma has a substantial impact on quality of life and health care resources. The identification of a more cost-effective, yet equally efficacious, treatment could positively influence the economic burden of this disease. Fluticasone propionate/Formoterol (FP/FOR) may be as effective as Fluticasone Salmeterol (FP/SAL). We evaluated non-inferiority of asthma control in terms of the proportion of patients free from exacerbations, and conducted a cost impact analysis. This historical, matched cohort database study evaluated two treatment groups in the Optimum Patient Care Research Database in the UK: 1) an FP/FOR cohort of patients initiating treatment with FP/FOR or changing from FP/SAL to FP/FOR and; 2) an FP/SAL cohort comprising patients initiating, or remaining on FP/SAL pMDI combination therapy. The main outcome evaluated non-inferiority of effectiveness (defined as prevention of severe exacerbations, lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean difference between groups in patient proportions with no exacerbations is -3.5% or higher) in patients treated with FP/FOR versus FP/SAL. After matching 1:3, we studied a total of 2472 patients: 618 in the FP/FOR cohort (174 patients initiated on FP/FOR and 444 patients changed to FP/FOR) and 1854 in the FP/SAL cohort (522 patients initiated FP/SAL and 1332 continued FP/SAL). The percentage of patients prescribed FP/FOR met non-inferiority as the adjusted mean difference in proportion of no severe exacerbations (95%CI) was 0.008 (-0.032, 0.047) between the two cohorts. No other significant differences were observed except acute respiratory event rates, which were lower for patients prescribed FP/FOR (rate ratio [RR] 0.82, 95% CI 0.71, 0.94). Changing to, or initiating FP/FOR combination therapy, is associated with a non-inferior proportion of patients who are severe exacerbation-free at a lower average annual cost compared with continuing or initiating treatment with FP/SAL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Weter consumption during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa Damián Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, water is retained partially owing to an increase in vasopressin production. Ingested water is used to produce amniotic fluid. Climate conditions and physical activity, gestational nausea and vomit, and a higher caloric intake, increases water needs; during lactation, more water is needed to produce milk. Dehydration during pregnancy is especially dangerous; it must be avoided. Physiological changes during pregnancy modify water metabolism: blood volume and glomerular filtration rate increase; more water is lost trhough sweating and respiration. Placenta con- tains up to 500 mL of water, and there are between 500-1,200 mL of amniotic fluid. Different studies recommend a total water intake of 2,700-4,800 mL/day during pregnancy, of which 1,470-2,370 should be beverages and water. For the Mexican population, the recommendation is 3,000 mL/day. Based on energy intake and the rule of 1-1.5 mL of water per kcal, water intake must increase in at least 300 mL/day at the beginning of the third pregnancy trimester. During lactation the recommended intake is of 3-3.6 L/ day, depending on age. Obesity and overweight during pregnancy are a major health problem, to which sugary beverages contribute. Water must be considered the best choice for hydration during pregnancy and lactation.

  9. Lactation studies of anticonvulsants: a quality review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Douwe H; Wieringa, Andre; Wegner, Ilse; Wilffert, Bob; Ter Horst, Peter G J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk to provide an overview of which anticonvulsants are in need of further research. We reviewed the quality of the available lactation studies for 19 anticonvulsants against the guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA). Except for one study on lamotrigine and one case report on gabapentin, no study on anticonvulsants had both the absolute infant dose (AID) and milk to plasma ratio (M : P) correctly assessed. Only one study on carbamazepine, phenytoin and vigabatrin was found that correctly assessed the AID. The main cause for this low number is the lack of essential details in published studies, since 25 of 62 studies were case reports, letters or abstracts. Other major shortcomings were the lack of information on sampling methods, the number of samples in a particular dose interval as well as the low number of study participants. The quality of the current literature on the transfer of anticonvulsants to breast milk is low, except for lamotrigine, which makes it hard to draw conclusions about the safety of the use of anticonvulsants during the lactation period. Therefore, further research is needed. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Correlation between Arterial Lactate and Central Venous Lactate in Children with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernández Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lactate is an important indicator of tissue perfusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences between the arterial and central venous measurement of lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Methods. Longitudinal retrospective observational study. Forty-two patients were included between the age of 1 month and 17 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of a university referral hospital. The lactate value obtained from an arterial blood sample and a central venous blood sample drawn simultaneously, and within 24 hours of admission to the unit, was recorded. Results. The median age was 2.3 years (RIC 0,3–15, with a predominance of males (71.4%, having a 2.5 : 1 ratio to females. Most of the patients had septic shock (78.5% of pulmonary origin (50.0%, followed by those of gastrointestinal origin (26.1%. Using Spearman’s Rho, a 0.872 (p<0.001 correlation was found between arterial and venous lactate, which did not vary when adjusted for age (p<0.05 and the use of vasoactive drugs (p<0.05. Conclusion. There is a good correlation between arterial and venous lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and septic shock, which is not affected by demographic variables or type of vasoactive support.

  11. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Andrus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide (pAam. Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors.

  12. In vivo voltammetric detection of rat brain lactate with carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with lactate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shram, N F; Netchiporouk, L I; Martelet, C; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bonnet, C; Cespuglio, R

    1998-07-01

    To allow rat brain lactate measurement in vivo, a specific sensor based on a carbon fiber (phi = 30 microns) microelectrode coated with lactate oxidase was prepared. Combined with the differential normal pulse voltammetry measurement method, such a sensor, with a sensitivity of 9.15 +/- 0.91 mA.M-1.cm-2, provided a lactate linear response in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 mM. The measurements performed appeared to be essentially insensitive to usual interference caused by the electroactive compounds present in the brain (ascorbic acid and peptides). In vivo detection performed in the cortex of the anesthetized rat led to the determination of a lactate concentration of 0.41 +/- 0.02 mM. Moreover, to validate the results obtained in vivo, an ex vivo determination of the lactate level was also performed in samples of brain tissue, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid, using both voltammetry and a clinical analyzer with colorimetric-based detection. A good correlation was observed between the sets of data established by both methods.

  13. [Roxatidine acetate in therapy of reflux esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, P; Botzler, R; Mayershofer, R; Kriech, W

    1996-06-10

    A total of 3409 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were treated with roxatidine acetate. 60.7% of the patients received a daily dose of 2 x 75 mg roxatidine acetate, and the median duration of treatment was 5 weeks. Symptoms improved in about 90% of patients. For 1687 patients, endoscopic findings were available at the beginning and end of the treatment period. The overall endoscopic healing rate was 65.3%, and, depending on the initial finding (if), decreased from 92.9% (if: Savary-Miller stage I) to 67.5% (if: stage II), 40.7% (if: stage III), and to 22.5% (if: stage IV). Twenty-one patients experienced adverse events during the course of treatment, which, however, were either only minor or not related to the use of roxatidine acetate.

  14. Acetic acid mediated interactions between alumina surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kimiyasu, E-mail: sato.kimiyasu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Hueseyin [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Gebze Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 41400, Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Ijuin, Atsuko; Hotta, Yuji; Watari, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic acids have been known to modify colloidal stability of alumina-based suspensions. We investigated interaction forces between alumina surfaces mediated by acetic acid which is one of the simplest organic acids. Forces between alumina surfaces were measured using the colloid-probe method of atomic force microscope (AFM). Repulsive forces attributed to steric repulsion due to adsorbed molecules and electrostatic repulsion dominated the interaction. Results of rheological characterization of the alumina slurry containing acetic acid supported the finding.

  15. Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride in a CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica N. Coraci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To find the optimal reactor volume and temperature for the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride at the lowest possible cost with a 90% conversion of acetic anhydride, a formula for the total cost of the reaction was created. Then, the first derivative was taken to find a value for the temperature. This value was then inputted into the second derivative of the equation to find the sign of the value which would indicate whether that point was a minima or maxima value. The minima value would then be the lowest total cost for the optimum reaction to take place.

  16. Pemberian Ekstrak Metanol Akar Pasak Bumi Mempertahankan Bobot Badan Induk Mencit Selama Menyusui (ADMINISTRATION OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA EXTRACTS STABILIZED THE BODY WEIGHT OF LACTATING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aim is to study the effect of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanol extract and its derivedfraction (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water on body weight of lactating mice. Thetreatment groups were administered 14 mg/20 g body weight of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanol extractand its derived fractions for 21 consecutive days. As a control are without treatment and placebo whichreceived aquadest at dose 0.056 ml/20 g body weight. The administration of E. longifolia Jack rootsmethanol extract showed the smallest change of body weight 29,63 g at the 3rd day and 29,31 g at the 21stday. Compared without treatment and placebo, oral administration of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanolextract and its derived fractions had no significant effects on body weight lactating mice at the 3rd and 21stdays in lactation period (p>0.05. It is concluded that the consumption of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanolextract and its derived fraction during lactation period not influence body weight of lactating mice.

  17. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. It depends on the uptake of extracellular lactate by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Lactate first stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and HIF-2α then transactivates c-Myc in a pathway that mimics a response to hypoxia. Consequently, lactate-induced c-Myc activation triggers the expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and of glutaminase 1 (GLS1), resulting in improved glutamine uptake and catabolism. Elucidation of this metabolic dependence could be of therapeutic interest. First, inhibitors of lactate uptake targeting MCT1 are currently entering clinical trials. They have the potential to indirectly repress glutaminolysis. Second, in oxidative cancer cells, resistance to glutaminolysis inhibition could arise from compensation by oxidative lactate metabolism and increased lactate signaling.

  18. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Newman

    Full Text Available When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  19. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  20. Modulation of physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of l-serine and l-proline by propionate based food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Jaspreet; Komal; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-10-15

    To have an insight into the effect of preservatives on various ingredients of processed items, it is important to study their thermodynamic, transport and spectroscopic properties in aqueous solutions to elucidate various solute-co-solute interactions. The densities, viscosities and enthalpies of dilution of l-serine and l-proline have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate and calcium propionate at different temperatures. The derived parameters elucidate the changes in taste quality and hydration number of l-serine and l-proline in the presence of the studied preservatives. Predominance of dehydration effect has been observed from calorimetry and changes in chemical shifts from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy also support the above results.