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  1. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2006-01-01

    arteries. Methods: Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were treated orally with either E-2 (4 mg/day), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day), norethindrone acetate (NETA) (2 mg/day), E-2 + MPA, E-2 + NETA, or placebo for 16 weeks (n = 10 in each group). Coronary arteries were used for m...

  2. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. H.; Nielsen, L. B.; Mortensen, A;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may oppose the effects of estrogen on vascular function. This study examined the effect of long-term treatment with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) alone and in combination with two progestins on K(+) and Ca(2+)-mediated mechanisms....... CONCLUSION: When E(2) is administered with MPA, effects of E(2) on nitric oxide and Ca(2+)-mediated vascular reactivity in rabbit coronary arteries are modulated. The results suggest that the progestin component in hormone replacement treatment may interfere with the supposed beneficial vascular effects...

  3. Long term attenuation measurements on optical ground wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarche, L.; Gagnon, D.; Miron, M. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec1 (Canada)

    1996-11-01

    The attenuation stability of optical fibers integrated in optical ground wires (OPGW) cables over temperature and time is of paramount importance in the planning of long distance links. The authors report here a mean thermal attenuation dependence of 5.5{center_dot}10{sup {minus}5} dB/(km{center_dot}C) at 1,550 nm, on a 220 km span of dispersion shifted (DS) fibers of an installed OPGW cable. This optical link is installed in the James Bay region over a 735 kV power line where temperature varies from {minus}40 C to +30 C annually. The data sample presented covers 1.5 year starting December 1993. The data sample presented covers 1.5 year starting December 1993. During that period, the authors also observed a temporal evolution of the attenuation described by the empirical relation A = A{sub 0} (t{minus}t{sub 0}){sup 0.00394}.

  4. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed. PMID:1291700

  5. The long-term use of cyproterone acetate in pedophilia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Cernovsky, Z; Magnus, R V

    1992-01-01

    This investigation reports the long-term use of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate (CPA) in a pedophile, who was studied continuously over 38 months. Measures of sexual arousal, serum testosterone, and gonadotropin levels were significantly reduced by the drug as compared with placebo and no treatment; prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Some workers have observed that long-term administration of CPA (more than one year, which was then discontinued) produced enduring (in some cases apparently permanent) anti-libidinal effects; however, in the case described, within three weeks of stopping the drug, all measures had returned to pretrial levels. The importance of continuous long-term monitoring in sex offenders receiving an antiandrogen is discussed.

  6. Vaginal Atrophy following Long-Term Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Walker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA is a commonly used form of contraception, with noncontraceptive benefits for the user. The mode of action is through the suppression of ovulation. It leads to hypoestrogenism which causes dryness of the vagina and dyspareunia. We present in this paper a patient that was very symptomatic with regard to vaginal atrophic changes determined by vaginal cytology. This side effect may become increasingly more common as we see more long-term use of DMPA.

  7. Vaginal Atrophy following Long-Term Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Christie Walker; Badawy, Shawky Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a commonly used form of contraception, with noncontraceptive benefits for the user. The mode of action is through the suppression of ovulation. It leads to hypoestrogenism which causes dryness of the vagina and dyspareunia. We present in this paper a patient that was very symptomatic with regard to vaginal atrophic changes determined by vaginal cytology. This side effect may become increasingly more common as we see more long-term use of DMPA.

  8. Subsurface ecosystem resilience: long-term attenuation of subsurface contaminants supports a dynamic microbial community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, J.M.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Mauro, D.M.; Madsen, E.L. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-01-15

    The propensity for groundwater ecosystems to recover from contamination by organic chemicals (in this case, coal-tar waste) is of vital concern for scientists and engineers who manage polluted sites. The microbially mediated cleanup processes are also of interest to ecologists because they are an important mechanism for the resilience of ecosystems. In this study we establish the long-term dynamic nature of a coal-tar waste-contaminated site and its microbial community. We present 16 years of chemical monitoring data, tracking responses of a groundwater ecosystem to organic contamination (naphthalene, xylenes, toluene, 2-methyl naphthalene and acenaphthylene) associated with coal-tar waste. In addition, we analyzed small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from two contaminated wells at multiple time points over a 2-year period. Principle component analysis of community rRNA fingerprints (terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP)) showed that the composition of native microbial communities varied temporally, yet remained distinctive from well to well. After screening and analysis of 1178 cloned SSU rRNA genes from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, we discovered that the site supports a robust variety of eukaryotes (for example, alveolates (especially anaerobic and predatory ciliates), stramenopiles, fungi, even the small metazoan flatworm, Suomina) that are absent from an uncontaminated control well. This study links the dynamic microbial composition of a contaminated site with the long-term attenuation of its subsurface contaminants.

  9. Long term thermal energy storage with stable supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Schultz, Jørgen M.; Johansen, Jakob Berg;

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate makes it possible to store thermal energy partly loss free. This principle makes seasonal heat storage in compact systems possible. To keep high and stable energy content and cycling stability phase separation of the storage material must...... be avoided. This can be done by the use of the thickening agents carboxymethyl cellulose or xanthan rubber. Stable supercooling requires that the sodium acetate trihydrate is heated to a temperature somewhat higher than the melting temperature of 58 °C before it cools down. As the phase change material melts...... it expands and will cause a pressure built up in a closed chamber which might compromise stability of the supercooling. This can be avoided by having an air volume above the phase change material connected to an external pressure less expansion tank. Supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate at 20 °C stores up...

  10. Medical management of recurrent endometrioma with long-term norethindrone acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneyyirci-Delale O

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozgul Muneyyirci-Delale1,2, Jenny Anopa1, Cassandra Charles1, Deepali Mathur1, Rudolph Parris1, Jed B Cutler2, Ghadir Salame1,2, Ovadia Abulafia1,21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kings County Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: Evaluate the efficacy of norethindrone acetate in the resolution of symptoms and regression of recurrent endometrioma.Patients and methods: Retrospective chart review at SUNY Downstate Medical Center of patients with a history of surgical excision of endometrioma (with histological confirmation and recurrent endometrioma (demonstrated by strict sonographic criterion of endometrioma who were willing to undergo follow-up. Patients were prescribed norethindrone acetate to be taken daily with follow-up sonograms until cysts regressed. Statistical analysis included Student's t-test and a simple linear regression model to assess cyst regression over time during treatment.Results: Degree of pain was significantly lower on treatment when compared to baseline (P < 0.00001. Cyst size was significantly smaller in as little as 3 months (P < 0.0001. Average rate of regression with continuous treatment was 0.025 ± 0.015 cm/day. Total mean ± standard deviation regression time is 10.28 ± 8.25 months.Conclusion: Norethindrone acetate was effective in eradicating symptoms and producing complete regression of recurrent endometriomas. It should be considered for patients who are likely to adhere to a prolonged treatment regimen and comply with recommendations for surveillance with serial sonograms.Keywords: endometriosis, regression, dysmenorrhea, medical therapy

  11. Long-term inhibition of xanthine oxidase by febuxostat does not decrease blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Szasz

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidase and its products, uric acid and ROS, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. We have previously reported that allopurinol inhibition of XO does not alter the progression of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. However other researchers have observed a reduction in blood pressure after allopurinol treatment in the same model. To resolve this controversy, in this study we used the newer and more effective XO inhibitor febuxostat, and hypothesized that a more complete XO blockade might impair hypertension development and its end-organ consequences. We used DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and administered vehicle (salt water or febuxostat (orally, 5 mg/kg/day in salt water in a short-term "reversal" experiment (2 weeks of treatment 3 weeks after DOCA-salt beginning and a long-term "prevention" experiment (treatment throughout 4 weeks of DOCA-salt. We confirmed XO inhibition by febuxostat by measuring circulating and tissue levels of XO metabolites. We found an overall increase in hypoxanthine (XO substrate and decrease in uric acid (XO product levels following febuxostat treatment. However, despite a trend for reduced blood pressure in the last week of long-term febuxostat treatment, no statistically significant difference in hemodynamic parameters was observed in either study. Additionally, no change was observed in relative heart and kidney weight. Aortic media/lumen ratio was minimally improved by long-term febuxostat treatment. Additionally, febuxostat incubation in vitro did not modify contraction of aorta or vena cava to norepinephrine, angiotensin II or endothelin-1. We conclude that XO inhibition is insufficient to attenuate hypertension in the rat DOCA-salt model, although beneficial vascular effects are possible.

  12. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ATTENUATES PHRENIC LONG-TERM FACILITATION FOLLOWING ACUTE INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vinit, Stéphane; Windelborn, James A; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2011-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammatory responses, including microglial activation in the central nervous system. Since LPS impairs certain forms of hippocampal and spinal neuroplasticity, we hypothesized that LPS would impair phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) in outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) and inbred Lewis (L) rats.. Approximately three hours following a single LPS injection (i.p.), the phrenic response during hypoxic episodes is reduced i...

  13. Local long-term expression of lentivirally delivered IL-10 in the lung attenuates obliteration of intrapulmonary allograft airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Shin; Sato, Masaaki; Liu, Mingyao; Loisel-Meyer, Severine; Yeung, Jonathan C; Wagnetz, Dirk; Cypel, Marcelo; Zehong, Guan; Medin, Jeffrey A; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-11-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a form of chronic rejection after lung transplantation. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) facilitate long-term gene transduction in many tissues and organs. We hypothesized that lentiviral gene transfer of interleukin (IL)-10, a potent immune-modulating cytokine, to the lung could modulate the alloimmune responses in the lung after transplantation. C57BL6 mice received LVs encoding luciferase, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), or human IL-10 (huIL-10) through airways and underwent repeated bioluminescent imaging, immunofluorescence imaging, or ELISA of lung tissues, respectively. Luciferase activities peaked at day 7 and were stable after day 28 to over 15 months. eGFP staining demonstrated LV-mediated gene transduction mainly in alveolar macrophages. LV-huIL-10 delivery resulted in stable long-term expression of huIL-10 in the lung tissue (average 3.66 pg/mg at 1 year). Intrapulmonary allograft tracheal transplantation (BALBc→C57BL6) was used as a model of OB. LV-huIL-10 or LV-eGFP were delivered 7 days before transplantation and compared with no LV-transfection group. Allograft airways at day 28 were almost completely obliterated in all the groups. However, at day 42, allograft airways treated with LV-huIL-10 showed a spectrum of attenuation in airway fibrosis ranging from complete obliteration through bubble-like partial opening to complete patency with epithelial coverage in association with a significantly reduced obliteration ratio compared with the other groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, lentivirus-mediated gene transduction is useful in achieving long-term transgene expression in the lung. Long-term IL-10 expression has the potential to attenuate allograft airway obliteration. LV-mediated gene therapy could be a useful strategy to prevent or treat OB after lung transplantation. PMID:21568692

  14. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH-contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Christophe; CHENOT, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-Francois; Ouvrard, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. Indeed, far from the “do nothing; Nature will take rid of the problem” image, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physicochemical treatments (e.g. chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The still refractory attitude of regulatory authorities and st...

  15. Attenuated long-term Arc expression in the aged fascia dentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Diano F; Satvat, Elham; Shaner, Michael J; Worley, Paul F; Barnes, Carol A

    2012-05-01

    One prominent component of aging is a defect in memory stabilization. To understand how the formation of enduring memories is altered in the aged brain, long-term markers of the biological events that may mediate memory consolidation were used to examine the activity dynamics of hippocampal circuits over extended intervals. The immediate early gene Arc, which is implicated in both durable memory and synaptic plasticity, is expressed in the fascia dentata (FD) for long periods following behavioral experience. To test the hypothesis that aging alters long-term Arc transcription in the FD, a region critical for spatial memory and impaired with progressive age, young and aged rats explored a novel environment twice, separated by an 8-hour interval, and FD Arc transcription was assessed. Relative to young rats, (a) fewer granule cells in the aged FD transcribe arc 8 hours after spatial exploration, and (b) this decrease is correlated with impaired spatial memory. These findings are consistent with behavioral evidence of age-related decline in hippocampal-dependent memory processing long after an event is to be remembered, and reaffirm the integral role of the FD in the neural circuits supporting durable memory.

  16. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  17. Replica-moulded polydimethylsiloxane culture vessel lids attenuate osmotic drift in long-term cell cultures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Axel Blau; Tanja Neumann; Christiane Ziegler; Fabio Benfenati

    2009-03-01

    An imbalance in medium osmolarity is a determinant that affects cell culture longevity. Even in humidified incubators, evaporation of water leads to a gradual increase in osmolarity overtime. We present a simple replica-moulding strategy for producing self-sealing lids adaptable to standard, small-size cell-culture vessels. They are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a flexible, transparent and biocompatible material, which is gas-permeable but largely impermeable to water. Keeping cell cultures in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C, medium osmolarity increased by +6.86 mosmol/kg/day in standard 35 mm Petri dishes, while PDMS lids attenuated its rise by a factor of four to changes of +1.72 mosmol/kg/ day. Depending on the lid membrane thickness, pH drifts at ambient CO2 levels were attenuated by a factor of 4 to 9. Comparative evaporation studies at temperatures below 60°C yielded a 10-fold reduced water vapour flux of 1.75 g/day/dm2 through PDMS lids as compared with 18.69 g/day/dm2 with conventional Petri dishes. Using such PDMS lids, about 2/3 of the cell cultures grew longer than 30 days in vitro. Among these, the average survival time was 69 days with the longest survival being 284 days under otherwise conventional cell culture conditions.

  18. Effect of MK-801 on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity: long-term attenuation of methamphetamine-induced dopamine release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Hwang, Se Hwan [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) produces high extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and subsequent striatal DA terminal damage. The effect of MK-801, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, on METH-induced changes in DA transporter (DAT) and DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge was evaluated in rodent striatum using [{sup 3}H] WIN 38,428 ex vivo auto-radiography and in vivo microdialysis. Four injections of METH (10 mg/kg, i.p.), each given 2 h apart, produced 71% decrease in DAT levels in mouse striatum 3 d after administration. Pretreatment with MK-801 (2.5 g/kg, i.p.) 15 min before each of the four METH injections protected completely against striatal DAT depletions. Four injections of MK-801 alone did not significantly change striatal DAT levels. Striatal DA release evoked by an acute METH challenge (4mg/kg, i.p.) at 3 d after repeated administration of METH in rats was decreased but significant compared with controls, which was attenuated by repeated pretreatment with MK-801. Also, repeated injections of MK-801 alone attenuated acute METH-induced striatal DA release 3 d after administration. These results suggest that repeated administration of MK-801 may exert a preventive effect against METH-induced DA terminal injury through long-term attenuation of DA release induced by METH and other stimuli.

  19. Long-term safety assessment of live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccines: deliberations from a WHO technical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Schmitz, Julia; Edelman, Robert; Durbin, Anna; Roehrig, John T; Smith, Peter G; Hombach, Joachim; Farrar, Jeremy

    2013-05-28

    Dengue is a rapidly growing public health threat with approximately 2.5 billion people estimated to be at risk. Several vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Thus far, live dengue vaccine candidates have been administered to several thousands of volunteers and were well-tolerated, with minimal short-term safety effects reported in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. Based on the natural history of dengue, a theoretical possibility of an increased risk of severe dengue as a consequence of vaccination has been hypothesized but not yet observed. In October 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a consultation of experts in dengue, vaccine regulation and vaccine safety to review the current scientific evidence regarding safety concerns associated with live attenuated dengue vaccines and, in particular, to consider methodological approaches for their long-term evaluation. In this paper we summarize the scientific background and methodological considerations relevant to the safety assessment of these vaccines. Careful planning and a coordinated approach to safety assessment are recommended to ensure adequate long-term evaluation of dengue vaccines that will support their introduction and continued use. PMID:23570986

  20. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, F.S.; Crawford, R.L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers.

  1. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, F. S.; Crawford, R. L.; Sorenson, K.

    2005-09-01

    Acceptance of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a preferred treatment technology saves significant site restoration costs for DOE. However, in order to be accepted MNA requires direct evidence of which processes are responsible for the contaminant loss and also the rates of the contaminant loss. Our proposal aims to: 1) provide evidence for one example of MNA, namely the disappearance of the dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) from the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) at the Idaho National Laboratory’s Test Area North (TAN) site, 2) determine the rates at which aquifer microbes can co-metabolize TCE, and 3) determine whether there are other examples of natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents occurring at DOE sites. To this end, our research has several objectives. First, we have conducted studies to characterize the microbial processes that are likely responsible for the co-metabolic destruction of TCE in the aquifer at TAN (University of Idaho and INL). Second, we are investigating realistic rates of TCE co-metabolism at the low catabolic activities typical of microorganisms existing under aquifer conditions (INL). Using the co-metabolism rate parameters derived in low-growth bioreactors, we will complete the models that predict the time until background levels of TCE are attained in the aquifer at TAN and validate the long-term stewardship of this plume. Coupled with the research on low catabolic activities of co-metabolic microbes we are determining the patterns of functional gene expression by these cells, patterns that may be used to diagnose the co-metabolic activity in the SRPA or other aquifers. Third, we have systematically considered the aquifer contaminants at different locations in plumes at other DOE sites in order to determine whether MNA is a broadly applicable remediation strategy for chlorinated hydrocarbons (North Wind Inc.). Realistic terms for co-metabolism of TCE will provide marked improvements in DOE’s ability to predict and

  2. Thrombocyte function in relation to the long term application of medroxyprogesterone acetate as a female contraceptive agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mettler L

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In two hundred and twenty eight parous women between thirty and forty years o f age, Medroxyprogesterone acetate 150 mg depot injection every three months proved to be a one hundred per cent contraceptive agent. Minimal side effects were noted with some spotting and amenorrhoea. No significant increase in blood coagula-tion and tendency to thrombosis was noted as tested by the platelet aggregation test during medication.

  3. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of ...

  4. Long-term nitrogen fertilization of paddy soil shifts iron-reducing microbial community revealed by RNA-(13)C-acetate probing coupled with pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Long-Jun; Su, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Zhong-Jun; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-03-01

    Iron reduction is an important biogeochemical process in paddy soils, yet little is known about the microbial coupling between nitrogen and iron reduction. Here, we investigated the shift of acetate-metabolizing iron-reducers under long-term nitrogen fertilization using (13)C-acetate-based ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-stable isotope probing (SIP) and pyrosequencing in an incubation experiment, and the shift of putative iron-reducers in original field samples were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. During SIP incubations, in the presence of iron(III) oxyhydroxides, more iron(II) formation and less methane production were detected in nitrogen-fertilized (N) compared with non-fertilized (NF) soil. In (13)C-rRNA from microcosms amended with ferrihydrite (FER), Geobacter spp. were the important active iron-reducers in both soils, and labeled to a greater extent in N (31% of the bacterial classified sequences) than NF soils (11%). Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA transcripts from microcosms at the whole community level further revealed hitherto unknown metabolisms of potential FER reduction by microorganisms including Pseudomonas and Solibacillus spp. in N soil, Dechloromonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and Solibacillus spp. in NF soil. Goethite (GOE) amendment stimulated Geobacter spp. to a lesser extent in both soils compared with FER treatment. Pseudomonas spp. in the N soil and Clostridium spp. in the NF soil may also be involved in GOE reduction. Pyrosequencing results from field samples showed that Geobacter spp. were the most abundant putative iron-reducers in both soils, and significantly stimulated by long-term nitrogen fertilization. Overall, for the first time, we demonstrate that long-term nitrogen fertilization promotes iron(III) reduction and modulates iron-reducing bacterial community in paddy soils.

  5. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  6. Physical exercise prevents short and long-term deficits on aversive and recognition memory and attenuates brain oxidative damage induced by maternal deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ben-Hur; Menezes, Jefferson; Souza, Mauren Assis; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

    2015-12-01

    It is known from previous research that physical exercise prevents long-term memory deficits induced by maternal deprivation in rats. But we could not assume similar effects of physical exercise on short-term memory, as short- and long-term memories are known to result from some different memory consolidation processes. Here we demonstrated that, in addition to long-term memory deficit, the short-term memory deficit resultant from maternal deprivation in object recognition and aversive memory tasks is also prevented by physical exercise. Additionally, one of the mechanisms by which the physical exercise influences the memory processes involves its effects attenuating the oxidative damage in the maternal deprived rats' hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  7. U0126 attenuates cerebral vasoconstriction and improves long-term neurologic outcome after stroke in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnstedt, Hilda; Mostajeran, Maryam; Blixt, Frank W;

    2015-01-01

    , responses to this treatment in females and long-term effects on outcome are not known. Initial experiments used in vitro organ culture of cerebral arteries, confirming ERK1/2 activation and increased ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in female cerebral arteries. Transient middle cerebral artery......-mediated contraction was studied with myograph and protein expression with immunohistochemistry. In vitro organ culture and tMCAO resulted in vascular ETB receptor upregulation and activation of ERK1/2 that was prevented by U0126. Although no effect on infarct size, U0126 improved the long-term neurologic function...... after experimental stroke in female rats. In conclusion, early prevention of the ERK1/2 activation and ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the cerebral vasculature after ischemic stroke in female rats improves the long-term neurologic outcome....

  8. Comparative long-term preclinical safety evaluation of two glatiramoid compounds (glatiramer Acetate, Copaxone(R), and TV-5010, protiramer) in rats and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramot, Yuval; Rosenstock, Moti; Klinger, Ety; Bursztyn, Dizza; Nyska, Abraham; Shinar, Doron M

    2012-01-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA), the active ingredient in Copaxone®, is a complex mixture of polypeptides used for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Glatiramoids are related mixtures that may differ in some characteristics of the prototype molecule. Our aim is to describe the long-term toxicity studies with protiramer (TV-5010), a new glatiramoid, in comparison with similar studies conducted with GA. The toxicity of twice-weekly subcutaneous injections of protiramer to Sprague-Dawley rats (twenty-six weeks) and cynomolgus monkeys (fifty-two weeks) was compared with similar studies done with daily subcutaneous injections of GA. Daily treatment with GA was safe and well tolerated, without systemic effects or death. Protiramer administration was not as well tolerated as GA and led to dose- and time-related mortalities, probably mediated through severe injection-site lesions both in rats and in monkeys. Bridging fibrosis in the liver and severe progressive nephropathy were seen in rats. A dose-related increase in eosinophils was observed in monkeys. The protiramer toxicity studies show that minor variations in the manufacturing of glatiramoids may lead to significant toxic effects. It is therefore essential that the safety of any new glatiramoid be studied in long-term preclinical studies before exposing humans. PMID:22083585

  9. Plasma concentrations of medroxyprogesterone acetate and megesterol acetate during long-term follow-up in patients treated for metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A A; Becher, R; Schmidt, C G

    1988-01-01

    A total of 32 patients with metastatic breast cancer responding with at least disease stabilization to treatment with two commercially available preparations of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or one preparation of megestrol acetate (MA) were followed for their plasma concentrations. The MPA and MA were measured by HPLC. MPA from Upjohn and Farmitalia was given to 12 patients (median age, 61 years; median follow-up, 20 weeks) and 8 patients (54 years, 16 weeks), respectively, on a schedule of 1000 mg daily i.m. for 10 days followed by 200 mg t.i.d.p.o. for the remainder of the treatment course. The peak concentrations (means, 163 vs 97 ng/ml), the time to peak levels (medians, 3 vs 10 weeks), and the areas under the concentration curves from time 0 to 24 weeks (means, 2400 vs 1868 ng/ml X weeks) were significantly different in the respective treatment groups (t-test; significance level, 0.05). MA from Bristol-Myers was administered orally in one daily dose of 160 mg throughout the treatment course in 12 patients (median age, 51 years; median follow-up, 20 weeks). A mean MA peak concentration of 218 ng/ml was reached after a median of 7 days. Plateau plasma levels were higher for MA than MPA. PMID:2965155

  10. Persistence of attenuated HIV-1 rev alleles in an epidemiologically linked cohort of long-term survivors infected with nef-deleted virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesselingh Steven L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sydney blood bank cohort (SBBC of long-term survivors consists of multiple individuals infected with nef-deleted, attenuated strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Although the cohort members have experienced differing clinical courses and now comprise slow progressors (SP as well as long-term nonprogressors (LTNP, longitudinal analysis of nef/long-terminal repeat (LTR sequences demonstrated convergent nef/LTR sequence evolution in SBBC SP and LTNP. Thus, the in vivo pathogenicity of attenuated HIV-1 strains harboured by SBBC members is dictated by factors other than nef/LTR. Therefore, to determine whether defects in other viral genes contribute to attenuation of these HIV-1 strains, we characterized dominant HIV-1 rev alleles that persisted in 4 SBBC subjects; C18, C64, C98 and D36. Results The ability of Rev derived from D36 and C64 to bind the Rev responsive element (RRE in RNA binding assays was reduced by approximately 90% compared to Rev derived from HIV-1NL4-3, C18 or C98. D36 Rev also had a 50–60% reduction in ability to express Rev-dependent reporter constructs in mammalian cells. In contrast, C64 Rev had only marginally decreased Rev function despite attenuated RRE binding. In D36 and C64, attenuated RRE binding was associated with rare amino acid changes at 3 highly conserved residues; Gln to Pro at position 74 immediately N-terminal to the Rev activation domain, and Val to Leu and Ser to Pro at positions 104 and 106 at the Rev C-terminus, respectively. In D36, reduced Rev function was mapped to an unusual 13 amino acid extension at the Rev C-terminus. Conclusion These findings provide new genetic and mechanistic insights important for Rev function, and suggest that Rev function, not Rev/RRE binding may be rate limiting for HIV-1 replication. In addition, attenuated rev alleles may contribute to viral attenuation and long-term survival of HIV-1 infection in a subset of SBBC members.

  11. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered.

  12. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. PMID:26174323

  13. Longitudinal study to assess the safety and efficacy of a live-attenuated SHIV vaccine in long term immunized rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Live-attenuated viruses derived from SIV and SHIV have provided the most consistent protection against challenge with pathogenic viruses, but concerns regarding their long-term safety and efficacy have hampered their clinical usefulness. We report a longitudinal study in which we evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of ΔvpuSHIVPPC, a live virus vaccine derived from SHIVPPC. Macaques were administered two inoculations of ΔvpuSHIVPPC, three years apart, and followed for eight years. None of the five vaccinated macaques developed an AIDS-like disease from the vaccine. At eight years, macaques were challenged with pathogenic SIV and SHIV. None of the four macaques with detectable cellular-mediated immunity prior to challenge had detectable viral RNA in the plasma. This study demonstrates that multiple inoculations of a live vaccine virus can be used safely and can significantly extend the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared to a single inoculation, which is efficacious for approximately three years

  14. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17 beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H.; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2006-01-01

    and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca2+, activated or ATP-sensitive K+ channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity. Conclusion...

  15. Medroxyprogesterone acetate attenuates long-term effects of 17beta-estradiol in coronary arteries from hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. H.; Nielsen, L. B.; Mortensen, A;

    2006-01-01

    and increased the expression of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel mRNA. NETA had no opposing effects. Hormone treatment did not affect large-conductance Ca(2+) activated or ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA expression. Hyperlipidemia had no effect on vascular reactivity...

  16. Long-Term Stimulation with Electroacupuncture at DU20 and ST36 Rescues Hippocampal Neuron through Attenuating Cerebral Blood Flow in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Hua Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20 and Zusanli (ST36 on cerebral microvessels and neurons in CA1 region of hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. A total of 45 male Wistar rats and 45 SHR were randomly grouped, with or without electroacupuncture (EA at DU20 and ST36, once every other day for a period of 8 weeks. The mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured once every 2 weeks. Cerebral blood flow (CBF and the number of open microvessels in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by Laser Doppler and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nissl staining and Western blotting were performed, respectively, to determine hippocampus morphology and proteins that were implicated in the concerning signaling pathways. The results showed that the MAP in SHR increased linearly over the observation period and was significantly reduced following electroacupuncture as compared with sham control SHR rats, while no difference was observed in Wistar rats between EA and sham control. The CBF, learning and memory capacity, and capillary rarefaction of SHR were improved by EA. The upregulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R, endothelin receptor (ETAR, and endothelin-1 (ET-1 in SHR rats was attenuated by electroacupuncture, suggesting an implication of AT1R, ETAR, and ET-1 pathway in the effect of EA.

  17. Promising long-term results with attenuated adverse effects by methotrexate-containing sequential chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce severe acute and late toxicities without compromising organ preservation survival in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, we performed three-drug induction methotrexate-cisplatin-fluorouracil with weekly cisplatin-fluorouracil concurrent chemoradiation. Two induction courses of methotrexate (40 mg/m2/day, days 1, 8 and 15), cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (25 and 750 mg/m2/day, days 1-4) were given in new diagnoses of patients with non-nasopharyngeal locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Responders received concurrent chemoradiation with weekly cisplatin (20 mg/m2/day) and 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m2/day) on day 1. Among 57 patients (58% with Stage IV and hypopharyngeal cancer), the rates of Grade 3-4 toxicity were 30 and 74% during induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), respectively. A total of 49 patients completed induction and began concurrent chemoradiation; 47 (96%) completed all planned treatment. With a median follow-up of 62 months (range 19-83 months) for the current survivors, the 3-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates were 50 and 58%, respectively. The 3-year organ preservation survival was 74% in patients who achieved complete remission after concurrent chemoradiation, and 96% of current survivors are tracheotomy and feeding tube-free. No patient without local/regional failure suffered from distant metastasis. Methotrexate-cisplatin-fluorouracil induction chemotherapy followed by weekly cisplatin-fluorouracil concurrent chemoradiation is an acute and late toxicity-acceptable protocol without attenuating organ preservation survival in patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this patient cohort with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, overall and organ preservation survivals were encouraging, and provided promising long-term benefits of this approach. (author)

  18. Long-Term Treatment with Losartan Attenuates Seizure Activity and Neuronal Damage Without Affecting Behavioral Changes in a Model of Co-morbid Hypertension and Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchekalarova, Jana D; Ivanova, Natasha; Atanasova, Dimitrina; Pechlivanova, Daniela M; Lazarov, Nikolai; Kortenska, Lidia; Mitreva, Rumiana; Lozanov, Valentin; Stoynev, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 10 years, accumulated experimental and clinical evidence has supported the idea that AT1 receptor subtype is involved in epilepsy. Recently, we have shown that the selective AT1 receptor antagonist losartan attenuates epileptogenesis and exerts neuroprotection in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in epileptic Wistar rats. This study aimed to verify the efficacy of long-term treatment with losartan (10 mg/kg) after kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) on seizure activity, behavioral and biochemical changes, and neuronal damage in a model of co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. Spontaneous seizures were video- and EEG-monitored in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for a 16-week period after SE. The behavior was analyzed by open field, elevated plus maze, sugar preference test, and forced swim test. The levels of serotonin in the hippocampus and neuronal loss were estimated by HPLC and hematoxylin and eosin staining, respectively. The AT1 receptor antagonism delayed the onset of seizures and alleviated their frequency and duration during and after discontinuation of treatment. Losartan showed neuroprotection mostly in the CA3 area of the hippocampus and the septo-temporal hilus of the dentate gyrus in SHRs. However, the AT1 receptor antagonist did not exert a substantial influence on concomitant with epilepsy behavioral changes and decreased 5-HT levels in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that the antihypertensive therapy with an AT1 receptor blocker might be effective against seizure activity and neuronal damage in a co-morbid hypertension and epilepsy. PMID:26464042

  19. Long-term results of Danish Prostatic Cancer Group trial 86. Goserelin acetate plus flutamide versus orchiectomy in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Klarskov, Peter;

    1993-01-01

    In a multicenter trial conducted by the Danish Prostatic Cancer Group, 264 patients with advanced prostate cancer were randomized either to undergo bilateral orchiectomy or to receive combination treatment with goserelin acetate and flutamide. This report is an update of that study, covering...... of goserelin and flutamide was not clinically superior to bilateral orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer....

  20. Abiraterone acetate in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: long term outcome of the Temporary Authorization for Use programme in France

    OpenAIRE

    Houédé, Nadine; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Gourgou, Sophie; Tosi, Diego; Moise, Laura; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Delva, Remy; Fléchon, Aude; Latorzeff, Igor; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Oudard, Stéphane; Tartas, Sophie; Laguerre, Brigitte; Topart, Delphine; Roubaud, Guilhem

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackgroundCOU-AA-301 trial has proved that abiraterone acetate (AA), a selective inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, improved overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after a first line of docetaxel. Based on this result, a Temporary Authorization for Use (TAU) was performed between December 2010 and July 2011 to provide patients with mCRPC the opportunity to receive AA before its commercialization. The aim of this study was to eva...

  1. Long-term results of Danish Prostatic Cancer Group trial 86. Goserelin acetate plus flutamide versus orchiectomy in advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Klarskov, Peter;

    1993-01-01

    In a multicenter trial conducted by the Danish Prostatic Cancer Group, 264 patients with advanced prostate cancer were randomized either to undergo bilateral orchiectomy or to receive combination treatment with goserelin acetate and flutamide. This report is an update of that study, covering...... of goserelin and flutamide was not clinically superior to bilateral orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer....... a median follow-up for survival of 57 months. Of 262 patients who were evaluated, 208 have died. As noted in earlier analyses of this study, no differences in time to progression and cause-specific and overall survival could be identified between the two treatment groups. In conclusion, the combination...

  2. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  3. Long-Term Immunity to Lethal Acute or Chronic Type II Toxoplasma gondii Infection Is Effectively Induced in Genetically Susceptible C57BL/6 Mice by Immunization with an Attenuated Type I Vaccine Strain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gigley, Jason P.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2009-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice are genetically highly susceptible to chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infections that invariably cause lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis. We examined the ability of an attenuated type I vaccine strain to elicit long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II infections in susceptible B6 mice. Mice immunized with the type I cps1-1 vaccine strain were not susceptible to a lethal (100-cyst) challenge with the type II strain ME49. Immunized mice challenged with 10 ME49 cys...

  4. Estradiol attenuates ischemia-induced death of hippocampal neurons and enhances synaptic transmission in aged, long-term hormone-deprived female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Inagaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transient global forebrain ischemia causes selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, and the ovarian hormone 17β-estradiol (E2 reduces neuronal loss in young and middle-aged females. The neuroprotective efficacy of E2 after a prolonged period of hormone deprivation is controversial, and few studies examine this issue in aged animals given E2 treatment after induction of ischemia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of E2 administered immediately after global ischemia in aged female rats (15-18 months after 6 months of hormone deprivation. We also used electrophysiological methods to assess whether CA1 synapses in the aging hippocampus remain responsive to E2 after prolonged hormone withdrawal. Animals were ovariohysterectomized and underwent 10 min global ischemia 6 months later. A single dose of E2 (2.25 µg infused intraventricularly after reperfusion significantly increased cell survival, with 45% of CA1 neurons surviving vs 15% in controls. Ischemia also induced moderate loss of CA3/CA4 pyramidal cells. Bath application of 1 nM E2 onto brain slices derived from non-ischemic aged females after 6 months of hormone withdrawal significantly enhanced excitatory transmission at CA1 synapses evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation, and normal long-term potentiation (LTP was induced. The magnitude of LTP and of E2 enhancement of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials was indistinguishable from that recorded in slices from young rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate that 1 acute post-ischemic infusion of E2 into the brain ventricles is neuroprotective in aged rats after 6 months of hormone deprivation; and 2 E2 enhances synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged long-term hormone deprived females. These findings provide evidence that the aging hippocampus remains responsive to E2 administered either in vivo or in vitro even after

  5. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...

  6. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  7. Coupling of Realistic Rate Estimates with Genomics for Assessing Contaminant Attenuation and Long-Term Plume Containment - Task 4: Modeling - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Starr

    2005-10-31

    Trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, can be degraded under certain conditions by microorganisms that occur naturally in the subsurface. TCE can be degraded under anaerobic conditions to less chlorinated compounds and ultimately into the non-chlorinated, non-hazardous end product, ethene, via anaerobic reductive dechlorination (ARD). ARD is widely recognized as a TCE degradation mechanism, and occurs in active groundwater remediation and can occur during monitored natural attenuation (MNA). MNA relies on natural processes, such as dispersion and degradation, to reduce contaminant concentrations to acceptable levels without active human intervention other than monitoring. TCE can also be biodegraded under aerobic conditions via cometabolism, in which microbial enzymes produced for other purposes fortuitously also react with TCE. In cometabolism, TCE is oxidized directly to non-hazardous products. Cometabolism as a TCE-degrading process under aerobic conditions is less well known than ARD. Natural attenuation is often discounted as a TCE remedial alternative in aerobic conditions based on the paradigm that TCE is biodegradable only under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this paradigm, TCE was shown to degrade relative to conservative co-contaminants at an environmentally significant rate in a large (approximately 3 km long) TCE plume in aerobic groundwater at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the degradation mechanism was shown to be cometabolism. MNA was selected as the remedy for most of this plume, resulting in a considerable cost savings relative to conventional remedial methods. To determine if cometabolism might be a viable remedy at other sites with TCE-contaminated aerobic groundwater, TCE plumes at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were screened to evaluate whether TCE commonly degrades in aerobic groundwater, and if degradation rates are fast enough that natural attenuation could be a viable remedy. One hundred and twenty

  8. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  9. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  10. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Document Server

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  11. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  12. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Jegede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL and lead acetate (i.p. 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS significantly (p<0.05 as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  13. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  14. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  15. Long-Term Immunity to Lethal Acute or Chronic Type II Toxoplasma gondii Infection Is Effectively Induced in Genetically Susceptible C57BL/6 Mice by Immunization with an Attenuated Type I Vaccine Strain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigley, Jason P.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2009-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice are genetically highly susceptible to chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infections that invariably cause lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis. We examined the ability of an attenuated type I vaccine strain to elicit long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II infections in susceptible B6 mice. Mice immunized with the type I cps1-1 vaccine strain were not susceptible to a lethal (100-cyst) challenge with the type II strain ME49. Immunized mice challenged with 10 ME49 cysts exhibited significant reductions in brain cyst and parasite burdens compared to naive mice, regardless of the route of challenge infection. Remarkably, cps1-1 strain-immunized B6 mice chronically infected with ME49 survived for at least 12 months without succumbing to the chronic infection. Potent immunity to type II challenge infections persisted for at least 10 months after vaccination. While the cps1-1 strain-elicited immunity did not prevent the establishment of a chronic infection or clear established brain cysts, cps1-1 strain-elicited CD8+ immune T cells significantly inhibited recrudescence of brain cysts during chronic ME49 infection. In addition, we show that uracil starvation of the cps1-1 strain induces early markers of bradyzoite differentiation. Collectively, these results suggest that more effective immune control of chronic type II infection in the genetically susceptible B6 background is established by vaccination with the nonreplicating type I uracil auxotroph cps1-1 strain. PMID:19797073

  16. Long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infection is effectively induced in genetically susceptible C57BL/6 mice by immunization with an attenuated type I vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigley, Jason P; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2009-12-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice are genetically highly susceptible to chronic type II Toxoplasma gondii infections that invariably cause lethal toxoplasmic encephalitis. We examined the ability of an attenuated type I vaccine strain to elicit long-term immunity to lethal acute or chronic type II infections in susceptible B6 mice. Mice immunized with the type I cps1-1 vaccine strain were not susceptible to a lethal (100-cyst) challenge with the type II strain ME49. Immunized mice challenged with 10 ME49 cysts exhibited significant reductions in brain cyst and parasite burdens compared to naive mice, regardless of the route of challenge infection. Remarkably, cps1-1 strain-immunized B6 mice chronically infected with ME49 survived for at least 12 months without succumbing to the chronic infection. Potent immunity to type II challenge infections persisted for at least 10 months after vaccination. While the cps1-1 strain-elicited immunity did not prevent the establishment of a chronic infection or clear established brain cysts, cps1-1 strain-elicited CD8(+) immune T cells significantly inhibited recrudescence of brain cysts during chronic ME49 infection. In addition, we show that uracil starvation of the cps1-1 strain induces early markers of bradyzoite differentiation. Collectively, these results suggest that more effective immune control of chronic type II infection in the genetically susceptible B6 background is established by vaccination with the nonreplicating type I uracil auxotroph cps1-1 strain. PMID:19797073

  17. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...... Change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins....

  18. Long term e-archiving

    OpenAIRE

    Dobratz, Susanne

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions of the breakout session "Long term e-archiving". Looking at the motto of this workshop “Gaining independence with e-Print archives and OAI” it suggests first of all that using e-Print publishing methods especially in the sense of a scholarly non-profit publishing independently from any commercial publishing house offers a unique chance to scientists.

  19. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  20. What Does Long-Term Care Include?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Video: "What Does Long-Term Care Include?" Long-term care involves a variety of services designed to meet a person's health or personal care needs during a short or long period of ...

  1. Long-term insulin-like growth factor-I expression in skeletal muscles attenuates the enhanced in vitro proliferation ability of the resident satellite cells in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Booth, F. W.

    2001-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) overexpression for 1-month in mouse skeletal muscle increases satellite cell proliferation potential. However, it is unknown whether this beneficial enhancement by IGF-I expression would persist over a longer-term duration in aged mice. This is an important issue to address if a prolonged course of IGF-I is to be used clinically in muscle-wasting conditions where satellite cells may become limiting. Using the IGF-I transgenic (IGF-I Tg) mouse that selectively expresses the IGF-I transgene in striated muscles, we found that 18-months of continuous IGF-I overexpression led to a loss in the enhanced in vitro proliferative capacity of satellite cells from Tg skeletal muscles. Also 18-month-old IGF-I Tg satellite cells lost the enhanced BrdU incorporation, greater pRb and Akt phosphorylations, and decreased p27(Kip1) levels initially observed in cells from 1-month-old IGF-I Tg mice. The levels of those biochemical markers reverted to similar values seen in the 18-months WT littermates. These findings, therefore, suggest that there is no further beneficial effect on enhancing satellite cell proliferation ability with persistent long-term expression of IGF-I in skeletal muscles of these transgenic mice.

  2. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  3. Pituitary diseases : long-term clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaauw, Agatha Apolonia van der

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies during the long-term follow-up of patients after treatment for pituitary diseases. The focus of this thesis is acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency, sleep and quality of life. Various aspects are described.

  4. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  5. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program ( ... Section Q Fact Sheet Back to top Funding History Older Americans Act Title VII Chapter 2 (Ombudsman ...

  6. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  7. Long-term e-arhiv

    OpenAIRE

    Petkovšek , Bojan

    2011-01-01

    With expansion of e-business and consequently with creating original electronic documents, legally compliant long-term digital preservation has become a commitment for organizations that do business electronically. Accepted legislation that equalizes the legal validity of electronic documents with their paper original, regulates the operating and preservation of documents, recommendations, existing standards and service and equipment providers for ensuring long-term digital preservation, enab...

  8. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, T.; A.H Javadi; Carbon, C.C.; Walsh, V

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  9. Long-term wind speed adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antic, S.; Ait-Driss, B.; Pavlovic, R. [Helimax Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Helimax Energy Inc. is an independent wind energy consultant that operates in 9 Canadian provinces and 20 countries. This presentation outlined long-term wind speed trends and methods to adjust wind speeds to long-term trends. Through its projects, Helimax has contributed about 5,000 MW of installed wind capacity, more than 100 towers, 4 SODAR acoustic Doppler systems and numerous meso- and micro-scale maps. The authors cautioned that long-term wind speed trends are affected by climate change and climatological trends, and suggested that short-term wind speed observations should be adjusted to approximate the long term climate norm. The different methods of wind speed adjustment were described along with methods being developed. The significance of choosing appropriate reference stations was also discussed. It was suggested that more than one station should be used because no single reference station has a 100 per cent recovery rate, and that local effects can sometimes influence long-term observations. The use of multiple stations can decrease the influence of local effects on the projected long-term wind speed. The authors conclude that linear regression is the best method of performing wind speed adjustments. tabs., figs.

  10. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  11. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Jäntti; Matti Sarvimäki; Roope Uusitalo

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  12. Long-Term Effects of Forced Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope; Jäntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual-level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  13. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope; Jäntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual-level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  14. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  15. Evaluating Long-Term Disability Insurance Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jan

    1992-01-01

    This report analyzes the factors involved in reviewing benefits and services of employer-sponsored group long-term disability plans for higher education institutions. Opening sections describe the evolution of disability insurance and its shape today. Further sections looks at the complex nature of "value" within a plan, relationship between plan…

  16. Long-Term Outcome of Idiopathic Macrocephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The neuroradiological, developmental, and psychological, long-term sequelae of 41 infants (30 boys, 11 girls diagnosed with macrocephaly (an occipito-facial head circumference [OFC] >95th centile at a family health service visit between 1985 and 1986 were studied at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children and other centers in Sydney, Australia.

  17. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  18. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  19. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the increa

  20. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, se

  1. Long Term Transfer Effect of Metaphoric Allusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David A.; Mateja, John A.

    A study was conducted to investigate the long term transfer effect of metaphoric allusion used to clarify unfamiliar subject matter. Forty-nine high school students were given unfamiliar prose materials variously augmented by metaphoric allusion. The subjects' immediate performance on a transfer task was compared to their performance on an…

  2. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been publishe...

  3. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  4. Long-term Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Zengin Eroglu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of long-term prophylactic treatment is certain in bipolar disorder, there is stil debate on how to which patients and evaluate the treatment response. Efficacious long-term treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality significantly and improve quality of life of bipolar patients. The concept of ideal response should also be defined very clearly in order to discuss the difficulties of measuring the effectiveness of the prophylactic treatment. The aims of this paper are to determine whether our currently methods and criteria are valid, reliable and sensitive evaluating the efficacy of the treatment response and to briefly inform the clinicians about the drugs used in pharmacologic prophylaxis in accordance with relevant data.

  5. Quantifying Long-term Scientific Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    An ability to accurately assess the long-term impact of a scientific discovery has implications from science policy to individual reward. Yet, the documented lack of predictability of citation based measures frequently used to gauge impact, from impact factors to short-term citations, raises a fundamental question: is there long-term predictability in citation patterns? Here we derive a mechanistic model for the citation dynamics of individual papers, allowing us to collapse the citation histories of papers from different journals and disciplines into a single curve, indicating that all papers follow the same universal temporal pattern. The observed patterns not only help us uncover the basic mechanisms that govern scientific impact, but also offer reliable measures of influence with potential policy implications.

  6. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  7. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  8. Long term complications in juvenile diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nordwall, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background/aim. The incidence of microvascular complications has been reported to be unchanged the last decades. However, in randomized clinical trials it has been shown that improved metabolic control can reduce the development of long term complications. It has been debated whether it is possible to achieve the same results in an unselected population. In a previous study we found a decreased incidence of overt nephropathy, but unchanged incidence of severe laser treated retinopathy in a po...

  9. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients ...

  10. Consequences of long-term hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graal, M B; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-07-01

    We describe a young woman with long-term untreated hyperparathyroidism with a superimposed vitamin D deficiency and an extremely decreased bone mineral density that was complicated by a vertebral fracture. Despite pretreatment with intravenous pamidronate and short-term vitamin D supplementation, severe and long-standing hypocalcaemia ('hungry bone syndrome') developed after parathyroidectomy. We discuss the consequences of hyperparathyroidism, especially the effects on bone, the complications of parathyroidectomy and the possibilities of preoperative treatment with bisphosphonates.

  11. Cutaneous oxalosis after long-term hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G; Schwartz, S T; Reginato, A J

    1992-07-01

    A 27-year-old woman undergoing long-term hemodialysis developed cutaneous calcifications on her fingers. A skin biopsy specimen showed that the deposits were calcium oxalate. To our knowledge, only one previous article has reported pathologic and crystallographic studies on calcifications of the skin resulting from dialysis oxalosis. We speculate that vitamin C supplements, liberal tea consumption, an increased serum ionized calcium concentration, and the long duration of hemodialysis contributed to the production of these deposits.

  12. Long Term Evolution of Plasma Wakefields

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Katsouleas, T. C.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.

    2014-01-01

    We study the long-term evolution (LTE) of plasma wakefields over multiple plasma-electron periods and few plasma-ion periods, much less than a recombination time. The evolution and relaxation of such a wakefield-perturbed plasma over these timescales has important implications for the upper limits of repetition-rates in plasma colliders. Intense fields in relativistic lasers (or intense beams) create plasma wakefields (modes around {\\omega}pe) by transferring energy to the plasma electrons. C...

  13. Procrastination on Long-Term Projects

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Ted; Rabin, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Previous papers on time-inconsistent procrastination assume projects are completed once begun. We develop a model in which a person chooses whether and when to complete each stage of a long-term project. In addition to procrastination in starting a project, a naive person might undertake costly effort to begin a project but then never complete it. When the costs of completing different stages are more unequal, procrastination is more likely, and it is when later stages are more costly that ...

  14. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  15. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  16. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase...

  17. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer Robert L

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Or...

  18. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Heal...

  19. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  20. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  1. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  2. Long-term space flights - personal impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. V.

    During a final 4-month stage of a 1-year space flight of cosmonauts Titov and Manarov, a physician, Valery Polyakov was included on a crew for the purpose of evaluating their health, correcting physical status to prepare for the spacecraft reentry and landing operations. The complex program of scientific investigations and experiments performed by the physician included an evaluation of adaptation reactions of the human body at different stages of space mission using clinicophysiological and biochemical methods; testing of alternative regimes of exercise and new countermeasures to prevent an unfavourable effect of long-term weightlessness.

  3. LTE (4G) – Long Term Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Juhala, Arttu

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään matkapuhelinverkko teknologian neljättä sukupolvea ja tarkemmin Long Term Evolutionia eli LTE:tä. Tutustutaan 4G LTE – matkapuhelinverkon historiaan, teknologian kehitykseen ja rakenteeseen. Lisäksi esitellään tarkemmin tekniikoita, joita LTE käyttää. Työssä on tehty pienimuotoinen mittausesimerkki pakettidatan siirrosta signaali analysaattorilla, sekä testattu käytännössä operaattorin tarjoamaa rajatonta 4G liittymää Tampereen keskustassa. Lopuksi työssä ver...

  4. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  5. Long-term effects of sibling incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daie, N; Witztum, E; Eleff, M

    1989-11-01

    Although sexual abuse of children is recognized as a serious problem, sibling incest has received relatively little attention. A distinction has been made between power-oriented sibling incest and nurturance-oriented incest. The authors review the relevant literature and present four clinical examples. The cases illustrate the broad range of sibling incest and demonstrate its effects, including the long-term consequences for the perpetrator. Lasting difficulties in establishing and maintaining close relationships, especially sexual ones, are prominent features of each case. Without denying the occurrences of benign sex-play between siblings, the authors emphasize exploitation and abuse as pathogenic aspects of sibling incest.

  6. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  7. Long-Term Effects of Class Size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  8. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  9. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are beneficial for cognitive and non-cognitive ability at age 13, and improve achievement at age 16. Most importantly, we find that smaller classes have positive effects on completed education, wages, and earnings at age 27 to 42. The estimated ...

  10. Long term youth unemployment or disposable workforce?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini; Elisa Grand

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a process which I denote as “young workforce disposal” (YWD). YWD reflects the fact that many young people enter the labor market as dependent employees, at some later time they are dismissed and (presumably) move into never-ending unemployment. Long term unemployment may last two, three, four years, but, in the end, it should lead to re-entry in working activities. If it does not, i.e. if we observe young men separating from their jobs for whatever reason, and, for as lon...

  11. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  12. Long Term Analysis for the BAM device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, D.; Gardiol, D.

    2011-02-01

    Algorithms aimed at the evaluation of critical quantities are based on models with many parameters, which values are estimated from data. The knowledge, with high accuracy, of these values and the control of their temporal evolution are important features. In this work, we focus on the latter subject, and we show a proposed pipeline for the BAM (Basic Angle Monitoring) Long Term Analysis, aimed at the study of the calibration parameters of the BAM device and of the Basic Angle variation, searching for unwanted trends, cyclic features, or other potential unexpected behaviours.

  13. Long-term plant availability of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental releases of actinide elements raise issues about which data are very limited. Quantitative information is required to assess the long-term behavior of actinides and their potential hazards resulting from the transport through food chains leading to man. Of special interest is the effect of time on the changes in the availability of actinide elements for uptake by plants from soil. This study provides valuable information on the effects of weathering and aging on the uptake of actinides from soil by range and crop plants grown under realistic field conditions

  14. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Raja, Waseem K; Wang, Rebecca Y; Stinson, Jordan A; Glettig, Dean L; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L

    2015-08-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogenesis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight.

  15. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  16. Long-term outcome in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M H

    1993-03-01

    Personality disorders meeting DSM or ICD criteria represent the severe end of the broad spectrum of personality configurations involving maladaptive traits. The literature regarding long-term outcome of personality disorders is sparse. Most attention is devoted to formerly institutionalised patients with borderline, antisocial, or schizotypal disorders. Borderline patients at 10-25-year follow-up have a wide range of outcomes, from clinical recovery (50-60%) to suicide (3-9%). Certain factors (e.g. artistic talent) conduce to higher recovery rates, others (e.g. parental cruelty) to lower rates. Schizoid and schizotypal patients tend to remain isolated, and to lead marginal lives. The long-term outcome in antisocial persons is bleak if psychopathic traits are prominent. Personality traits and their corresponding disorders are egosyntonic, harden into habit, and are both slow to change and hard to modify. There is no one treatment of choice. Psychoanalysis and related methods work best within the anxious/inhibited group; cognitive/behavioural techniques are well suited to the disorders requiring limit setting and the amelioration of maladaptive habits. PMID:8453424

  17. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr and 239-240Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  18. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source. PMID:15923465

  19. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  20. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  1. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  2. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  3. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  4. Long-Term Stability of Horseshoe Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Ćuk, Matija; Holman, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Unlike Trojans, horseshoe coorbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable (Dermott and Murray, 1981; Murray and Dermott, 1999). As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe coorbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet coorbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe coorbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with results of Laughlin and Chambers (2002) for equal-mass pairs or coorbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions (Stacey and Connors, 2008). Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approa...

  5. Emotional behavior in long-term marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, L L; Gottman, J M; Levenson, R W

    1995-03-01

    In exploring the emotional climate of long-term marriages, this study used an observational coding system to identify specific emotional behaviors expressed by middle-aged and older spouses during discussions of a marital problem. One hundred and fifty-six couples differing in age and marital satisfaction were studied. Emotional behaviors expressed by couples differed as a function of age, gender, and marital satisfaction. In older couples, the resolution of conflict was less emotionally negative and more affectionate than in middle-aged marriages. Differences between husbands and wives and between happy and unhappy marriages were also found. Wives were more affectively negative than husbands, whereas husbands were more defensive than wives, and unhappy marriages involved greater exchange of negative affect than happy marriages.

  6. Long-term variations of solar activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram we analyzed two sunspot series: the one over the past 11000 years at the 10-year interval based upon the survey data of 14C concentration in tree-rings, reconstructed by Solanki et al.; and the sunspot number over the past 7000 years, derived from geomagnetic variations by Usoskin et al. We found the periods and quasi-periods in solar activity, such as about 225, 352, 441, 522 and 561 a, and near 1000 and 2000 a. An approach of wavelet transform was applied to check the two sunspot time series, with emphasis on investigating time-varying characteristics in the long-term fluctuations of solar activity. The results show that the lengths and amplitudes of the periods have changed with time, and large variations have taken place during some periods.

  7. [Enteral nutrition through long-term jejunostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, T; Neira, P; Enríquez, C

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a female patient suffering a peritonitis episode after subtotal gastrectomy due to gastric neoplasm in relation to lesser curvature necrosis extending to the anterior esophageal wall. This an uncommon andsevere complication that made mandatory further aggressive surgery: transection of the abdominal esophagus, transection of the gastric stump, and cervical esophagostomy with creation of a jejunostomy with a needle catheter for feeding. This digestive tube access technique is generally used during major abdominal post-surgery until oral intake is reestablished. Our patient has been 187 days with this therapy since reconstruction of the GI tract was ruled out due to tumoral infiltration of the colon and tumor recurrence at the gastrohepatic omentum. To date, there has been no complication from permanence and/or long-term use of this technique.

  8. Safety of long-term PPI therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published in the past decade and are critically reviewed in this article and the existing evidence is evaluated and translated into possible clinical consequences. Based on the existing evidence the benefits of PPI treatment seem to outweigh potential risks in the large majority of patients especially if PPI use is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment. PMID:23998981

  9. Radiation risk during long-term spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. M.

    Cosmonauts` exposure to cosmic rays during long-term spaceflight can cause unfavorable effects in health and risk for the crew members` lives. All unfavorable effects induced by exposure should be taken into consideration for the risk estimation. They should include both the acute deterministic effects and delayed effects called stochastic. On the ground the limitation of unfavorable consequences of acute exposure is achieved by means of establishing dose limits. But in space applications this approach can't be acceptable. Establishing a fixed dose limit is adequate to introducing indefinite reserve coefficient and therefore ineffective usage of spacecraft resource. The method of radiation risk calculation caused by acute and delayed effects of cosmonauts' exposure is discussed and substantiated in the report. Peculiarities of the impact of permanent radiation sources (galactic cosmic rays and trapped radiation) and the variable one (solar cosmic rays) are taken into consideration.

  10. Brodie's abscess. A long-term review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, M M; MacAuley, P

    1988-09-01

    In 20 patients with 21 Brodie's abscesses, a long-term review revealed that 13 occurred in the second decade of life. All had local symptoms for six weeks or more. The tibia was involved in 11 cases and seven of these were in the proximal metaphysis. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was elevated in only six cases. When the ESR was more than 40 mm per hour, recurrence was more likely. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from 11 abscesses. Curettage and antibiotics for six weeks were adequate for treatment in most cases. However, lesions larger than 3 cm in diameter should be grafted, and patients with an elevated ESR require more aggressive decompression and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Lesions within the neck of the femur pose particular anatomic problems and should not be approached laterally. All cases were followed to full bone maturity. No significant leg length inequality was clinically or roentgenologically apparent. If an abscess was juxtaphyseal, deformity of the epiphysis could develop.

  11. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  12. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  13. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  14. 甲型肝炎减毒活疫苗(H2株)一针接种后免疫保护效果的15年观察%Long-term immunogencity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2-strain )-a study on the result of 15 years' follow up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄昉成; 毛子安; 姜立民; 吴洁; 陈悦青; 姜器; 陈念良; 柴少爱; 毛江森

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term immunogencity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection, through a 15 years' follow up observation. Methods A total of 220 children with negative anti-HAV antibody (aged 1-3 y)were involved and followed up in Jiaojiang district, Taizhou city, Zhejiang province. Indicators would include seroconversion and geometric meantiter(GMT) levels after inoculation the vaccine with single dose at 2 m, 12 m, 6 years, 10 years and 15 years. Epidemiological observation was carried out within the 15 years to evaluate the relationship between vaccine coverage, the incidence of HA and the overall effectiveness. In the studied population, serum was tested by ELISA(calibrated by WHO international reference) and ABBOTT Axsym HAVAB mEIA. Results Seroconversion rates were found to be 98.6% and 81.3% after 2 months and 15 years of inoculation and slowly decreased. GMT level was 128 mIU/ml after 15 years, significantly higher than the required protective level of 20 mIU/ml,recommended by WHO experts. Effectiveness through the 15-year follow up program showed a significant correlation between vaccine coverage and incidence of HA in 1-15 years aged group (Kendall-Rank test, t =-0.931, P<0.01). There was no HA case seen among the observed accumulated 236 413 person-year vaccines, compared to 4 HA cases discovered in the 27 206 personyear of the non-vaccinees. The overall protective rate reached 100%. Through a mass vaccination program on children, the whole population established an immune-defence to enable the incidence of HA decreased by 96.7%. Conclusion The long-term immunogencity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection could last as long as 15 years.%目的 评估甲型肝炎(甲肝)减毒活疫苗(H2株)一针接种后的15年血清学和流行病学保护效果.方法 在浙江省台州市椒江区选择220名免前抗

  15. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  16. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  17. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  18. Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary and Behavioral Health Integration Disability Dual Eligibles Elder Rights/Adult Protective Services Falls Prevention Housing with Services Informal Caregiving Long-Term Care Financing Long-Term Care Insurance Medicaid Home and ...

  19. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  20. Long-term treatment outcome in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, I M; Rajasoorya, C R; Gamble, G D; Stewart, A W

    2003-08-01

    A number of groups have developed guidelines to indicate whether an individual with acromegaly has been cured by treatment. However, studies to date do not provide a robust definition of biochemical remission of the disorder based on correlation with long-term outcome. Available data suggest that those with a random serum growth hormone (GH) level of <2.5 microg/l, or a glucose-suppressed GH level of <1 microg/l following treatment have mortality figures indistinguishable from the general population. However, the confidence limits for these mortality estimates are quite wide. It remains possible that growth hormone levels lower than 1 microg/l for random samples, or even lower when using ultrasensitive GH assays, may indicate superior outcome, but this remains to be confirmed. There are limited data relating serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels to outcome, although normalisation of serum IGF-I clearly improves outcome compared with continued elevation of measurements after treatment. Current evidence suggests that a post-treatment random serum GH <2.5 microg/l and a normal serum IGF-I value defines biochemical cure. Available data suggest that achieving similar growth hormone levels after treatment also reduces the prevalence of chronic complications of the disorder, which is subsequently reflected in improved mortality. PMID:12914751

  1. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  2. Allogeneic radiation chimeras: long-term studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethally irradiated mice protected with allogeneic fetal liver cells or with syngeneic or allogeneic marrow and spleen cells treated with antisera to mouse immunoglobulins or to the T cell-associated 0 antigen and their controls were observed for up to 750 days. The best survival rates were found in the large groups given syngeneic marrow and spleen or allogeneic fetal liver cells (70-85 percent 700-day survival); in contrast, 43 percent of the group injected with allogeneic cells treated with anti-0 serum and 19 percent of those given antimmunoglobulin-treated cells were alive 700 days postradiation. Pulmonary infection was the most frequent cause of death of long-term survivors in all groups. Tumor incidence was increased in recipients of allogeneic cells (13 percent versus 4 percent among syngeneic chimeras), but the renal pathology seen in these groups was no greater than that noted in the syngeneic controls. Beginning 600 days after irradiation, mice from experimental and control groups were killed and their spleens were cultured with thymus-dependent antigens and the mitogens concanavalin Λ and lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli. The most frequent finding in all groups was mild to moderate impairment of T cell-dependent responses. (U.S.)

  3. Long Term Evolution of Plasma Wakefields

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash A; Tsung, F S; Mori, W B

    2014-01-01

    We study the long-term evolution (LTE) of plasma wakefields over multiple plasma-electron periods and few plasma-ion periods, much less than a recombination time. The evolution and relaxation of such a wakefield-perturbed plasma over these timescales has important implications for the upper limits of repetition-rates in plasma colliders. Intense fields in relativistic lasers (or intense beams) create plasma wakefields (modes around {\\omega}pe) by transferring energy to the plasma electrons. Charged-particle beams in the right phase may be accelerated with acceleration/focusing gradients of tens of GeV/m. However, wakefields leave behind a plasma not in equilibrium, with a relaxation time of multiple plasma-electron periods. Ion motion over ion timescales, caused by energy transfer from the driven plasma-electrons to the plasma-ions can create interesting plasma states. Eventually during LTE, the dynamics of plasma de-coheres (multiple modes through instability driven mixing), thermalizing into random motion (...

  4. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  5. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  6. Long-term oxygen therapy: battling breathlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 1 million of the 1.4 million Americans (71%) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) are Medicare beneficiaries, confirming that LTOT is most often prescribed for individuals 65 years of age or older. Although several conditions create a need for supplemental oxygen, the majority of patients have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with healthy lungs can extract the oxygen from air, while those with damaged lungs need higher oxygen concentrations. They can supplement their oxygen using one of three options: high-pressure oxygen tanks, liquid oxygen, or oxygen concentrators. The multicenter Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial and the smaller Medical Research Council study identified LTOT as an intervention that improved survival in patients with COPD or chronic respiratory failure, approximately doubling survival at 19 months in patients who were adherent to oxygen. Despite its advantages, LTOT is plagued with problems: compliance with clinical guidelines, patient adherence, and cost. Fires associated with smoking in the vicinity of supplemental oxygen are the leading cause of residential fire deaths in the United States.

  7. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  8. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  9. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  10. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  11. Downlink Scheduling in Long Term Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigated research article on resource block scheduling of Long Term Evolution (LTE. LTE is one of the evolutions of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS. It provides internet access to mobile users through smart phone, laptop and other android devices. LTE offers a high speed data and multimedia services. It supports data rates up to 100 Mbps in the downlink and 50 Mbps in the uplink transmission. Our research investigation was aim to the downlink scheduling. We have considered The Best CQI scheduling algorithm and the Round Robin scheduling algorithm. The implementation, analysis and comparison of these scheduling algorithms have been performed through MATLAB simulator. We have analyzed the impact of the scheduling schemes on the throughput and the fairness of both scheduling schemes. Here we have proposed a new scheduling algorithm that achieves a compromise between the throughput and the fairness. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has been adopted as the downlink transmission scheme. We have considered the impact of the channel delay on the throughput. In addition, MIMO transceiver systems have been implemented to increase the throughput

  12. The long term macroeconomic role for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguments about the role of energy in economic systems are incomplete without analysis of the effects of changes in the price of energy. It may be true (because energy can substitute for so many other things) that we can continue to increase energy output per capita as long as we are prepared to increase energy consumption per unit of output, but if the price of energy is higher than consumers are prepared to pay the process will come to a stop. It follows that the output at any point in time is the result of an equilibrium between a great many factors in the economy one of which is the price of energy. The question that I now pose is whether the price of energy is an especially important factor. The subject is analyzed under the headings: the economics of energy price; a first attempt to model long-term effects; what is a price hike; modelling energy price hikes; implications and lessons for nuclear energy; the present reality. (author)

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela-Emanuela Danacica; Raluca Mazilescu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze characteristics of long-term unemployment spells in Romania and to estimate the effect of factors influencing long-term unemployment spells. The study period is in between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2010. 468159 long-term spells registered in the specified period at the National Agency of Employment are analyzed.

  14. TIA and Stroke: the long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, I. van

    2006-01-01

    Background Survival after stroke has improved, but little is known about the long-term risk of new vascular events and the functioning of long-term survivors. The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate the long-term perspective of these patients. Methods Two longitudinal studies were carried

  15. Attenuated right ventricular energetics evaluated using {sup 11}C-acetate PET in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ohira, Hiroshi; Tsujino, Ichizo; Sato, Takahiro; Nishimura, Masaharu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, First Department of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Oyama-Manabe, Noriko [Hokkaido University Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Sapporo (Japan); Mielniczuk, Lisa; Beanlands, Rob S.B. [Ottawa Heart Institute, Division of Cardiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kasai, Katsuhiko [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan); Manabe, Osamu; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Fujii, Satoshi [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Ito, Yoichi M. [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Sapporo (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    The right ventricle (RV) has a high capacity to adapt to pressure or volume overload before failing. However, the mechanisms of RV adaptation, in particular RV energetics, in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are still not well understood. We aimed to evaluate RV energetics including RV oxidative metabolism, power and efficiency to adapt to increasing pressure overload in patients with PH using {sup 11}C-acetate PET. In this prospective study, 27 patients with WHO functional class II/III PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure 39.8 ± 13.5 mmHg) and 9 healthy individuals underwent {sup 11}C-acetate PET. {sup 11}C-acetate PET was used to simultaneously measure oxidative metabolism (k{sub mono}) for the left ventricle (LV) and RV. LV and RV efficiency were also calculated. The RV ejection fraction in PH patients was lower than in controls (p = 0.0054). There was no statistically significant difference in LV k{sub mono} (p = 0.09). In contrast, PH patients showed higher RV k{sub mono} than did controls (0.050 ± 0.009 min{sup -1} vs. 0.030 ± 0.006 min{sup -1}, p < 0.0001). PH patients exhibited significantly increased RV power (p < 0.001) and hence increased RV efficiency compared to controls (0.40 ± 0.14 vs. 0.017 ± 0.12 mmHg.mL.min/g, p = 0.001). The RV oxidative metabolic rate was increased in patients with PH. Patients with WHO functional class II/III PH also had increased RV power and efficiency. These findings may indicate a myocardial energetics adaptation response to increasing pulmonary arterial pressure. (orig.)

  16. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  17. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  18. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  19. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  20. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  1. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO-3-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff

  2. Long term performance of the Waterloo denitrification barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, W.D.; Cherry, J.A. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Beginning in 1991 a series of laboratory tests and small scale field trials were initiated to test the performance of an innovative permeable reactive barrier for treatment of nitrate from septic systems. The barrier promotes denitrification by providing an energy source in the form of solid organic carbon mixed into the porous media material. Advantages of the system for nitrate treatment are that the reaction is passive and in situ and it is possible to incorporate sufficient carbon mass in conveniently sized barriers to potentially provide treatment for long periods (decades) without the necessity for maintenance. However, longevity can only be demonstrated by careful long term monitoring of field installations. This paper documents four years of operating history at three small scale field trials; two where the denitrification barrier is installed as a horizontal layer positioned in the unsaturated zone below conventional septic system infiltration beds and one where the barrier is installed as a vertical wall intercepting a septic system plume at a downgradient location. The barriers have successfully attenuated 50-100% of NO{sup -}{sub 3}-N levels of up to 170 mg/L and treatment has remained consistent over the four year period in each case, thus considerable longevity is indicated. Other field trials have demonstrated this technology to be equally effective in treating nitrogen contamination from other sources such as landfill leachate and farm field runoff.

  3. Long-term Ozone monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  4. Stochastic Induction of Long-Term Potentiation and Long-Term Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, G; Roque, A C; Simoes-de-Souza, F M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) of granule-Purkinje cell synapses are persistent synaptic alterations induced by high and low rises of the intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]), respectively. The occurrence of LTD involves the activation of a positive feedback loop formed by protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, and its expression comprises the reduction of the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Recently, a stochastic computational model of these signalling processes demonstrated that, in single synapses, LTD is probabilistic and bistable. Here, we expanded this model to simulate LTP, which requires protein phosphatases and the increase in the population of synaptic AMPA receptors. Our results indicated that, in single synapses, while LTD is bistable, LTP is gradual. Ca(2+) induced both processes stochastically. The magnitudes of the Ca(2+) signals and the states of the signalling network regulated the likelihood of LTP and LTD and defined dynamic macroscopic Ca(2+) thresholds for the synaptic modifications in populations of synapses according to an inverse Bienenstock, Cooper and Munro (BCM) rule or a sigmoidal function. In conclusion, our model presents a unifying mechanism that explains the macroscopic properties of LTP and LTD from their dynamics in single synapses. PMID:27485552

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT SPELLS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Emanuela Dănăcică

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze characteristics of long-term unemployment spells in Romania and to estimate the effect of factors influencing long-term unemployment spells. The study period is in between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2010. 468159 long-term spells registered in the specified period at the National Agency of Employment are analyzed.

  6. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    CERN Document Server

    Faye, Ibrahima; Seck, Diaraf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  7. Long-Term Inflation Outcomes after Hyperinflation: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    This paper does two things. First, it shows both anecdotal and cross-country evidence that indicates that countries that have experienced hyperinflation display significantly lower long-term rates of inflation than countries that lack the same experience. Secondly, it presents a model to rationalize the main empirical finding. There is more than one mechanism through which the long-term effects of hyperinflation may have an impact on long-term inflation outcomes. The suggested explanation thi...

  8. Understanding Long-Term Variations in an Elephant Piosphere Effect to Manage Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Marietjie Landman; David S Schoeman; Anthony J Hall-Martin; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2012-01-01

    Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water avail...

  9. The Uneasy Case for Favoring Long-Term Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse M. Fried

    2015-01-01

    This paper challenges a persistent and pervasive view in corporate law and corporate governance: that a firm’s managers should favor long-term shareholders over short-term shareholders, and maximize long-term shareholders’ returns rather than the short-term stock price. Underlying this view is a strongly-held intuition that taking steps to increase long-term shareholder returns will generate a larger economic pie over time. But this intuition, I show, is flawed. Long-term shareholders, like s...

  10. Information exchange between short term and long term operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven

    2016-04-01

    This research focuses on the interactions between optimal short term and long term operations of managed water systems. Stochastic Dynamic Programming is used as a framework to find and analyze optimal operations. When considering optimal operations under uncertainty, the short term operations are influenced by the long term optimal policy through the value function of the end-state at the short term horizon. Conversely, the optimal long-term operations are influenced by the value of future decisions, which is partly determined by the short term operations. This leads to a two-way information flow between short and long term operations. The implications of this information flow are discussed.

  11. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  12. How Does Long-Term Finance Affect Economic Volatility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Horváth, Bálint; Huizinga, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In an approach analogous to Rajan and Zingales (1998), we examine how the ability to access long-term debt affects firm-level growth volatility. We find that firms in industries with stronger preference to use long-term finance relative to short-term finance experience lower growth volatility in cou

  13. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M;

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  14. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  15. Determinants of long-term renal allograft outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen-Artz, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term renal allograft survival is markedly affected by premature death with a functioning graft, chronic allograft nephropathy, and recurrence of the original kidney disease. To improve long-term graft survival, focus is shifting from the prevention of acute rejections to the recognition and tre

  16. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Priebe; J. Jankovic Gavrilovic; S. Bremner; D. Ajdukovic; T. Franciskovic; G.M. Galeazzi; A. Kucukalic; D. Lecic-Tosevski; N. Morina; M. Popovski; M. Schützwohl; M. Bogic

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former Yugoslav

  17. Determinants and consequences of long-term benzodiazepine use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to describe the epidemiology of long term BZD use as well as its long term consequences. This thesis is structured into three sections: In section one, the correlates of BZD use, new use, chronic use, inappropriate use, and BZD dependence severity are investigate

  18. IPO-related organizational change and long-term performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eije, J.H. von; Witte, M.C. de; Zwaan, A.H. van der

    2000-01-01

    Mainstream literature on long-term performance of initial public offerings focuses on long-term underperformance. Because underperformance is an anomalous phenomenon, many authors search for explanations based on financial market imperfections. More recently, however, the attention shifts from under

  19. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  20. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  1. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.L.; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications fo

  2. Interim analysis in long-term clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the usefulness of both stopping rules and estimation methods in long-term clinical trials with interim analyses. The ASPECT trial, a long-term clinical trial to assess the effect of anticoagulant therapy on mortality in patients after myoca

  3. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  4. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-01

    Analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. The intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  5. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  6. Role of healthcare in Korean long-term care insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Im-Oak; Park, Chong Yon; Lee, Yunhwan

    2012-05-01

    With the rapid aging of the population, Korea introduced public long-term care insurance for older people in 2008. The long-term care insurance was designed as a separate scheme from the national health insurance, with eligibility qualifications and the certification process based on functional disability, benefits and coverage of community-based and institutional care, and a financing structure through multi-party contributions. Delivering appropriate health services to long-term care beneficiaries who manifest a high prevalence of comorbid chronic conditions with rising healthcare costs, however, presents a particular challenge. The lack of coordination between the health and long-term care sectors, limited consideration of physicians' assessments in the certification process, inadequate provision of health services in long-term care facilities, and overlapping and inefficient use of care resources act as barriers to providing comprehensive healthcare for older beneficiaries. Through active participation in the long-term care system, health professionals can help older patients navigate through the complex long-term care terrain to obtain quality healthcare.

  7. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  8. Long-Term Mean Wind Profiles Based on Similarity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    We provide general forms for long-term mean wind profiles from similarity-based wind profiles, beginning with a probabilistic adaptation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. We develop an analytical formulation for the stability distributions prevailing in the atmospheric surface layer, which in...... turn facilitates the derivation of a long-term mean wind profile based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. The modelled stability distributions exhibit good agreement with measurements from sites having different local conditions. The long-term wind profile formulation is further extended to include...

  9. Concentrations of soil potassium after long-term organic dairy production

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Øgaard, Anne Falk

    2003-01-01

    On five long-term organic dairy farms aiming at self-sufficiency with nutrients, soil concentrations of ammonium-acetate lactate extractable potassium (K-AL) and acid-soluble K was measured twice in topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) over periods of 6-14 years. Organic management had occurred for >9 years at the second sampling. On average there were most probably field level K-deficits. Even so, topsoil K-AL concentrations were medium high (65-155 mg K kg–1 soil), and did not decrease ...

  10. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  11. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  12. Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Carbon emissions from the Arctic tundra could increase drastically as global warming thaws permafrost. Clues now obtained about the long-term effects of such thawing on carbon dioxide emissions highlight the need for more data.

  13. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  14. Managerial Long-Term Responsibility in Family-Controlled Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that long-term orientation (LTO as a dominantstrategic logic contributes to the sustainable performance offamily-controlled firms (FCFS. Combining a review of the literatureon lto with stewardship theory and upper echelons theoryreasoning, this article presents a typology of managerial responsibilityand introduces the concept of long-term responsibility as amanagerial characteristic constituting a major driving force behindcreating lto. The antecedents of long-term responsibilityunder family firm-specific conditions (stemming from the familysystem, the governance system, and family-firm managers’ personalcharacteristics are also identified and presented in an integratedmodel. The paper contributes to a more comprehensiveunderstanding of intertemporal choice in fcfs and explains whythey tend to be more long-term oriented than other types of firms.

  15. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  16. Long-term intrathecal administration of midazolam and clonidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, PAJ; Krijnen, HJ

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical usefulness of the long-term intrathecal administration of midazolam and clonidine in patients with refractory neurogenic and musculoskeletal pain. Setting: Pain Centre, Academic Hospital Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Patients: Four patients with chronic

  17. Long-term monitoring for nanomedicine implants and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michaela; Lynch, Iseult

    2016-03-01

    Increasing globalization means that traditional occupational epidemiological approaches may no longer apply, suggesting a need for an alternative model to assess the long-term impact of nanomaterial exposure on health.

  18. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  19. Kids' Mild Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Injury Can Have Long-Term Effects Early head trauma linked to psychiatric, financial issues as adults, study ... HealthDay News) -- Young people who suffer even mild head trauma are more likely to have serious issues later ...

  20. Assisted Living Facilities - MO 2010 Long Term Care Facilities (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Long Term Care facilities (nursing homes) in Missouri - Data will not be made available for download via MSDIS. Interested parties should send an email inquiry to...

  1. Long-Term Trends in Space-Ground Atmospheric Propagation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Michael J.; Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne R.

    2015-01-01

    Propagation measurement campaigns are critical to characterizing the atmospheric behavior of a location and efficiently designing space-ground links. However, as global climate change affects weather patterns, the long-term trends of propagation data may be impacted over periods of decades or longer. Particularly, at high microwave frequencies (10 GHz and above), rain plays a dominant role in the attenuation statistics, and it has been observed that rain events over the past 50 years have trended toward increased frequency, intensity, and rain height. In the interest of quantifying the impact of these phenomena on long-term trends in propagation data, this paper compares two 20 GHz measurement campaigns both conducted at NASAs White Sands facility in New Mexico. The first is from the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) propagation campaign from 1994 to 1998, while the second is amplitude data recorded during a site test interferometer (STI) phase characterization campaign from 2009 to 2014.

  2. Long-Term Contracts in Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Hakes, Jahn K.; Chad Turner

    2008-01-01

    Long-term deals are one tool that both players and franchises use to manage risk. That tool has been much discussed and empirically tested with respect to player shirking, and has more briefly, and only theoretically, discussed with respect to reducing variance in future payrolls. Our work looks at how patterns of use of long-term contracts are affected by changes in contracting rules established through collective bargaining and by expected changes in franchise revenue streams. To accomplish...

  3. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines: Implications and guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; K Ranga R Krishnan

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and ...

  4. Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema

    OpenAIRE

    Wollenberg, Andreas; Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane

    2012-01-01

    Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting f...

  5. Long-term physical ageing in vitreous arsenic selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of long-term physical aging (approx 20 years) studied in vitreous arsenic selenides using differential scanning calorimetry are compared with conventional short-term physical aging (up to 1 year). It is shown that these effects differ not only by their amplitudes but also by compositional dependences. These results clearly testify in a favour of a sufficient difference in microstructural origin for short- and long-term physical aging in chalcogenide glasses

  6. Influential Factors in Long-term Product Service System Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini Taklimi, Seyed Reza

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents different aspects of long-term contract for product service system (PSS); also different issues that companies are dealt for implementation of PSS. The study consists of literature review for understanding factors which can affect long-term PSS contracts. Different generic categories of green business models which are used in PSS contracts have been addressed and in addition, various models of contracts for PSS in industries have been identified too. The important f...

  7. Long-term mortality and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    of DR was graded higher in the digital photos. Among these, PDR was detected in three eyes using digital photos but remained undetected on all films. This suggests that digital photos with wide fields are the best way to detect DR in long-term type 1 diabetic patients. Overall, it is concluded...... field digital photos provide the best grading of retinopathy in long-term type 1 diabetic patients....

  8. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  9. Long-term Consequences of Childhood ADHD on Criminal Activities*

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason; Wolfe, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether childhood mental illness has long term consequences in terms of criminal behavior has been little studied, yet it could have major consequences for both the individual and society more generally. In this paper, we focus on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent mental conditions in school-age children, to examine the long-term effects of childhood mental illness on criminal activities, controlling for a rich set of individual, family...

  10. Long-term mortality after Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Larsen, Anders R;

    2014-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases.......Patients diagnosed with Staphylococcus aureus spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality compared with the background population mainly due to infectious, endocrine, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and alcohol and drug abuse-related diseases....

  11. Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills J.A.; Teplitsky C.; Arroyo B.; Charmantier A.; Becker P.H.; Birkhead T.R.; Bize P.; Blumstein D.T.; Bonenfant C.; Boutin S.; Bushuev A.; Cam E.; Cockburn A.; Côté S.D.; Coulson J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, op...

  12. Seamless Long Term Learning in Agile Teams for Sustainable Leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M R J

    2012-01-01

    Seamless and continuous support for long term organizational learning needs is essential for long lasting progress of the organization. Agile process model provides an excellent opportunity to cater that specific problem and also helps in motivation, satisfaction, coordination, presentation and technical skills enhancement of agile teams. This long term learning process makes organization to sustain their current successes and lead both organization and team members to successful and dynamic market leaders.

  13. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Iannone; Clelia Tripaldi; Antonino Chindemi; Lorenzo Piscitelli; Antonio Mastrorocco; Silvano Palazzo; Luigi Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of childre...

  14. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  15. Long- term outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Jawad, Susan; Smith, Stuart W.; Harper, Lorraine; Brogan, Paul; Charles D. Pusey; Salama, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary systemic vasculitis presenting in childhood is an uncommon but serious condition. As these patients transfer to adult clinics for continuing care, defining long term outcomes with emphasis on disease and treatment- related morbidity and mortality is important. The aim of this study is to describe the long- term clinical course of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Methods The adult patients in our vasculitis clinics who had presented in childhood, with a follow up ti...

  16. Long- term outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pusey Charles D; Brogan Paul; Harper Lorraine; Smith Stuart W; Jawad Susan; Arulkumaran Nishkantha; Salama Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary systemic vasculitis presenting in childhood is an uncommon but serious condition. As these patients transfer to adult clinics for continuing care, defining long term outcomes with emphasis on disease and treatment- related morbidity and mortality is important. The aim of this study is to describe the long- term clinical course of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Methods The adult patients in our vasculitis clinics who had presented in childhood, with a fol...

  17. Commentary: The Broader Context of Long-Term Care Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesandrini, Jason; O'Connell, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Ethical issues in long-term care settings, although having received attention in the literature, have not in our opinion received the appropriate level they require. Thus, we applaud the Cambridge Quarterly for publishing this case. We can attest to the significance of ethical issues arising in long-term care facilities, as Mr. Hope's case is all too familiar to those practicing in these settings. What is unique about this case is that an actual ethics consult was made in a long-term care setting. We have seen very little in the published literature on the use of ethics structures in long-term care populations. Our experience is that these healthcare settings are ripe for ethical concerns and that providers, patients, families, and staff need/desire ethics resources to actively and preventively address ethical concerns. The popular press has begun to recognize the ethical issues involved in long-term care settings and the need for ethics structures. Recently, in California a nurse refused to initiate CPR for an elderly patient in a senior residence. In that case, the nurse was quoted as saying that the facility had a policy that nurses were not to start CPR for elderly patients. 1 Although this case is not exactly the same as that of Mr. Hope, it highlights the need for developing robust ethics program infrastructures in long-term care settings that work toward addressing ethical issues through policy, education, and active consultation.

  18. Induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression is cell-type specific in the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Young; Jun, Jaebeom; Wang, Jigong; Bittar, Alice; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The underlying mechanism of chronic pain is believed to be changes in excitability in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons that respond abnormally to peripheral input. Increased excitability in pain transmission neurons, and depression of inhibitory neurons, are widely recognized in the spinal cord of animal models of chronic pain. The possible occurrence of 2 parallel but opposing forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) was tested in 2 ty...

  19. Short- and long-term temperature effects on aerobic polyhydroxybutyrate producing mixed cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katja; van Geest, Jorien; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-03-01

    Short- and long-term temperature effects on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing mixed cultures enriched in feast-famine sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were investigated in a temperature range of 15-35 degrees C and 15-30 degrees C, respectively. After short-term temperature changes (i.e. 1 cycle) from the steady state temperature of 20 degrees C, reaction rate changes in the famine phase could be described over the whole temperature range with the Arrhenius equation with one temperature coefficient. For the feast phase different temperature coefficients were identified for acetate uptake, PHB production and growth. These were only valid for temperatures 5 degrees C higher or lower than the steady state temperature. Long-term temperature changes (i.e. new steady states) influenced not only the reaction rates but also the selective pressure in the SBR. At higher temperatures (30 degrees C) the SBR feast phase was short and the rates of acetate uptake and PHB storage were very high. This culture was characterized by a storage strategy with high yields of PHB and low yields of biomass in the feast phase. The PHB storage capacity of this culture was 84 wt% as evaluated in fed-batch experiments. At lower temperatures (15 degrees C) the feast phase was longer due to a lower rate of acetate uptake and the culture followed a strategy of direct growth on acetate rather than on PHB. This culture had a low maximal PHB storage capacity (about 35 wt%). The SBR culture enriched at 20 degrees C was able to store up to about 70 wt% PHB. The temperature at which fed-batch experiments were conducted did not influence the maximal PHB storage capacity. The SBR temperature was found to be an important factor to consider when designing a mixed culture PHB production process.

  20. Evaluation of Long-Term Migration Testing from Can Coatings into Food Simulants: Polyester Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Noonan, Gregory O; Begley, Timothy H

    2016-03-23

    FDA guidance for food contact substances recommends that for food packaging intended for use at sterilized, high temperature processed, or retorted conditions, a migration test with a retort step at 121 °C for 2 h followed by a 10 day migration test at 40 °C should be performed. These conditions are in intended to simulate processing and long-term storage. However, can coatings may be in contact with food for years, and there are very few data evaluating if this short-term testing accurately simulates migration over extended time periods. A long-term migration test at 40 °C with retorted and non-retorted polyester cans using several food simulants (water, 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and isooctane) was conducted to verify whether traditional migration testing protocols accurately predict migration from food contact materials used for extended time periods. Time points were from 1 day to 515 days. HPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze polyester monomers, and oligomer migration was monitored using HPLC-DAD/CAD and HPLC-MS. Concentrations of monomers and oligomers increased during the migration experiments, especially in ethanol food simulants. The data suggest that current FDA migration protocols may need to be modified to address changes in migrants as a result of long-term storage conditions. PMID:26917426

  1. Evaluation of Long-Term Migration Testing from Can Coatings into Food Simulants: Polyester Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Noonan, Gregory O; Begley, Timothy H

    2016-03-23

    FDA guidance for food contact substances recommends that for food packaging intended for use at sterilized, high temperature processed, or retorted conditions, a migration test with a retort step at 121 °C for 2 h followed by a 10 day migration test at 40 °C should be performed. These conditions are in intended to simulate processing and long-term storage. However, can coatings may be in contact with food for years, and there are very few data evaluating if this short-term testing accurately simulates migration over extended time periods. A long-term migration test at 40 °C with retorted and non-retorted polyester cans using several food simulants (water, 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol, and isooctane) was conducted to verify whether traditional migration testing protocols accurately predict migration from food contact materials used for extended time periods. Time points were from 1 day to 515 days. HPLC-MS/MS was used to analyze polyester monomers, and oligomer migration was monitored using HPLC-DAD/CAD and HPLC-MS. Concentrations of monomers and oligomers increased during the migration experiments, especially in ethanol food simulants. The data suggest that current FDA migration protocols may need to be modified to address changes in migrants as a result of long-term storage conditions.

  2. Aniracetam attenuates H2O2-induced deficiency of neuron viability, mitochondria potential and hippocampal long-term potentiation of mice in vitro%阿尼西坦减轻双氧水对小鼠神经元活力、线粒体电位及海马长时程增强的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永富; 李朝翠; 蔡景霞

    2006-01-01

    目的 在脑老化和阿尔茨海默尔氏病人脑中,氧自由基的升高是其神经元发生退行性病变,从而导致突触可塑性和认知障碍的机制之一.本文研究了阿尼西坦(aniracetam,一种治疗老年痴呆的药物)对抗双氧水损伤神经元活力,线粒体电位及海马突触传递长时程增强(Long-term potentiation,LTP)的作用.方法 用四甲基偶氮唑盐(3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide,MTT)法测定神经元的活力,用线粒体荧光探针MitoTracker Red(CMX Ros)研究线粒体电位的变化,用膜片钳方法记录了海马CA1区的突触传递效能.结果 200μmol/L的双氧水明显损伤小鼠大脑皮层原代培养神经元的细胞活力,降低其线粒体电位,而10μmol/L或100μmol/L阿尼西坦预处理能明显对抗双氧水对细胞活力和线粒体电位的降低作用.双氧水在不影响基础突触传递的剂量下(20 μmol/L),却能显著抑制海马LTP的诱导.阿尼西坦在100 μmol/L剂量下,对基础突触传递没有明显影响,对正常小鼠脑片CA1区的LTP也没有易化作用,然而,100μmol/L的阿尼西坦却能显著地恢复由双氧水损伤的海马LTP.结论 本研究结果表明,阿尼西坦对双氧水导致的毒性具有较强的神经保护作用,这为临床上用其治疗神经退行性疾病提供了参考依据.%Objective It is known that free radicals are involved in neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction, as seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aging. The present study examines the protective effects of aniracetam against H2O2-induced toxicity to neuron viability, mitochondria potential and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Methods Tetrazolium salt 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to detect neuronal viability.MitoTracker Red (CMX Ros), a fluorescent stain for mitochondria, was used to measure mitochondria potential. Electrophysiological technique was carried out to record

  3. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A.Ruban

    2015-01-01

    Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant) differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provi-sionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differ-ences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard”hi-erarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  4. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  5. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO(4) precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P. PMID:22982614

  6. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  7. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  8. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  9. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  10. Bacteremia is associated with excess long-term mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Gradel, Kim Oren;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Little is known about long-term outcomes following bacteremia. We investigated long-term mortality and causes of death among bacteremia patients compared with population controls. METHODS: Population-based cohort study of bacteremia patients and population controls matched on sex, year...... of birth, residency and calendar time, in Denmark during 2000-2008. We calculated absolute mortality and adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) in predefined follow-up periods. RESULTS: The absolute mortality for bacteremia patients (n = 7783) and population controls (n = 38,906) was 22.0% vs. 0.2% (30 days......-term mortality compared with the general population. The most common causes of death after bacteremia are cancer and cardiovascular diseases. SUMMARY: This population-based cohort study reports an excess long-term mortality among 7783 bacteremia patients compared with matched population controls during 12 years...

  11. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion (SP is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly focused on price reductions. Thus, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the issue of the long-term impact that SP has on companies, especially on premium brands in the FMCG markets. It concludes that, when used properly and strategically, SP may have a positive long-term impact on brands.

  12. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  13. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  14. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  15. Considerations of long-term radiation injury in nonhemopoietic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute whole body doses resulting in long-term survival are limited to about 4-5 Gy if successful marrow transplantation is not performed, and the critical tissue at risk is the bone marrow. After doses approaching this limit, long-term somatic injury comprises cataracts, persistent but not permanent infertility in man, and temporary or permanent sterility in some women. If marrow tranplantation is successful, the acute dose can be increased to about 7.5 Gy. The limiting tissue now becomes the lung, and the limiting effect is pnenumonitis. Cataracts and infertility become more prevalent, and other long-term effects become apparent. The main additional nonhemopoietic somatic effects are restrictive and obstructive lung damage, and hormonal imbalances in children that result in retardation of sexual development and growth. There are also a few secondary malignancies and a few cases of leukoencephalopathy. However, the latter are associated with additional prophylactic treatments for CNS disease

  16. Staining of palatal torus secondary to long term minocycline therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddula Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Minocycline and other tetracycline analogs are well known to cause discoloring of alveolar bone, teeth and other tissues. The present case reports palatine torus discoloring, in a 91-year-old patient, after long term minocycline therapy. The patient was presented with staining of the palatal torus resulting from prior minocycline use for three-and-a-half years. The diagnosis of minocycline staining of palatal torus was done during a routine hygiene examination. The patient was informed that the bluish appearance of the palatal torus was the result of long term minocycline use. The patient was not willing to discontinue the antibiotic and was not concerned about the appearance. The clinician should inform patients on long term minocycline therapy about the possible side effects of staining of the alveolar bone, teeth and other soft tissue.

  17. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-01

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  18. LONG-TERM EFFECT OF HOMOHARRINGTONINE ON CHRONIC GRANULOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-feng; ZHU Jia-bin; WANG Chun-ling; DING Bang-he; LI Yuan-yuan; XUAN Heng-bao; QIAN Mo-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the long-term effect of homoharringtonine (HHT) on chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) and its pharmacological mechanism. Methods: 76 patients with newly diagnosed early chronic phase CGL received treatment of merely 1.5 mg/m2 daily HHT for induction remission and long-term maintenance treatment. The apoptosis rate of bone marrow CD34+ cells induced by HHT was assayed with flow cytometer. Results: 86.8% patients achieved CHR, 13.2% patients PHR and 31.8% patients got cytogenetic response in HHT treatment group, which was longer than 31 (8-54) months in hydroxyurea (HU) group (P<0.05). The effect of apoptosis induction HHT was stronger on CGL-CP patients bone marrow CD34+ cells than on normal person bone marrow CD34+ cells. Conclusion: HHT is a very effective drug for remission induction and long-term maintenance treatment in early chronic phase CGL patients.

  19. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  20. Morphodynamic length scale and long term river meandering dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.

    2009-12-01

    The fully nonlinear simulation of the lateral migration of meandering channels, combined with an analytical description of the linearized flow field, gives a powerful and yet computationally accessible tool to investigate short and long term evolution of alluvial rivers. In the present contribution we focus on the long term behavior of meandering rivers. This class of dynamical systems is driven by the coexistence of various intrinsically nonlinear mechanisms which determine the possible occurrence of two different morphodynamic regimes: the sub-resonant and the super-resonant regime. Investigating the full range of morphodynamic conditions, we end up with a new morphodynamic length scale associated with spatially oscillating disturbances, accounting for both curvature-forced variations in velocity and depth and alternate bars. Once normalized with this length scale, the relevant morphologic features of the simulated long term patterns (i.e. the probability density function of the local channel curvature and the geometric characteristics of the oxbow lakes) tend to collapse on two distinct behaviors, depending on the dominant morphologic regime. The long term river meandering dynamics is then investigated. The occurrence of cutoff events is a key mechanism in the dynamics of these systems. They introduce a strong source of nonlinearity in the evolution of river meandering, which strongly contributes to the formation of the complex planform patterns usually observed in nature. To detect the possible signatures of a chaotic behavior or a self-organized criticality state triggered in river meandering dynamics by the repeated occurrence of cutoffs, some robust nonlinear methodologies have been applied to both the spatial series of local curvatures and the time series of long term channel sinuosity. The temporal distribution of cutoff inter-arrivals is also investigated. The results are consistent and show that, at least from a modelling point of view, no evidence of

  1. Long-term recurrence and death rates after acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle; Tønnesen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Maja Hanne;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death.......The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death....

  2. Long-term plasma exchange in pediatric CIDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetta, Marta; Vidal, Enrico; Sartori, Stefano; Campagnolo, Marta; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Marson, Piero; Manara, Renzo; Briani, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is not frequently used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) because it usually gives only a short-term benefit. We report on a 16-year-old boy with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who developed CIDP and underwent TPE with dramatic long-term response to therapy. Nerve ultrasound and MRI findings are also reported. In our patient TPE was chosen because he was already undergoing hemodialysis. Though it is not considered a first-line therapy in pediatric CIDP, TPE may be a good therapeutic choice also in long-term period. PMID:25663075

  3. Abdominal pain in long-term spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Faaborg, Pia Møller; Krogh, Klaus;

    2008-01-01

    /discomfort. There was no relation of abdominal pain to other types of pain.Conclusion:Chronic pain located in the abdomen is frequent in patients with long-term SCI. The delayed onset following SCI and the relation to constipation suggest that constipation plays an important role for this type of pain in the spinal cord injured.......Objectives:To describe the prevalence and character of chronic abdominal pain in a group of patients with long-term spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess predictors of abdominal pain.Study design:Postal survey.Setting:Members of the Danish Paraplegic Association.Methods:We mailed a questionnaire...

  4. Intrahepatic haematoma in a patient on long-term haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K N; Disney, A P; Mathew, T H

    Spontaneous intrahepatic haematoma is an uncommon potentially fatal complication in uraemic patients receiving long-term haemodialysis, particularly in those taking anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs. Prompt diagnosis, withdrawal of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy, cautious transfusion, and careful dialysis with regional heparinisation are essential in the management and may help to avoid surgical intervention in the presence of a tendency to bleed. Noninvasive organ imaging such as ultrasonography and computerised axial tomography are helpful in diagnosis and monitoring of progress. A case of intrahepatic haematoma in a 37-year-old man who had been receiving long-term haemodialysis since 1976 is described.

  5. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  6. Long-term skeletal findings in Menkes disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador, Eva [Son Dureta Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Domene, Ruth; Fuentes, Cristian; Carreno, Juan-Carlos; Enriquez, Goya [Vall d' Hebron Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Skeletal findings in infants with Menkes disease, the most characteristic of which are metaphyseal spurs, long-bone fractures and wormian bones, have been widely reported. However, the changes in skeletal features over time are not well known. The long-term findings differ completely from those initially observed and consist of undertubulation and metaphyseal flaring, similar to the findings seen in some types of bone dysplasia. The initial and long-term radiological features in an 8-year-old boy with Menkes disease are illustrated. (orig.)

  7. Long-term prognosis and causes of death after spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Dahl, Benny;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term prognosis after spondylodiscitis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine long-term mortality and the causes of death after spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort study using national registries of patients diagnosed with non.......62), respiratory (MRR = 1.71), gastrointestinal (MRR = 3.35), musculoskeletal (MRR = 5.39) and genitourinary diseases (MRR = 3.37), but also due to trauma, poisoning and external causes (MRR = 2.78), alcohol abuse-related diseases (MRR = 5.59) and drug abuse-related diseases (6 vs 0 deaths, MRR not calculable...

  8. Monetary policy and long-term interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Wu

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents some new empirical results about the monetary policy and long-term interest rates in the United States. It shows that changes in the monetary policy stance are more predictable to the bond market in the 1990s than in the 1970s. This shift in the predictability of the monetary policy actions affects the policy¡¯s impact on long-term interest rates as well as the forecasting power of the yield spread for the future changes in short-term interest rates.

  9. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adak, R P; Das, S; Ghosal, D; Ghosh, S K; Mondal, A; Nag, D; Nayak, T K; Patra, R N; Prasad, S K; Raha, S; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S; Swain, S

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long- term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  10. The long-term outlook for nuclear capacity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report derives three estimates of long-term nuclear growth in Ontario for use in strategy studies of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. The low and high estimates encompass the full range of possible long-term nuclear growth rates. The middle, or base growth, estimate represents the nuclear growth pattern which seems at the present time most likely to occur. For the base growth estimate, nuclear capacity in Ontario reaches 31 GWe in 2000, grows to 175 GWe by 2060, and then remains constant. For the high growth estimate, the capacity in 2000 is 33 GWe, and climbs continuously to 833 GWe by the year 2100. (auth)

  11. The impact of private long-term care insurance on the use of long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Jensen, Gail A

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of privately purchased long-term care insurance (LTCI) on three major types of long-term care services: nursing home care, paid home care, and informal care received from Family and friends. Using 2002-2008 data from the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, we analyze the determinants of long-term care utilization simultaneously with the determinants of holding LTCI. We find that LTCI has modest effects on the likelihood of using long-term care services. For the very frail elderly, private LTCI enhances their access to nursing home care. For those with moderate disability, LTCI makes it more likely that they can remain at home and receive home care services, instead of going to a nursing home. We find no evidence that formal care substitutes for informal care in the presence of LTCI. These findings suggest that if LTCI becomes much more prevalent in the future, many older adults will be able to choose the type of long-term care arrangement that best suits their needs. PMID:21634261

  12. Long-term versus short-term warming effects on microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tom; Leblans, Niki; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Richter, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rapid warming in high latitude ecosystems is predicted to drive massive losses of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils to the atmosphere, raising concerns that it will create a positive feedback to climate change. However, such predictions expect that temperature effects on soil microbes, as chief producers of CO2, will persist over time scales meaningful to the climate system (i.e. decades to centuries). There is increasing awareness that the soil microbial community can acclimate to temperature change over time scales from months to years, resulting in attenuating responses of CO2 release to the atmosphere. Despite this, nothing is currently known about long-term warming effects on the activity or physiology of high latitude soil microbes, and, through this, the longevity of CO2 losses from these ecosystems. We conducted a study at a unique research site that makes use of natural (geothermal) gradients in soil temperature that have been in place for over 35 years as a natural warming treatment. We determined long-term warming effects (+0.5 °C, +1.5 °C, +3 °C and +6 °C) on soil CO2 release through microbial respiration in a laboratory incubation experiment, and explored microbial carbon use efficiency and soil carbon and nitrogen pools as mechanisms. We also performed a companion experiment to compare long-term warming effects on microbial processes to those caused by six weeks of warming of ambient soil to +3 °C and +6 °C. We show that while six weeks of warming consistently increased microbial respiration by up to 30%, this effect did not persist in soils exposed to 35 years of warming. We present further data linking such long-term thermal acclimation to shifts in microbial carbon use efficiency and soil carbon and nitrogen availability, and discuss our findings in the context of warming-driven feedbacks from high latitude soils to future climate change.

  13. Long term benefits of hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gonsalkorale, W M; Miller, V; Afzal, A.; Whorwell, P J

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: There is now good evidence from several sources that hypnotherapy can relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in the short term. However, there is no long term data on its benefits and this information is essential before the technique can be widely recommended. This study aimed to answer this question.

  14. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  15. A cross cultural comparison of long-term supply relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gjalt de; Nooteboom, Bart

    2003-01-01

    This paper challenges the received view that long-term supply relationships are a typically Japanese feature, embedded and developed in a typically Japanese society characterized by high levels of trust and cooperation, and for that reason cannot be established in the typically a-cooperative, compet

  16. Non-proliferation aspects of long term assurance of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meetings in this section deal with the non-proliferation aspects of long-term assurance of supply of the nuclear fuel cycle. A list of 12 fundamental questions concerning the observation and application of the non-proliferation regulations is followed by the comments made by representatives of 10 countries

  17. Long term assurance of supply of raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discussed the long-term assurance of uranium supply. A number of key questions is presented along with the answers given by representatives of 10 countries and by EC commission. Emphasis is laid on market stability and on the difficulties in adopting to sudden changes in the supply and demand situation

  18. Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160719.html Weight-Loss Surgery Sheds Pounds Long Term 10-year follow- ... 31, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery helps people drop a significant amount of ...

  19. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolle, LE; Bentley, DW; Garibaldi, R; Neuhaus, EG; Smith, PW

    2000-01-01

    There is intense antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs), and studies repeatedly document that much of this use is inappropriate. The current crisis in antimicrobial resistance, which encompasses the LTCF, heightens concerns of antimicrobial use. Attempts to improve antimicrobial use

  20. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today, with a share of almost one third of the country's final energy demand. Considering this fact, it is very challenging to assess future trends influencing that demand. In this paper, long-term energy demand predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model incorporates the detailed modal structure of the Croatian transport sector, including road, rail, air, public and water transport modes. Four long-term energy demand scenarios were analysed till the year 2050; frozen efficiency, implementation of EU legislation, electrification and modal split. Based on that analysis, significant savings can be achieved through energy efficiency improvements, electrification of personal vehicles fleet as well as gradual modal split. Comparing the frozen efficiency scenario and electrification scenario for the year 2050, it can be concluded that energy consumption, with the heavy electrification of personal vehicles fleet, can be cut by half. - Highlights: • A bottom-up model was created and used to forecast long term energy demand of Croatian transport sector. • Four different long term energy demand scenarios were created using the model. If comparing the two most extreme scenarios, energy savings can go up to 59% in the year 2050

  1. Long-term accumulation of atmospheric dust in rocky deserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.; Offer, Z.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial pattern of long-term (hundreds to thousands of years) accumulation of dust in rocky deserts was investigated in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. The concentration of dust in the desert subsoil was measured at 41 locations in a 53 ha test area for which detailed information exists on

  2. Labor Income and the Demand for Long-term Bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The riskless nature in real terms of inflation-linked bonds has led to the conclusion that inflation-linked bonds should constitute a substantial part of the optimal investment portfolio of long-term investors.This conclusion is reached in models where investors do not receive labor income during th

  3. Long-term care offers opportunity for revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R D

    1991-06-01

    Hospital administrators already know that diversification will be a key to success in the future. Applying that philosophy to long-term care of the elderly is just one way to capture a growing consumer market. In the following article, the author addresses three potential variations for delivering such care by the hospital to this group. PMID:10113608

  4. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities. PMID:20446138

  5. Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term perspective on microfinance starts with a discussion of three central issues: first, views and policies, with two opposing views: "credit for target group" and "pushing the financial frontier"; second, the performance of microfinance institutions measured via two objectives: outreach a

  6. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for theexistence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG productcategories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablishedbrands when new products are introduced into the market andproduct...

  7. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

  8. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of medicine

  9. Spinal reflex properties in the long term after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, J.S.; Groot, de J.H.; Schouten, A.C.; Maier, A.B.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the long term after stroke, secondary functional deterioration may be observed while patients also get older. Possible underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We aimed to assess neuromuscular degeneration represented by alterations in peripheral reflex loop characteristics as a function of fol

  10. Autonomy and Acceptance of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Ting, Yu-Shan; Jiang, Ting-Wen; Chien, Ming-Chih; Chien, Chih-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between four types of autonomy (health autonomy, informational autonomy, living autonomy, and financial autonomy) and the acceptance of five types of long-term care (adult day care, respite care, assisted living, unit care, and group home) for the elderly in Taiwan. Data were collected from 167 middle-aged and…

  11. CENTRAL ASIA AND AZERBAIJAN:LONG-TERM ENERGY STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov, Stanislav; Reznikova, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the current state of and prospects for development of the energy sector in the post-Soviet countries of Central Asia and Azerbaijan and gives forecasts of the possibilities of implementing long-term energy projects in these regions.

  12. Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Long-Term Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Audrey K., Ed.; Showacre, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers from the 1974 conference held by the Pregnancy and Infancy Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to: (1) assess the photobiological processes involved in phototherapy used in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and (2) to document long term clinical experience with the treatment…

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  14. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to the appropriate confirmation schedule (RUS Form 690, Confirmation Schedule Obligation to the FFB as of: or...

  15. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  16. Sino-America Dialogue Brings Long-term Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Dialogue between China and U.S.is various in channels,among which Sino-U.S.Strategic Economic Dialogue paves way for a smoothly-going and long-term cooperation in bilateral relations.The dialogue focuses on bilateal and global strategic economic issues of common interests and concerns.

  17. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  18. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  19. Long term structural dynamics of mechanical systems with local nonlinearities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fey, R.H.B.; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the long term behavior of periodically excited mechanical systems consisting of linear components and local nonlinearities. The number of degrees of freedom of the linear components is reduced by applying a component mode synthesis technique. Lyapunov exponents are used to iden

  20. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  1. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section...-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must be... ensure viability and to sustain the operating costs that are described in paragraph (a)(2) of...

  2. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used fo

  3. Ethosuximide vs Valproate Long-term Remission of Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; Millichap, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from the Epilepsy Center, Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, and Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, examined the possible association between long-term seizure outcome of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and the initial treatment with ethosuximide (ESM) or valproic acid (VPA).

  4. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  5. A Digital Signature Scheme for Long-Term Security

    OpenAIRE

    Poulakis, Dimitrios; Rolland, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a signature scheme based on two intractable problems, namely the integer factorization problem and the discrete logarithm problem for elliptic curves. It is suitable for applications requiring long-term security and provides a more efficient solution than the existing ones.

  6. Container for long-term storage of radioactive matter (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corrosion-resistent and inexpensive container for long-term storage of radioactive matter, in particular of spent fuel elements is described to be stored in geologic formations apt for the purpose. The container is made of copper-based alloys using tin, aluminium, nickel or beryllium and has relatively thin walls. (orig.)

  7. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  8. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with lo

  9. Acute mastoiditis in children: presentation and long term consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, F

    2008-03-01

    Acute mastoiditis, a destructive bacterial infection of the mastoid bone and air cell system, is relatively uncommon today but remains a potentially serious condition. There is a lack of information in the literature regarding the long term otological problems that children may face following an episode of this condition.

  10. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Åsa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2015-01-01

    ), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...... with a decreased sense of global quality of life with lack of energy, nervousness, and depression....

  11. Medium- to long-term outcome of ankle arthrodesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.M. Hendrickx; S.A.S. Stufkens; E.E. de Bruijn; I.N. Sierevelt; C.N. van Dijk; G.M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvement in outcome after ankle arthroplasty, fusion of the ankle joint is still considered the gold standard. A matter of concern is deterioration of clinical outcome as a result of loss of motion and advancing degeneration of adjacent joints. We performed a long-term study to address th

  12. Subintimal angioplasty: predictors of long-term success.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-08-01

    To determine the clinical outcomes and success rates after percutaneous subintimal angioplasty (SIA) in patients with lower-limb occlusive lesions causing intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischemia (CLI) at midterm to long-term follow-up. The secondary aim was to elicit factors predictive of a successful outcome.

  13. Long-term resightings of humpback whales off Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, C.; Acevedo, J.; Aguayo-Lobo, A.; Allen, J.; Capella, J.; Rosa, Dalla L.; Flores-González, L.; Kaufman, G.; Forestell, P.; Scheidat, M.; Secchi, E.R.; Stevick, P.; Santos, M.C.O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the long-term re-sight histories of fifteen photo-identified humpback whales encountered to date transiting Ecuadorian waters. It also provides information about connections to feeding area destinations. Whale EC1261 has been resighted over a 26 year span and provides insight i

  14. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  15. Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Devore (Elizabeth); F. Grodstein (Francine); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M.J. Stampfer (Meir); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Rotterdam Study previously found that higher dietary intakes of vitamins E and C related to lower risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) over 6 years of follow-up. Objective: To study consumption of major dietary antioxidants relative to long-term risk of dementia. D

  16. Long term agro-ecosystem research: The Southern Plains partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...

  17. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  18. Medium and long-term perspectives of international bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranzl, Lukas; Daioglou, Vasileios; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Keramidas, Kimon; Matzenberger, Julian; Tromborg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In the coming decades, huge challenges in the global energy system are expected. Scenarios indicate that bioenergy will play a substantial role in this process. However, up to now there is very limited insight regarding the implication this may have on bioenergy trade in the long term. The objective

  19. Long term assurance of supply of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The answer of Switzerland and Great Britain to a number of questions concerning the long-term assurance of the supply of heavy water are presented. The original problems are seen in the wider context of raw materials supply and its assurance in general. Non-proliferation aspects are touched

  20. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  1. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...... after a first stroke and to compare them with those of the background population....

  2. Long-Term Productive Cough Caused by Tracheal Bronchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We presented a 27-year-old man with a long-term productive cough and intermittent pneumonia without a remarkable medical history. Bronchoscopy revealed one tracheal bronchus with a narrow orifice. The patient\\s symptoms were later adequately controlled by mucolytics alone. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 120-121

  3. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy: an audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Hansen, H.P.; Tarnow, L.;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin...

  4. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 6-PROCUREMENT...

  5. Medical Foster Care: An Alternative to Long-Term Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Patricia H.; Whitworth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program model, Medical Foster Care, which uses registered nurses as foster parents who work closely with biological parents of abused and neglected children with acute health problems. The program reunites families, improves parenting skills, and saves money in long-term hospitalization. (Author/BB)

  6. Towards Long-Term Preservation Policy in Electronic Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Karim Bjaja

    2005-01-01

    A Study about long-term preservation policy in electronic archives, it deals the important of the electronic government, then the challenges of preservation in electronic archives, and the media which use in preservation, and puts a policy for managing the electronic archives.

  7. Incidental Biasing of Attention from Visual Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Judith E.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Holding recently experienced information in mind can help us achieve our current goals. However, such immediate and direct forms of guidance from working memory are less helpful over extended delays or when other related information in long-term memory is useful for reaching these goals. Here we show that information that was encoded in the past…

  8. Brachial plexus neuropathy - A long-term outcome study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; Groothoff, JW; Nicolai, JP; Rietman, JS

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the long-term outcome of brachial plexus neuropathy in 16 patients. The mean follow up was 8 years. Nine patients complained of persistent pain and muscle weakness, four had continuing problems with various activities of daily living and 11 had trouble with some hou

  9. Long-Term Sequelae after Cerebellar Astrocytoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects on neurologic, neuropsychological, and behavioral functioning in a consecutive series of 23 children treated surgically for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma without additional radio- and chemotherapy are determined in a study at Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and other medical centers.

  10. Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B

    2010-09-01

    Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies. PMID:20653002

  11. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a pree

  12. Architecture analysis for European Long-Term Archiving EO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Gil, I.; Perez Moreno, R.; Perez Navarro, O.; Leone, R.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a strongly increased need for access to historical Earth Observation (EO) data series, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. As the contents of EO space data archives increases from a few years duration to a period of decades their scientific values increases dramatically. The main objective of this Long Term Data Preservation(LTDP) initiative is to guarantee the long term preservation of the data from all EO ESA and Third Parties ESA managed missions, while also ensuring their accessibility and usability, as part of a joint and cooperative approach in Europe aimed at preserving the EO European data from member states' missions. To allow the maximum value to be extracted from the data, it is well recognized that there is a need to preserve this data without time limitations, while keeping all archived data accessible and exploitable. This will be even more of a challenge in the coming years, as the large number of upcoming Earth Observation missions will lead to a major increase in the available volume of EO data The LTDP Impact Analysis and Architecture Definition project (for simplicity known as LTDP-IMPACTS) aims to define and consolidate the architecture of European Long-Term Archiving EO systems, especially in the context of ESA PDGS. To do this, we shall perform a complete assessment of the impacts of implementing the guidelines from the LTDP initiative. This assessment will be over all timescales, short, middle and long-term, and must take into account all systems involved, from the point of view of "System of System" (SoS), and their data flows, data sets and their related operational policies for LTDP implementation The LTDP guidelines, and the standards adopted as a result, will have various impacts on the legacy and future long term archiving systems, the systems used to access them, and on the overall operational concept. This will particularly apply to the ESA PDGS environment

  13. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long-term

  14. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  15. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  16. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-01-01

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14846.001 PMID:27187150

  17. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes. PMID:23998347

  18. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  19. Chronic pre-treatment with memantine prevents amyloid-beta protein-mediated long-term potentiation disruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fushun Li; Xiaowei Chen; Feiming Wang; Shujun Xu; Lan Chang; Roger Anwyl; Qinwen Wang

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that memantine, a low-affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, exerted acute protective effects against amyloid-β protein-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, the chronic effects and mechanisms of memantine were investigated further using electrophysiological methods. The results showed that 7-day intraperitoneal application of memantine, at doses of 5 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg, did not alter hippocampal long-term potentiation induction in rats, while 40 mg/kg memantine presented potent long-term potentiation inhibition. Then further in vitro studys were carried out in 5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg memantine treated rats. We found that 20 mg/kg memantine attenuated the potent long-term potentiation inhibition caused by exposure to amyloid-β protein in the dentate gyrus in vitro. These findings are the first to demonstrate the antagonizing effect of long-term systematic treatment of memantine against amyloid-β protein triggered long-term potentiation inhibition to improve synaptic plasticity.

  20. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  1. Nonlinearities in patterns of long-term ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugenstein, Maria A. A.; Sedláček, Jan; Knutti, Reto

    2016-04-01

    The ocean dominates the planetary heat budget and takes thousands of years to equilibrate to perturbed surface conditions, yet those long time scales are poorly understood. Here we analyze the ocean response over a range of forcing levels and time scales in a climate model of intermediate complexity and in the CMIP5 model suite. We show that on century to millennia time scales the response time scales, regions of anomalous ocean heat storage, and global thermal expansion depend nonlinearly on the forcing level and surface warming. As a consequence, it is problematic to deduce long-term from short-term heat uptake or scale the heat uptake patterns between scenarios. These results also question simple methods to estimate long-term sea level rise from surface temperatures, and the use of deep sea proxies to represent surface temperature changes in past climate.

  2. Profiling - Predicting Long-Term Unemployment at the Individual Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Soukup

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Labour market policy encourages both the preventive and proactive approaches in order to avoid negative impacts. Unfortunately, a large number of evaluation studies show that active intervention is helpful only if it is targeted according to the prevailing situation and needs of claimants. The first step in the targeting process is to determine in advance which claimant has a significant probability of becoming long-term unemployed and just how high the risk is.
    This paper deals with the predicting of long-term unemployment at the individual level. In contrast with research carried out elsewhere, the paper stresses the theory behind the statistical model. As far as the Czech Republic is concerned it has been shown that a model computed using only data from the official unemployment register is correct in 78% of cases, i.e. 20 percentage points more than the result obtained by means of the constant or risk group approaches.

  3. Long-Term Underground Corrosion of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2007-03-01

    In 1970, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) implemented the most ambitious and comprehensive long-term corrosion behavior test to date for stainless steels in soil environments. Over thirty years later, one of the six test sites was targeted to research subsurface contamination and transport processes in the vadose and saturated zones. This research directly applies to environmental management operational corrosion issues and long term stewardship scientific needs for understanding the behavior of waste forms and their near-field contaminant transport of chemical and radiological contaminants at nuclear disposal sites. This paper briefly describes the ongoing research and the corrosion analysis results of the stainless steel plate specimens recovered from the partial recovery of the first test site.

  4. Long term creep strength of silver alloyed copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term creep strength of silver alloyed copper has been estimated using literature creep data for materials with less than 0.1% Ag. The available data was very limited, and it was necessary to test the differences between various data sets and extrapolation methods. Assuming constant stress level and constant or changing temperature, the creep behaviour has been assessed using mainly Larson-Miller and theta-projection approaches. The calculations indicate that the different extrapolation methods and data sources can yield strongly different life estimates. With the available incomplete data the theta projection method may give the conservative life predictions, whereas the Larson-Miller approach grossly overestimates creep life. It is recommended that supplementary data is acquired to better assess the long term creep properties of canisters in repository conditions

  5. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Chen, Jun; Hoffmann, Christian; Bittinger, Kyle; Chen, Ying-Yu; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Knights, Dan; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob; Sinha, Rohini; Gilroy, Erin; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert; Nessel, Lisa; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2011-10-01

    Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella). A controlled-feeding study of 10 subjects showed that microbiome composition changed detectably within 24 hours of initiating a high-fat/low-fiber or low-fat/high-fiber diet, but that enterotype identity remained stable during the 10-day study. Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet. PMID:21885731

  6. Long term contracts in portfolios of gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper promotes the idea of long-term contracting for natural gas local distributors and utilities. It presents a brief history of how the spot-market developed and the effects spot-marketing can have in times of supply shortages. This has also resulted in a drastic decrease in exploration and development in the gas industry as gas supplies have exceeding demand, driving the prices down. The paper proposes several methods to restabilize the long-term contracting of gas by considering volume and pricing flexibility. Some brief discussions of industry-wide statistics are presented to show reserve replacement costs which would be needed to preserve the industry in a profit-making situation

  7. Health care utilisation among individuals reporting long-term pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola;

    2004-01-01

    by hospital admission frequency and number of in-hospital days was not only significantly higher for the pain group but showed also an increasing tendency during the periods investigated (1991-1997). Women used the health care system significantly more than men, whereas age did not seem to influence......Individuals reporting long-term pain in the 1994 and 2000 Danish Health and Morbidity Surveys, which included random samples of 6000 and 16,684 persons respectively, were investigated concerning their use of the health care systems. A considerably higher use was observed in the pain population...... in the primary as well as the secondary health care sector, compared with a no pain control group. In 1994, individuals reporting long-term pain had on average 12.8 contacts per year to the primary health care sector compared with 7.3 for the control group. Use of secondary health care sector as estimated...

  8. Being a long-term user of nicotine replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Gitte; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Tønnesen, Philip;

    Background During recent years a gradual shift in the application of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has taken place from NRT-products only being recommended to achieve smoking cessation, to now including smoking reduction, and long-term substitution of tobacco with NRT has taken place. This has...... been promoted as a way of achieving harm-reduction in highly nicotine dependent smokers who are unwilling or incapable of quitting all nicotine products, as continued use of NRT is widely accepted as being far less hazardous than continued smoking. To our knowledge no previous research has been done...... of feeling addicted, cost of NRT products and fear of adverse health consequences. Aim of study • To get a thorough understanding of the lived experiences of nicotine dependent long-term NRT users. • To investigate what motivates or discourages quitting NRT. Method Semi-structured interviews with long...

  9. Long-Term Effects of School Size on Students' Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Smith, Nina

    school size and alternative measures of long-term success in the educational system and the labor market. The positive impact of school size seems mainly to be driven by boys, students from families with a low educational level and students attending schools in urban areas.......We estimate the effect of school size on students' long-term outcomes such as high school completion, being out of the labor market, and earnings at the age of 30. We use rich register data on the entire population of Danish children attending grade 9 in the period 1986-2004. This allows us to...... compare the results of different fixed effect and instrumental variables estimators. We use the natural population variation in the residentail catchment areas and school openings and closures to instrument for actual school size. We find a robust positive but numerically fairly small relationship between...

  10. Long-term ecophysiological responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Plant physiology is affected by climate change. Acclimations of photosynthetic processes are induced by short-term changes in climatic conditions. Further acclimation can be caused by longterm adjustments to climate change due to ecosystem-feedbacks. The aim of this PhD was to investigate plant...... are stable upon a wide range of seasonal and inter-annual variation. Longterm ecosystem adjustments after 6 years of treatments did not cause further physiological acclimation in either Deschampsia or Calluna. The study indicates robustness of the Danish heathland ecosystem to moderate climate change....... physiological responses to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. The effects of elevated CO2, passive night time warming and periodic summer drought as single factor and in combination, on plant physiology were investigated in the long-term multifactorial field experiment CLIMAITE in a Danish...

  11. Operational and long-term performance assessment for Hanford grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy and Rockwell Hanford Operations are preparing for the construction of a Transportable Grout Facility to immobilize selected radioactive liquid wastes now stored at Hanford. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is supporting the program by developing initial grout formulations for the facility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is verifying the required operational characteristics of the grout formulation and evaluating the long-term performance of the grouted waste form. Preliminary assessments of the operational characteristics of the grout formulation show that the grout meets established criteria. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that the grouted waste form will provide long-term environmental protection. A series of laboratory and field tests are planned and ongoing to verify these assessments

  12. Linking Long-Term Dietary Patterns with Gut Microbial Enterotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D.; Chen, Jun; Hoffmann, Christian; Bittinger, Kyle; Chen, Ying-Yu; Keilbaugh, Sue A.; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Knights, Dan; Walters, William A.; Knight, Rob; Sinha, Rohini; Gilroy, Erin; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert; Nessel, Lisa; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D.; Lewis, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella). A controlled-feeding study of 10 subjects showed that microbiome composition changed detectably within 24 hours of initiating a high-fat/low-fiber or low-fat/high-fiber diet, but that enterotype identity remained stable during the 10-day study. Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet. PMID:21885731

  13. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; van Doorn, Nienke L;

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning...... to exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear...... that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding...

  14. New Developments in Long-Term Downhole Monitoring Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kück

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term observation of active geological processes is a major research goal in an increasing number of scientific drilling projects. An extended monitoring phase within a potentially hostile environment (e.g., temperature, pressure, salinity requires new long-lasting and robust instrumentation currently unavailable from either industry or academia. Extended exposure of instrument packages to extreme conditions will typically cause seals to weaken and fail,electronic parts to break under permanent load, and sensors to degrade or develop strong drift. In the framework of scientific exploration, there are currently several major research projects targeting fault zone drilling and in situ measurements to monitor physical and chemical conditions before, during, and after seismic events. Planning has now begun for tool development, testing, and continuous long-term monitoring for the San Andreas Fault Zone Observatory at Depth, SAFOD (Parkfi eld, Calif., U.S.A.; See article on page 32..

  15. Prenatal alcohol exposure and long-term developmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohr, H.L.; Willms, J. (Rittberg Hospital of the German Red Cross, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Pediatrics); Steinhausen, H.C. (Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)

    1993-04-10

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of congenital mental retardation but little is known about the long-term development and adolescent outcome of children with FAS. In a 10-year follow-up study of 60 patients diagnosed as having FAS in infancy and childhood, the authors investigated the long-term sequelae of intrauterine alcohol exposure. The authors found that the characteristic craniofacial malformations of FAS diminish with time, but microcephaly and, to a lesser degree, short stature and underweight (in boys) persist; in female adolescents body weight normalizes. Persistent mental retardation is the major sequela of intrauterine alcohol exposure in many cases, and environmental and educational factors do not have strong compensatory effects on the intellectual development of affected children.

  16. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  17. Acute Ischemic Stroke and Long-Term Outcome After Thrombolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Z; Hundborg, Heidi;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data on long-term outcome after intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in ischemic stroke are limited. We examined the risk of long-term mortality, recurrent ischemic stroke, and major bleeding, including intracranial and gastrointestinal bleeding......, in intravenous tPA-treated patients when compared with intravenous tPA eligible but nontreated patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: We conducted a register-based nationwide propensity score-matched follow-up study among patients with ischemic stroke in Denmark (2004-2011). Cox regression analysis was used...... to compute adjusted hazard ratios for all outcomes. RESULTS: Among 4292 ischemic strokes (2146 intravenous tPA-treated and 2146 propensity score-matched nonintravenous tPA-treated patients), with a follow-up for a median of 1.4 years, treatment with intravenous tPA was associated with a lower risk of long...

  18. Noncontact ECG system for unobtrusive long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Neil J; Anumula, Harini A; Duff, Eric; Soussou, Walid

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes measurements made using an ECG system with QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrodes integrated into a pad system that is placed over a chair. QUASAR's capacitive bioelectrode has the property of measuring bioelectric potentials at a small separation from the body. This enables the measurement of ECG signals through fabric, without the removal of clothing or preparation of skin. The ECG was measured through the subject's clothing while the subject sat in the chair without any supporting action from the subject. The ECG pad system is an example of a high compliance system that places minimal requirements upon the subject and, consequently, can be used to generate a long-term record from ECG segments collected on a daily basis, providing valuable information on long-term trends in cardiac health.

  19. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René;

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on textual and audio-visual media types. With the recent paradigm shift in architecture and construction from analog 2D plans and scale models to digital 3D information models of buildings, long-term preservation efforts must turn their attention to this new type of data. Currently......Long-term preservation of information about artifacts of the built environment is crucial to provide the ability to retrofit legacy buildings, to preserve cultural heritage, to ensure security precautions, to enable knowledge-reuse of design and engineering solutions and to guarantee the legal...... liabilities of all stakeholders (e.g. designer, engineers). Efforts for the digital preservation of information have come a long way and a number of mature methods, frameworks, guidelines and software systems are at the disposal of librarians and archivists. However, the focus of these developments has...

  20. Capsosomes as Long-Term Delivery Vehicles for Protein Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, James W; Richardson, Joseph J; Chandrawati, Rona; Kempe, Kristian; van Koeverden, Martin P; Caruso, Frank

    2015-07-21

    We report the preparation of polymer capsules containing liposomal subcompartments, termed capsosomes, and their ability for the sustained delivery of protein therapeutics. Capsosomes were formed through the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymers and protein-loaded liposomes, followed by the formation of a capsule membrane based on disulfide cross-linked poly(methacrylic acid). The loading capacities of a model cargo (lysozyme) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neurotrophin that has significant physiological functions on the nervous system, were determined, and the long-term release kinetics of the proteins was investigated in simulated physiological conditions. The capsosomes exhibited protein loading and release behavior that can be tuned by the lipid composition of the liposomal compartments, where inclusion of anionic lipids resulted in enhanced protein loading and slower release over the course of 80 days. These findings highlight the potential of capsosomes for the long-term delivery of protein therapeutics.

  1. Long-term results of trismus release in noma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseling, P; Bruhn, J; Erdsach, T; Ettema, A M; Sautter, R; Bergé, S J

    2010-09-01

    Noma, also known as cancrum oris, is an infectious disease that results in a loss of orofacial tissue, due to gangrene of soft and bony tissue. It is especially seen in young children in the sub-Saharan region. Among the sequelae of patients who survive noma, trismus is one of the most disabling. This retrospective research studied the long-term results of trismus release in noma patients. Thirty-six patients could be traced in the villages and were included in the study. The mean mouth opening in this group was 10.3mm (95% CI: 7.0; 13.6mm) and the mean period after discharge from hospital was 43 months. Better mouth opening was observed in patients who continued physiotherapy after discharge, were older, and those with a 'soft' (vs. 'hard') inner and outer cheek on palpation. The result of trismus release in noma patients in the long term was extremely poor in this study.

  2. Financial literacy and long-term care insurance coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Gousia, K

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of financial literacy on private long-term care insurance coverage as one potential explanation of the small size of the private insurance market. Findings from the recent literature suggest that financial literacy has a significant effect on a number of individual financial decisions. The analysis uses the SHARE dataset that contains rich information on demographic, health and socioeconomic characteristics of the elderly in Europe. More importantly, SHARE also ...

  3. Long-term stability of TES satellite radiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    T. C. Connor; M. W. Shephard; V. H. Payne; K. E. Cady-Pereira; Kulawik, S. S.; Luo, M.; G. Osterman; M. Lampel

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Level 2 (L2) retrieval products for the purpose of assessing long term changes in atmospheric trace gas composition requires knowledge of the overall radiometric stability of the Level 1B (L1B) radiances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of the radiometric calibration of the TES instrument by analyzing the difference between measured and calculated brightness temperatures in selected window regions of the spectr...

  4. Long-term stability of TES satellite radiance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    T. C. Connor; M. W. Shephard; V. H. Payne; K. E. Cady-Pereira; Kulawik, S. S.; Luo, M.; G. Osterman; M. Lampel

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Level 2 (L2) retrieval products for the purpose of assessing long term changes in atmospheric trace gas composition requires knowledge of the overall radiometric stability of the Level 1B (L1B) radiances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of the radiometric calibration of the TES instrument by analyzing the difference between measured and calculated brightness temperatures in selected window reg...

  5. Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Care and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

  6. Long-term effects of early childhood care and education

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benef...

  7. Long-Term Drivers of Food and Nutrition Security

    OpenAIRE

    David Laborde; Simla Tokgoz; Maximo Torero

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper proposes an analytical framework to list and study the role of key long term drivers of food and nutrition security (FNS). We start by identifying what are the key variables affecting food and nutrition security at the household and the country level, and then define what are the main exogenous or endogenous drivers impacting these variables. We discuss the key drivers of both aggregated food supply and demand, and therefore the consequences on prices. Specifically for ag...

  8. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-01-01

    Sales promotion (SP) is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly...

  9. Data of long term atmospheric diffusion experiments (Winter, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-10-01

    The data were obtained in the long-term atmospheric diffusion experiments in the Tokai area, autumn, 1991 which were a part of the Evaluation Safety Demonstration Experiments of Environmental Radiation entrusted with the Science and Technology Agency. The experiments were conducted by JAERI in cooperation with the Japan Weather Association. The report includes tracer concentration data of surface sampling points and meteorological data. (author)

  10. The uranium industry: long term planning for short term competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, uranium producers face new challenges in terms of both production (new regulatory, environmental and social constraints) and market conditions (new sources of uranium supply, very low prices and tough competition). In such a context, long-term planning is not just a prerequisite to survive in the nuclear fuel cycle industry. In fact, it also contributes to sustaining nuclear electricity generation facing fierce competition from other energy sources in increasingly deregulated markets. (authors)

  11. Neural systems predicting long-term outcome in dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeft, Fumiko; McCandliss, Bruce D; Black, Jessica M.; Gantman, Alexander; Zakerani, Nahal; Hulme, Charles; Lyytinen, Heikki; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia vary in their ability to improve reading skills, but the brain basis for improvement remains largely unknown. We performed a prospective, longitudinal study over 2.5 y in children with dyslexia (n = 25) or without dyslexia (n = 20) to discover whether initial behavioral or brain measures, including functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can predict future long-term reading gains in dyslexia. No behavioral measure, including widely use...

  12. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood

    OpenAIRE

    Naseem ul Gani; Hayat Ahmad Khan; Younis Kamal; Munir Farooq; Hina Jeelani; Adil Bashir Shah

    2014-01-01

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospec...

  13. Long Term Results in Refractory Tennis Elbow Using Autologous Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Gani, Naseem ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospec...

  14. Visualizing Long Term Economic Relationships With Cointegration Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, R; Leite, V B P; de Pereira, C B; Caticha, Nestor; Leite, Vitor B.P.; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Vicente, Renato

    2007-01-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration distance aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization and clustering of these relationships we calculate a distance matrix and introduce a map based on the Sorting Points Into Neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates, monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product growth rates.

  15. Long-term depression: a cell biological view

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Morgan; Ertürk, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms of long-term depression (LTD) suggest a crucial role for the signalling pathways of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the weakening and elimination of synapses and dendritic spines. With this backdrop, we suggest that LTD can be considered as the electrophysiological aspect of a larger cell biological programme of synapse involution, which uses localized apoptotic mechanisms to sculpt synapses and circuits without causing cell death.

  16. Benefits from Long-Term Treatment in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Evangelista

    2012-01-01

    It is known that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disease of cyclic nature characterized by recurrent symptoms. IBS patients should receive, as initial therapeutic approach a short course of treatment which, if effective, has the additional value of confirming the diagnosis. Long-term treatment should be reserved to diagnosed IBS patients with recurrent symptoms. Clinical trials with stabilized therapies and new active treatments showed an improvement of the symptoms over placebo t...

  17. Hanford long-term high-level waste management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1976-06-24

    An overview of the Hanford Long-Term High-Level Waste Management Program is presented. Four topics are discussed: first, the kinds and quantities of waste that will exist and are included in this program; second, how the plan is structured to solve this problem; third, the alternative waste management methods being considered; and fourth, the technology program that is in progress to carry out this plan. (LK)

  18. Long-term spectropolarimetric monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse

    OpenAIRE

    Bedecarrax, I.; Petit, P.; Aurière, M.; Grunhut, J.; Wade, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Donati, J.-F.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Perrin, G.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a long-term monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse, using the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high-resolution spectropolarimeters, respectively installed at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii). The data set, constituted of circularly polarized (Stokes V) and intensity (Stokes I) spectra, was collected between 2010 and 2012. We investigate here the temporal evolution of magnetic field, convect...

  19. Determinants of long term course in Bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Backlund, Lena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BP) is a common and severe psychiatric illness with a high variability. An early treatment is often crucial for a good prognosis, but it is difficult for clinicians to define high risk patients in order to predict a more severe course. Our aim was to investigate factors predicting the long-term course of BP. Methods: We have retrospectively investigated the course of illness in 100 BP patients, using a life-charting program. Predictors and th...

  20. Long-term outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    ÇITIRIK, Mehmet; BATMAN, Coşar; BİÇER, Tolga; Akinci, Arsen

    2011-01-01

    To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy in the management of vitreoretinal diseases. Materials and methods: In this study, 53 eyes of patients who underwent 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy were included. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed preoperatively and at day 1, week 1, and months 1, 3, 6, and 12 after the surgery. Results: The mean age of the patients was 56.3 years (rang...

  1. Radiotherapy for pituitary adenomas: long-term outcome and complications

    OpenAIRE

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Yoon, Won Sup; Lee, Jung Ae; Kim, Chul Yong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate long-term local control rate and toxicity in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for pituitary adenomas. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 patients treated with EBRT for pituitary adenoma at Korea University Medical Center from 1996 and 2006. Thirty-five patients had hormone secreting tumors, 25 patients had non-secreting tumors. Fifty-seven patients had received postoperative radiotherapy (RT), and 3 had receiv...

  2. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitabil...

  3. Long-term consequences of adolescent fertility: The Colombian case

    OpenAIRE

    B. Piedad Urdinola; Carlos Ospino

    2015-01-01

    Background: Estimating the long-term effects of adolescent motherhood is challenging for all developing countries, including Colombia, where this rate has been steadily increasing for 24 years, despite the reduction in the overall fertility rate. We propose a replicable methodology by applying a pseudo panel that evaluates the consequences of adolescent motherhood on outcomes previously neglected in the literature, such as job quality, marriage instability, partner's job class, presence of ph...

  4. Notch signaling in Drosophila long-term memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Xuecai; Hannan, Frances; Xie, Zuolei; Feng, Chunhua; Tully, Tim; Zhou, Haimeng; Xie, Zuoping; Zhong, Yi

    2004-01-01

    Notch (N) is a cell surface receptor that mediates an evolutionarily ancient signaling pathway to control an extraordinarily broad spectrum of cell fates and developmental processes. To gain insights into the functions of N signaling in the adult brain, we examined the involvement of N in Drosophila olfactory learning and memory. Long-term memory (LTM) was disrupted by blocking N signaling in conditional mutants or by acutely induced expression of a dominant-negative N transgene. In contrast,...

  5. A Long-term Mechanism Needed to Safeguard Financial Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何德旭

    2007-01-01

    In the post-WTO era, China has encountered new difficulties in maintaining financial stability. Quick fix and emergency measures can no longer be relied on in the long run, and therefore, a long-term mechanism of financial stability must be put in place. This article recommends that China should focus on furthering financial reform, accelerating financial innovation and improving the legal system to promote a strong and competitive finance industry that is less vulnerable to financial hazards.

  6. Long-term P300 in hemispherectomized patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xian-zeng; XU Yu-lun; FU Zhuang

    2009-01-01

    Background In the years around 1990,in Beijing Tiantan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University many children with infantile hemiplegia and intractable epilepsy were treated with further modified anatomical hemispherectomy.We report the follow up of the first six cases.To make good use of these precious clinical data and make clear their neuropsychological state,we performed neuropsychological and neurophysiological measurements in these patients,who were at a median of 17.8 years after hemispherectomy.Methods Oddball task was given to the patients and to a normal control group to collect the peak latency(PL)and peak amplitude(PA)of event-related potentials(ERPs)-P300.The P300 data of the two groups were analyzed and the P300 patterns of the six patients are presented.The baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up of the six hemispherectomized patients,especially the long-term seizure control and cognitive function after surgery,are described.Results Five patients had no seizures and one was almost seizure-free during the years after surgery.Clear P300 was obtained from every electrode in the patients.Differences of P300 between patients and normal control group had no statistical significance.And the maximum PA was at the site of electrode Pz or Cz which was consistent with that of the control group and with previous findings.Conclusions Further modified anatomical hemispherectomy has preferable long-term antiepileptic effects.The P300results of the patients mean that the basic cognitive function of the patients has no difference from the control group.This reflects the plasticity of the hemisphere to some extent and increases the affirmation of the long-term curative effects of further modified anatomical hemispherectomy from both neuropsychological and neurophysiological aspects.

  7. Semi-automatic long-term acoustic surveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Tórur; Surlykke, Annemarie; Hallam, John

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concern about decline in biodiversity has created a demand for population surveys. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient non-invasive method, which may be deployed for surveys of animals as diverse as insects, birds, and bats. Long-term unmanned automatic monitoring may provide unique...... to determine bat behavior and correct for the bias toward loud bats inherent in acoustic surveying. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  8. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Long-Term Radiation Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is currently developing a prototype instrumented container system for the detection of illicit nuclear and radiological materials in maritime scenarios. Data collection during this long-term monitoring of radiation sensor signals will be inherently sequential in that wireless data transmission will occur at set intervals. Among the possible decision-making algorithms for sequentially-acquired radiation sensor data is the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). The suitability of the SPRT for this long-term monitoring application is discussed, and the decision-making performance of the SPRT is compared to that of the commonly used single-interval test (SIT). The analysis spans a wide range of signal and background count rates so that results are applicable to sensors of all sizes operating in different ambient conditions, and a spectrum of alarm thresholds. It is demonstrated that for these simulated long-term monitoring scenarios, decisions to issue an alarm when the measured count rate equals the threshold count rate, are made 3-5 times faster using the SPRT than with the SIT. The ability of the SPRT to provide an ''all-clear'' indication when the measured count rate is consistent with the expected background count rate is contrasted to the inconclusive results of the SIT test under the same conditions. The need for SPRT truncation strategies for measured count rate regions where the SPRT decision times become excessive is discussed. Finally, it is shown that the truncated SPRT provides a greater probability of detection than the SIT in a case of ''early termination'' of both tests, a situation likely to occur in long-term monitoring applications

  9. The long-term agronomic performance of organic stockless rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, James P; Philipps, Lois; Cormack, William F

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Two long-term experiments were established with the aim of evaluating the agronomic and economic performance of organic stockless rotations. In total, four different rotations were evaluated at two sites in the south (Elm Farm Research Centre) and east (ADAS Terrington) of England. All of the rotations included either a one or two-year red clover green manure crop to provide nitrogen for subsequent crops and it was found th...

  10. Long term corrosion of glasses in salt brines

    OpenAIRE

    Roggendorf, Hans; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1989-01-01

    Borosilicate glasses are supposed to be a suitable matrix for the fixation of calcined radioactive wastes. For the safety assessment of the disposal of these glasses in geological formations like carnallite or rock salt, their chemical durability in saturated salt brines has been investigated. Temperatures up to 200° C, pressures up to 130 bar, and corrosion times up to 5 years were applied. Special attention was given to the long term corrosion which is mainly characterized by the saturation...

  11. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for the existence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG product categories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablished brands when new products are introduced into the market and product innovations take place. Our research shows that such occurrences drastically alter the relationship between share of voice and share of market in any given FMCG market, hence making...

  12. Linking Long-Term Dietary Patterns with Gut Microbial Enterotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Gary D; Jun CHEN; Hoffmann, Christian; Bittinger, Kyle; Chen, Ying-Yu; Keilbaugh, Sue A.; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Knights, Dan; Walters, William A.; Knight, Rob; Sinha, Rohini; Gilroy, Erin; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert; Nessel, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella). A controlled-feeding study of 10 subjects showed that micr...

  13. Disrupted caring attachments: implications for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    Caring attachments or social supports are the positive psychological and physical contacts and relationships between people. These attachments have been associated with improved health, well-being, and longevity. It is also true that disrupted caring attachments are associated with impaired health and well-being. This paper reviews the general medical and elder medical findings of disrupted caring attachments and negative health outcomes. The implications of these findings for dementia sufferers, caregivers, and long-term care staff are examined.

  14. Electronic records long term authenticity and integrity demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Jerman Blažič, Aljoša; Helena Halas

    2011-01-01

    Long term preservation of electronic data requires introduction of specific technology solutions and organizational measures in order to provide stable environment for electronic record preservation. System solutions must support basic principles of electronic preservation: accessibility of data, usability or reproduction of data in usable form and integrity/authenticity provision including time existence for preserved content.Due to their nature, electronic data may become subjects of manipu...

  15. Long-term Memory in Electricity Prices: Czech Market Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Lunackova, Petra

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the long-term memory properties of hourly prices of electricity in the Czech Republic between 2009 and 2012. Various statistical properties of these prices are studied, and as the dynamics of electricity prices is dominated by cycles—in particular intraday and daily—we opt for detrended fluctuation analysis, which is well suited to such specific series. We find that electricity prices are non-stationary but strongly mean-reverting, which distinguishes them from prices of other fina...

  16. Long-term laser frequency stabilization using fiber interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Jia; Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2014-01-01

    We report long-term laser frequency stabilization using only the target laser and a pair of 5 m fiber interferometers, one as a frequency reference and the second as a sensitive thermometer. When used to stabilize a distributed feedback laser at 795 nm, the frequency Allan deviation at 1000 s drops from 5.6*10^{-8} to 6.9*10^{-10}. The performance equals that of an offset lock employing a second laser and an atomic reference.

  17. Target for LOFAR Long Term Archive: Architecture and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Belikov, Andrey; Dijkstra, Fokke; Holties, Hanno A; Vriend, Willem-Jan

    2011-01-01

    The LOFAR Long-Term Archive (LTA) is a multi-Petabyte scale data storage for the processed data of LOFAR telescope. We describe the adaptation of the WISE concept implemented by Target consortium for the LOFAR LTA and changes we introduced to it to accommodate LOFAR data. This paper describes an example of a new information system created on the basis of Astro-WISE for a wider range and scale of data.

  18. Changes of gamut volume during long-term tests

    OpenAIRE

    Káčerová, Silvia; Veselý, Michal; Dzik, Petr; Štěpánková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The stability of inkjet prints and photographs is influenced by the factors of the surrounding environment. The most harmful factors of environment are the light and the pollutants like ozone. Durability of inkjet prints is besides the ink composition, affected by the type of receiving layer. In this paper will be discussed the lightfastness of inkjet prints and photographs during the long-term ageing tests. Inkjet prints were prepared using both dye-based and pigment-based inks. The sampl...

  19. Monetary policy actions and long-term interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    V. Vance Roley; Gordon H. Sellon

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that monetary policy actions are transmitted to the economy through their effect on market interest rates. According to this standard view, a restrictive monetary policy by the Federal Reserve pushes up both short-term and long-term interest rates, leading to less spending by interest-sensitive sectors of the economy such as housing, consumer durable goods, and business fixed investment. Conversely, an easier policy results in lower interest rates that stimulate econo...

  20. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  1. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have ?control? countries where all cohorts were e...

  2. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    González, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja K.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have control countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ex...

  3. The long term effects of legalizing divorce on children

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad González Luna; Tarja Viitanen

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have “control” countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  4. The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Libertad Gonzalez; Tarja Viitanen

    2009-01-01

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have "control" countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not ...

  5. A Framework for Estimating Long Term Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gadepally, Vijay; Krishnamurthy, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a cyber-physical systems study on the estimation of driver behavior in autonomous vehicles and vehicle safety systems. Extending upon previous work, the approach described is suitable for the long term estimation and tracking of autonomous vehicle behavior. The proposed system makes use of a previously defined Hybrid State System and Hidden Markov Model (HSS+HMM) system which has provided good results for driver behavior estimation. The HSS+HMM system utilizes the hybrid c...

  6. Long-Term Field Performance of Pervious Concrete Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Radlińska; Andrea Welker; Kathryn Greising; Blake Campbell; David Littlewood

    2012-01-01

    The work described in this paper provides an evaluation of an aged pervious concrete pavement in the Northeastern United States to provide a better understanding of the long-lasting effects of placement techniques as well as the long-term field performance of porous pavement, specifically in areas susceptible to freezing and thawing. Multiple samples were taken from the existing pavement and were examined in terms of porosity and unit weight, compressive and splitting tensile strength, and th...

  7. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP

  8. Long-Term Follow up of Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rheaume, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term follow up of cancer patients should be based on the natural history of the disease and its known recurrence rates, patterns, and timing. Information from follow-up trials should be used in the context of diagnostic capabilities and practice setting. The increased involvement of family practitioners in the follow up of cancer patients is desirable, and some recommendations for follow-up procedures are presented.

  9. Long-term-consequence analysis of no action alternative 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Staven, L.H.; Serne, R.J. [and others

    1996-07-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Disposal-Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Data and information is described which pertains to estimated impacts from postulated long-term release of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from alpha-bearing wastes stored at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control (no action alternative 2). Under this alternative, wastes would remain at the generator sites and not be emplaced at WIPP.

  10. The costs of long-term care: distribution and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, S S; Cohen, M A

    1988-01-01

    Long-term care costs will result in financial hardship for millions of elderly Americans and their families. The growing number of elderly people has focused public attention on the catastrophic problem of coverage for long-term care. Social insurance is unlikely to emerge as a solution in the USA. One reason is that the expected total cost is viewed as an unmanageable burden by both Federal and State governments. To others, it is the uncertainty surrounding the projected costs. This paper reports on the results of a double-decrement life-table analysis, based on a national survey of the elderly taken in early 1977 and one year later, that estimated the distribution and total lifetime nursing-home costs of the elderly. Combining the probability of nursing-home entry and length of stay, a 65-year-old faces a 43% chance of entering a nursing home and spending about +11,000 (1980 dollars). The distribution of lifetime costs is however very skewed with 13% of the elderly consuming 90% of the resources. Thus, while the costs of nursing-home care can be catastrophic for an individual, spread across a group they are not unmanageable. Given the distribution of income and assets among the elderly, a sizeable proportion could readily afford the necessary premiums of different emerging insurance and delivery programmes. Alternative private and public models of long-term care must be evaluated in terms of the goals of a finance and delivery system for long-term care. PMID:3129256

  11. Long-term persistence of zoster vaccine efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, GR; Zhang, Jh; Betts, R.; Gelb, L; Guatelli, JC; Harbecke, R; Pachucki, C.; Keay, S; Marques, A; Toney, J.; Boardman, K; Su, SC; Li, X.; Chan, ISF; Parrino, J

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Shingles Prevention Study (SPS) demonstrated zoster vaccine efficacy through 4 years postvaccination. A Short-Term Persistence Substudy (STPS) demonstrated persistence of vaccine efficacy for at least 5 years. A Long-Term Persistence Substudy (LTPS) was undertaken to further assess vaccine efficacy in SPS vaccine recipients followed for up to 11 years postvaccination. Study outcomes were assessed for the entire LTPS period and for each year from 7 to 11 years postvaccination. ...

  12. Equitable long term care for the elderly immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background: The recent studies conducted among the health professionals representing long term care have shown that working with the elderly immigrants involves a range of challenges. One of the typical challenges is to adjust care service to the individual needs so that it maintains the patient’s integrity and dignity. The Norwegian health care system is built on the principles of equal access, equal quality and equal health outcomes. At the same time, it requires that health care takes into...

  13. Safety in long term radioactive waste management : insight and oversight

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Jantine; Rossignol, Nicolas; Van Oudheusden, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: High-level, long-lived radioactive waste remains hazardous for periods that go well beyond our human conception of time (many thousands of years). Because active safety measures are considered unreliable, unjustifiable and simply impossible over such long time spans, experts worldwide recommend geological disposal as the preferred strategy for long-term radioactive waste management, to a large extent due to its promise of delivering 'passive safety'. Passive safety refers to the rep...

  14. Fourteen-Year Long-Term Results after Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stroh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric banding (GB is a common bariatric procedure that is performed worldwide. Weight loss can be substantial after this procedure, but it is not sufficient in a significant portion of patients. Long-term rates for associated complications increase with every year of follow up, and only a few long-term studies have been published that examine these rates. We present our results after 14 years of postoperative follow up. Methods. Two hundred patients were operated upon form 01.02.1995 to 31.01.2009. Data collection was performed prospectively. In retrospective analysis, we analyzed weight loss, short- and long-term complications, amelioration of comorbidities and long-term outcome. Results. The mean postoperative follow up time was 94.4 months (range 2–144. The follow up rate was 83.5%. The incidence of postoperative complications for slippage was 2.5%, for pouch dilatation was 9.5%, for band migration was 5.5% and 12.0% for overall band removal. After 14 years, the reoperation rate was 30.5% with a reoperation rate of 2.2% for every year of follow up. Excess weight loss was 40.2% after 1 year, 46.3% after 2 years, 45.9% after 3 years, 41.9% after five years, 33.3% after 8 years, 30.8% after 10 years, 33.3% after 12 years and 15.6% after 14 years of follow up. Conclusion. The complication and reoperation rate after GB is high. Nevertheless, GB is still a therapeutic option in morbid obese patients, but the criteria for patient selection should be carefully evaluated.

  15. Characterization of aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The aluminum nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires after long-term storage (27 and 10 years) under natural conditions are characterized. • The phase composition and thermal stability of aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage are determined. • The surface chemical changes in the aged aluminum nanopowders are examined. • The high reactivity of aluminum nanopowder is due to the presence of the protective oxide–hydroxide layer on the particles surface. - Abstract: The characteristics of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electrical explosion of wires, passivated by air and stored for a long time under natural conditions are analyzed. The aluminum nanopowder produced in hydrogen had been stored for 27 years; the nanopowders produced in argon and nitrogen had been stored for 10 years. The powders were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The influence of the obtaining conditions and storage period of nanopowders on their thermal stability under heating in air is shown. The aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage in air under ambient conditions are found to be extremely active

  16. Long-term uranium supply-demand analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the intention of this study to investigate the long-term uranium supply demand situation using a number of supply and demand related assumptions. For supply, these assumptions as used in the Resources and Production Projection (RAPP) model include country economic development status, and consequent lead times for exploration and development, uranium development status, country infrastructure, and uranium resources including the Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional, Categories I and II, (EAR-I and II) and Speculative Resource categories. The demand assumptions were based on the ''pure'' reactor strategies developed by the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements for the 1986 OECD (NEA)/IAEA reports ''Nuclear Energy and its Fuel Cycle: Prospects to 2025''. In addition for this study, a mixed strategy case was computed using the averages of the Plutonium (Pu) burning LWR high, and the improved LWR low cases. It is understandable that such a long-term analysis cannot present hard facts, but it can show which variables may in fact influence the long-term supply-demand situation. It is hoped that results of this study will provide valuable information for planners in the uranium supply and demand fields. Periodical re-analyses with updated data bases will be needed from time to time

  17. Long term potential risk due to thorium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As in the case of uranium, thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes, the so called mining residues, in which natural long-lived natural decay products are mobilized. Monazites, the most likely ores to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel, contain a certain fraction of uranium as well. One has studied potential long terms radiological impact of the residues originated from two typical monazites found in India and Italy, respectively poor an rich in uranium. In the case of the Italian monazite, uranium is supposed to be extracted at a level of 95%. For such monazites, the long term impact is completely governed by the residual uranium (presence of long-lived 238U descendants, 230Th (80,000 years) and/or 226Ra (1600 years)). However, for the two extreme cases studied here, the potential risks remain much smaller (by a factor lying between 20 to 50) than in the usual case of uranium mining. The risk due to radon is also correspondly reduced by the same factors. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Results of a Survey of Long-Term Archiving Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Joseph B.; Spencer, Jennifer L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA’s Heliophysics Data Management Policy calls for discipline-specific “final archives,” which will be responsible for the long-term archiving and service of Heliophysics mission data. Long-term archival functions, such as periodic revalidation of the data and migration to newer storage media when appropriate, have never been part of the Solar Data Analysis Center core capabilities. We also recognize that the largest space solar physics data set, the SDO AIA and HMI data at the Stanford Joint Science and Operations Center (JSOC), will eventually need preservation and long-term access, as will the potentially much larger data archive of DKIST observations. We have carried out a study of data archiving best practices in other disciplines and organizations, including NASA’s Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and private industry, and report on the lessons learned and possible cost models. We seek input from the broader solar physics community on the relative value of various levels of preservation effort.

  19. Esophageal replacement in children: Challenges and long-term outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero Soccorso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of a nonexistent or damaged esophagus continues to pose a significant challenge to pediatric surgeons. Various esophageal replacement grafts and techniques have not produced consistently good outcomes to emulate normal esophagus. Therefore, many techniques are still being practiced and recommended with no clear consensus. We present a concise literature review of the currently used techniques and with discussions on the advantages and anticipated morbidity. There are no randomized controlled pediatric studies to compare different types of esophageal replacements. Management and graft choice are based on geographical and personal predilections rather than on any discernible objective data. The biggest series with long-term outcome are reported for gastric transposition and colonic replacement. Comparison of different studies shows no significant difference in early (graft necrosis and anastomotic leaks or late complications (strictures, poor feeding, gastro-esophageal reflux, tortuosity of the graft, and Barrett′s esophagus. The biggest series seem to have lower complications than small series reflecting the decennials experience in their respective centers. Long-term follow-up is recommended following esophageal replacement for the development of late strictures, excessive tortuosity, and Barrett′s changes within the graft. Once child overcomes initial morbidity and establishes oral feeding, long-term consequences and complications of pediatric esophageal replacement should be monitored and managed in adult life.

  20. Advancing nursing leadership in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer; Ringland, Margaret; Wilson, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Nurses working in the long-term care (LTC) sector face unique workplace stresses, demands and circumstances. Designing approaches to leadership training and other supportive human-resource strategies that reflect the demands of the LTC setting fosters a positive work life for nurses by providing them with the skills and knowledge necessary to lead the care team and to address resident and family issues. Through the St. Joseph's Health Centre Guelph demonstration site project, funded by the Nursing Secretariat of Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, the Excelling as a Nurse Leader in Long Term Care training program and the Mentor Team program were developed to address these needs. Evaluation results show that not only have individual nurses benefitted from taking part in these programs, but also that the positive effects were felt in other parts of the LTC home (as reported by Directors of Care). By creating a generally healthier work environment, it is anticipated that these programs will also have a positive effect on recruitment and retention. PMID:20463447

  1. Long-term vocal recognition in the northern fur seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insley, S J

    2000-07-27

    The ability to recognize and remember individual identities for long periods of time has important implications for the evolution of animal social behaviour, particularly complex interactions such as cooperation or mate choice. Despite this importance, there is only a single example of long-term individual recognition in nature, the 8-month retention of neighbour's song among male hooded warblers, Wilsonia citrina, and there is none for a non-human mammal. Associations between individuals spanning years, which are especially prevalent in carnivores, primates and seabirds, and evidence of mate fidelity provide indirect support for the ability of long-term recognition. In many of these instances, however, individuals do not separate for extended periods, and thus long-term recognition, although often assumed, may be both unnecessary and nonexistent. Furthermore, site fidelity rather than individual recognition may explain many instances of mate fidelity. Here I show that mother-offspring pairs of a migratory otariid pinniped--the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus)--not only have the ability to recognize each other's vocalizations during the course of a breeding season, but are also able to retain these memories for at least 4 years. PMID:10935635

  2. Long term contracting vs spot market: Electricite de France's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After briefly presenting historical facts and data on the development of the French nuclear program, and describing its present situation, the author goes through the general fuel cycle for pressurized water reactors (PWR). As a starting point, the way the fuel requirements are assessed on long term basis is described in some detail. Once these requirements are expressed in terms of natural uranium needs, and taking into account the strategic stockpile constraints set up by French Authorities, the problem is to determine and put into practice a general procurement strategy aiming at a complete security of supply at the best possible cost for the utility. The basic factors characterizing this long term strategy and the vision of fuel procurement over the 1995-2005 period are then presented. As nuclear energy represents between 75 and 80% of all EDF's electricity generation, with annual uranium requirements in the range of 7,000 MtU per year and within the global framework of the French nuclear program, long term contracting is obviously the basic approach to security of supply for EDF. Spot purchase has been part of EDF procurement in the past for up to 5% of requirements, but in the situation of an excess inventory and in spite of economics, this is no longer the case

  3. Infants long-term memory for complex music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Polka, Linda; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examined infants' long-term memory for two complex pieces of music. A group of thirty 7.5 month-old infants was exposed daily to one short piano piece (i.e., either the Prelude or the Forlane by Maurice Ravel) for ten consecutive days. Following the 10-day exposure period there was a two-week retention period in which no exposure to the piece occurred. After the retention period, infants were tested on the Headturn Preference Procedure. At test, 8 different excerpts of the familiar piece were mixed with 8 different foil excerpts of the unfamiliar one. Infants showed a significant preference for the familiar piece of music. A control group of fifteen nonexposed infants was also tested and showed no preferences for either piece of music. These results suggest that infants in the exposure group retained the familiar music in their long-term memory. This was demonstrated by their ability to discriminate between the different excerpts of both the familiar and the unfamiliar pieces of music, and by their preference for the familiar piece. Confirming previous findings (Jusczyk and Hohne, 1993; Saffran et al., 2000), in this study we suggest that infants can retain complex pieces of music in their long-term memory for two weeks.

  4. The coevolution of long-term pair bonds and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z; Feldman, M W

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of social traits may not only depend on but also change the social structure of the population. In particular, the evolution of pairwise cooperation, such as biparental care, depends on the pair-matching distribution of the population, and the latter often emerges as a collective outcome of individual pair-bonding traits, which are also under selection. Here, we develop an analytical model and individual-based simulations to study the coevolution of long-term pair bonds and cooperation in parental care, where partners play a Snowdrift game in each breeding season. We illustrate that long-term pair bonds may coevolve with cooperation when bonding cost is below a threshold. As long-term pair bonds lead to assortative interactions through pair-matching dynamics, they may promote the prevalence of cooperation. In addition to the pay-off matrix of a single game, the evolutionarily stable equilibrium also depends on bonding cost and accidental divorce rate, and it is determined by a form of balancing selection because the benefit from pair-bond maintenance diminishes as the frequency of cooperators increases. Our findings highlight the importance of ecological factors affecting social bonding cost and stability in understanding the coevolution of social behaviour and social structures, which may lead to the diversity of biological social systems. PMID:23496797

  5. Towards safe long-term operation of reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouden, Jenny; Efsing, Pal [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Hein, Hieronymus; May, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Planman, Tapio [VTT (Finland); Todeschini, Patrick [EDF, Paris (France); Brumovsky, Milan [UJV Rez, a.s., Hlavni (Czech Republic); Ballesteros, Antonio [JRC Institute for Energy and Transport, Petten (Netherlands). Nuclear Reactor Safety Assessment Unit; Gillemot, Ferenc [MTA-EK, Budapest (Hungary); Chaouadi, Rachid [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Altstadt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    This publication summarizes the long term operation (LTO) conditions in European NPPs and provides recommendations on reactor pressure vessel (RPV) irradiation surveillance based on the work performed in the Work Package 7 ''Surveillance Guidelines'' of the LONGLIFE international project. The LONGLIFE project ''Treatment of Long Term Irradiation Embrittlement Effects in RPV Safety Assessment'' was 50 % funded by the Euratom 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Specific scientific and technical issues addressed in this publication are the following: - Surveillance standards and procedures. - Reuse of tested irradiated surveillance specimens. - Transferability of test reactor results to LWR conditions. - Extension of RPV irradiation surveillance programmes. - Withdrawal scheme for LTO surveillance programmes. The objective of the surveillance guidelines is to support the potential end-user (utilities, nuclear power plants, research institutes, etc.) in selecting the appropriate strategy and technical approaches for RPV irradiation surveillance for LTO. In this way contributing to a reliable monitoring of long-term irradiation effects in RPV, and supporting the European efforts towards harmonisation of procedures for RPV surveillance and safety assessment in the light of LTO.

  6. Long-term allocation of power from the Snettisham Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0839) evaluating the Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project that establishes long-term allocation and sales of power. The proposed long-term sales contract will replace a 20-year sales agreement that expires at the end of December, 1993. The EA evaluates the proposed alternative and the no action alternative. The proposed alternative replaces the expiring contract with a new 20-year contract with the same terms, conditions and allocation as the previous long-term contract. No other alternatives were developed, as there is only one utility in the Juneau area. The divestiture of this Federal project is expected to be approved by Congress; the present contractor would then assume the ownership and operation of the Snettisham Project. The EA identified no actions associated with the proposal that will cause significant environmental or socioeconomic impacts. The Final Marketing Plan for the Snettisham Project deals with the replacement of an expiring contract. The Final Marketing Plan does not include the addition of any major new resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters. No changes in rates are proposed in the Final Marketing Plan

  7. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  8. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Naoto; Uchiyama, Seiji; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Background Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism. Methods This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged ng/mL) and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX) levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine) were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH) vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years. Conclusions Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients. PMID:27275738

  9. Disrupted Bone Metabolism in Long-Term Bedridden Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Eimori

    Full Text Available Bedridden patients are at risk of osteoporosis and fractures, although the long-term bone metabolic processes in these patients are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to determine how long-term bed confinement affects bone metabolism.This study included 36 patients who had been bedridden from birth due to severe immobility. Bone mineral density and bone metabolism markers were compared to the bedridden period in all study patients. Changes in the bone metabolism markers during a follow-up of 12 years were studied in 17 patients aged <30 years at baseline.The bone mineral density was reduced (0.58±0.19 g/cm3, and the osteocalcin (13.9±12.4 ng/mL and urine N-terminal telopeptide (NTX levels (146.9±134.0 mM BCE/mM creatinine were greater than the cutoff value for predicting fracture. Among the bone metabolism markers studied, osteocalcin and NTX were negatively associated with the bedridden period. During the follow-up, osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone were decreased, and the 25(OH vitamin D was increased. NTX at baseline was negatively associated with bone mineral density after 12 years.Unique bone metabolic abnormalities were found in patients who had been bedridden for long periods, and these metabolic abnormalities were altered by further bed confinement. Appropriate treatment based on the unique bone metabolic changes may be important in long-term bedridden patients.

  10. Economic evaluation in long-term clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, Mark A; Boothroyd, Derek B; Johnstone, Iain M

    2002-10-15

    Economic endpoints have been increasingly included in long-term clinical trials, but they pose several methodologic challenges, including how best to collect, describe, analyse and interpret medical cost data. Cost of care can be measured by converting billed charges, performing detailed micro-costing studies, or by measuring use of key resources and assigning cost weights to each resource. The latter method is most commonly used, with cost weights based either on empirical regression models or administratively determined reimbursement rates. In long-term studies, monetary units should be adjusted to reflect cost inflation and discounting. The temporal pattern of accumulating costs can be described using a modification of the Kaplan-Meier curve. Regression analyses to evaluate factors associated with cost are best performed on the log of costs due to their typically skewed distribution.Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to measure the value of a new therapy by calculating the difference in cost between the new therapy and the standard therapy, divided by the difference in benefit between the new therapy and the standard therapy. The cost-effectiveness ratio based on the results of a randomized trial may change substantially with longer follow-up intervals, particularly for therapies that are initially expensive but eventually improve survival. A model that projects long-term patterns of cost and survival expected beyond the end of completed follow-up can provide an important perspective in the setting of limited trial duration.

  11. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term -tocopherol therapy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lambertus J Hvan Tits; Frouwkje De Waart; Heidi L M Hak-Lemmers; Jacqueline De Graaf; Pierre N M Demacker; Anton F H Stalenhoef

    2003-02-01

    We investigated whether long-term -tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 ± 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo ( = 64) or -tocopherol (400 IU dL--tocopherol daily, = 64). After two years of therapy, we measured phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced superoxide production of isolated neutrophils and of diluted whole blood by monitoring reduction of ferricytochrome and luminolenhanced peroxidase-catalyzed chemiluminescence. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins were not different between the two treatment groups. As expected, concentrations of -tocopherol in plasma and in low-density lipoproteins were markedly elevated in the supplemented group compared to the placebo group (+ 120%, P < 0.0001 and + 83%, < 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, resistance to in vitro oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (reflected by lag time of conjugated diene formation) was higher in the supplemented group than in the placebo group (+ 22%, < 0.0001). Superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils and superoxide production in diluted whole blood did not differ between -tocopherol and placebo group. It is concluded that in chronic smoking long-term supranormal -tocopherol intake does not reduce neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity, despite large increases in the concentrations of -tocopherol in plasma and in low-density lipoproteins.

  12. Long-term effects of synthetic fibers on concrete pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi Gozarchi, Sasan

    The studies undertaken by this research were to evaluate the long-term performance and durability of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The target long-term performance is for 9000 hours. Two sets of pipes 8 ft. (2400 mm) long with inside diameters of 24 in. (600 mm) and 36 in. (1200 mm) were manufactured, with a wall thickness of 3 and 4 in., respectively. The pipes were produced based on ASTM C76, for a Class III type with a Wall B. The two set of pipes included RCP's (as control) and SYN-FRCP's. The SYN-FRCP's had several fiber dosages ranging from 6 lb/yd3 (3.5 kg/m 3) to 12 lb/yd3 (7.0 kg/m3) in order to evaluate the long-term performance of synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete pipes. The pipes were pre-cracked until the first visible crack was observed in the three-edge bearing test. As a result, the sustained load simulated, was calculated from the Peak D-load observed; and also the appropriate fiber dosages required for the 24. in (600 mm) and 36 in. (900 mm) pipes were obtained. Three of the 24 in. and three of the 36 in. pipes were installed in 7 ft. (2100 mm) and 8 ft. (2400 mm) wide trenches with 16 ft. (4800 mm) and 18 ft. (5500 mm) of cover respectively. The pipe was initially backfilled with native soil up to 2 ft. (600 mm) and 4 ft. (1200 mm) over the top of the pipe then backfilled again with pea-gravel weighing 100 lb/ft3, to a height of 14ft. to simulate the sustained loading. A type two installation was used during the development of the test setup. Once the long-term test set up was complete, the data was immediately recorded, and vertical deflections were observed from the time-dependent behavior of the pipes. It was observed from results obtained from the three-edge bearing test, that synthetic fibers improve the mechanical properties of concrete pipes, in dry-cast manufacturing. Also, it was observed from the time-dependent deformation, that there was no significant deformation of SYN-FRCP, while the shear capacity was enhanced. Based

  13. Long-term weather predictability: Ural case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshen, Alexander; Shopin, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of the state-of-the-art long-term meteorological forecast (at the seasonal level) is still low. Here it is presented approach (RAMES method) realizing different forecasting methodology. It provides prediction horizon of up to 19-22 years under equal probabilities of determination of parameters in every analyzed period [1]. Basic statements of the method are the following. 1. Long-term forecast on the basis of numerical modeling of the global meteorological process is principally impossible. Extension of long-term prediction horizon could be obtained only by the revealing and using a periodicity of meteorological situations at one point of observation. 2. Conventional calendar is unsuitable for generalization of meteorological data and revealing of cyclicity of meteorological processes. RAMES method uses natural time intervals: one day, synodic month and one year. It was developed a set of special calendars using these natural periods and the Metonic cycle. 3. Long-term time series of meteorological data is not a uniform universal set, it is a sequence of 28 universal sets appropriately superseding each other in time. The specifics of the method are: 1. Usage of the original research toolkit consisting of - a set of calendars based on the Metonic cycle; - a set of charts (coordinate systems) for the construction of sequence diagrams (of daily variability of a meteorological parameter during the analyzed year; of daily variability of a meteorological parameter using long-term dynamical time series of periods-analogues; of monthly and yearly variability of accumulated value of meteorological parameter). 2. Identification and usage of new virtual meteorological objects having several degrees of generalization appropriately located in the used coordinate systems. 3. All calculations are integrated into the single technological scheme providing comparison and mutual verification of calculation results. During the prolonged testing in the Ural region, it was

  14. Value of long-term electroencephalogram in diagnosing epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine electroencephalogram (EEG) usually cannot accurately reflect the discharge of epileptic patients due to the short examination, and long-term EEG can make up the shortcoming.OBJECTIVE: To comparatively analyze the long-term EEG of epileptic and non-epileptic patients, and investigate the values of long-term EEG in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of epilepsy.DESIGN: A case-controlled study.SETTING: Ningjin County People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 122 patients with epilepsy (epilepsy group) were selected from the EEG room of Ningjin County People's Hospital from January 2000 to December 2006, including 76 males and 44 females,7 months to 78 years of age, the disease course ranged from 7 days to 7.5 years, and they all according with the standards for epilepsy set by the International Association for Epilepsy in 1997. Meanwhile, 118 patients with non-epileptic paroxysmal diseases were selected as the control group, including 71 males and 47 females, 2.5 - 87 years of age, the disease course ranged from 3 days to 7.5 years. Informed contents were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: OXFORD GATE WAY 2000 16-lead portable EEG recorder was used for 24-hour electroencephalographic procedure. The patients could move normally during the monitoring, their activities,sleeping conditions, time and manifestations of seizures were recorded in details. In the next day, EEG at wake was recorded for 10 minutes, followed by 3-minute hyperventilation and open/close eye induction test,the phases of non-rapid eye movement ( Ⅰ - Ⅳ) and rapid eye movement were performed using EEG at sleep according to the international EEG standard. The abnormal rates of EEG epileptic discharge at wake and sleep at different sites were calculated.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal rate of long-term EEG at wake and sleep in both groups;Epileptic discharge at different sleeping phases in both groups; Abnormal rates of EEG epileptic discharge at wake and sleep at

  15. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  16. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  17. Reuse Requirements for Generating Long Term Climate Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleig, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Creating long term climate data sets from remotely sensed data requires a specialized form of code reuse. To detect long term trends in a geophysical parameter, such as global ozone amount or mean sea surface temperature, it is essential to be able to differentiate between real changes in the measurement and artifacts related to changes in processing algorithms or instrument characteristics. The ability to rerun the exact algorithm used to produce a given data set many years after the data was originally made is essential to create consistent long term data sets. It is possible to quickly develop a basic algorithm that will convert a perfect instrument measurement into a geophysical parameter value for a well specified set of conditions. However the devil is in the details and it takes a massive effort to develop and verify a processing system to generate high quality global climate data over all necessary conditions. As an example, from 1976 until now, over a hundred man years and eight complete reprocessings have been spent on deriving thirty years of total ozone data from multiple backscattered ultraviolet instruments. To obtain a global data set it is necessary to make numerous assumptions and to handle many special conditions (e.g. "What happens at high solar zenith angles with scattered clouds for snow covered terrain at high altitudes"?) It is easier to determine the precision of a remotely sensed data set than to determine its absolute accuracy. Fortunately if the entire data set is made with a single instrument and a constant algorithm the ability to detect long term trends is primarily determined by the precision of the measurement system rather than its absolute accuracy. However no instrument runs forever and new processing algorithms are developed over time. Introducing the resulting changes can impact the estimate of product precision and reduce the ability to estimate long term trends.Given an extended period of time when both the initial measurement

  18. Long-term funding and faithfulness to the original goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study describes long-term funding in terms of faithfulness to the original goals of the foundations. After having examined 20 different Swedish foundations three main categories of problems have appeared. The main threats to the original goals of the foundations are juridical problems, economic problems and a changing society. Fraud and embezzlement are covered by the Act (1994:1220) Concerning Foundations, but the law does not prevent unfaithfulness to the original goal of the foundation in terms of permutation. If the foundation is a private-established foundation the board has to apply for a change of the original goal to the Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. If the State, a municipality or a community establishes the foundation the Government can change the goal without permission of any other authority. Economic problems often strike smaller funds established by private persons, but State-established funds can also be hit by economical problems. The economic problems presented in the text are high tax levels, bad investments and problems getting donations. Both small private and large State-established foundations sometimes have to change their original goals as a result of a changing society. The goal of the foundation can be out-of-date, be against the ideology of the government party or the demography might have changed. Examples from each category are given in the text. The study is made to facilitate a description in general terms of the prospects for the Swedish nuclear funds if a final decision can not be made in the time span of 100 or 200 years. Looking back on the changes in the judicial, economical and political arenas during the last 200 years, one realizes the impossibility to foresee the changes that will occur within the next 200 years. The author's conclusion, after examined 20 foundation, is that it is impossible to establish a perfect long-term fund as we can not foresee the long-term future

  19. Factors affecting the long-term renal allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Hang; REN Liang; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Yong; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decades, the one-year graft survival of cadaveric renal allografts has been markedly improved,but their long-term survival has not kept pace. The attrition rate of renal allografts surviving after one year remains almost unchanged. The causes for late graft loss are multiple. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive factors that impact long-term survival of grafts after kidney transplantation.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 524 kidney transplantation patients who were treated in our hospital between January 1991 and January 2000, including 254 patients who had lived more than 10 years with normal graft function (long survival group), and 270 cases whose renal graft had survived less than 10 years (control group). Specifically, we analyzed 10 factors that may potentially affect graft survival by both univariate and Logistic model multivariate analyses to pinpoint the independent risk factors.Results Univariate analyses showed that no significant differences existed in the age or gender of recipients, dialysis time, lymphotoxin levels, or cold ischemia time between the two groups. However, the ratio of delayed graft function and acute rejection, and the uric acid levels of patients in the long survival group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.01). Furthermore, we found that the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation and the histocompatibility antigen match of donor-recipients for patients within the long survival group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.01 ). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that these four factors were independent risk factors that impact patient survival.Conclusions The ratios of delayed graft function and acute rejection, the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation, and serum uric acid levels are very important factors that affect the long-term survival of renal grafts.

  20. Merging of long-term memories in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kathryn L; Chittka, Lars

    2015-03-16

    Research on comparative cognition has largely focused on successes and failures of animals to solve certain cognitive tasks, but in humans, memory errors can be more complex than simple failures to retrieve information [1, 2]. The existence of various types of "false memories," in which individuals remember events that they have never actually encountered, are now well established in humans [3, 4]. We hypothesize that such systematic memory errors may be widespread in animals whose natural lifestyle involves the processing and recollection of memories for multiple stimuli [5]. We predict that memory traces for various stimuli may "merge," such that features acquired in distinct bouts of training are combined in an animal's mind, so that stimuli that have never been viewed before, but are a combination of the features presented in training, may be chosen during recall. We tested this using bumblebees, Bombus terrestris. When individuals were first trained to a solid single-colored stimulus followed by a black and white (b/w)-patterned stimulus, a subsequent preference for the last entrained stimulus was found in both short-term- and long-term-memory tests. However, when bees were first trained to b/w-patterned stimuli followed by solid single-colored stimuli and were tested in long-term-memory tests 1 or 3 days later, they only initially preferred the most recently rewarded stimulus, and then switched their preference to stimuli that combined features from the previous color and pattern stimuli. The observed merging of long-term memories is thus similar to the memory conjunction error found in humans [6]. PMID:25728692

  1. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  2. Long-term funding and faithfulness to the original goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, G

    1999-02-01

    The study describes long-term funding in terms of faithfulness to the original goals of the foundations. After having examined 20 different Swedish foundations three main categories of problems have appeared. The main threats to the original goals of the foundations are juridical problems, economic problems and a changing society. Fraud and embezzlement are covered by the Act (1994:1220) Concerning Foundations, but the law does not prevent unfaithfulness to the original goal of the foundation in terms of permutation. If the foundation is a private-established foundation the board has to apply for a change of the original goal to the Swedish Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds. If the State, a municipality or a community establishes the foundation the Government can change the goal without permission of any other authority. Economic problems often strike smaller funds established by private persons, but State-established funds can also be hit by economical problems. The economic problems presented in the text are high tax levels, bad investments and problems getting donations. Both small private and large State-established foundations sometimes have to change their original goals as a result of a changing society. The goal of the foundation can be out-of-date, be against the ideology of the government party or the demography might have changed. Examples from each category are given in the text. The study is made to facilitate a description in general terms of the prospects for the Swedish nuclear funds if a final decision can not be made in the time span of 100 or 200 years. Looking back on the changes in the judicial, economical and political arenas during the last 200 years, one realizes the impossibility to foresee the changes that will occur within the next 200 years. The author`s conclusion, after examined 20 foundation, is that it is impossible to establish a perfect long-term fund as we can not foresee the long-term future

  3. Comparison of Plant Life Management Approaches for Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant life management can be defined as the integration of ageing and economic planning to maintain a high level of safety and optimize operations. Many Member States have given high priority to long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond the time frame originally anticipated (e. g. 30 or 40 years). Out of a total of 445 (369 GWe) operating nuclear power plants, 349 units (297 GWe) have been in operation for more than 20 years (as of November 2011). The need for engineering support to operation, maintenance, safety review and life management for long term operation as well as education and training in the field is increasingly evident. In addition the Fukushima accident has rendered all stake holders even more attentive to safety concerns and to the provision of beyond safety measures in the preparation and scrutiny of applications for operational design life extensions. In many countries, the safety performance of NPPs is periodically followed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) approach. The regulatory The regulatory review and acceptance of the PSR gives the licensee the permission to operate the plant for up to the end of the next PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and other countries operating US designed plants, the license renewal application is based on the five pre-requisite requirements and ageing management programme for passive long life system structure and components(SSCs) and active systems is adequately addressed by the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. Other Member States have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both PSR and additional LRA specific requirements primarily focused on time limited ageing analysis. Taking into account this variety of approaches, the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) initiated work for collecting and sharing information among Member States about good practices on plant life management for long term operation in

  4. Electronic records long term authenticity and integrity demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerman Blažič, Aljoša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term preservation of electronic data requires introduction of specific technology solutions and organizational measures in order to provide stable environment for electronic record preservation. System solutions must support basic principles of electronic preservation: accessibility of data, usability or reproduction of data in usable form and integrity/authenticity provision including time existence for preserved content.Due to their nature, electronic data may become subjects of manipulation without recursive traceability of content alteration. In order to preserve usability of preserved data, electronic preservation system must provide appropriate measures for demonstrating unalterability of data for the entire preservation period. In this paper technology approach for demonstrating integrity and authenticity of archived data on long term basis is presented. Presented technological concept deals with any type of documentation or archiving material and provides creation of additional security assertions or evidence records that are needed to demonstrate the authenticity and integrity of the material anytime during the archival period. The evidence record syntax (ERS, which has been standardized by international organization body for internet standards (IETF, presents universal technique of security assertions generation and their maintenance for integrity preservation based on document hashing, hash treeing and integration of (qualified time stamps of trusted third parties. Using re-timestamping methods created security assertions may endure their validity for longest periods of time until retention periods of archived data expires. In the paper complementary organizational rules for technology solutions are presented as well, providing an all around overview of long term preservation of data in authentic, reliable and secure manner.

  5. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. We summarise the main findings from large cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies in western countries with a high proportion of vegetarian participants. Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background, whereas the data are equivocal for stroke. For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, but findings for individual cancer sites are inconclusive. Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores. Much more research is needed, particularly on the long-term health of vegans. PMID:26707634

  6. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  7. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  8. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  9. Long-term visual outcome of dense bilateral congenital cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE He-hua; DENG Da-ming; QIAN Yi-yong; LIN Zhi; CHEN Wei-rong

    2007-01-01

    Background Dense congenital cataracts often cause severe visual impairment. The results of long-term follow-up of dense bilateral congenital cataract in China have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term visual function in children who underwent cataract extraction for dense bilateral congenital cataract in southern part of China.Methods Medical records of children who underwent surgery of dense bilateral congenital cataract between January 1992 and December 2000 at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University were retroactively reviewed. In 38 children available for current follow-up, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and stereoscopic vision, as well as nystagmus, strabismus, and other complications, were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 107.6 months (range 60 to 167 months).Results The mean age of cataract extraction and secondary intraocular lens implantation were 5.6 months (range 3 to 12 months) and 4.2 years (range 2.4 to 15 years), respectively. The mean BCVA was 0.25 in the better eye and 0.16 in the fellow eye. Stereoscopic vision was absent in all patients, and 3 children had simultaneous perception. Nystagmus was detected in all cases and strabismus in 35 cases. A high correlation was found between timing of cataract extraction and final BCVA of the better eye (r=-0.55, P=0.00). A statistically significant difference was found in BCVA between postand pre-treatment of amblyopia (t=5.65, P=0.00).Conclusions Long-term visual function in children with dense bilateral congenital cataract was poor when cataract surgery was performed at age of 3 months or later. Earlier cataract surgery with adequate optical rehabilitation contributed to better visual outcome.

  10. Long-term movement patterns of a coral reef predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, M. R.; Simpfendorfer, C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term monitoring is required to fully define periodicity and patterns in animal movement. This is particularly relevant for defining what factors are driving the presence, location, and movements of individuals. The long-term movement and space use patterns of grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, were examined on a whole of reef scale in the southern Great Barrier Reef to define whether movement and activity space varied through time. Twenty-nine C. amblyrhynchos were tracked for over 2 years to define movement patterns. All individuals showed high residency within the study site, but also had high roaming indices. This indicated that individuals remained in the region and used all of the monitored habitat (i.e., the entire reef perimeter). Use of space was consistent through time with high reuse of areas most of the year. Therefore, individuals maintained discrete home ranges, but undertook broader movements around the reef at times. Mature males showed greatest variation in movement with larger activity spaces and movement into new regions during the mating season (August-September). Depth use patterns also differed, suggesting behaviour or resource requirements varied between sexes. Examination of the long-term, reef-scale movements of C. amblyrhynchos has revealed that reproductive activity may play a key role in space use and activity patterns. It was unclear whether mating behaviour or an increased need for food to sustain reproductive activity and development played a greater role in these patterns. Reef shark movement patterns are becoming more clearly defined, but research is still required to fully understand the biological drivers for the observed patterns.

  11. Long-term outcomes of vertebroplasty for osteoporotic compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to determine outcomes of percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Prospective assessment of short-term (≤6 weeks), medium-term (6 months) and long-term (29 months) outcomes of vertebroplasty, followed by a retrospective long-term follow-up of patients treated with vertebroplasty compared with conservative therapy. Outcomes measured were visual analogue scale pain scores, analgesic use, disability scores using the Roland Morris Disability questionnaire and a number of new VCFs. In 27 patients with acute VCFs followed prospectively, vertebroplasty resulted in significant reductions in pain levels (56-mm reduction on a 100-mm scale) and disability scores (11.8-point reduction on a 24-point scale) at all follow-up points up to a mean of 29 months compared with pre-vertebroplasty levels (P < 0.001). Analgesic use was significantly less intense in the short and medium term after vertebroplasty (P < 0.005). In 25 patients who had vertebroplasty for VCF, a sustained reduction in all outcomes was demonstrated at a mean follow-up of 30 months, with less pain, significantly lower disability scores (P < 0.05) and less analgesic use (P < 0.05) compared with nine conservatively treated subjects. During the follow-up period, six new VCFs occurred in 4/25 vertebroplasty patients compared with four new VCFs in 2/9 control subjects. Vertebroplasty provides significant and clinically meaningful reductions in pain, analgesic use, and disability in the short, medium and long term. Compared with conservative therapy, vertebroplasty provides significantly greater functional improvement and reduction in analgesic use. The procedure is relatively safe with no clearly increased risk of new vertebral fractures.

  12. The long-term health of vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Vegetarians, who do not eat any meat, poultry or fish, constitute a significant minority of the world's population. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians consume dairy products and/or eggs, whereas vegans do not eat any foods derived wholly or partly from animals. Concerns over the health, environmental and economic consequences of a diet rich in meat and other animal products have focussed attention on those who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. There has been extensive research into the nutritional adequacy of vegetarian diets, but less is known about the long-term health of vegetarians and vegans. We summarise the main findings from large cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies in western countries with a high proportion of vegetarian participants. Vegetarians have a lower prevalence of overweight and obesity and a lower risk of IHD compared with non-vegetarians from a similar background, whereas the data are equivocal for stroke. For cancer, there is some evidence that the risk for all cancer sites combined is slightly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians, but findings for individual cancer sites are inconclusive. Vegetarians have also been found to have lower risks for diabetes, diverticular disease and eye cataract. Overall mortality is similar for vegetarians and comparable non-vegetarians, but vegetarian groups compare favourably with the general population. The long-term health of vegetarians appears to be generally good, and for some diseases and medical conditions it may be better than that of comparable omnivores. Much more research is needed, particularly on the long-term health of vegans.

  13. Oil use and oil dependency: Long-term issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued dependence of the United States on imported oil is a matter of increasing concern. Under the direction of the Department of Energy's Office of Policy Integration, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study which was to examine long-term issues related to oil dependence. Major issues addressed are (1) energy efficiency and the role of new technologies, (2) fuel switching, and (3) regional factors affecting fuel use. The study examines all major end-use sectors in the economy, covering the industrial, commercial, residential, transportation, and electric utility sectors. The potential impacts of efficiency improvements in oil- using equipment are assessed through the year 2000. 107 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Long-term solar irradiance variability: knowns and unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, Natalie; Solanki, Sami K.; Dasi Espuig, Maria; Leng Yeo, Kok; Wu, Chi-Ju

    2016-07-01

    Long-term reconstructions of solar irradiance variability are crucial to our understanding of solar influence on climate. They are only possible with the help of suitable models, which in turn require a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of this variability. With the advance of such models, also the past reconstructions are becoming more reliable. Nevertheless, the remaining uncertainties spread out when extrapolating back over long periods of time, amplified by the increasingly poorer quality and reliability of the available data that bear information on past solar activity. We will discuss the progress and the reliability of irradiance reconstructions on time scales of decades to millennia.

  15. Long-term fiscal sustainability in advanced economies

    OpenAIRE

    Auerbach, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of the long-term fiscal sustainability of advanced economies, based on current estimates of these economies’ current-policy fiscal trajectories. As will be quite evident, for many countries short-term fiscal measures, such as the debt-GDP ratio and the current budget deficit as a share of GDP, bear little relationship to the sustainability of policy. Some countries appear to be on relatively sustainable paths despite challenging short-run statistics, while ...

  16. The Long-Term Effect of Childhood Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper uses variation among siblings to identify the effect of childhood poverty on long-term outcomes such as income, earnings, job type, employment, and having children. Childhood poverty is found to have large negative effects on labour market outcome and small effects on non-labour market......, but with a notable spike at the year of birth. The effect is not found to be accentuated by other shocks to the household, such as divorce, parental job loss, or relocation. Yet, a social gradient is detected, where children from low educated parents are harmed more than others....

  17. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care. PMID:10339203

  18. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U2, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO2 in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term

  19. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney C. Ewing

    2004-10-07

    Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

  20. Nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, T; Bechtel, G A

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze nonlicensed employee turnover in a long-term care facility using Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a framework. During exit interviews, a convenience sample of 34 employees completed an attitudes and beliefs survey regarding their work environment. Findings were mixed; 39.6 percent of the employees stated positive personal relationships were a strength of the organization, although 24.3 percent resigned because of personal/staff conflicts. Financial concerns were not a major factor in their resignations. The study suggests that decreasing nonlicensed employee stress and increasing their personal satisfaction with patient care may decrease employee turnover.

  1. Dentinogenesis imperfecta: long-term rehabilitation in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Dominique; Leheis, Benoît; Duprez, Jean-Pierre; Bittar, Elias; Coudert, Jean-Loup

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of dentinogenesis imperfecta represents a challenge for the dental practitioner. The aim of this case report was to describe the chronology and problems encountered in the long-term rehabilitation of a young girl suffering from dentinogenesis imperfecta with severe attrition. A 2-stage treatment over a period of 9 years is described and discussed. This treatment comprised an initial treatment to restore esthetic appearance and function during primary and mixed dentitions and a complete prosthetic rehabilitation in a second stage to protect permanent teeth with low-fusion ceramicmetal individual crowns. Discovery of a follicular cyst is also reported and its treatment is described.

  2. LONG-TERM LINEAR TRENDS IN CONSUMER PRICE INDICES

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan O.; Oleg I. Kitov

    2008-01-01

    Headline CPI, core CPI and indices for various expenditure categories were analyzed. Long-term linear trends have been found in the difference between the core CPI and the headline CPI in the USA. Duration of these periods is different for positive (18 years) and negative (8 years) trends, and the trends change to opposite during some shorter time intervals of 2 to 4 years. The difference between the core CPI and the index for energy is similar to that between the core CPI and headline CPI. T...

  3. Long-term linear trends in consumer price indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan; Kitov, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Headline CPI, core CPI and indices for various expenditure categories were analyzed. Long-term linear trends have been found in the difference between the core CPI and the headline CPI in the USA. Duration of these periods is different for positive (18 years) and negative (8 years) trends, and the trends change to opposite during some shorter time intervals of 2 to 4 years. The difference between the core CPI and the index for energy is similar to that between the core CPI and headline CPI. T...

  4. Long-term linear trends in consumer price indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan; Kitov, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Headline CPI, core CPI and indices for various expenditure categories were analyzed. Long-term linear trends have been found in the difference between the core CPI and the headline CPI in the USA. Duration of these periods is different for positive (18 years) and negative (8 years) trends, and the trends change to opposite during some shorter time intervals of 2 to 4 years. The difference between the core CPI and the index for energy is similar to that between the core CPI and headline CP...

  5. Long-term operating experience for the ATLAS superconducting resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, R.; Zinkann, G.

    1999-12-21

    Portions of the ATLAS accelerator have been operating now for over 21 years. The facility has accumulated several million resonator-hours of operation at this point and has demonstrated the long-term reliability of RF superconductivity. The overall operating performance of the ATLAS facility has established a level of beam quality, flexibility, and reliability not previously achieved with heavy-ion accelerator facilities. The actual operating experience and maintenance history of ATLAS are presented for ATLAS resonators and associated electronics systems. Solutions to problems that appeared in early operation as well as current problems needing further development are discussed.

  6. Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kaufman, D.S.; Vinther, Bo Møllesøe

    2009-01-01

    continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused...... by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000. Udgivelsesdato: 4 September...

  7. Cyclic and Long-term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca; Tlatov, Andrey G.; Kilcik, Ali; Nagovitsyn, Yury A.; Cliver, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) are used to study the long-term variations of sunspot field strengths from 1920 to 1958. Following a modified approach similar to that in Pevtsov et al. (2011), for each observing week we select a single sunspot with the strongest field strength measured that week and then compute monthly averages of these weekly maximum field strengths. The data show the solar cycle variation of the peak field strengths with an amplitude of about 500-700 g...

  8. Applying activity-based costing in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodchis, W P

    1998-01-01

    As greater numbers of the elderly use health services, and as health care costs climb, effective financial tracking is essential. Cost management in health care can benefit if costs are linked to the care activities where they are incurred. Activity-based costing (ABC) provides a useful approach. The framework aligns costs (inputs), through activities (process), to outputs and outcomes. It allocates costs based on client care needs rather than management structure. The ABC framework was tested in a residential care facility and in supportive housing apartments. The results demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of ABC for long term care agencies, including community-based care.

  9. Long-term decline of radiocaesium in Fennoscandian reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skuterud, L. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Norwegian Reindeer Husbandry Administration (Norway)); AAhman, B. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)); Solatie, D. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Gaare, E. (Norwegian Institute for Nature Researc (Norway))

    2009-06-15

    The NKS-B project REIN was established to synthesize the available information on contamination levels and effective half-times for 137Cs in reindeer in Finland, Sweden and Norway. Several studies of radiocaesium contamination in reindeer have been carried out in the Nordic countries over the last 50 years. However, the current slow decline in concentrations, which will maintain the consequences of the Chernobyl deposition for Swedish and Norwegian reindeer husbandry for at least another 10-20 years, have not previously been observed nor predicted. In the Chernobyl affected areas 137Cs concentrations in reindeer initially declined by effective half-times of 3-4 years, whereas the current decline appears to be mainly governed by the nuclide's physical half-life (30 years). The review of effective half-times of 137Cs in reindeer across Fennoscandia suggests that concentrations declined more rapidly in the northernmost areas. The reason(-s) remains unclear, and demonstrates the need for more long-term sampling of the various components of reindeer's diet. Such sampling should aim at covering climatically different areas, as climate may influence transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer via lichen growth and weathering rates, composition of plant communities and lichen availability, as well as soil-to-plant radiocaesium uptake. The lack of long-term data on radiocaesium in natural vegetation in the Nordic countries is one of the main limitations for the development of mechanistic models for radiocaesium in reindeer, and for further elucidation of the observed long-term trends in 137Cs concentrations in reindeer. Currently our understanding of the long-term trends observed in various areas is not good enough to predict how future radiocaesium deposition will behave. The high transfer of nuclides to reindeer, the geographical extension of reindeer herding and the special position of the Sami population in Finland, Sweden and Norway, demonstrates the need for

  10. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  11. Carpal arthrodesis in cats. Long-term functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, I; Farrell, M; Chase, D; Aisa, J; Rayward, R; Carmichael, S

    2009-01-01

    Pancarpal and partial carpal arthrodesis were performed in 22 carpi (20 cats) using various surgical methods. Short and long-term outcomes were assessed using a retrospective review of the case notes and via owner questionnaires. Carpal arthrodesis was associated with complications that did not affect the functional outcome, and in most cases, did not necessitate major revision surgery. Following arthrodesis, the cats did not jump as high, and showed a reduction in their willingness to jump and climb. Based on our results, carpal arthrodesis is a suitable salvage surgery to treat severe carpal injuries in the cat. PMID:19876518

  12. Long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index is investigated. It is found that, (1) the phase difference of the flare index between the northern and southern hemispheres is about 6–7 months, which is near the time delay between flare activity and sunspot activity; (2) both the dominant and phase-leading hemisphere of the flare index is the northern hemisphere in the considered time interval, implying that the hemispheric asynchrony of solar activity has a close connection with the N-S asymmetry of solar activity. (research papers)

  13. Surviving the nuclear age in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with problems of the 21st century starting from the present state of nuclear disarmament negotiations and agreements. The first Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I) now being implemented, will reduce the number of warheads. The impediments to deep reductions are related to reassessing the needs for nuclear deterrence. Strategic, technical and diplomatic impediments are discussed. The prospect of removing the threat to civilization in the long term may indeed be hostage in the short term to the West's unwillingness to energize Russia's economic, political and social recovery

  14. Essays on water and economic growth: A long term perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano González, Ana; Pinilla Navarro, Vicente; Duarte Pac, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    La tesis doctoral titulada "Essays on water and economic growth: a long term perspective" estudia el impacto que los procesos a largo plazo de crecimiento económico han ejercido sobre los recursos hídricos. Más concretamente, analiza mediante un enfoque cuantitativo la forma en que las transiciones demográficas, económicas y globalizadoras han afectado a la creciente utilización y consumo de agua. Los capítulos uno y dos estudian la relación entre el uso de agua y el crecimiento económico en ...

  15. Long-term use of antiplatelet drugs by stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Kamilla; Hallas, Jesper; Bak, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Treatment with antiplatelet drugs is a key element of secondary stroke prevention. We investigated long-term antiplatelet drug use in stroke patients with a focus on non-persistence. METHODS: Population-based prescription register data were used to determine antiplatelet drug use...... in a cohort of stroke patients discharged from a Danish neurology department. The antiplatelet drugs comprised acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel and dipyridamole (if combined with ASA use). Non-persistence was defined as failure to present a prescription for antiplatelet drugs within 180 days after...

  16. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  17. Uncertainty Assessment in Long Term Urban Drainage Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    The thesis covers a general introduction and a combilation of seven papers on the subject of uncertainty assessment in urban drainage modelling. Urban drainage models applied for design and analysis of urban drainage systems are uncertain due to uncertainty in parameter assessment and especially...... the probability of system failures (defined as either flooding or surcharge of manholes or combined sewer overflow); (2) an application of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology in which an event based stochastic calibration is performed; and (3) long term Monte Carlo simulations...

  18. Long-term laser frequency stabilization using fiber interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Jia, E-mail: jia.kong@icfo.es [ICFO – Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Quantum Institute for Light and Atoms, Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Jiménez-Martínez, Ricardo [ICFO – Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Mitchell, Morgan W. [ICFO – Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA – Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08015 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    We report long-term laser frequency stabilization using only the target laser and a pair of 5 m fiber interferometers, one as a frequency reference and the second as a sensitive thermometer to stabilize the frequency reference. When used to stabilize a distributed feedback laser at 795 nm, the frequency Allan deviation at 1000 s drops from 5.6 × 10{sup −8} to 6.9 × 10{sup −10}. The performance equals that of an offset lock employing a second, atom-stabilized laser in the temperature control.

  19. Political connections, media monitoring and long-term loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deming; Yang; Zhengfei; Lu; Danglun; Luo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze data on Chinese non-state-listed firms and find that it is easier for firms with political connections to obtain long-term loans with extended debt maturities than it is for firms without political connections. Our investigation indicates that this phenomenon is significantly less common with increased media monitoring. Houston et al.(2011) find strong evidence that the state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption in China, but our study shows that, to a certain extent, media monitoring can curb corruption.

  20. RIPED and IFP Built a Long-term Cooperative Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingyi

    2005-01-01

    @@ On March 15, the general geologist of PetroChina and the dean of Research Institute Petroleum Exploration and Development,CNPC (RIPED), Mr. Jia Chengzao, and the scientific and development principals in the aspects of exploration and development, refining & marketing, natural gas & pipelines and from RIPED met 8 specialists leading by Mr.Olivier Appert, the dean of Institut Francais du Pétrole (IFP). The two sides exchanged ideas broadly on the research topics that both parties were interested in commonly and signed a memorandum of understanding for building a long-term cooperative partnership between RIPED and IFP.

  1. The long-term management and outcomes of cloacal anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, M. A.; Creighton, S. M.; Wood, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cloacal anomalies occur when failure of the urogenital septum to separate the cloacal membrane results in the urethra, vagina, rectum and anus opening into a single common channel. The reported incidence is 1:50,000 live births. Short-term paediatric outcomes of surgery are well reported and survival into adulthood is now usual, but long-term outcome data are less comprehensive. Chronic renal failure is reported to occur in 50 % of patients with cloacal anomalies, and 26-72 % (dependant on th...

  2. The long-term management and outcomes of cloacal anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, M. Ashani; Creighton, Sarah M.; Wood, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Cloacal anomalies occur when failure of the urogenital septum to separate the cloacal membrane results in the urethra, vagina, rectum and anus opening into a single common channel. The reported incidence is 1:50,000 live births. Short-term paediatric outcomes of surgery are well reported and survival into adulthood is now usual, but long-term outcome data are less comprehensive. Chronic renal failure is reported to occur in 50 % of patients with cloacal anomalies, and 26–72 % (dependant on th...

  3. Degradation of superheater headers during long-term service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of superheater headers used in polish power plants as well as heat and power-generating plants have already worked for over 100 thousand hours. A superheater is on of the most important elements of a boiler. They have operated at a temperature about 500-550 oC and pressure of 10-18 MPa. The paper presents some results of the X20CrMoV121 steels microstructure and properties investigations after long-term service superheater headers of 360 and 500 MW blocks. (author)

  4. The long-term prediction of artificial satellite orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefola, P. J.; Long, A. C.; Holloway, G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of averaging and multirevolution methods for long-term orbit prediction. A technical approach with the following features is recommended: (1) averaged variation-of-parameter equations, (2) analytical expressions for oblateness and third-body effects, (3) definite integrals for atmospheric drag and lunar effects (for long-period orbits), (4) nonsingular equinoctial element formulation, (5) multistep numerical integration processes, and (6) precise osculating-to-mean element transformation. Several orbital predictions illustrate the contribution of this technical approach to overall accuracy and efficiency. Future development of the analytical averaging method in nonsingular coordinates by automated manipulation of literal series is discussed.

  5. The long-term motion of artificial Jovian satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a description of a preliminary study aimed at the classification and establishment of realistic orbit design criteria of artificial satellites of Jupiter. The work is concentrated on investigation of the factors that will affect the long-term motion, and particularly the dynamic lifetime, of the first Jupiter orbiters. Included is a perturbation analysis describing the effects of the Jovian gravity, the Galilean satellites, and the solar gravitational perturbations. An unusual problem is identified in the great difficulty of avoiding near-collisions with the Galilean satellites. The results of the perturbation and dynamic lifetime analyses are used in brief discussions of some possible Jupiter orbit missions.

  6. Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minev, Ivan R.; Musienko, Pavel; Hirsch, Arthur; Barraud, Quentin; Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jérôme; Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Asboth, Léonie; Torres, Rafael Fajardo; Vachicouras, Nicolas; Liu, Qihan; Pavlova, Natalia; Duis, Simone; Larmagnac, Alexandre; Vörös, Janos; Micera, Silvestro; Suo, Zhigang; Courtine, Grégoire; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical mismatch between soft neural tissues and stiff neural implants hinders the long-term performance of implantable neuroprostheses. Here, we designed and fabricated soft neural implants with the shape and elasticity of dura mater, the protective membrane of the brain and spinal cord. The electronic dura mater, which we call e-dura, embeds interconnects, electrodes, and chemotrodes that sustain millions of mechanical stretch cycles, electrical stimulation pulses, and chemical injections. These integrated modalities enable multiple neuroprosthetic applications. The soft implants extracted cortical states in freely behaving animals for brain-machine interface and delivered electrochemical spinal neuromodulation that restored locomotion after paralyzing spinal cord injury.

  7. Long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Feng; Lin-Hua Deng; Shi-Chun Xu

    2013-01-01

    The long-term hemispheric variation of the flare index is investigated.It is found that,(1) the phase difference of the flare index between the northern and southern hemispheres is about 6-7 months,which is near the time delay between flare activity and sunspot activity; (2) both the dominant and phase-leading hemisphere of the flare index is the northern hemisphere in the considered time interval,implying that the hemispheric asynchrony of solar activity has a close connection with the N-S asymmetry of solar activity.

  8. Optogenetic long-term manipulation of behavior and animal development

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Schultheis; Jana Fiona Liewald; Ernst Bamberg; Georg Nagel; Alexander Gottschalk

    2011-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is widely used for rapid photodepolarization of neurons, yet, as it requires high-intensity blue light for activation, it is not suited for long-term in vivo applications, e.g. for manipulations of behavior, or photoactivation of neurons during development. We used "slow" ChR2 variants with mutations in the C128 residue, that exhibit delayed off-kinetics and increased light sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Following a 1 s light pulse, we could photodepolarize n...

  9. User Friendly Explosives Reactive Armour a Long term Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : There is a strong need to develop explosive reactive armour (ERA for protecting battle tanks against an emerging threat of kinetic and chemical energy missiles. In this context, global trends, principle and limitations of ERA and threat perception-based types of ERA have been dwelt upon. User-friendly ERA is a long-term reality. User-friendly ERA system is thus defined to be an efficient and protective system that not only provide full protection to the tank crew, but is also harmless to the supporting infantory. The indigenously-developed ERA system is close to be termed as a user-friendly ERA.

  10. Long-term perspective on wildfires in the western USA

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon, Jennifer R.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gavin, Daniel G.; Long, Colin J.; Anderson, R. Scott; Briles, Christy E.; Brown, Kendrick J.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Hallett, Douglas J.; Power, Mitchell J.; Scharf, Elizabeth A.; Walsh, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of wildfires in forests of the western United States requires integrated information about fire, climate changes, and human activity on multiple temporal scales. We use sedimentary charcoal accumulation rates to construct long-term variations in fire during the past 3,000 y in the American West and compare this record to independent fire-history data from historical records and fire scars. There has been a slight decline in burning over the past 3,000...

  11. Long term impacts of international outsourcing of manufacturing on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosavirad, Seyed Hamed; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    dynamics in a case study including European electrical industry (outsourcer), Chinese electrical industry (outsourcee) and their main suppliers. Results depict the differences related to the total CO2 emissions, the number of employees and the gross value added of these two regions between a 10......International outsourcing seems to be a cost efficient way of production. However, there are serious concerns about its long term impacts on the environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper aims to quantify these impacts by using input output analysis, linear programming and system...

  12. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo (Science Applications International Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  13. Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Gregory, David;

    2005-01-01

    Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems.......Long term corrosion of iron at the water logged site Nydam in Denmark; studies of enviroment, archaeological artefacts, and modern analogues, Prediction of long term corrosion behaviour in nuclear waste systems....

  14. Long-term physiological T3 supplementation in hypertensive heart disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltman, Nathan Y; Pol, Christine J; Zhang, Youhua; Wang, Yibo; Koder, Adrienne; Raza, Sarah; Zucchi, Riccardo; Saba, Alessandro; Colligiani, Daria; Gerdes, A Martin

    2015-09-15

    Animal studies suggest that hypertension leads to cardiac tissue hypothyroidism, a condition that can by itself lead to heart failure. We have previously shown that short-term thyroid hormone treatment in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats near heart failure is beneficial. This study tested the hypothesis that therapeutic, long-term T3 treatment in SHHF rats can prevent or attenuate cardiac dysfunction. Female SHHF rats were treated orally with a physiological T3 dose (0.04 μg/ml) from 12 to 24 mo of age. Age-matched female SHHF and Wistar-Kyoto rats served as hypertensive and normotensive controls, respectively. SHHF rats had reduced serum free thyroid hormone levels and cardiac tissue T3 levels, LV dysfunction, and elevated LV collagen content compared with normotensive controls. Restoration of serum and cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels in T3-treated rats was associated with no change in heart rate, but strong trends for improvement in LV systolic function and collagen levels. For instance, end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, systolic wall stress, and LV collagen levels were no longer significantly different from controls. In conclusion, longstanding hypertension in rats led to chronic low serum and cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels. Long-term treatment with low-dose T3 was safe. While cardiac dysfunction could not be completely prevented in the absence of antihypertensive treatment, T3 may offer additional benefits as an adjunct therapy with possible improvement in diastolic function. PMID:26254335

  15. Experimental Simulation of Long Term Weathering in Alkaline Bauxite Residue Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Santini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite residue is an alkaline, saline tailings material generated as a byproduct of the Bayer process used for alumina refining. Developing effective plans for the long term management of potential environmental impacts associated with storage of these tailings is dependent on understanding how the chemical and mineralogical properties of the tailings will change during weathering and transformation into a soil-like material. Hydrothermal treatment of bauxite residue was used to compress geological weathering timescales and examine potential mineral transformations during weathering. Gibbsite was rapidly converted to boehmite; this transformation was examined with in situ synchrotron XRD. Goethite, hematite, and calcite all precipitated over longer weathering timeframes, while tricalcium aluminate dissolved. pH, total alkalinity, and salinity (electrical conductivity all decreased during weathering despite these experiments being performed under “closed” conditions (i.e., no leaching. This indicates the potential for auto-attenuation of the high alkalinity and salinity that presents challenges for long term environmental management, and suggests that management requirements will decrease during weathering as a result of these mineral transformations.

  16. Validation of long-term measurements from FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Jaber, Hiba; Glisic, Branko

    2016-04-01

    Temperature monitoring has been of increased importance in recent years due to the need for temperature measurements in order to compensate other measurement parameters, such as strain, and the increased attention to understanding thermal behaviors of structures in order to assess their performance and condition. To ensure the accuracy of thermal compensation and study of thermal behavior, reliable long-term temperature measurements are required. In this paper, two methods that are aimed at validating long-term temperature measurements are created and their application is presented. The methods differ in the type of data they use for the purpose of validation. The first method relies on the existence of two independent temperature sensors at the same location. Validation is performed by comparing the measurements from the two sensors to one another, and discrepancies between the two data sets indicate malfunction or drift in at least one of the sensors. The second method is applicable to the more general case where only one temperature sensor is available at a given location. The method thus utilizes ambient temperature data from a nearby weather tower to validate measurements from the sensor. The two methods are applied to temperature measurements from FBG sensors installed on Streicker Bridge on the Princeton University campus. The methods successfully identified and characterized malfunction and drift in some of the sensors and confirmed stable measurements in other sensors.

  17. Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E3 (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E3 model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E3 model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues

  18. International Long-term Data and Analysis Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J; Rahal, G; South, D; Guelzow, V; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of scientific data for long-term use and re-analysis has been identified as a key requirement in the field of High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, as well as Life and Earth Sciences. In collaboration with related projects in the US (in particular in close collaboration with the National Science Foundation and Department of Energy) the proposed project would take the work of the Data Preservation in HEP Study group that defines the physics motivation for long-term data preservation and many of the associated issues, and extend this to cover not only the existing use cases but also consider the needs of the LHC experiments at CERN. This work would ensure the persistent availability of existing data and enable it to be shared between organisations and across national boundaries. Now is the time to define standards for data and meta-data formats and address access and authorization issues for on-going experiments (e.g. those at the LHC) – issues that hav...

  19. Long-Term Trends In The Solar Wind Proton Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Heather A; DeForest, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    We examine the long-term time evolution (1965-2015) of the relationships between solar wind proton temperature (Tp) and speed (Vp) and between the proton density (np) and speed using OMNI solar wind observations taken near Earth. We find a long-term decrease in the proton temperature-speed (Tp-Vp) slope that lasted from 1972 to 2010, but has been trending upward since 2010. Since the solar wind proton density-speed (np-Vp) relationship is not linear like the Tp-Vp relationship, we perform power law fits for np-Vp. The exponent (steepness in the np-Vp relationship) is correlated with the solar cycle. This exponent has a stronger correlation with current sheet tilt angle than with sunspot number because the sunspot number maxima vary considerably from cycle to cycle and the tilt angle maxima do not. To understand this finding, we examined the average np for different speed ranges, and found that for the slow wind np is highly correlated with the sunspot number with a lag of ~4 years. The fast wind np variation ...

  20. The Long-Term Outcomes of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Binary star systems composed of two white dwarfs are a natural outcome of stellar evolution. Angular momentum losses from gravitational wave radiation cause the binary system's orbit to shrink until the two white dwarfs merge. The final outcome of the merger depends on the masses of the white dwarfs. Some potential outcomes, such as supernova explosions, may occur during or soon after the merger. Other outcomes, which I will refer to as "long-term" outcomes, occur as the merger remnant cools and its structure adjusts to the new state created during the energetic merger.In my dissertation, I quantitatively explore the long-term outcomes of the mergers of two white dwarfs. I focus primarily on the formation of neutron stars via accretion-induced collapse and the formation of two types of unusual stars, the single sub-dwarf B stars (hot, core helium fusing stars) and the R Coronae Borealis stars (cool, carbon-rich giant stars). Beginning with the results from my previous simulations of the short-lived viscous disk initially present in these remnants, I use the state-of-the-art MESA stellar evolution code to follow their thermal evolution.This work improves the quantitative understanding of which white dwarf binaries lead to a particular outcome and better characterizes the observational signatures of these outcomes. For systems that will undergo accretion-induced collapse, these simulations yield improved progenitor models that can then be used to explore the collapse and formation of a neutron star.

  1. Long-term experimental testing of a-silicon modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term stability of photovoltaic module electrical performance is critically important to the economic viability of PV in large-scale energy-generation applications. Equally important is having the means to conclusively demonstrate long life to potential users; this requires proven test methods that accurately predict field performance trends. To assess the long-term stability of a-Si modules and the usefulness of existing crystalline-Si test methods a number of first generation a-Si photovoltaic modules have been acquired from leading manufacturers and subjected to a variety of accelerated and real-time outdoor aging tests. Data to date indicate that the degradation of a-Si modules involves complex dependencies that negate some of the key test correlations previously established for crystalline-Si modules. Key research priorities are highlighted including light induced effects, cell corrosion leading to increased series resistance, glass breaking strength for large modules, and the development of protective encapsulants that meet the outdoor weathering and voltage isolation required for long module life

  2. Long-term monitoring of structures through point cloud analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Bahman; Khaloo, Ali; Lattanzi, David

    2016-04-01

    Modern remote sensing technologies have enabled the creation of high-resolution 3D point clouds of infrastructure systems. In particular, photogrammetric reconstructions using Dense-Structure-from-Motion algorithm can now yield point clouds with the necessary resolution to capture small-strain displacements. By tracking changes in these point clouds over time, displacements can be measured, leading to strain and stress estimates for long-term structural evaluations. This study determines the accuracy of a comparative point cloud analysis technique for measuring deflections in high-resolution point clouds of structural elements. Utilizing a combination of a recently developed point cloud generation process and localized nearest-neighbors cloud comparisons, the analytical technique is designed for long-term field scenarios and requires no artificial tracking, targets, and camera calibrations. A series of flexural laboratory experiments were performed in order to test the approach. The results indicate sub-millimeter accuracy in measuring the vertical deflection, making it suitable for the small-displacement analysis of a variety of large-scale infrastructure systems. Ongoing work seeks to extend this technique for comparison with as-built and finite element models.

  3. Synthesis on the spent fuel long term evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, Ch.; Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DEN/DPC), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Broudic, V. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires (DRN), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Cappelaere, Ch. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire(DMN), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desgranges, L. [CEA Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires (DRN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Garcia, Ph. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Jegou, Ch.; Roudil, D. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 30 - Marcoule (France); Lovera, P.; Poulesquen, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie (DPC), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Marimbeau, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gras, J.M.; Bouffioux, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The French research on spent fuel long term evolution has been performed by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) since 1999 in the PRECCI project with the support of EDF (Electricite de France). These studies focused on the spent fuel behaviour under various conditions encountered in dry storage or in deep geological disposal. Three main types of conditions were discerned: - The evolution in a closed system which corresponds to the normal scenario in storage and to the first confinement phase in disposal; - The evolution in air which corresponds to an incidental loss of confinement during storage or to a rupture of the canister before the site re-saturation in geological disposal; - The evolution in water which corresponds to the normal scenario after the breaching of the canister in repository conditions. This document produced in the frame of the PRECCI project is an overview of the state of knowledge in 2004 concerning the long-term behavior of spent fuel under these various conditions. The state of the art was derived from the results obtained under the PRECCI project as well as from a review of the literature and of data acquired under the European project on Spent Fuel Stability under Repository Conditions. The main results issued from the French research are underlined. (authors)

  4. Short- and Long-Term Propagation of Spacecraft Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John C., Jr.; Sweetser, Theodore; Chung, Min-Kun; Yen, Chen-Wan L.; Roncoli, Ralph B.; Kwok, Johnny H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The Planetary Observer Planning Software (POPS) comprises four computer programs for use in designing orbits of spacecraft about planets. These programs are the Planetary Observer High Precision Orbit Propagator (POHOP), the Planetary Observer Long-Term Orbit Predictor (POLOP), the Planetary Observer Post Processor (POPP), and the Planetary Observer Plotting (POPLOT) program. POHOP and POLOP integrate the equations of motion to propagate an initial set of classical orbit elements to a future epoch. POHOP models shortterm (one revolution) orbital motion; POLOP averages out the short-term behavior but requires far less processing time than do older programs that perform long-term orbit propagations. POPP postprocesses the spacecraft ephemeris created by POHOP or POLOP (or optionally can use a less accurate internal ephemeris) to search for trajectory-related geometric events including, for example, rising or setting of a spacecraft as observed from a ground site. For each such event, POPP puts out such user-specified data as the time, elevation, and azimuth. POPLOT is a graphics program that plots data generated by POPP. POPLOT can plot orbit ground tracks on a world map and can produce a variety of summaries and generic ordinate-vs.-abscissa plots of any POPP data.

  5. Pension system in Romania. Long term imbalances and inconsistent policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Associate Professor Razvan Papuc

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Public policies on retirement, both in Romania and in other EU countries, have been and still are conditioned by numerous short-term budgetary constaints and by long term major sustainability problems. Alongside objective, demographic developments known in all European countries , support systems for the elderly are facing numerous constraints, both due to government policies marked by fiscal indiscipline and lack of consistency of decisions and, hence, credibility phenomena caused by the phenomenon "the captive politician of a redistributive policy model". Modeling support institutions for pensioners by political actors was most of the times the expression of elections marked by Weberian instrumental rationality and not by wertrationalitat, using the axiom- guide for the behaviour of decision markers to "meet social interests in order to come to power" and not by the concern for a more long term efficient trans-redistributive approach. This paper aims to pursue the most important imbalances that chartacterize the public pension system in Romania, expression of decisions determined by aggregating in group individual preferences and noy by both rational and ethical analysis without redistribution centres.

  6. Coping strategies of long-term cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, M T; Fernsler, J I

    1994-04-01

    Cancer survival is a stressful experience requiring coping for the maintenance of equilibrium. Lazarus' Theory of Stress and Coping was the framework for this descriptive study of the use and effectiveness of coping strategies as assessed by long-term survivors of cancer. The Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) and a subject information sheet (SIS) were mailed to 128 potential subjects, identified by the snowball technique, who survived cancer for > 5 years, were not currently receiving therapy, and were not in a terminal stage of disease. Fifty-nine subjects with a mean survival of 13.03 years correctly completed and returned the questionnaire and were included in data analysis. Respondents were predominantly white (88.1%), female (83.7%), married (72.8%), employed as professionals (57.8%), 41-65 years of age (59.3%), and diagnosed with breast cancer (50.8%). Subjects rated optimistic, supportive, and confrontive strategies as most often used and effective. Length of survival did not result in different choices of strategies. Statistically significant differences were found in coping styles between elderly and middle-aged survivors. Results of this study increase nurses' awareness of effective coping strategies and the importance of assessment of coping in long-term survivors of cancer. The importance of social support, spirituality, and helping others is emphasized.

  7. Resuming growth in Latin America: short and long term policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Lopez G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper assert that the paralysis of the state generated by the crises of the 1970s and 1980s deprived the economies of the region of an important lever to resume and sustain growth. They thus maintain that to overcome stagnation it will be necessary to reconstruct the state's capacity to implement pro-growth policies. Following Keynes and Kalecki's ideas, but also classical development economists, the authors argue, first, that short-term macroeconomic policies, to reduce unemployment and to increase the degree of capacity utilization, should be used to promote the generation of profits to firms and to wake up entrepreneurs' animal spirits. Short-term expansionary policies should be coupled with measures to improve competitiveness and avoid balance of payments problems. They also claim that alternatives to the liberal programme will fail unless a pro-growth strategy is adopted which includes both short- and long-term policies. They thus propose that long-term policies must complete the package, signaling: a sustained increases of effective demand in the future; and b investment priorities to ensure that capacities will be created in strategic sectors and branches of the economy.

  8. Long term follow up in hemodialysis patients with parathyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study was performed in 41 patients, in chronic hemodialysis with severe hyperparathyroidism (HPT), who underwent surgery during time period from 1985 to 1997. 22 females, 19 males, aged 50 and 14 years, with PTHI 1345 and 604 pg/ml were followed up 32 and 22 months. Three surgical methods we evaluated: group I) total para thyroidectomy(PTX) with Implants(n=24); group II) subtotal PTX(n=14) and group III) total PTX(n=3). It considered recurrence of HPT when PTH levels were higher than upper range of normal, after 6 months post surgery. persistence was defined when there was no standardization of PTH levels. In group I, 9 patients had normal parathyroid function, 7 had persistent hypoparathyroidism and had hyperparathyroidism (7 recurrences). Group II patients had parathyroid over function in 5 cases (4 persistence s), 5 were normal and 4 hypoparathyroidism. All patients of the third group had hypoparathyroidism. Long term normalization of parathyroid gland activity was achieved in one third of troduccion patients (34,1%) whereas 34,1% permanent hypoparathyroidism and 31,8% hyperparathyroidism. It found no differences in recurrence and histological subtype of parathyroid gland in the different groups. In conclusion, similar long term clinical results were obtained with the different groups. The surgical ideal treatment is controversial. We think that in the long run, the evolution of parathyroid status is mostly influenced by the persistence of uremic state rather than the type of surgery performed

  9. Outcomes of long-term audiological rehabilitation in charge syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Ciorba, A; Aimoni, C; Bovo, R; Martini, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the long-term audiological features and outcomes of hearing rehabilitation in a large group of individuals with CHARGE Syndrome. The study has been conducted retrospectively, on a paediatric patient database, at the Audiology Department of the University Hospitals of Ferrara and Padua. The study sample included 31 children presenting with different degrees of hearing impairment associated with CHARGE syndrome. Hearing was assessed using auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and/or electrocochleography, or conditioned audiometry (visual reinforcement audiometry [VRA] or play audiometry). Auditory-perceptual outcomes in terms of communication skills and expressive language were also recorded. The effects of hearing rehabilitation (with hearing aids or cochlear implants) in this group of children and language outcomes after rehabilitation were monitored during long-term follow-up. The outcomes of rehabilitation measures differed in relation to the heterogeneous and often severe disabilities associated with CHARGE syndrome, e.g. developmental delay, intellectual delay, visual impairment, thin 8(th) nerve with retrocochlear auditory dysfunction (as described in cases of auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony). Oral expressive language was severely impaired in most cases, even after lengthy follow-up, suggesting the need for alternative augmentative communication modes. The early identification of sensorineural hearing loss, and carefully planned rehabilitation treatments, can be of some benefit in children with CHARGE syndrome. PMID:27214832

  10. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  11. Life assessment of gas turbine blades after long term service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, Pertti; Salonen, Jorma [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Maekinen, Sari [Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland); Karvonen, Ikka; Tanttari, Heikki [Lappeenrannan Laempoevoima, Lappeenranta (Finland); Kangas, Pekka [Neste Oil, Kilpilahti (Finland); Scholz, Alfred [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Vacchieri, Erica [Ansaldo Richerche, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Turbine blade samples from three land based gas turbines have been subjected to systematic condition and life assessment after long term service (88000 - 109000 equivalent operating hours, eoh), when approaching the nominal or suggested life limits. The blades represent different machine types, materials and design generations, and uncooled blading outside the hottest front end of the turbine, i.e. blades with relatively large size and considerable expected life. For a reasonable assessment, a range of damage mechanisms need to be addressed and evaluated for the impact in the residual life. The results suggested significant additional safe life for all three blade sets. In some cases this could warrant yet another life cycle comparable to that of new blades, even after approaching the nominal end of life in terms of recommended equivalent operating hours. This is thought to be partly because of base load combined cycle operation and natural gas fuel, or modest operational loading if the design also accounted for more intensive cycling operation and more corrosive oil firing. In any case, long term life extension is only appropriate if not intervened by events of overloading, overheating or other sudden events such as foreign object damage (FOD), and if supported by the regular inspection and maintenance program to control in-service damage. Condition based assessment therefore remains an important part of the blade life management after the decision of accepted life extension. (orig.)

  12. Structure Function Analysis of Long Term Quasar Variability

    CERN Document Server

    De Vries, W H; White, R L; Loomis, C

    2004-01-01

    In our second paper on long-term quasar variability, we employ a much larger database of quasars than in de Vries, Becker & White. This expanded sample, containing 35165 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2, and 6413 additional quasars in the same area of the sky taken from the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey, allows us to significantly improve on our earlier conclusions. As before, all the historic quasar photometry has been calibrated onto the SDSS scale by using large numbers of calibration stars around each quasar position. We find the following: (1) the outbursts have an asymmetric light-curve profile, with a fast-rise, slow-decline shape; this argues against a scenario in which micro-lensing events along the line-of-sight to the quasars are dominating the long-term variations in quasars; (2) there is no turnover in the Structure Function of the quasars up to time-scales of ~40 years, and the increase in variability with increasing time-lags is monotonic and constant; and consequently, (3...

  13. Long term data preservation for CDF at INFN-CNAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term preservation of experimental data (intended as both raw and derived formats) is one of the emerging requirements coming from scientific collaborations. Within the High Energy Physics community the Data Preservation in High Energy Physics (DPHEP) group coordinates this effort. CNAF is not only one of the Tier-1s for the LHC experiments, it is also a computing center providing computing and storage resources to many other HEP and non-HEP scientific collaborations, including the CDF experiment. After the end of data taking in 2011, CDF is now facing the challenge to both preserve the large amount of data produced during several years of data taking and to retain the ability to access and reuse it in the future. CNAF is heavily involved in the CDF Data Preservation activities, in collaboration with the Fermilab National Laboratory (FNAL) computing sector. At the moment about 4 PB of data (raw data and analysis-level ntuples) are starting to be copied from FNAL to the CNAF tape library and the framework to subsequently access the data is being set up. In parallel to the data access system, a data analysis framework is being developed which allows to run the complete CDF analysis chain in the long term future, from raw data reprocessing to analysis-level ntuple production. In this contribution we illustrate the technical solutions we put in place to address the issues encountered as we proceeded in this activity.

  14. Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Osterlind, K; Hansen, M;

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) the characteristics of those who survive for > or = 5 years, to identify long-term prognostic factors, to analyze survival data of 5-year survivors, and to study 10-year survival in patients entered before 1981. PATIENTS AND METH......PURPOSE: To describe in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) the characteristics of those who survive for > or = 5 years, to identify long-term prognostic factors, to analyze survival data of 5-year survivors, and to study 10-year survival in patients entered before 1981. PATIENTS......, liver and bone marrow metastases, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase levels were all negative prognostic factors. The 5-year survival rate was 3.5% (limited-stage disease, 4.8%; extensive-stage disease, 2.3%), and the 10-year survival rate was 1.8% (limited-stage disease......, especially tobacco-related cancers and other tobacco-related diseases....

  15. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Hwang, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  16. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  17. Optical and mechanical properties of long-term ordered semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 45-year-monitoring of optical and mechanical properties of the various semiconductor crystals grown in the sixties of the past century shows that the stimuli for long-term improvement of crystal quality prevail over those which lead to its degradation. Evolution of optical and mechanical properties testifies that now in diamond-like gallium phosphide (GaP) doped with nitrogen (N), the impurity is a regular element of the new crystal lattice - it increases the forbidden gap, and at relevant concentration and level of optical excitation creates a bound excitonic crystal. The ternary compound CdIn2S4, now having the perfect normal (instead of partly inversed) spinel crystal lattice, as well as GaP with evenly distributed impurities, demonstrate new stable and bright luminescent phenomena, including stimulated emission and 'hot' luminescence at room temperature. All chosen semiconductor crystals from different groups of semiconductor compounds demonstrate the long term ordering and improvement of useful for application properties. Existing technologies help us to reproduce artificially these naturally ordered structures for application in optoelectronics. (authors)

  18. Long-Term Stability of the NIST Conical Reference Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Steven E; Proctor, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Conical Reference Transducer (CRT) is designed for purposes requiring frequency response characteristics much more uniform than those attainable with ultrasonic transducers conventionally used for acoustic emission (AE) nondestructive testing. The high performance of the CRT results from the use of design elements radically different from those of conventional transducers. The CRT was offered for sale for 15 years (1985 to 2000). Each CRT was furnished with data which expressed, as a function of frequency, the transducer sensitivity in volts per micrometer of normal displacement on the test block. Of the 22 transducers constructed, eight were reserved for long term research and were stored undisturbed in a laboratory with well controlled temperature and humidity. In 2009, the sensitivities of these eight units were redetermined. The 2009 data have been compared with data from similar tests conducted in 1985. The results of this comparison verify the claim "Results of tests of the long term stability of CRT characteristics indicate that, if proper care is taken, tens of years of service can reasonably be expected." made in the CRT specifications document furnished to prospective customers. PMID:26989602

  19. Long-term histopathology of allografts in sensitized kidney recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masayoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Yuichiro; Hotta, Kiyohiko; Itoh, Yosuke; Tamaki, Tohru

    2012-07-01

    Successful desensitization therapy has brought satisfying short-term outcomes in the recipients with anti-donor antibody. We analyzed the long-term pathology of the allografts in the sensitized kidney recipients. Eleven stable recipients after desensitization against positive flow cytometry T-cell crossmatch (FTXM) were included. They were divided into two groups, based on the protocol biopsies findings at three to eight yr (group 1: subclinical glomerulitis and/or peritubular capillaritis, n = 5 and group 2: no rejection, n = 6). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), presence of donor-specific antibody (DSA), mean channel shift (MCS) of FTXM, urine protein levels, acute antibody-mediated rejection (AAMR) episodes, and protocol biopsy findings were compared. Chronic transplant glomerulopathy was found in final biopsy of all group 1 cases. DSA was positive in 60% but C4d was positive in 20% case of the group 1. The history of AAMR was only found in the group 1. There was no difference in eGFR decline or proteinuria. The MCS of FTXM was higher in the group 1. The recipients with AAMR history, high MCS in FTXM, and subclinical microvascular inflammation in the early protocol biopsies have risk for developing chronic rejection in long term.

  20. A long-term follow-up of postpartum thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, S; Phillips, D I; Parkes, A B; Richards, C J; Harris, B; Fung, H; Darke, C; John, R; Hall, R; Lazarus, J H

    1990-05-01

    To investigate the long-term outcome of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT), 43 patients with PPT and 171 control women were evaluated 3.5 (range 2-4) years postpartum. Ten (23%) PPT patients were hypothyroid compared to none of the controls (P less than 0.001). Factors associated with the development of hypothyroidism were high antimicrosomal antibody titre measured at 16 weeks gestation (P less than 0.01), severity of hypothyroid phase of PPT, multiparity, and a previous history of spontaneous abortion. The presence of microsomal antibody but no PPT in one pregnancy did not prevent the occurrence of PPT in the next pregnancy in two patients and a further five patients had PPT in two successive pregnancies. There was no association between HLA haplotype, family history of thyroid disease, smoking or frequency of oral contraception, and the development of long-term hypothyroidism after PPT. It is concluded that permanent hypothyroidism is an important sequel to PPT and patients with PPT should be followed up appropriately.