Sample records for acer freemanii

  1. Sapindaceae and Acer

    The genus Acer (maples) is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Six species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ec...

  2. ACER 2013-2014 Annual Report

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015


    The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) is one of the world's leading educational research centres. ACER's mission is to create and promote research-based knowledge, products and services that can be used to improve learning across the life span. This annual report describes ACER's milestones and accomplishments for the 2013-2014…

  3. Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER) exploits radiation chemistry techniques to study chemical reactions (and other phenomena) by subjecting samples to...

  4. Two New Butenolide Derivatives from Erigeron acer


    Two new butenolide derivatives, named as erigeracerin A and erigeracerin B, which are a pair of epimers, were isolated from Erigeron acer. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS.

  5. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Carlson, Martha


    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  6. Flowering and sex expression in Acer L. : a biosystemic study

    Jong, de P.C.


    A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The paper further includes notes on t

  7. Seed dormancy in Acer: Endogenous germination inhibitors and dormancy in Acer pseudoplatanus L.

    Webb, D P; Wareing, P F


    Dormant seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus L. contain two zones of inhibition on paper chromatograms in "10:1:1" as detected by the lettuce and cress seed germination, and the wheat coleoptile bioassays. One zone at Rf 0.6-0.8 was partitioned into ethyl acetate at acid pH and was shown to contain ABA by its behaviour on GLC and isomerization under ultra-violet light. The other zone at Rf 0.9 was detected only in the germination bioassays and was partitioned into ethyl acetate over a range of pH indicating the presence of one or more neutral compounds.The inhibitors present in the embryo of dormant sycamore seeds inhibited the germination of non-dormant sycamore seeds at relatively low concentrations. A comparison with the effects of application of exogenous ABA indicated that endogenous ABA could not solely account for the inhibitory activity of seed extracts, which appeared to be due partly to the presence of ABA and partly to that of neutral compounds present in the embryo. Leaching treatments that removed dormancy led to a decrease in the level of inhibitors present mainly in the basic fraction. The exogenous application of kinetin to dormant sycamore seeds increased germination whereas gibberellic acid had no effect. Similar responses were obtained with lettuce seeds inhibited by the basic fraction of dormant sycamore seeds.It is suggested that an inhibitor-cytokinin interaction may be involved in the dormancy of sycamore seeds.

  8. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two duplicated odorant receptor genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, in Apis cerana cerana

    Huiting Zhao; Pengfei Gao; Haiyan Du; Weihua Ma; Songhao Tian; Yusuo Jiang


    Insects use olfaction to recognize a wide range of volatile cues, to locate food sources, mates, hosts and oviposition sites. These chemical volatiles are perceived by odorant receptors (ORs) expressed on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons, most of which are housed within the chemosensilla of antennae. Most insect ORs are tandemly arrayed on chromosomes and some of them are formed by gene duplication. Here, we identified a pair of duplicated Or genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and reported their molecular characterization and temporal expression profiles. The results showed that these two genes shared high similarity both in sequence and the gene structure. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of temporal expression pattern indicated that in drones the expression pattern of these two genes were very similar. The transcripts expressed weakly in larvae and pupae, then increased gradually in adults. In workers, the expression level of AcerOr1 changed more drastically and expressed higher than that of AcerOr3. However, both reached their highest expression level in one-day-old adults. In addition, the expression profiles between different sexes revealed that AcerOr3 appear to be expressed biased in male antennae. These results suggest that AcerOr1 may perceive odours of floral scents, while AcerOr3 may detect odours critical to male behaviour, such as the queen substance cues.

  9. Laccase from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Polymerizes Monolignols.

    Sterjiades, R; Dean, J F; Eriksson, K E


    Current understanding of the final oxidative steps leading to lignin deposition in trees and other higher plants is limited with respect to what enzymes are involved, where they are localized, how they are transported, and what factors regulate them. With the use of cell suspension cultures of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), an in-depth study of laccase, one of the oxidative enzymes possibly responsible for catalyzing the dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols in the extracellular matrix, was undertaken. The time course for secretion of laccase into suspension culture medium was determined with respect to age and mass of the cells. Laccase was completely separated from peroxidase activity by hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and its purity was assessed with different types of gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing-, native-, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Amino acid and glycosyl analyses of the purified enzyme were compared with those reported from previous studies of plant and fungal laccases. The specific activity of laccase toward several common substrates, including monolignols, was determined. Unlike a laccase purified from the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera), laccase from sycamore maple oxidized sinapyl, coniferyl, and p-coumaryl alcohols to form water-insoluble polymers (dehydrogenation polymers).

  10. A New Neolignan Glycoside from the Leaves of Acer truncatum

    Hai-Yang Liu


    Full Text Available A new neolignan glycoside, (7R,8R-7,8-dihydro-9′-hydroxyl-3′-methoxyl- 8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1′-benzofuranpropanol 9′-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the leaves of Acer truncatum along with (7R,8R-7,8-dihydro-9′-hydroxyl-3′-methoxyl-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-O-α-L-rhamno- pyranosyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1′-benzofuranpropanol (2, schizandriside (3, lyoniresinol (4, berchemol (5, (--pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, hecogenin (7, chlorogenic acid (8 and neochlorogenic acid (9. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 was established by its CD spectrum. The antibacterial activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated.

  11. The effect of desiccation on viability and membrane lipid composition of Acer pseudoplatanus seeds

    Stanisława Pukacka


    Full Text Available The viability of desiccation-intolerant sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L. seeds during desiccation was investigated by tetrazolium and by a germinability test, together with membrane permeability and membrane phospholipid composition. Loss of viability was associated with an increase of solute leakage, reduced content of all phospholipid groups, decrease of unsaturated fatty acids and the unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio. Growth of malondialdehyde content was also observed. Some results were compared with those for tolerant to desiccation Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds. The results indicate active participation of membranes in the desiccation process in tolerant seeds and their decomposition in intolerant ones. The destruction of membranes was the result of lipid peroxidation, probably due to the free radical effect.


    Manuela Elena Concioiu


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the behavior of several Acer varieties: Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpureum' and Acer platanoides 'Crimson King', 'Drummondii' and 'Globosum', during the first subculture of the in vitro multiplication phase. There were used explants from the initiation phase and passed on the multiplication nutrient media. The nutrient media tested were MS, DKW and WPM and each had a different content of growth hormones. In order to determine the multiplication rate, was tested the influence of zeatin and thidiazuron, in concentration of 1.5 mg/l, on a constant level of indole-butyric acid (0.5 mg/l. In the growing chamber were a constant temperature and a photoperiod of 14 hours light/24 hours, at a luminosity of 2500 lux. From the observations and registered data was determined the multiplication rate (microshoots/explant for the four genotypes.

  13. Flavonoid Glycosides from Acer truncatum%元宝槭树叶中的黄酮苷

    谢百波; 许福泉; 李良波; 陈昌祥


    从槭树科植物元宝槭(Acer truncatum Bunge)树叶中分离得到6个黄酮苷化合物.通过波谱分析鉴定其结构分别为:kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(1);quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside(2);quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(3);quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside(4);isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside(5);myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(6).

  14. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae


    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  15. Occurrence of heterogeneity of N-linked oligosaccharides attached to sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) laccase after excretion.

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Onozaki, K; Nishimura, M; Takahashi, N


    The N-linked oligosaccharide moieties of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) laccase are known to be highly heterogeneous. We confirmed that this oligosaccharide heterogeneity was caused not only during the oligosaccharide biosynthesis in Golgi apparatus, but also after the excretion of laccase protein into a culture medium. The culture medium for the sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) contained beta-galactosidase, alpha-L-fucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase and beta-xylosidase activities. We showed that the largest sugar chain in laccase, oligosaccharide F, [formula: see text] was degraded to [formula: see text] by a crude exoglycosidase mixture in the culture medium.

  16. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity

    Klepsch, Matthias M.; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J.; Jansen, Steven


    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan–proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  17. Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica

    Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette


    In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

  18. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven


    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics.

  19. Contrasting nutritional acclimation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and red maple (Acer rubrum L. to increasing conifers and soil acidity as demonstrated by foliar nutrient balances

    Alexandre Collin


    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall, SM is believed to be more sensitive to acidic and nutrient-poor soils associated with conifer-dominated stands than red maple (Acer rubrum L., RM. Greater foliar nutrient use efficiency (FNUE of RM is likely the cause for this difference. In the context of climate change, this greater FNUE could be key in favouring northward migration of RM over SM. We used the concept of foliar nutrient balances to study the nutrition of SM and RM seedlings along an increasing gradient in forest floor acidity conditioned by increasing proportions of conifers (pH values ranging from 4.39 under hardwoods, to 4.29 under mixed hardwood-conifer stands and 4.05 under conifer-dominated stands. Nutrients were subjected to isometric log-ratio (ilr transformation, which views the leaf as one closed system and considers interactions between nutrients. The ilr method eliminates numerical biases and weak statistical inferences based on raw or operationally’’ log-transformed data. We analyzed foliar nutrients of SM and RM seedlings and found that the [Ca,Mg,K|P,N] and [Ca,Mg|K] balances of SM seedlings were significantly different among soil acidity levels, whereas they did not vary for RM seedlings. For SM seedlings, these differences among soil acidity levels were due to a significant decrease in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations with increasing forest floor acidity. Similar differences in foliar balances were also found between healthy and declining SM stands estimated from literature values. Conversely, foliar balances of RM seedlings did not differ among soil acidity levels, even though untransformed foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly different. This result highlights the importance of using ilr transformation, since it provides more sensitive results than standard testing of untransformed nutrient concentrations. The lower nutrient requirements of RM and its greater capacity to maintain nutrient equilibrium are

  20. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

    Guido W. Grimm


    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  1. Peculiarities of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in shoots of various species of acer genus in conditions of coke process

    V. S. Bilchuk


    Full Text Available The research results on influence of the by-product-coking industry emission on starch and saccharose accumulation in sprouts of the Acer L. species are presented. The toxic ingredients of the coke production wastes inhibit the process of starch hydrolysis that provokes considerable decrease of the sugars content and negative influence on the plants’ winter hardiness are established.

  2. Codominance of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia: the role of Fagus root sprouts along a slope gradient in an old-growth forest.

    Takahashi, Koichi; Arii, Ken; Lechowicz, Martin J


    We studied how the unusual capacity of mature Fagus grandifolia to form clumps of clonal stems from root sprouts can contribute to its frequent codominance with Acer saccharum in southern Quebec, Canada. In an old-growth forest, the degree of dominance by the two species shifted along topographic gradients spanning a few hundreds of meters, with Fagus more frequent on lower slopes and Acer on upper slopes. The frequency distribution of Fagus stem diameter had an inverse J distribution at all slope positions, which is indicative of continuous recruitment. Acer stem diameter also had an inverse J pattern, except at lower slope positions where size structure was discontinuous. For stems Fagus regenerated mainly by sprouts at the upper and mid-slopes, while regeneration from seed was more pronounced on the lower slope. This change of regeneration mode affected the spatial pattern of Fagus stems. Understory trees of Fagus were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees on upper and mid-slopes, but not on lower slopes where Fagus regenerated mainly by seedlings. Understory trees of Acer were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees only on the mid-slope. There were many Fagus seedlings around Acer canopy trees at the lower slope, suggesting the potential replacement of Acer canopy trees by Fagus. This study suggests that the regeneration traits of the two species changed with slope position and that Fagus patches originating from root sprouts can contribute to the maintenance of Acer-Fagus codominance at the scale of local landscapes.

  3. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie


    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  4. Morphometric characteristics of the leaves of Greek maple (Acer heldreichii Orph in central Serbia

    Perović Marko


    Full Text Available The taxonomic characteristics of Greek maple (Acer heldreichii Orph were studied based on the analysis of leaf characteristics, by comparative-morphological method. The study was performed at three localities in central Serbia: Goč, Jastrebac and Rudnik. 30 normally developed trees were selected per each locality, and 30 leaves were selected from each tree for the analysis. The study includes 8 measured and 15 derived characteristics of leaves. The study results were statistically processed by correlation analysis, analysis of variance and cluster-analysis. It is concluded that there are two varieties, var. heldreichii and var. macropterum. Four forms are set aside in the variety macropterum: f. typicum f. dissectum, f. Equiloba and f. rotundiloba. The populations are relatively homogeneous, and both varieties occur at all three localities in significant numbers.

  5. Qualitative changes in the proteins of cotyledons during cold and warm stratification of Acer platanoides seeds

    Tomasz Malinowski


    Full Text Available In Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds, during dormancy breakage there appeared some qualitative changes in protein composition of the cotyledons. After 48h of soaking and in the first week of stratification, the number of different proteins decreased. This decrease in number of proteins was probably associated with the effect of hydration of embryo tissue. Protein patterns from imbibed seeds exposed to cold (3oC and warm (15oC treatments were not significantly different. The influence of temperature on protein patterns became visible in the third week of stratification, when a few new proteins appeared. One of them, designated B, appeared only during cold stratification before radicles protrusion. They were also present in seeds that had completed germination. These proteins are presumably associated with the process of dormancy breakage.

  6. Effects of cadmium on cation concentrations in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): application of EDXRF.

    Carvalho, M L; Silveira, L; Casimiro, A


    Knowledge of the element content of biological systems is important in enabling understanding of uptake mechanisms and physiological response to stress conditions. In this work concentrations of mineral elements in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells grown in the presence of cadmium have been analysed and compared with concentrations in control cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify the nutrients K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn present in the cells. The reproducibility and accuracy of the technique were demonstrated by analysis of biological reference materials. Exposure of sycamore cells to cadmium had induced variation in the content of some elements. Mn, Cu, Zn, and, particularly, Fe concentrations in cells exposed to Cd were higher than those found in control cells. Ca is adsorbed on the cell walls and the concentration of K is not affected by the presence of Cd.

  7. Effect of sucrose starvation on sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell carbohydrate and Pi status.

    Rébeillé, F; Bligny, R; Martin, J B; Douce, R


    The mobilization of stored carbohydrates during sucrose starvation was studied with sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells. When sucrose was omitted from the nutrient medium, the intracellular sucrose pool decreased rapidly during the first hours of the experiment, whereas the starch content remained practically unchanged. After 10h of sucrose starvation, starch hydrolysis replaced sucrose breakdown. From this moment, the phosphate-ester pool and respiration rate decreased with time. Conversely, the intracellular Pi concentration increased. 31P n.m.r. of intact sycamore cells indicated that, under these conditions, most of the Pi accumulated in the vacuole. These results strongly suggest that starch breakdown, in contrast with sucrose hydrolysis, is not rapid enough to maintain a high cellular metabolism.

  8. The Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation Dose on the Mechanical Performance of Red Maple (Acer rubrum

    Timothy Starr


    Full Text Available To understand how electron beam irradiation affects wood physically and chemically, irradiated maple beams (Acer rubrum and veneers were examined using three-point bend tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, and NIR- and FTIR- spectroscopy. The MOR from the bending tests revealed a significant decline in the red maple’s strength after a dose of 80 kGy. DMA results showed evidence of crosslinking of the amorphous content of the wood at low doses, followed by degradation at higher doses, with the change in response occurring around 80 kGy. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the components of wood that were most impacted were the phenolic hydroxyl structures of lignin and cellulose hydroxyls, with the greatest effects being seen after 80 kGy.

  9. Enfermedad pulmonar por amianto en trabajadores de acería

    Rita Zurbriggen


    Full Text Available Las enfermedades relacionadas al amianto se producen por la inhalación de fibras de asbestos en su variedad crisotilo o amianto blanco. A pesar de que en la Argentina la prohibición data del año 2003, existen numerosas industrias donde se sigue trabajando con este mineral, entre ellas las metalúrgicas y acerías. Actualmente se conoce la alta patogenicidad de este material, por lo que en muchos países existen programas de seguimiento de los trabajadores expuestos. Se describen las características generales y manifestaciones clínicas pulmonares de 27 pacientes que trabajaron en una gran acería de América del Sur. El diagnóstico de amiantopatías se realizó mediante historia clínica laboral, antecedente de exposición al amianto, estudios complementarios de función pulmonar e imágenes del tórax. Se analizaron la fuente de exposición (laboral, doméstica y ambiental, tiempo de exposición y período de latencia en los pacientes de los cuales se detectó enfermedad relacionada. Los antecedentes de tabaquismo fueron tenidos en cuenta para el análisis. En 22 pacientes se presentaron patologías benignas (81.4%, 16 de ellos tenían lesiones exclusivamente pleurales y otros 6 asbestosis. Las patologías malignas se presentaron en 5 pacientes (18.5%, en 4 fueron mesoteliomas y en uno carcinoma pulmonar. El problema de la exposición al amianto tiene vigencia actual. De ahí la necesidad de un programa de vigilancia en trabajadores expuestos al amianto actualmente o en el pasado, para detectar, notificar, registrar e investigar las características de estas patologías.

  10. 糖槭叶的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents from Leaves of Acer saccharum

    张宇; 赵宏


    Objective:To study the chemical constituents of leaves of Acer accharum.Methods:The leaves of Acer saccharum were extracted by ethanol.The concentrated material Wag partitioned by petroleum ether,ethyl acetate,and,n-butanoL After extracted by ethyl acetate,the extract was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization.The compound structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and chemical methods.Results:Seven compounds were isolated from the leaves of Acer saccha run.Their compound structures were identified as 3-keton-ursane,3β-hydroxy-12-olean-12-en and 5-en-7-hydroxy-sitosterol.Conclu sion:All the three compounds identified are isolated from this genus for the first time.%目的:研究槭树科槭树属植物糖槭(Acer saccharum)叶的化学成分.方法:利用硅胶柱色谱进行分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质和光谱数据鉴定其结构.结果:从糖槭叶中分离得到7个化合物,鉴定其中3个化合物,分别是-3酮基-乌苏烷、3β-羟基-12-齐墩果烯、5-烯-7-羟基谷甾醇.结论:本实验所分离并鉴定的化合物为三萜类和甾醇类化合物,均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  11. The genetic potential of mother trees as a basis for Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Atropurpureum’ plant production

    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana


    Full Text Available Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. is one of the most valuable species of Serbia’s noble hardwoods. Based on the results of previous research, it can be concluded that this is a species with a pronounced ecological plasticity and high genetic potential. From the aspect of ornamentalness, one of the most frequent cultivars in urban green spaces and tree rows is the cv ‘Atropurpureum’, also known as ‘Spaethii’ or ‘Purpureum’. It is distinguished by dark green leaf adaxials and purple undersides, which give the crown an extraordinarily attractive appearance. The genetic potential of the analyzed mother trees can be used for the mass production of the Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Atropurpureum’ and Acer pseudoplatanus plants needed for urban green area maintenance and creation of tree rows. Special attention should be paid to the potential of mother trees 5 and 3; their descendants, along with purple leaf undersides, also have high average height values for five-year old plants.

  12. Effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants on herbivore assemblages on congeneric Acer species.

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Murakami, Masashi; Hirao, Toshihide


    Historical, niche-based, and stochastic processes have been proposed as the mechanisms that drive community assembly. In plant-herbivore systems, these processes can correspond to phylogeny, leaf traits, and the distribution of host plants, respectively. Although patterns of herbivore assemblages among plant species have been repeatedly examined, the effects of these factors among co-occurring congeneric host plant species have rarely been studied. Our aim was to reveal the process of community assembly for herbivores by investigating the effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of closely related host plants of the genus Acer. We sampled leaf functional traits for 30 Acer species in Japan. Using a newly constructed phylogeny, we determined that three of the six measured leaf traits (leaf thickness, C/N ratio, and condensed tannin content) showed a phylogenetic signal. In a field study, we sampled herbivore communities on 14 Acer species within an elevation gradient and examined relationships between herbivore assemblages and host plants. We found that herbivore assemblages were significantly correlated with phylogeny, leaf traits, phylogenetic signals, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants. Our results indicate that the interaction between historical and current ecological processes shapes herbivore community assemblages.

  13. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G


    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future.

  14. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    Dana L Royer

    Full Text Available The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2 concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2 has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2 conditions. The CO(2 treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  15. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    Royer, Dana L


    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2) has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple) in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2) conditions. The CO(2) treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  16. Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Respiration of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) Cells.

    Pascal, N.; Douce, R.


    The effects of iron deficiency on cell culture growth, cell respiration, mitochondrial oxidative properties, and the electron transport chain were studied with suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Iron deprivation considerably decreased the initial growth rates and limited the maximum density of the cells. Under these conditions, the cells remained swollen throughout their growth. The absence of iron led to a steady decline in the uncoupled rate of O2 consumption. When the uncoupled rate of O2 uptake closely approximated the respiratory rate, the cells began to collapse. At this stage, the level of all the cytochromes and electron paramagnetic resonance-detectable Fe-S clusters of the mitochondrial inner membrane were dramatically decreased. Nevertheless, it appeared from substrate oxidation measurements that this overall depletion in iron-containing components solely disturbed the functioning of complex II, whereas neither complexes I, III, or IV, nor the machinery involved in ATP synthesis, was apparently impaired in iron-deficient mitochondria. However, our results suggest that the impairment of complex II resulted in a strong reduction of the overall capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which was responsible for determining the rate of endogenous respiration in sycamore cells. Finally, this situation led to a depletion of various energy metabolites that could contribute to the premature cell death.

  17. New Gallotannin and other Phytochemicals from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Leaves.

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B; Wang, Hui; Seeram, Navindra P


    The maple (Acer) genus is a reported source of bioactive (poly)phenols, including gallotannins, but several of its members, such as the sycamore maple (A. pseudoplatanus), remain uninvestigated. Herein, thirty-nine compounds, including a new gallotannin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), and thirty-eight (2-39) known compounds, consisting of four gallotannins, one ellagitannin, thirteen flavonoids, eight hydroxycinnamic acids, ten benzoic acid derivatives, and two sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sycamore maple leaves. Their structures were determined based on NMR and mass spectral analyses. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the isolates, the gallotannins were the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with thirteen-fold more potent activity compared with the clinical drug, acarbose (IC50 = 16-31 vs. 218 µM). Similarly, the gallotannins showed the highest antioxidant activities, followed by the other phenolic sub-classes, while the sesquiterpenoids were inactive.

  18. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Effects of a copper deficiency.

    Bligny, R; Gaillard, J; Douce, R


    Copper-deprived sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells do not excrete molecules of active laccase in their culture medium. In the range of 2-100 micrograms of copper initially present per litre of nutrient solution, the total laccase activity measured in the cell suspensions at the end of the exponential phase of growth was closely proportional to the amount of added copper. However, copper-deprived cells excreted the laccase apoprotein (laccase without copper) at the same rate as copper-supplied cells excreted the active, copper-containing, laccase. When the culture medium was initially supplied with limiting amounts of copper, the active laccase was excreted until all copper molecules were metabolized. Thereafter, the laccase apoprotein was excreted. Consequently, at the end of the exponential phase of growth, the cell supernatants contained a mixture of apoprotein and copper-containing laccase. After purification and concentration, this mixture of copper-containing laccase (blue) and laccase apoprotein (slightly yellow) showed a yellow-green colour. Under copper-limiting culture conditions an equivalent decrease of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 Cu2+ was observed. Addition of copper to copper-deficient enzyme solutions does not result in a recovery of the enzyme activity. However, when added to copper-deficient sycamore-cell suspensions, copper induced a recovery of the excretion of active enzyme, at a normal rate, within about 10 h. The first molecules of active laccase were excreted after 3-4 h.

  19. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Purification and properties of the enzyme.

    Bligny, R; Douce, R


    A laccase-type polyphenol oxidase is excreted by sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. The enzyme has been purified by classical purification techniques. It is a blue copper protein of Mr 97 000, containing 45% carbohydrate and 0.24% copper. This protein consists of one single unit and the copper content corresponds to four copper atoms per protein molecule. The specific activity of the purified extracellular sycamore-cell laccase measured at pH 6.6 (optimum pH) and in the presence of 20mM-4-methhylcatechol (optimum substrate conditions) corresponded to an oxygen uptake of 32 000 nmol of O2/min per mg of protein. Under these conditions, the catalytic-centre activity of the enzyme reached 100 s-1. The excretion of laccase by sycamore cells is significant, being about 2% of the total protein synthesized by the cells during the exponential phase of growth, and is independent of cell growth. The physiological significance and the problems raised by the passage of this protein across the cytoplasmic membrane are discussed.

  20. Spread intensity and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in Lithuanian forests

    Straigyte L


    Full Text Available The primary objectives of this study were to estimate seedling abundance, spread intensity, and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in Lithuanian forests. The species was introduced to Lithuania in 1802, and since then has subsequently become gradually invasive. Seedling understory abundance, colonization and dispersal were investigated in six forest blocks covering the principal sycamore distribution areas in southwestern Lithuania. Seedlings height and densities in the undestory were evaluated, and seedlings assigned to four height groups. Species invasiveness was estimated applying the Pest Plant Prioritization Process (PPPP, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method. Results showed the average spread distance from the parent tree was 257 m, with a mean seedling number per hectare of 2064. Sycamore maple invasive score was 0.6426 (range: 0-1, the current relative to potential distribution rating was 0.57, and the social, environmental, and economic impact score was 0.1682. Such values were used to assess the Pest Plant Score for sycamore maple, obtaining a value (0.3537 lower than expectations (0.5. Results indicated that the species exhibits invasive properties and a rapid spread in the study area. Some implications of the above results in view of the upcoming climate change and the use of sycamore maple in Lithuanian forest plantations are discussed.

  1. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi


    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se.

  2. Hallazgo de un endocarpo del genero Acer en niveles del Cretácico superior del embalse de Pedrezuela (Guadalix de la Sierra

    Lesiak, M. A.


    Full Text Available In this paper is described and discussed an endocarp of Acer genus that exhibits a morphology like the living species A. buergerianum Miquel. The fruit was met in the upper part of Cretaceous series from the Pedrezuela barrier of Madrid Community. We propose a new denomination for the plant that contains this endocarp: Acer palaeobuergerianum n. fsp. This name has only taxonomic value. The prefix is give in order to the age and -buergerianum by its similarity with the actual species.Se describe y discute un endocarpo fósil perteneciente al género Acer, encontrado en el Cretácico superior del embalse de Pedrezuela (Madrid. Este fruto muestra una marcada semejanza con los endocarpos de la especie actual Acer buergerianum Miquel. Se propone una nueva denominación, con valor taxonómico, para la planta: Acer palaeobuergerianum n. fsp. El prefijo palaeo sugiere su edad y la denominación - buergerianum su semejanza morfológica con la especie actual.

  3. Spectrochemical analysis of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) leaves for environmental health monitoring.

    Ord, James; Butler, Holly J; McAinsh, Martin R; Martin, Francis L


    Terrestrial plants are ideal sentinels of environmental pollution, due to their sedentary nature, abundance and sensitivity to atmospheric changes. However, reliable and sensitive biomarkers of exposure have hitherto been difficult to characterise. Biospectroscopy offers a novel approach to the derivation of biomarkers in the form of discrete molecular alterations detectable within a biochemical fingerprint. We investigated the application of this approach for the identification of biomarkers for pollution exposure using the common sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) as a sentinel species. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to interrogate leaf tissue collected from three sites exposed to different levels of vehicle exhaust emissions. Following multivariate analysis of acquired spectra, significant biochemical alterations were detected between comparable leaves from different sites that may constitute putative biomarkers for pollution-induced stress. These included differences in carbohydrate and nucleic acid conformations, which may be indicative of sub-lethal exposure effects. We also observed several corresponding spectral alterations in both the leaves of A. pseudoplatanus exposed to ozone pollution under controlled environmental conditions and in leaves infected with the fungal pathogen Rhytisma acerinum, indicating that some stress-induced changes are conserved between different stress signatures. These similarities may be indicative of stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, although further work is needed to verify the precise identity of infrared biomarkers and to identify those that are specific to pollution exposure. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that biospectroscopy presents an effective toolkit for the utilisation of higher plants, such as A. pseudoplatanus, as sentinels of environmental pollution.

  4. Expression of Amyloplast and Chloroplast DNA in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Macherel, D; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T


    Green mutant cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), which had been selected by mutagenic treatment of the white wild type, grow photoheterotrophically in auxin-depleted culture medium. In contrast to the wild-type cells, mutant cells exhibit photosynthetic O(2)-evolution activity during their growth coincident with increases of (a) chlorophyll, (b) protein, and (c) ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase activity. Functionally competent chloroplasts were isolated from the green cells. Mechanism(s) governing gene expression of amyloplast DNA in the heterotrophically grown white cells were compared with those of the chloroplast DNA isolated from the mutant cells. We have demonstrated in both amyloplast and chloroplast DNAs the presence of sequences homologous to the maize chloroplast genes for photosynthesis, including the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)(rbcL), the 32 kDa Q(B) protein (PG32) (psbA), the apoprotein of P700 (psaA) and subunits of CF(1) (atpA, atpB, and atpE). However, employing either enzyme assays or immunological techniques, RuBisCO and CF(1) cannot be detected in the white wild type cells. Northern blot hybridization of the RNA from the white cells showed high levels of transcripts for the 16S rRNA gene and low level of transcripts for psbA; based on comparison with results obtained using the green mutant cells, we propose that the amyloplast genome is mostly inactive except for the 16S rRNA gene and psbA which is presumably regulated at the transcriptional level.

  5. Pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in Acer velutinum Boiss.seed lots

    Mostafa Farhadi; Mulualem Tigabu; Alireza Ghasemi Arian; Mehdi Sharifani; Abolfazl Daneshvar; Per Christer Oden


    Acer velutinum Boiss is a valuable tree species native to Iran,and its seeds possess physiological dormancy that hampers seedling production in the nursery for large-scale reforestation efforts.The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dormancy breaking treatments for A.velutinum seeds.We conducted a factorial experiment involving six seed lots collected along an elevation gradient from 300 to 1800 m at 300 m interval and four cold-moist stratification periods (0,4,8 and 16 weeks) at 4℃ and 70% relative humidity.The result shows that the germination of cold-moist stratified seeds was significantly (p < 0.0001)higher than the control for all seed lots.The highest germination capacity was recorded after 16 weeks of cold-moist stratification for all seed lots (68%-88% depending on the seed lot) except those collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) that germinated equally well (≥ 75%) after 4-and 8-week of clod-moist stratification compared to the other seed lots.The mean germination time was significantly shorter (12 to 19 days,depending on the seed lot) for seeds stratified for 16 weeks than for untreated seeds.It can be concluded that:(1) cold-moist stratification for 16 weeks is the best pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in A.velutinum seeds; and (2) seeds should be collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) to get more than 80% germination within 15 days,and these seed lots even required shorter cold-moist stratification period (eight weeks) than other seed lots.

  6. Responses of Acer saccharum canopy trees and saplings to P, K and lime additions under high N deposition

    Gradowski, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Thomas, S.C. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry


    This study examined the physiological and morphological responses of Acer Saccharum canopy trees and 2-year old saplings to non-nitrogenous mineral nutrients. The study was conducted to test 4 hypotheses, notably, (1) that liming increased the availability of phosphate by decreasing soil acidity; (2) that Acer Saccharum showed increased physiological and growth performance in response to liming and phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); (3) that the physiological and growth effects of liming and P and K additions are more pronounced in sapling than in mature canopy trees; and (4) that canopy physiological and shoot extension responses precede radial growth responses in mature trees. Fifty-two mature Acer saccharum trees and 138 saplings were treated with 2 fertilizers and potassium chloride alone or in combination with dolomitic lime. Treatments were applied in a 2-level factorial randomized design to mature trees and to saplings. Mineral soil samples were then collected from depths of between 0 and 30 cm. Concentrations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in mineral soil were determined using combustion analysis. Morphological chemical analyses were also conducted. Growth was examined at 5-year and 2-year intervals in order to examine nutrient addition effects on diameter increment. Data were used in a graphical vector nutrient analysis as well as in an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the study showed that nutrients were adsorbed in the mineral soil and taken up by the trees within 1 year of fertilizer application. Liming had no effect on soil P availability. Both the saplings and the trees showed significant responses to both P and K fertilization and liming, including increased foliar nutrient concentration, leaf size and shoot extension growth. It was concluded that the vector analysis of shoot extension growth was consistent with sufficiency of N, but showed marked limitation of P and co-limitation by calcium (Ca) in saplings. 111 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Influence of nitrogen form on growth of invasive species Acer negundo L. and Ailanthus altissima (Mill. swingle

    Đukić Matilda


    Full Text Available Relative amounts of nutrients, especially nitrogen, the most abundant macro-element, and also the distribution of ammonium ions in relation to nitrate ions, in the soils of different ecosystems, are determined by many factors. The most important are: temperature, pH of substrate, accumulation of organic matter, presence of allelopathic compounds, degree of oxygenation, etc. The ability of plants to adapt to these variations influences their production of bio-mass, the rate of expansion in different habitats, and the impact on ecosystem and biodiversity. This paper analyzes the impact of different forms of nitrogen (NO3 - and NH4 + on the growth of seedlings of invasive species Acer negundo L. and Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle. The results show that nitrogen nutrition only in the form of NH4 + ions significantly affects the reduction in shoot dry weight. Compared to the nutrition with both forms of nitrogen together, aerial parts of Ailanthus altissima were reduced by 62.5%, and leaf area by 66.7%, while Acer negundo seedlings had reduction in dry mass of aboveground part by 89.5%, root by 81.2% and leaf area by 85.8%. Nutrition with nitrate form of nitrogen led to a proportionally small, but statistically significant decrease in dry mass of aboveground parts and roots as well as leaf area of Acer negundo, while in Ailanthus altissima seedlings, it was only the mass reduction of aboveground parts that was significantly influenced, so it can be assumed that this species is more resistant to the lack of both forms of nitrogen. The fact that both species produced significantly more biomass when nitrogen was present in both forms may be important in controlling the spread of alien species, or in their potential use in phytoremediation.

  8. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.


    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  9. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.


    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  10. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae


    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  11. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.


    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the replenishment of stored water of A. saccharum and L. tulipifera that was lost during the daytime. These results implied different strategies among the

  12. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.


    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  13. AcerDET-2.0: a particle level fast simulation and reconstruction package for phenomenological studies on high p_T physics at LHC

    Mikos, Patryk


    The fortran version of the AcerDET package has been published in [1], and used in the multiple publications on the predictions for physics at LHC. The package provides, starting from list of particles in the event, the list of reconstructed jets, isolated electrons, muons, photons and reconstructed missing transverse energy. The AcerDET represents a simplified version of the package called ATLFAST, used since several years within ATLAS Collaboration. In the fast simulation implemented in AcerDET, some functionalities of ATLFAST are absent, but the most crucial detector effects are implemented and the parametrisations are largely simplified. Therefore it is not representing details neither of ATLAS nor CMS detectors. This short paper documents a new C++ implementation of the same algorithms as used in [1]. We believe that the package can be well adequate for some feasibility studies of the high p_T physics at LHC and at planned ppFCC. The further evolution of this code is planned. [1] E. Richter-Was, AcerDET: ...

  14. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  15. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria


    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  16. Distinct isoforms of ADPglucose pyrophosphatase and ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase occur in the suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Baroja-Fernández, E; Zandueta-Criado, A; Rodríguez-López, M; Akazawa, T; Pozueta-Romero, J


    The intracellular localizations of ADPglucose pyrophosphatase (AGPPase) and ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) have been studied using protoplasts prepared from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Subcellular fractionation studies revealed that all the AGPPase present in the protoplasts is associated with amyloplasts, whereas more than 60% of AGPase is in the extraplastidial compartment. Immunoblots of amyloplast- and extraplastid-enriched extracts further confirmed that AGPase is located mainly outside the amyloplast. Experiments carried out to identify possible different isoforms of AGPPase in the amyloplast revealed the presence of soluble and starch granule-bound isoforms. We thus propose that ADPglucose levels linked to starch biosynthesis in sycamore cells are controlled by enzymatic reactions catalyzing the synthesis and breakdown of ADPglucose, which take place both inside and outside the amyloplast.

  17. The effects of heat treatment on technological properties in Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    Korkut, Süleyman; Kök, M Samil; Korkut, Derya Sevim; Gürleyen, Tuğba


    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on technological properties of Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures (120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and for varying durations (2h, 6h and 10h). The technological properties of heat-treated wood samples and control samples were tested. Compression strength parallel to grain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength, and tension strength perpendicular to grain were determined. The results showed that technological strength values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques with minimal losses in strength values in areas where working, and stability such as in window frames, are important factors.

  18. 桌面的3D诱惑——Acer Aspire GD245HQ显示器


    3D当前被炒得如火如萘,3D电影、3D电视机、3D投影机、3D相机、3D蓝光机,当然还有3D显示器,可以说3D已经在我们的周围无处不在,现在你可以轻轻松松地随时随地体验3D世界。坐在显示器前,戴上眼镜,让Acer GD245HQ 3D显示器为你带来身临其境的真切画面吧。


    Y. L. Kulbachko


    Full Text Available Species composition and features of ecological structure of oribatid mite communities were studied on various options of bulk artificial-mixed soil in Acer platanoides L. stand growing on the remediated site of Pavlogradskaya mine (Pavlograd, Dnipropetrovsk Region. The ecological structure of oribatid population generally was damaged and this is typical for the man-modified ecosystems. Oribatid mite density in maple litter was higher than in the top layer of bulk soil (loess loam and chernozem by 4.1–7.4 times. Species abundance of oribatid mite was almost equal in maple litter and bulk soil. Punctoribates liber Pavlitshenko, 1991 prevailed generally as eudominant species in oribatid mite structure in Acer platanoides stand. The representatives of unspecialized life-forms were dominated among the oribatid life-forms in the remediated site with chernozem bulk. Key words: oribatid mites, forest remediation, mine dumps.

  20. Spatial and temporal changes in leaf coloring date of Acer palmatum and Ginkgo biloba in response to temperature increases in South Korea

    Park, Chang-Kyun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Su-Jong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Jinwon


    Understanding shifts in autumn phenology associated with climate changes is critical for preserving forest ecosystems. This study examines the changes in the leaf coloring date (LCD) of two temperate deciduous tree species, Acer palmatum (Acer) and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), in response to surface air temperature (Ts) changes at 54 stations of South Korea for the period 1989–2007. The variations of Acer and Ginkgo in South Korea are very similar: they show the same mean LCD of 295th day of the year and delays of about 0.45 days year-1 during the observation period. The delaying trend is closely correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.77) with increases in Ts in mid-autumn by 2.8 days °C-1. It is noted that the LCD delaying and temperature sensitivity (days °C-1) for both tree species show negligible dependences on latitudes and elevations. Given the significant LCD-Ts relation, we project LCD changes for 2016–35 and 2046–65 using a process-based model forced by temperature from climate model simulation. The projections indicate that the mean LCD would be further delayed by 3.2 (3.7) days in 2016–35 (2046–65) due to mid-autumn Ts increases. This study suggests that the mid-autumn warming is largely responsible for the observed LCD changes in South Korea and will intensify the delaying trends in the future. PMID:28346534

  1. Characterization and Intraorganellar Distribution of Protein Kinases in Amyloplasts Isolated from Cultured Cells of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Viale, A M; Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Akazawa, T


    Incubation of amyloplasts isolated from cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) with [gamma-(32)P]ATP resulted in the rapid phosphorylation (half-time of 40 seconds at 25 degrees Celcius) of organellar polypeptides. The preferred substrate for amyloplast protein kinases was Mg(2+). ATP, and recovery of only [(32)P]serine after partial acid hydrolysis indicated the predominance of protein serine kinases in the organelle. These activities were located in the envelope and stromal fractions of the plastid, which showed different specificities toward exogenous protein substrates and distinct patterns of phosphorylation of endogenous polypeptides. A 66-kilodalton polypeptide, inaccessible to an exogenously added protease, was one of the major phosphorylated products found in intact amyloplasts at low [gamma-(32)P] adenosine triphosphate concentrations. This polypeptide represented the major phosphoprotein observed with the isolated envelope fraction. The patterns of polypeptide phosphorylation found in intact amyloplasts and chloroplasts from cultured cell lines of sycamore were clearly distinguishable. The overall results indicate the presence of protein phosphorylation systems unique to this reserve plastid present in nonphotosynthetic tissues.

  2. Golgi-specific localization of transglycosylases engaged in glycoprotein biosynthesis in suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Ali, M S; Mitsui, T; Akazawa, T


    Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were isolated from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) by stepwise sucrose density gradient centrifugation using protoplasts as starting material. The purity of the two organelle fractions isolated was assessed by measuring marker enzyme activities. Localization of glycolipid and glycoprotein glycosyltransferase activities in the isolated Golgi and ER fractions was examined; three glycosyltransferases, i.e., galactosyltransferase, fucosyltransferase, and xylosyltransferase, proved to be almost exclusively confined to the Golgi, whereas the ER fractions contained glycolipid glycosyltransferase. The Golgi complex was further subfractionated on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient into two components, migrating at densities of 1.118 and 1.127 g/cm3. The two fractions differed in their compositional polypeptide bands discernible from Na-dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. Galactosyltransferase distributed nearly equally between the two protein peaks and xylosyltransferase activities using the endogenous acceptor also appeared to be localized in the two subcompartments. By contrast, fucosyltransferase, engaged in the terminal stage of glycosylation, banded in the lower density fractions. Golgi-specific alpha-mannosidase, which is presumably engaged in the sugar trimming of Asn-N-linked glycoprotein carbohydrate core, was enriched fourfold in specific activity in the fractions of the higher density. The overall experimental results indicate that the cotranslational glycosylation of Asn-N-linked glycoproteins, e.g., polyphenol oxidase (laccase), takes place in the ER, while subsequent post-translational processing of the oligosaccharide moiety proceeds successively in the two physically separable compartments of the Golgi complex.

  3. Root vitality of Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea Liebl. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in mature mixed forest stand

    Grygoruk Dorota


    Full Text Available The main task of the present study was to investigate the root vitality of common beech Fagus sylvatica L., sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. and sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the optimal g rowth conditions in south-western Poland. The study was carried out in 130-year-old mixed stand located within natural range of studied tree species. The density of roots (g/100 cm3 of soil and biomass of fine roots (g/m2 in topsoil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm were determined in the tree biogroups of the same species. The mean total root density ranged from 0.248 to 0.417 g/100 cm3 in the 0-5 cm soil layer, and it decreased in the deeper soil layer (5-15 cm. There were found no statistically significant differences of total root densities between tree biogroups in topsoil layers. Diversity of fine root biomass was comparable in the tree biogroups (H’ = 1.5, but common beech showed more intensive growth of fine roots in the topsoil 0-15 cm when compared to sessile oak and sycamore maple. The results of the study point out the stability of the multi-species structure of the mixed stand studied, and consequently - the ability of beech, sessile oak and sycamore maple trees to coexist in the mixed stands - in the area of natural range of these species.

  4. 茶条槭嫩枝扦插试验研究%Experiments of Softwood Cuttings for Acer ginnala



    通过不同激素,不同激素浓度,不同浸泡时间对茶条槭进行半木质化嫩枝扦插试验,结果表明:采用质量分数为200×10-6的NAA(萘乙酸)处理1h,插穗保留2~4个叶片,其扦插平均生根率最高,可达90%,平均根量为10个,平均根长为12.6cm。%Experiments of half-lignified softwood cuttings for Acer ginnala were conducted through different hor-mones ,different hormone concentrations and different soaking time .It determined that :the cuttings will preserve two to four blades after treating with 200 × 10 -6 NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) for 1 h ;its average rooting rate is the most highest ,being 90% ;the average numbers of the root are 10 ,and the average root length is 12 .6 cm .

  5. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E


    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  6. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin


    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors.

  7. The within-season and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid trunk-injected into Acer platanoides (Sapindales: Sapindaceae).

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E


    Norway maple trees, Acer platanoides L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae), that were trunk-injected with imidacloprid as part of an Asian longhorned beetle eradication program, were used to study the temporal and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid in twigs from June through September. The effect of injection time during spring on imidacloprid residues across the summer season and the distribution of imidacloprid in twig bark versus twig xylem were also investigated. Overall, we observed a significant decline in imidacloprid concentrations within each plant part sampled across the study period, although the 19 trees used in the study varied greatly in the pattern of imidacloprid residues over time. The concentration of imidacloprid in twig bark per dry mass was approximately two times higher than that of the twig xylem (means +/- SD of 1.21 +/- 2.16 ppm vs. 0.63 +/- 1.08 ppm imidacloprid, respectively). The majority (> 50%) of whole twig, twig bark and twig xylem samples from injected trees contained 5 ppm imidacloprid, with a maximum of 49 ppm. The concentrations ofimidacloprid in whole twigs, twig bark, and twig xylem were highly correlated, and levels in leaves were correlated with imidacloprid levels in whole twigs.

  8. Contrasting Hydraulic Strategies during Dry Soil Conditions in Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in a Sandy Site in Michigan

    Julia E. Thomsen


    Full Text Available Correlation analyses were carried out for the dynamics of leaf water potential in two broad-leaf deciduous tree species in a sandy site under a range of air vapor pressure deficits and a relatively dry range of soil conditions. During nights when the soil is dry, the diffuse-porous, isohydric and shallow-rooted Acer rubrum does not recharge its xylem and leaf water storage to the same capacity that is observed during nights when the soil is moist. The ring-porous, deep-rooted Quercus rubra displays a more anisohydric behavior and appears to be capable of recharging to capacity at night-time even when soil moisture at the top 1 m is near wilting point, probably by accessing deeper soil layers than A. rubrum. Compared to A. rubrum, Q. rubra displays only a minimal level of down-regulation of stomatal conductance, which leads to a reduction of leaf water potential during times when vapor pressure deficit is high and soil moisture is limiting. We determine that the two species, despite typically being categorized by ecosystem models under the same plant functional type—mid-successional, temperate broadleaf—display different hydraulic strategies. These differences may lead to large differences between the species in water relations, transpiration and productivity under different precipitation and humidity regimes.

  9. Wood anatomical changes due to uptake of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum seedlings

    Zeynab Shahpoori; Vilma Bayramzadeh; Vahid Reza Safdari; Manoochehr Khan Zarinkafsh; Pedram Attarod; Roghayeh Jirroodnejad


    We investigated wood anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum Boiss seedlings.Two-year old seedlings were exposed for 180 days to soil concentrations with varying cadmium and lead concentrations.We measured three wood anatomical traits,average vessel area (μm2),vessel number per square millimetre,and vessel lumen area percentage (%).For assessing the cadmium and lead accumulation,we measured the concentrations in the soil,leaf,stem,and root.Average vessel area and vessel lumen area percentage were similar (p>0.05) in control and treated seedlings.Vessel number per square millimetre showed a decreasing trend from pith to bark in control and treated seedlings,and the trend was more pronounced in treated seedlings.We conclude that vessel number per square millimetre in A.velutinum is influenced by soil contamination.A.velutinum Boiss is not a suitable species for remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium and lead but it can be used as an indicator of the soil lead contamination,because lead concentrations in seedlings increased with increasing amount of lead in the soil.

  10. Analysis of the embryo proteome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) seeds reveals a distinct class of proteins regulating dormancy release.

    Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria


    Acer pseudoplatanus seeds are characterized by a deep physiological embryo dormancy that requires a few weeks of cold stratification in order to promote germination. Understanding the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in the breaking of seed dormancy, would expand our knowledge pertaining to this process. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the changes occurring in seeds in response to cold stratification, which leads to dormancy release. In addition, the involvement of abscisic (ABA) and gibberellic acids (GA) was also examined. Fifty-three proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. An effect of ABA on protein variation was observed at the beginning of stratification, while the influence of GA on protein abundance was observed during the middle phase of stratification. The majority of proteins associated with dormancy breaking in the presence of only water, and also ABA or GA, were classified as being involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. For metabolic-related proteins, the effect of ABA on protein abundance was stimulatory for half of the proteins and inhibitory for half of the proteins. On the other hand, the effect on genetic information processing related proteins was stimulatory. GA was found to upregulate both metabolic-related and genetic information processing-related proteins. While seed dormancy breaking depends on proteins involved in a variety of processes, proteins associated with methionine metabolism (adenosine kinase, methionine synthase) and glycine-rich RNA binding proteins appear to be of particular importance.

  11. Role of nitric oxide in actin depolymerization and programmed cell death induced by fusicoccin in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cultured cells.

    Malerba, Massimo; Contran, Nicla; Tonelli, Mariagrazia; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella


    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a vital role in plant development and is involved in defence mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Different forms of PCD have been described in plants on the basis of the cell organelle first involved. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, the phytotoxin fusicoccin (FC) induces cell death. However, only a fraction of the dead cells shows the typical hallmarks of animal apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. In this work, we show that the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO), produced in the presence of FC, by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) and rutin inhibits cell death without affecting DNA fragmentation and cytochrome c release. In addition, we show that FC induces a massive depolymerization of actin filaments that is prevented by the NO scavengers. Finally, the addition of actin-depolymerizing drugs induces PCD in control cells and overcomes the inhibiting effect of cPTIO on FC-induced cell death. Vice versa, the addition of actin-stabilizing drugs to FC-treated cells partially inhibits the phytotoxin-induced PCD. These results suggest that besides an apoptotic-like form of PCD involving the release of cytochrome c, FC induces at least another form of cell death, likely mediated by NO and independent of cytochrome c release, and they make it tempting to speculate that changes in actin cytoskeleton are involved in this form of PCD.

  12. Mechanical and ecophysiological significance of the form of a young Acer rufinerve tree: vertical gradient in branch mechanical properties.

    Sone, Kosei; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro


    Most tree biomechanics models assume uniformity of mechanical properties within a tree, and only a few studies have focused on differences in mechanical status among branches. We examined mechanical properties of 49 branches of two 10-year-old trees of Acer rufinerve Sieb. et Zucc. For each branch, bending moment due to its own fresh mass, elastic modulus, section modulus and flexural stiffness were obtained. Elastic modulus of the branch was correlated with the density and thickness of the fiber cell wall and decreased with crown depth, indicating that branches at lower positions were more elastic than branches at upper positions. Compared to lower branches, upper branches were less inclined, possessed thicker growth rings, more long shoots and were subject to smaller stresses. The leaf arrangement in the upper branches might be effective in transmitting more light to the lower branches. In contrast, the lower branches were more inclined toward the horizontal and subject to greater stresses than the upper branches. Lower branch inclinations were attributed to smaller dry matter investment in diameter growth. Upper and lower branch inclinations were slightly greater and smaller, respectively, than those predicted by beam theory. The alleviation in inclination of the lower branches is probably caused by negative gravitropic responses such as tension wood formation or upward shoot elongation, or both. The horizontal display of leaves in the lower branches would be effective in light interception. The reduction in cost of the lower branches can be adaptive because they have a shorter life expectancy than the upper branches. The results showed that an adaptive tree form is realized by a vertical gradient in branch mechanical properties.

  13. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, stimulates osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein action

    Kihara, Tasuku [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ichikawa, Saki [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Akihisa, Toshihiro [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Woo, Je Tae [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Michi, Yasuyuki; Amagasa, Teruo [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} Acerogenin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation in osteogenic cells. {yields} Acerogenin A-induced osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by noggin. {yields} Acerogenin A increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Bmp-7 mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. {yields} Acerogenin A is a candidate agent for stimulating bone formation. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, on osteoblast differentiation by using osteoblastic cells. Acerogenin A stimulated the cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RD-C6 osteoblastic cells (Runx2-deficient cell line). It also increased alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 and RD-C6 cells and calvarial osteoblastic cells isolated from the calvariae of newborn mice. Acerogenin A also increased the expression of mRNAs related to osteoblast differentiation, including Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts: it also stimulated Osteocalcin and Osterix mRNA expression in RD-C6 cells. The acerogenin A treatment for 3 days increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7 mRNA expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Adding noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited the acerogenin A-induced increase in the Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression levels. These results indicated that acerogenin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP action, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent and Runx2-independent pathways.

  14. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    Fenghui Qi

    Full Text Available The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark. Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF or isolation frequency (IF. To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance, respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3 except for bark and annual twigs (0.63. Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  15. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  16. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long


    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure.

  17. 元宝枫及同属植物种子总蛋白质含量和氨基酸的测定%Measurment of total protein and amino acid in Acer truncatum Bunge seeds and same generic plants

    魏希颖; 吕居娴; 李映丽


    An analysis and determination are made of the contents of the total protein and the components of 19 kinds of amino acids in the Acer truncatum Bunge. And the same generic plants are analyzed. The results show that there is a very high protein content in the seeds of Acer truncatum Bunge and the same generic plants. Moreover, the higher contents of Glu. and Arg. is a peculiarity of the components of amino acids in the seeds of Acer truncatum Bunge and the same generic plants.%对元宝枫及同属植物种子总蛋白质含量和氨基酸的组成进行了分析测定,结果表明元宝枫及同属植物种子含有较高的蛋白质,且其氨基酸的组成以谷氨酸、精氨酸含量较高为特点.

  18. Evaluación del sistema de aspiración secundario de la acería de SIDERCA Planta Campana

    Nadal Mora, Vicente Javier; Piechocki, Joaquín; Pezzotti, Santiago; Luján, Leonardo; Ajargo, Francisco; Faut, Rogelio; Martiarena, Juan


    En el presente trabajo se aborda la problemática de captación de gases generados en los dos hornos de la acería de SIDERCA, Planta Campana, durante el proceso de carga de chatarra. En la actualidad los gases emitidos son captados por un sistema de aspiración secundaria (captación remota), a través de una campana situada sobre los hornos. El objeto del estudio es desarrollar soluciones técnicas que permitan suprimir la emisión de humos a partir de la generación de modelos de ingeniería del pro...

  19. Revealing the cellular metabolism and microstructural changes in vivo in senescing Acer saccharum leaves using two-photon FLIM and full-field OCM

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Anna, Tulsi; Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Chiou, Arthur


    Seasonal as well as climate changes have immense effect on bud burst, leaf color and leaf abscission. Autumn phenology of leaves is clearly distinguishable in deciduous plant leaves where the leaf color changes from green to red (leaf senescence). In this work, two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) were applied to study mitochondrial activity and microstructural changes, respectively, in the senescence of Acer saccharum (Sugar maple) leaves. Fluorescence lifetime of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] was recorded using 2P-FLIM to quantify the cellular metabolic changes. Compared to the green leaves, the red leaves showed a 19% increase (P face sectional images at 0.8 μm axial resolutions of the green and the red color Acer saccharum leaves via FF-OCM using white light emitting diode (WLED) showed a well-defined microstructure of epicuticular waxy layer in green leaves as compared to red leaves where disintegrated microstructure was observed. Our approach can potentially be used to correlate mitochondrial activity with epicuticular microstructural changes in senescing leaves and other biological tissues.

  20. Effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system of a cool-temperate heterodichogamous tree Acer mono

    Satoshi Kikuchi


    Full Text Available Pollination is a key process for reproduction and gene flow in flowering plants. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation, however, can disrupt plant–pollinator interactions, and may have a negative impact on the reproductive success and population viability of entomophilous plants. Heterodichogamous plants containing protandrous and protogynous individuals within a population may be susceptible to habitat fragmentation due to a lack of available mating partners. In this study, we investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system in the heterodichogamous plant Acer mono, a major constituent of cool-temperate deciduous forests in Japan. Microsatellite analysis was applied to 212 adult trees and 17 seed families from continuous and fragmented forests. Dispersal kernel modeling using the neighborhood model indicated that pollen dispersal of A. mono was highly fat-tailed. The estimated parameters of the model suggested that the siring success of a pollen donor increased approximately fivefold, with a 100 cm increase in its diameter at breast height (DBH, and that disassortative mating was five times more frequent than assortative mating. The mating system parameters of each mother tree, outcrossing rate (tm, biparental inbreeding (tm−ts, and paternity correlation (rpm varied among sites and conditions, depending on the local density of potential pollen donors. Whereas A. mono was effectively outcrossed (tm=0.901, tm−ts=0.052, and the number of effective sires was 1/rpm=14.93 in the continuous forest, clumped trees within the fragmented forest showed increased biparental inbreeding and reduced pollen pool genetic diversity (tm=0.959, tm−ts=0.245,1/rpm=1.742 as a result of localized mating combined with spatial genetic structures. In contrast, the isolated trees had a higher selfing rate, but the pollen pool diversity was maintained (tm=0.801, tm−ts=0.022, and 1/rpm=15.63 due to frequent long-distance pollination. These

  1. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric


    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  2. Comparison of glycerolipid biosynthesis in non-green plastids from sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) buds.

    Alban, C; Joyard, J; Douce, R


    The availability of methods to fractionate non-green plastids and to prepare their limiting envelope membranes [Alban, Joyard & Douce (1988) Plant Physiol. 88, 709-717] allowed a detailed analysis of the biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid, phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol (MGDG) in two different types of non-green starch-containing plastids: plastids isolated from cauliflower buds and amyloplasts isolated from sycamore cells. An enzyme [acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein):sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase) recovered in the soluble fraction of non-green plastids transfers oleic acid from oleoyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form lysophosphatidic acid. Then a membrane-bound enzyme (acyl-ACP:monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase), localized in the envelope membrane, catalyses the acylation of the available sn-2 position of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate by palmitic acid from palmitoyl-ACP. Therefore both the soluble phase and the envelope membranes are necessary for acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The major difference between cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) membranes is the very low level of phosphatidate phosphatase activity in sycamore envelope membrane. Therefore, very little diacylglycerol is available for MGDG synthesis in sycamore, compared with cauliflower. These findings are consistent with the similarities and differences described in lipid metabolism of mature chloroplasts from 'C18:3' and 'C16:3' plants (those with MGDG containing C18:3 and C16:3 fatty acids). Sycamore contains only C18 fatty acids in MGDG, and the envelope membranes from sycamore amyloplasts have a low phosphatidate phosphatase activity and therefore the enzymes of the Kornberg-Pricer pathway have a low efficiency of incorporation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate into MGDG. By contrast, cauliflower contains MGDG with C16:3 fatty acid, and the incorporation of sn-glycerol 3

  3. Influence of Temperature on Cambial Activity and Cell Differentiation in Quercus Sessiliflora and Acer Pseudoplatanus of Different Ages

    Jožica Gričar


    Full Text Available We evaluated the response of active cambium of sessile oak (Quercus sessiliflora and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus to experimentally increased (20–22 °C and decreased (9–11 °C temperatures. Heating and cooling experiments on 150-year old Q. sessiliflora were performed during the growth season of 2007 and on 30-year old A. pseudoplatanus in 2008. In 2009, heating experiment was carried out on 30-year old Q. sessiliflora. For each treatment, two trees were selected of each species and sampled at 21-day intervals during the vegetation period and investigated by means of light microscopy. Continuously elevated temperatures slightly promoted the development of xylem cells in old Q. sessiliflora trees in the first month of cambial activity. However, no effect of elevated or decreased temperature was detected in the timing and dynamics of wood and phloem formation. The applied treatments, therefore, had no visible impact on the structure or width of the xylem or phloem increments in 2007. On the other hand, heating young A. pseudoplatanus trees provoked the development of epicormic shoots two months after the onset of the experiment and finally the death of trees. The cambium of those trees did not reactivate in 2008; xylem and phloem increments were consequently not formed. Low temperature treatments slowed down cell production at the very beginning of the growing season, but no alterations in wood or phloem formation dynamics or structure were observed later. The heating of young Q. sessiliflora trees caused the development of epicormic shoots and the death of trees four months after the experiment. The pattern of their dying was similar as in A. pseudoplatanus but with a two month delay. The observations indicate that tree age, thickness of dead bark and duration of the applied treatments influence the response of cambium. The development of dead bark is species specific and it occurs earlier in Q. sessiliflora than in A. pseudoplatanus

  4. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.


    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training

  5. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin


    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere.

  6. Kinetics in Suspension Culture of Acer ginnala%茶条槭悬浮培养的动力学

    董杰; 詹亚光; 任健


    In this paper we investigated kinetics parameters during the cell culture of Acer ginnala , such as cell growth , consumption of the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and change in the pH and electrical conductivity in the medium, as well as changes in cell fresh weight and dry weight at the various stages in the culture procedure. 1 ) The cell suspension culture cycle lasted about 15 days by which the maximum biomass in dry weight and the gallic acid content reached to 11.3 g·L-1 and 0.49% , and the maximum specific rates of cell growth and gallic acid synthesis were 0.541 d and 0. 682 d-1 , respectively. The specific gallic acid production rate was relatively high when the cell growth rate was 0. 3 -0. 4 d-1. Gallic acid accumulation was partially-growth-associated. 2) The electrical conductivity of the culture medium gradually descended during culture procedure, reached to the lowest point on the 21* day, and then slightly increased. 3) After 15 days of the cell culture, sucrose and phosphate of the medium almost all were consumed. Ammonium was rapidly adsorbed at the early stage and was consumed on the 12th day. Compared with ammonium, the absorption of nitrate was slow, it was not absorbed fastly until the 6th day and the absorption rate reached to the lowest point on the 15th day.%对茶条槭细胞培养动力学进行研究,在培养周期内不同的培养阶段测定茶条槭细胞生长和培养基中碳源、氮源、磷源的消耗,电导率的变化,以及细胞的鲜质量与干质量的变化,从而了解细胞生长、营养消耗与次生代谢产物积累的基本规律,为建立结构化动力学模型奠定基础.研究结果表明:1)茶条槭细胞悬浮培养周期约为15天,经过15天的悬浮培养,最大生物量和没食子酸含量分别达到了11.3 g·L-1和0.49%.细胞的最大比生长速率和没食子酸的最大比生成速率分别为0.541 d-1和0.682 d-1.没食子酸的比生成速率当细胞比生长速率在0.3~0.4d-1

  7. The acropetal effects of indole-3-acetic acid in isolated shoot segments of Acer pseudoplatanus L. I. Growth responses of buds

    Jacek A. Adamczyk


    Full Text Available The subject of this investigation were growth reactions of two opposite lateral buds of Acer pseudoplatanus L. stem sections in response to application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and other synthetic growth regulators below the buds. No effect of IAA upon the initiation of bud growth was noted, however, elongation of new shoots was inhibited. This acropetal effect of auxin was enhanced by simultaneous treatment with triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA or benzyladenine (BA. TIBA alone caused even stronger retardation of shoot growth. Exactly the opposite effect was produced by gibberellic acid (GA3 applied even 30 cm below the buds. In this case TIBA could reverse the effect of GA3 treatment. The results concerning acropetal effects of auxin suggest that some type of signalling system functions independently of the direct action of the exogenous IAA.

  8. Studies on synthetic pathway of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides deduced from substrate specificities of the processing enzymes in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Akazawa, T; Takahashi, N


    We measured the activities of alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, alpha-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, beta-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-xylosyltransferase and glycoprotein 3-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase in the Golgi fraction of suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using fluorescence-labelled oligosaccharides as acceptor substrates for these transferase reactions. The structures of the pyridylaminated oligosaccharides produced by these reactions were analyzed by two-dimensional sugar mapping using high-performance liquid chromatography. We demonstrated that (formula; see text) was processed to produce by these in vitro reactions. On the basis of these results, we discuss a biosynthetic pathway for xylose containing N-linked oligosaccharides in plant glycoproteins.

  9. Purification and substrate specificity of beta-xylosidase from sycamore cell (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): application for structural analysis of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides.

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Nishimura, M; Onozaki, K; Takahashi, N


    A beta-xylosidase was purified 51-fold from culture medium of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells using p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside as a substrate. This enzyme can remove a xylose residue from asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, derivatized with 2-aminopyridine. A pentasaccharide, Xy1 beta 2Man beta 4GlcNAc beta 4(Fuc-alpha 3)GlcNAc was the favorite substrate in N-linked oligosaccharides, but a xylose residue in Xy1 beta 2(Man-alpha 3)Man beta sequence could not be removed by the enzyme. We also propose an efficient method for detection of xylose residue in N-linked oligosaccharides by a combination of the two-dimensional sugar mapping technique and the xylosidase digestion.

  10. 色木槭次生林种群结构动态分析%Analysis on Structure Dynamics of Population of the Secondary Acer mono Forest

    殷东生; 张凤海; 山永清; 侯培军; 丁永平; 葛文志; 沈海龙


    The static life table of Acer mono populations was compiled based on the population life table and theory of survival analysis using the age class structure represented by the size-class structure. The survival rate curve, the mortality rate curve, vanishing rate curve and survival function curve were determined, and population dynamics were analyzed by spectral analysis. The results show that the number of young individuals was larger than that of middle aged and old individuals. The population had two peak of mortality in size class Ⅲ and Ⅷ. The survival curve of the population appeared to be of the Deevey-Ⅱ type. The population was rise type. The tending management should be actualized to increase the timber utilization quotiety when DBH growth of Acer mono individual reached to 15cm and 40cm in natural conditions.%以种群生命表及生存分析理论为基础,将林木依胸径大小分级,以林木径级结构代表年龄结构,编制了色木槭种群的特定时间生命表,绘制了存活曲线、死亡率曲线、损失度曲线和生存函数曲线,分析种群数量特征。结果表明:色木槭种群幼年个体丰富,中老年个体较少,种群在第Ⅲ和第Ⅷ径级出现死亡高峰,种群存活曲线属于Deevey-Ⅱ型,色木槭种群1/1前表现为增长型种群。在自然条件下,当色木槭胸径达到15cm和40cm前时,应对其进行抚育管理以提高木材利用率。

  11. High Energy Charge as a Requirement for Axis Elongation in Response to Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin during Stratification of Acer saccharum Seeds.

    Simmonds, J A; Dumbroff, E B


    The growth potential of embryonic axes of Acer saccharum Marsh. increased during moist storage at 5 C but not at 20 C. During the period of increasing growth potential, the oxygen consumption of the axes remained constant. It was possible to distinguish three phases of the stratification-germination process at 5 C with respect to response of the axis to gibberellic acid and kinetin. From 0 to 10 days the growth regulators had no effect on elongation; from 10 to 60 days axis elongation was stimulated; and between day 60 and day 75, when germination had begun, the growth substances were inhibitory. The adenylate energy charge remained low (0.15) in axes of dry dormant seeds but increased to 0.78 following imbibition of water and 10 days of moist storage at 5 C. This phenomenon was not specifically related to low temperature stratification, since a rapid increase in the energy charge of the axes also occurred following imbibition and moist storage at 20 C. The excised axes would elongate in response to the growth substances only when a high energy charge (approximately 0.8) was maintained.

  12. The acropetal effects of indole-3-acetic acid in isolated shoot segments of Acer pseudoplatanus L. II. Possible regulation by a vectorial fieid of auxin waves

    Jacek A. Adamczyk


    Full Text Available The acropetal effects of auxin on elongation of axillary buds and on modulation of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin to agar from Acer pseudoplatanus L. shoots were studied. When synthetic IAA was applied to cut surfaces of one of two branches the elongation growth of buds situated on the opposite branch was retarded, suggesting regulation independent of the direct action of the molecules of the applied IAA. Oscillations in basipetal transport of natural auxin along the stem segments were observed corroborating the results of other authors using different tree species. Apical application of synthetic IAA for 1 hour to the lateral branch caused a phase shift of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin, when the stem segment above the treated branch was sectioned. The same effect was observed evoked by the laterally growing branch which is interpreted as an effect of natural auxin produced by the actively growing shoot. These modulations could be propagated acropetally at a rate excluding direct action of auxin molecules at the sites of measurement. The results seem to corroborate the hypothesis suggesting that auxin is involved in acropetal regulation of shoot apex growth through its effect upon modulation of the vectorial field which arises when the auxin-waves translocate in cambium.

  13. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum using combination of Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design.

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Fei, Shimin; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei


    In this study, ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technique was firstly and successfully applied for extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum. The extraction kinetics were fitted and described, and the extraction mechanism was discussed. Through comparison, n-hexane was selected as the extraction solvent, the influence of solvent type on the responses was detailedly interpreted based on the influence of their properties on the occurrence and intensity of cavitation. Seven parameters potentially influencing the extraction yield of samara oil and content of nervonic acid, including ultrasound irradiation time, ultrasound irradiation power, ultrasound temperature, liquid-solid ratio, soaking time, particle size and stirring rate, were screened through Plackett-Burman design to determine the significant variables. Then, three parameters performed statistically significant, including liquid-solid ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and ultrasound irradiation power, were further optimized using Box-Behnken design to predict optimum extraction conditions. Satisfactory yield of samara oil (11.72±0.38%) and content of nervonic acid (5.28±0.18%) were achieved using the optimal conditions. 1% proportion of ethanol in extraction solvent, 120°C of drying temperature and 6.4% moisture were selected and applied for effective extraction. There were no distinct differences in the physicochemical properties of samara oil obtained by UCE and Soxhlet extraction, and the samara oil obtained by UCE exhibited better antioxidant activities. Therefore, UCE method has enormous potential for efficient extraction of edible oil with high quality from plant materials.

  14. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)


    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  15. DNA methylation is a determinative element of photosynthesis gene expression in amyloplasts from liquid-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T


    Transcriptional regulation has been shown to operate as a selective control mechanism of expression of photosynthetic genes in the nonphotosynthetic plastids, amyloplasts, of a white-wild cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). To elaborate the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation at the molecular level, we have examined the template activity of the amyloplast DNA compared to the chloroplast DNA by using the in vitro run-off transcription assay system with extracts of the two plastid types. The results of these assays clearly indicate that most of the amyloplast DNA regions do not serve as a template for the in vitro transcription regardless of the plastid extracts; this is in contrast to the chloroplast DNA which serves as an active template. It is highly likely that the template activity of amyloplast DNA per se is the modulating element of transcriptional regulation. Parallel experiments determining the DNA base content by HPLC analysis have shown that a variety of methylated bases, especially 5-methylcytosine, are localized in the DNA regions containing suppressed genes of the amyloplast genome. In sharp contrast, methylated bases were undetectable in the expressed gene regions of amyloplast and whole chloroplast genomes. The overall findings strongly support the notion that DNA methylation is involved in the selective suppression of photosynthetic genes in the nonphotosynthetic plastids of cultured sycamore cells.

  16. Inositol Metabolism in Plants. III. Conversion of Myo-inositol-2-H to Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) Cell Culture.

    Roberts, R M; Loewus, F


    Prolonged growth of cell cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) on agar medium containing myo-inositol-2-(3)H resulted in incorporation of label predominately into uronosyl and pentosyl units of cell wall polysaccharides. Procedures normally used to distinguish between pectic substance and hemicellulose yielded carbohydrate-rich fractions with solubility characteristics ranging from pectic substance to hemicellulose yet the uronic acid and pentose composition of these fractions was decidedly pectic. Galacturonic acid was the only uronic acid present in each fraction. Subfractionation of alkali-soluble (hemicellulosic) polysaccharide by neutralization followed by ethanol precipitation gave 3 fractions, a water-insoluble, an ethanol-insoluble, and an ethanol-soluble fraction, each progressively poorer in galacturonic acid units and progressively richer in arabinose units; all relatively poor in xylose units.Apparently, processes involved in biosynthesis of primary cell wall continued to produce pectic substance during cell enlargement while processes leading to biosynthesis of typically secondary cell wall polysaccharide such as 4-0-methyl glucuronoxylan were not activated.

  17. Facilitated transport of Mn2+ in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and excised maize root tips. A comparative 31P n.m.r. study in vivo.

    Roby, C; Bligny, R; Douce, R; Tu, S I; Pfeffer, P E


    Movement of paramagnetic Mn2+ into sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has been indirectly examined by observing the line broadening exhibited in its 31P n.m.r. spectra. Mn2+ was observed to pass into the vacuole, while exhibiting a very minor accumulation in the cytoplasm. With time, gradual leakage of phosphate from the vacuole to the cytoplasm was observed along with an increase in glucose-6-phosphate. Anoxia did not appear to affect the relative distribution of Mn2+ in the cytoplasm and vacuole. Under hypoxic conditions restriction of almost all movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma as well as the tonoplast was observed. In contrast, maize root tips showed entry and complete complexation of nucleotide triphosphate by Mn2+ during hypoxia. The rate of passage of Mn2+ across the tonoplast in both sycamore and maize root cells is approximately the same. However, the rates of facilitated movement across the respective plasma membranes appear to differ. More rapid movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma in maize root tip cells allows a gradual build-up of metal ion in the cytoplasm prior to its diffusion across the tonoplast. Sycamore cells undergo a slower uptake of Mn2+ into their cytoplasms (comparable with the rate of diffusion through the tonoplast), so little or no observable accumulation of Mn2+ is observed in this compartment.

  18. Expression of photosynthetic genes is distinctly different between chloroplasts and amyloplasts in the liquid-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T


    A nonphotosynthetic, white-wild cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) contains amyloplasts as the only kind of plastid, whereas a photosynthetically competent green variant cell line contains only chloroplasts. Transcripts of both nuclear and plastid genes for photosynthetic components in the white cells were not detectable in contrast to those in the green cells. To investigate the limiting step (s) behind these diminished levels of transcripts, we have performed in vivo pulse-chase labeling of RNA in both cell types. These studies indicated that the rates of incorporation of [3H]uridine and nucleotide pool sizes were indistinguishable between the two cell lines. Transcripts of certain nuclear (rbcS, cab, psbO) and plastid (rbcL) genes in the white cell were not detectable. We infer from these data that transcriptional regulation entails an important role in controlling photosynthetic RNA levels. Related analyses exploiting plastid run-on transcription have provided supporting evidence that the transcription of the amyloplast genome in the white cell is greatly suppressed in contrast to that of the chloroplast genome in the green cell. The results support a model of selective suppression of photosynthesis genes in nonphotosynthetic higher plant cells, and indicate that gene expression in such a system is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level.

  19. Application of an efficient strategy with a phage lambda vector for constructing a physical map of the amyloplast genome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus).

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H


    Amyloplasts were isolated from a heterotrophic culture cell line of a woody plant, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), and their DNA was purified. Conventional procedures for making a physical map were not easily applicable to the amyloplast DNA, since the yield of DNA was too low and the presence of repeated sequences interfered with the analysis. Therefore, the pieces of amyloplast DNA starting with a few micrograms of DNA were cloned in the lambda Fix vector, which is a derivative of lambda EMBL vectors improved for efficient cloning and gene walking. Cloned DNA fragments were randomly picked, mapped for restriction endonuclease sites by a refined procedure, and combined by overlapping their physical maps. The DNA library was also subjected to screening by gene walking using promoters recognized by T3 and T7 RNA polymerases in the vector to fill the gaps between sequences determined by overlapping the physical maps. In this way, we constructed the entire DNA library and the complete physical map of the amyloplast DNA. The sycamore amyloplast genome was composed of 141.7-kbp nucleotides with the same gene arrangement as that of tobacco chloroplasts.

  20. Comparison between the effects of fusicoccin, Tunicamycin, and Brefeldin A on programmed cell death of cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells.

    Malerba, M; Cerana, R; Crosti, P


    Programmed cell death occurs in plants during several developmental processes and during the expression of resistance to pathogen attack (i.e., the hypersensitive response). An unsolved question of plant programmed cell death is whether a unique signaling pathway or different, possibly convergent pathways exist. This problem was addressed in cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells by comparing the effects of fusicoccin, Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A, inducers of programmed cell death with well-defined molecular and cellular targets, on some of the parameters involved in the regulation of this process. In addition to cell death, the inducers are able to stimulate the production of H2O2, the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria, the accumulation of cytosolic 14-3-3 proteins, and changes at the endoplasmic reticulum level, such as accumulation of the molecular chaperone binding protein and modifications in the organelle architecture. Interestingly, no additive effect on any of these parameters is observed when fusicoccin is administered in combination with Tunicamycin or Brefeldin A. Thus, these inducers seem to utilize the same or largely coincident pathways to induce programmed cell death and involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum, in addition to that of mitochondria, appears to be a common step.

  1. Is the availability of substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle a limiting factor for uncoupled respiration in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells?

    Journet, E P; Bligny, R; Douce, R


    Protoplasts obtained from sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell suspensions were found to be highly intact and to retain a high rate of O2 consumption. If the protoplasts were taken up and expelled through a fine nylon mesh, all the protoplasts were ruptured, leaving the fragile amyloplasts largely intact. Distribution of enzymes of glycolysis in plastids and soluble phase of sycamore protoplasts indicated that the absolute maximum activity for each glycolytic enzyme under optimum conditions exceeded the estimates of the maximal rate at which sycamore cells oxidize triose phosphate. Passage of protoplasts through the fine nylon mesh produced a 3-5-fold decrease in O2 consumption. However, addition of saturating amounts of respiratory substrates and ADP restored an O2 consumption equal to that observed with uncoupled intact protoplasts. Taken together, these results demonstrated that neither the overall capacity of the glycolytic enzymes in sycamore cells nor the availability of respiratory substrates for the mitochondria is ultimately responsible for determining the rate of uncoupled respiration in sycamore cells.

  2. Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive.

    Tharayil, Nishanth; Suseela, Vidya; Triebwasser, Daniella J; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D; Dukes, Jeffrey S


    • Climate change could increase the frequency with which plants experience abiotic stresses, leading to changes in their metabolic pathways. These stresses may induce the production of compounds that are structurally and biologically different from constitutive compounds. • We studied how warming and altered precipitation affected the composition, structure, and biological reactivity of leaf litter tannins in Acer rubrum at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment, in Massachusetts, USA. • Warmer and drier climatic conditions led to higher concentrations of protective compounds, including flavonoids and cutin. The abundance and structure of leaf tannins also responded consistently to climatic treatments. Drought and warming in combination doubled the concentration of total tannins, which reached 30% of leaf-litter DW. This treatment also produced condensed tannins with lower polymerization and a greater proportion of procyanidin units, which in turn reduced sequestration of tannins by litter fiber. Furthermore, because of the structural flexibility of these tannins, litter from this treatment exhibited five times more enzyme (β-glucosidase) complexation capacity on a per-weight basis. Warmer and wetter conditions decreased the amount of foliar condensed tannins. • Our finding that warming and drought result in the production of highly reactive tannins is novel, and highly relevant to climate change research as these tannins, by immobilizing microbial enzymes, could slow litter decomposition and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in a warmer, drier world.

  3. Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System

    Kwang Jin Lee


    Full Text Available The Acer tegmentosum (3 kg was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EA, butyl alcohol (n-BuOH, and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24 g, five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1, avicularin (2, (+-catechin (3, (−-epicatechin (4, and 6′-O-galloyl salidroside (5. Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum.

  4. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Acer palmatum and comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes under salt stress in two contrasting genotypes.

    Rong, Liping; Li, Qianzhong; Li, Shushun; Tang, Ling; Wen, Jing


    Maple (Acer palmatum) is an important species for landscape planting worldwide. Salt stress affects the normal growth of the Maple leaf directly, leading to loss of esthetic value. However, the limited availability of Maple genomic information has hindered research on the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses of the salt tolerance in two genotypes of Maple using RNA-seq. Approximately 146.4 million paired-end reads, representing 181,769 unigenes, were obtained. The N50 length of the unigenes was 738 bp, and their total length over 102.66 Mb. 14,090 simple sequence repeats and over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which represent useful resources for marker development. Importantly, 181,769 genes were detected in at least one library, and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes. Among these DEGs, 125 were upregulated and 178 were downregulated genes. Two MYB-related proteins and one LEA protein were detected among the first 10 most downregulated genes. Moreover, a methyltransferase-related gene was detected among the first 10 most upregulated genes. The three most significantly enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, arginine and proline metabolism, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis provided a rich genetic resource for gene discovery related to salt tolerance in Maple, and in closely related species. The data will serve as an important public information platform to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in salt tolerance in Maple.

  5. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai


    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  6. O2-triggered changes of membrane fatty acid composition have no effect on Arrhenius discontinuities of respiration in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells.

    Bligny, R; Rebeillé, F; Douce, R


    Sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) in suspension culture were grown at 25 degrees C in culture medium containing two oxygen concentrations: 250 microM O2 (standard conditions) and 10 microM O2 (O2-limiting conditions). The decrease of O2 concentration in the culture medium did not modify significantly the relative proportion of each phospholipid. In contrast, the molar proportion of fatty acids was dramatically changed in all lipid classes of the cell membranes; the average percentage of oleate increased from 3 to 45% whereas that of linoleate decreased from 49 to 22%. When normal culture conditions were restored (250 microM O2), oleate underwent a rapid desaturation process; the loss of oleic acid was associated with a stoichiometric appearance of linoleic acid at a rate of about 4 nmol of oleate desaturated/h/10(6) cells. Under these conditions, no change in the Arrhenius-type plots of the rate of sycamore cell respiration was observed; the values of the transition temperature and of the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) associated with the cell respiration as well as with the respiration-associated enzymes remained unchanged. Thus it was concluded that the fact that a strong decrease in the fraction of unsaturated fatty acid residues present in the mitochondria had no effect on electron transport rates and Arrhenius plot discontinuities casts doubt on the significance of such changes in terms of chilling injury. Finally it is suggested that some of the Arrhenius discontinuities observed at the level of membrane enzyme could be the consequence of intrinsic thermotropic changes in protein arrangement independent of lipid fluidity.

  7. Association of H-Translocating ATPase in the Golgi Membrane System from Suspension-Cultured Cells of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Ali, M S; Akazawa, T


    The Golgi complex and the disrupted vesicular membranes were prepared from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using protoplasts as the starting material and employing linear sucrose density gradient centrifugation followed by osmolysis (Ali et al. [1985] Plant Cell Physiol 26: 1119-1133). The isolated Golgi fraction was found to be enriched with marker enzyme activities and depleted of the activity of a typical mitochondrial marker enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. Golgi complex, and vesicular membranes derived thereof were found to contain the specific ATPase (specific activity of about 0.5 to 0.7 micromoles per minute per milligram protein). Inhibitor studies suggested that the ATPase of Golgi was different from plasma membrane, tonoplast and mitochondrial ATPases as it was not inhibited by sodium vanadate, potassium nitrate, oligomycin and sodium azide. The sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide further distinguished the Golgi ATPase from F(0) to F(1) ATPase of mitochondria. The internal acidification was measured by monitoring the difference in absorbance at 550 nanometers minus 600 nanometers using neutral red as a probe. The maximum rate detected with Golgi and disrupted membrane system was 0.49 and 0.61 optical density unit per minute per milligram protein, at pH 7.5, respectively, indicating that the proton pump activity was tightly associated with the Golgi membranes. In both cases, the acidification was inhibited 70 to 90% by various ionophores, indicating that the proton pump was electrogenic in nature. Both the Golgi ATPase activity and ATP-dependent acidification were profoundly inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which also indicate that the two activities are catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  8. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Lee, C.S


    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  9. Natural Regeneration of Acer griseum, an Endemic Species in China%中国特有种血皮槭的天然更新

    陈朋; 于雪丹; 张川红; 郑勇奇; 孙圣; 程蓓蓓; 朱从波


    In this study, the habitat, soil seed banks and natural regeneration of Acer griseum were investigated systematically. As a sub-climax species and an associated tree species, A. griseum scattered in the mountainous broad-leaved mixed forests, and the mountainous coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in addition to the mountaintop shrub forests. The species thrived mostly on semi-sunny slopes, semi-shade slopes, shade slopes and gullies. It grew in the mountain brown soil, yellow brown soil and mountain cinnamon soil. The thickness of soil layer, in which the species grew, was from the bare rock to about 30 cm soil range, some trees even grew in rock crevices. It naturally regenerated mainly by seeds, followed by some stump-sprouting and root sprouting. Most of the seeds in soil seed bank were stored in the litter layer. There were 172 seeds·m-2 in the litter, while only 42 seeds·m-2 between 0 to 10 cm soil layer in Yuanling, Hunan province. Few or no seeds were found in deeper soil layer than 10 cm. The amount of seeds was negatively correlated with the distance from the parent tree and the wind also could contribute to seed dispersal. All the above results indicated that reduction of the quantity of A. griseum wild resources might be due to bad habitat, low seed yield and high percentage of empty seeds, difficulty of seed germination, as well as the poor environmental conditions for natural regeneration of the seedlings.

  10. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M


    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  11. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light.

    Gabriel Danyagri

    Full Text Available Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1 and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1 [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M regimes, at high light (100% and low light (30% in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (g s, instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE, maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax, rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J, triose phosphate utilization (TPU, leaf respiration (R d, light compensation point (LCP and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx. A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  12. Isolation and Identification of an Endophytic Fungus Producing Gallic Acid from Acer ginnala%一株产没食子酸的茶条槭内生真菌的分离鉴定

    齐凤慧; 詹亚光; 景天忠


    从采自黑龙江省植物园的茶条槭(Acer ginnala Maxim.)的种子和枝条中分离内生真菌,用形态学和分子生物学方法鉴定分离菌株,应用高效液相色谱法检测内生真菌中没食子酸含量.结果从分离得到的链格孢属(Altemaria)菌株中选出没食子酸含量为9.52 mg/g的高产菌株CP11.

  13. 北京小龙门地区元宝枫的种群结构及点格局分析%Population Structure and Point Pattern of Acer truncatum Bunge in Xiaolongmen Reserve, Beijing

    李玲慧; 毛伊幻


    The distribution pattern of plant populations is closely related to spatial scale.By traditional sampling method,only one-scale point pattern can be studied.By comparison,point pattern analysis method is based on spatial mapped points of individual distribution and can analyze patterns under all scales along a gradient.The results are more consistent to the reality,especially for population structure.By using point pattern analysis method,the distribution pattern of all age-classes of Acer truncatum in Xiaolongmen Reserve,Beijing and its relationship with that of other arbors were studied.The results show that the distribution of Acer truncatum Bunge in the sampling area is centralization distribution,and it varies from age class to age class.Other arbors have obvious (positive or negative) effects on the distribution of Acer truncatum.The relationship between Acer truncatum and JugIans mandshurica,Tilia cordata,Fraxinus americana L var juglandifolia Rehd is different.%植物群落的分布格局与空间尺度有着密切关系.在传统取样方法下,只能研究一种尺度下的格局,与之相比点格局分析法是以种群个体空间分布的坐标点图为基础,通过单一的分布情况分析各种尺度下的格局.该文通过点格局分析对北京小龙门地区元宝枫分布格局、各龄级的分布格局以及其与其他乔木的相关关系进行了研究.结果表明:元宝枫在样地内呈明显的集群分布,各龄级密度差异显著.幼龄级在小尺度下集群分布,大尺度下随机分布;随着龄级的增长,种群显著地趋于随机分布.核桃楸是该群落的优势种,且元宝枫和核桃楸、大叶白蜡、小叶椴之间在不同尺度下相关关系不同.

  14. Analysis of Polyphenols from the Leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography%反相-高效液相色谱分析茶条槭叶中多酚类化合物

    谢艳方; 李珺; 邹洪; 元华龙


    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of polyphenols from the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim has been established. The analysis was performed on a Xterra-C18 column (250×4. 6 mm, 5 μm, Waters) using gradient elution with the mobile phase of methanol-acetic acid-water. The established method was used to determine polyphenols from the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim. Gallic acid,quercetin,quercetin-3-O-L-rhamnoside, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose acid,methyl gallate and catechin were simultaneously found in the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim and quantitatively analyzed. The method is reliable and simple and could be possibly applied in exploiting medical and healthy products from the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim.%本文建立了反相高效液相色谱法( RP-H PLC)测定茶条槭叶中多酚类化合物含量的方法.采用XTerra-C18色谱柱,选择流动相为甲醇-乙酸-水,检测波长分别为278nm(0~30 min)和360 nm(30~35 min),流速0.5 mL/min的色谱条件,对茶条槭叶进行定性、定量分析.结果表明,此方法精密度高,准确度好,能有效检测出茶条槭叶中含有的没食子酸甲酯、没食子酸、槲皮素、槲皮素鼠李糖、五没食子酰基葡萄糖酸及儿茶素,为茶条槭叶开发成茶叶、饮料以及医疗保健品提供依据.

  15. Effect of Different Processing Technology of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim on the Active Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity%加工工艺对苦茶槭有效成分和抗氧化活性的影响

    孔成诚; 方成武; 张传标; 张明燕


    To study on the effects of different processing method of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim main active ingredient and antioxidant activity, used Acer Ginnala Maxim as raw material in different processing methods, HPLC method was used to measure main active ingredient content of gallic acid. DPPH method was used to determine the scavenging effect on free radicals. Result showed that Acer. Ginnala. Maxim processing method of Black tea, gallic acid content was ( 18. 49±1. 13) mg/g, higher than processing method of green tea of (12. 45±1. 92) mg/g and dried in shade of (14. 28±1. 13) mg/g. Antioxidant activity of the different processing methods of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim was in the following order:the method of green tea (0. 443 mg/mL) < the method of dried in shade (0. 726 mg/mL) < the method of black tea (1. 286 mg/mL) . From the angle of improve the content of Gallic acid and increased the antioxidant activity, the processing method of black tea was much better.%研究了不同加工工艺对苦茶槭主要活性成分和抗氧化活性的影响,以期筛选最适合苦茶槭加工方式。对所采集的苦茶槭鲜叶以不同加工方式进行加工处理,采取HPLC法对苦茶槭主要有效成分没食子酸含量进行检测。采用DPPH法评价不同加工方法苦茶槭自由基的抗氧化活动。结果显示,采用红茶加工法的苦茶槭没食子酸含量为(18.49依1.13) mg/g高于绿茶加工法(12.45依1.92) mg/g和自然阴干法(14.28依1.13) mg/g。不同加工方法的苦茶槭IC50依次为:绿茶工艺(0.443 mg/mL)<自然阴干(0.726 mg/mL)<红茶工艺(1.286 mg/mL)。从提高苦茶槭没食子酸含量,增加抗氧化活性角度建议采用红茶加工方法。

  16. Extraction and Antioxidant Activities of Total Flavonoids From Acer elegantulum Fang.Leaves%秀丽槭叶总黄酮的提取及其抗氧化能力研究

    林立; 林乐静; 毛阳正; 祝志勇; 付涛


    为开发和利用秀丽槭叶中的黄酮资源,利用响应面分析法优化乙醇-超声法提取秀丽槭叶中总黄酮的工艺,并分析总黄酮清除DPPH自由基能力和总抗氧化能力.结果表明,在超声功率200 W条件下,秀丽槭叶总黄酮适宜的提取工艺条件为:提取温度55℃、乙醇浓度70%、液料比50∶1 (v/w)、提取时间48 min,该条件下提取到的秀丽槭叶总黄酮含量为58.664 mg·g-1,秀丽槭叶总黄酮清除DPPH自由基的EC5o为0.528 mg·L-1,清除率可达95.56%;秀丽槭叶总黄酮在相同条件下较L-抗坏血酸具有更强的总抗氧化力.本研究结果为今后秀丽槭叶黄酮资源的开发利用提供了一定的科学依据.%In order to develop and utilize resource of flavonoids in Acer elegantulum leaves,response surface analysis methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of total flavonoids from Acer elegantulum leaves,and the antioxidant activities of total flavonoids were also investigated through the measurement of DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity.The results under the experimental conditions showed that the optimal parameters for total flavonoids extraction process were determined as follows:extraction temperature 55℃,ethanol concentration 70%,liquid-solid 50∶1 and extraction time 48 min.The total flavonoids yield obtained under such conditions was 58.664 mg·g-1.EC50 for total flavonoids on scavenging DPPH was O.528 mg· L-1 and the scavenging rate against DPPH free radicals could reached to 95.56%.Total flavonoids in Acer elegantulum leaves maintained higher antioxidant capacity than L-ascorbic acid.In this regard,the optimum extraction conditions of total flavonoids in Acer elegantulum leaves were obtained,and the antioxidant activities of total flavonoids were measured as well,which would provide reliable scientific instruction on the exploitation of flavonoids resource in Acer elegantulum leaves.

  17. 元宝枫叶提取物的减肥作用研究%Study on the weight-reducing effect of Acer truncatum leave extract in alimentary obesity rat

    高丽芳; 曹丽歌; 田蜜; 陈振良


    Objective To investigate the weight-reducing effect of Acer truncatum leave extract on alimentary obesity rats and its effect on fatty acid synthase ( FAS). Methods SPF-grade adult male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet and Acer truncatum leave extract (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg BW) was given by gavage once a day for 31 days. Body weight ( BW ) , adipose weight and food consumption were recorded, and the activity of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) was measured. Results Compared with the model-control group, body weight, adipose weight and the ratio of adipose weight to body weight were obviously lower in 30 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW groups ( P < 0. 01) . The activity of hepatic FAS in rats administrated with the extract was markedly lower than the control rats ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion There might have a function of Acer truncatum leave extract on reducing body weight.%目的 研究元宝枫叶提取物对营养性肥胖大鼠的减肥作用及机制.方法 利用营养饲料制备大鼠肥胖模型,分别给予不同组别大鼠元宝枫叶提取物10、30和100mg/kg BW.于实验结束测定体重、体脂、食物消耗量、脂/体比及肝脏脂肪酸合酶活性指标.实验持续31天.结果 与模型对照组比较,30mg/kg与100mg/kg组3周后体重和实验终体重均显著降低(P<0.01),能降低肥胖模型大鼠体脂重量和脂/体比(P<0.05),可抑制脂肪酸合酶活性(P<0.05).结论 元宝枫叶提取物具有减肥功能.

  18. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke


    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3.

  19. The Monte Carlo event generator AcerMC versions 2.0 to 3.8 with interfaces to PYTHIA 6.4, HERWIG 6.5 and ARIADNE 4.1

    Kersevan, Borut Paul; Richter-Waş, Elzbieta


    The AcerMC Monte Carlo generator is dedicated to the generation of Standard Model background processes which were recognised as critical for the searches at LHC, and generation of which was either unavailable or not straightforward so far. The program itself provides a library of the massive matrix elements (coded by MADGRAPH) and native phase space modules for generation of a set of selected processes. The hard process event can be completed by the initial and the final state radiation, hadronisation and decays through the existing interface with either PYTHIA, HERWIG or ARIADNE event generators and (optionally) TAUOLA and PHOTOS. Interfaces to all these packages are provided in the distribution version. The phase-space generation is based on the multi-channel self-optimising approach using the modified Kajantie-Byckling formalism for phase space construction and further smoothing of the phase space was obtained by using a modified ac-VEGAS algorithm. An additional improvement in the recent versions is the inclusion of the consistent prescription for matching the matrix element calculations with parton showering for a select list of processes. Catalogue identifier: ADQQ_v2_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3853309 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 68045728 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 with popular extensions (g77, gfortran). Computer: All running Linux. Operating system: Linux. Classification: 11.2, 11.6. External routines: CERNLIB (, LHAPDF ( Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADQQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 149(2003)142 Does

  20. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: IV. A Structural Comparison of the Wall Hemicellulose of Cell Suspension Cultures of Sycamore (Acer PseudoPlatAnus) and of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris).

    Wilder, B M; Albersheim, P


    The molecular structure and chemical properties of the hemicellulose present in the isolated cell walls of suspension cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has recently been described by Bauer et al. (Plant Physiol. 51: 174-187). The hemicellulose of the sycamore primary cell wall is a xyloglucan. This polymer functions as an important cross-link in the structure of the cell wall; the xyloglucan is hydrogen-bonded to cellulose and covalently attached to the pectic polymers.The present paper describes the structure of a xyloglucan present in the walls and in the extracellular medium of suspension-cultured Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and compares the structure of the bean xyloglucan with the structure of the sycamore xyloglucan. Although some minor differences were found, the basic structure of the xyloglucans in the cell walls of these distantly related species is the same. The structure is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of four residues of beta-1, 4-linked glucose and three residues of terminal xylose linked to the 6 position of three of the glucosyl residues.

  1. Effect of Temperature, Subculture Cycle and Light on the Growth of Acer negundo ' Aureomarginatum' in Vitro%温度、光照及继代周期等对金叶复叶槭组培苗生长的影响

    孟月娥; 李艳敏; 赵秀山; 王利民; 王慧娟; 张和臣; 董晓宇


    为了完善金叶复叶槭组培快繁技术、实现工厂化规模化生产,以其组培苗为试验材料,通过设置不同的温度、光照、继代周期等,研究培养条件对其生长的影响.结果表明,温度、继代周期、光照条件对苗高影响较大,差异均达到显著水平;同时发现继代周期显著影响叶片数量、光照时间对根生长系数影响差异达到极显著水平.筛选出在30℃、4200 1x的光照强度下,16 h/d光照时间、继代周期35天为‘金叶复叶槭最佳培养条件.%This paper aimed to study the tissue culture and rapid propagation technology of Acer negundo 'Aureomarginatum' and provided basis for the implementation of scale production.The effects of different temperature, subculture cycle, illumination and other culture conditions on the growth of the Acer negundo 'Aureomarginatum' in vitro were investigated.The results showed that the differences by temperature, subculture cycle, light on the plantlet height reached the significant level, it was significantly affected on leaf number by subculture cycle, and on root growth coefficient by illumination time.The optimal culture conditions for Acer negundo 'Aureomarginatum' in vitro were at 30℃, 4200 lx light intensity, 16 h/d illumination time, and the subculture cycle was 35 days.

  2. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford


    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites.

  3. Effect of brefeldin A on the structure of the Golgi apparatus and on the synthesis and secretion of proteins and polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells.

    Driouich, A; Zhang, G F; Staehelin, L A


    Brefeldin A (BFA), a specific inhibitor of Golgi-mediated secretion in animal cells, has been used to study the organization of the secretory pathway and the function of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells. To this end, we have employed a combination of electron microscopical, immunocytochemical, and biochemical techniques to investigate the effects of this drug on the architecture of the Golgi apparatus as well as on the secretion of proteins and complex cell wall polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells. We have used 2.5 and 7.5 micrograms/mL of BFA, which is comparable to the 1 to 10 micrograms/mL used in experiments with animal cells. Electron micrographs of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted cells show that although BFA causes swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, unlike in animal cells, it does not induce the disassembly of sycamore maple Golgi stacks. Instead, BFA induces the formation of large clusters of Golgi stacks, an increase in the number of trans-like Golgi cisternae, and the accumulation in the cytoplasm of very dense vesicles that appear to be derived from trans Golgi cisternae. These vesicles contain large amounts of xyloglucan (XG), the major hemicellulosic cell wall polysaccharide, as shown by immunocytochemical labeling with anti-XG antibodies. All of these structural changes disappear within 120 min after removal of the drug. In vivo labeling experiments using [3H]leucine demonstrate that protein secretion into the culture medium, but not protein synthesis, is inhibited by approximately 80% in the presence of BFA. In contrast, the incorporation of [3H]fucose into N-linked glycoproteins, which occurs in trans-Golgi cisternae, appears to be affected to a greater extent than the incorporation of [3H]xylose, which has been localized to medial Golgi cisternae. BFA also affects secretion of complex polysaccharides as evidenced by the approximate 50% drop in incorporation of [3H]xylose and

  4. 茶条槭叶没食子酸的提取工艺优化及其稳定性研究%Optimization of Extraction Process for Extracting Gallic Acid from Leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim and Stability of Its Gallic Acid

    邱亮; 于华忠; 刘建兰; 高梦; 郑红岩


    The extraction process for extracting gallic arid from leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim was explored. On the basis of four single factor experiments (extracting temperature, ratio of material to liquid, extracting concentration and extracting time), the orthogonal experiment was used to optimization of extracting yield of gallic acid by three factors; meanwhile, the influences of different temperatures, pH values and metal iron concentrations on stability of extracted gallic acid. The results indicated that when ratio of material to liquid was 1:60 and concentration of hydrochloric acid was 4 mol/ L, the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim were boiled with boiling water for 4 h, the yield of gallic acid reached 210.314 mg/g; the gallic acid has good stability to heat and strong acid (pH<3), but it is easy to react with alkali; Mti**, Mg2*, Ca2* and low concentration of Cu2* had little influence on stability of gallic acid, but Fe5* had obvious influence on stability of gallic acid, so it should avoid the occurrence of Fe2* during extraction, processing and storage.%探索了从茶条槭叶中提取没食子酸的工艺,在提取温度、料液比、提取浓度和提取时间4个单因素试验基础上,运用正交试验法研究了3个因袭对没食子酸提取量的优化;同时考察了不同温度、pH值、金属离子对提取的没食子酸稳定性的影响.结果表明:茶条槭叶提取没食子酸的最优工艺为料液比1:60、盐酸浓度4mol/L、沸水浴提取4h,提取量为210.314mg/g;没食子酸对热和强酸(pH值<3)具有较好的稳定性,容易和碱发生反应;Mn2+、Mg2+、Ca2+和低浓度Cu2+对没食子酸的稳定性影响不显著,Fe2+对没食子酸的稳定性有明显影响,在提取加工和贮存过程中应避免Fe2+的存在.

  5. Sex Bias in ASAT? ACER Research Monograph No. 24.

    Adams, Raymond J.

    The Australian Scholastic Test (ASAT) was first used as a moderating device in the Australian Capitol Territory in 1977. Differences have been observed in the average performance of males and females on the test. The study reported in this monograph investigated the nature and origin of the score differences recorded for ASAT The research focused…

  6. Leaf Shape Responds to Temperature but Not CO2 in Acer rubrum

    Royer, Dana L.


    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate recon...

  7. 预装Vista的迅驰4——Acer Trave/Mate 4720



    随着Intel在5月9日发布新一代移动平台迅驰4——santa Rosa.各笔记本电脑厂商也纷纷配合推出了基于迅驰4代的笔记本新品,不过在随后的一个月中,消费者发现厂商更多是在造势.市场上在销售的迅驰4代新品并不多.且价格都较贵。看来厂商正忙着把以前的产品出货.自然不愿Santa Rosa来冲击市场。

  8. Competition for nitrogen sources between European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seedlings.

    Simon, J; Waldhecker, P; Brüggemann, N; Rennenberg, H


    To investigate the short-term consequences of direct competition between beech and sycamore maple on root N uptake and N composition, mycorrhizal seedlings of both tree species were incubated for 4 days (i.e. beech only, sycamore maple only or both together) in an artificial nutrient solution with low N availability. On the fourth day, N uptake experiments were conducted to study the effects of competition on inorganic and organic N uptake. For this purpose, multiple N sources were applied with a single label. Furthermore, fine roots were sampled and analysed for total amino acids, soluble protein, total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium content. Our results clearly show that both tree species were able to use inorganic and organic N sources. Uptake of inorganic and organic N by beech roots was negatively affected in the presence of the competing tree species. In contrast, the presence of beech stimulated inorganic N uptake by sycamore maple roots. Both the negative effect of sycamore maple on N uptake of beech and the positive effect of beech on N uptake of sycamore maple led to an increase in root soluble protein in beech, despite an overall decrease in total N concentration. Thus, beech compensated for the negative effects of the tree competitor on N uptake by incorporating less N into structural N components, but otherwise exhibited the same strategy as the competitor, namely, enhancing soluble protein levels in roots when grown under competition. It is speculated that enhanced enzyme activities of so far unknown nature are required in beech as a defence response to inter-specific competition.

  9. Fermi笔记本正式登场 Acer Aspire 5745G测试


    九月初,Nvidia在台湾发布了代号Fermi的款笔记本平台独显芯片,引发了外界强势关注。进入11月,市面上终于迎来一款最新采用Fermi独立显示的笔记本,也为Nvidia GeForce M系列写下了新的一页。

  10. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    Xiuyuan eLi


    Full Text Available Competition for nitrogen (N, particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With interspecific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to interspecific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with interspecific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech.

  11. Occurrence of poly-winged fruits on cultivated sycamore maples - Acer pseudoplatanus L

    Ivetić Vladan


    Full Text Available The occurrence of polycarpous fruits on six out of 100 sycamore maples, i e. with 3, 4 and 8 fruits on one carpophore is described. Eight-carpous fruits have not been recorded to date in the region of the Serbia and Montenegro, and wider. The cause of the development of polycarpous fruits has been hypothesized.

  12. Xylan synthetase activity in differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees (Acer pseudoplatanus).

    Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H


    Particulate enzymic preparations obtained from homogenates of differentiated xylem cells isolated from sycamore trees, catalyzed the formation of a radioactive xylan in the presence of UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose as substrate. The synthesized xylan was not dialyzable through Visking cellophane tubing. Successive extraction with cold water, hot water and 5% NaOH dissolved respectively 15, 5 and 80% of the radioactive polymer. Complete acid hydrolysis of the water-insoluble polysaccharide synthesized from UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose released all the radioactivity as xylose. β-1,4-Xylodextrins, degree of polymerization 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, were obtained by partial acid hydrolysis (fuming HCl or 0.1 M HCl) of radioactive xylan. The polymer was hydrolysed to xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose by Driselase which contains 1,4-β xylanase activities. Methylation and then hydrolysis of the xylan released two methylated sugars which were identified as di-O-methyl[(14)C]xylose and tri-O-methyl-[(14)C]xylose, suggesting a 1→4-linked polymer. The linkage was confirmed by periodate oxidation studies. The apparent Km value of the synthetase for UDP-D-xylose was 0.4 mM. Xylan synthetase activity was not potentiated in the presence of a detergent. The enzymic activity was stimulated by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions, although EDTA in the range of concentrations between 0.01 and 1 mM did not affect the reaction rate. It appears that the xylan synthetase system associated with membranes obtained from differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees may serve for catalyzing the in vivo synthesis of the xylan main chain during the biogenesis of the plant cell wall.

  13. The effect of light on chlorophyll loss in senescing leaves of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Maunders, M J; Brown, S B


    Breakdown of chlorophylls in attached senescing sycamore leaves held in darkness was significantly less over a 14-d period than that occurring in leaves exposed to natural light. Chlorophyll a declined more rapidly than chlorophyll b in both situations, the stability of the latter being particularly increased in darkness. The differences between dark-maintained leaves and those exposed to light with respect to soluble protein, cytoplasmic RNA, and free amino-nitrogen were much less marked. The data indicate that chlorophyll loss during senescence is, at least in part, the result of a direct photochemical degradation of the pigment.

  14. ACER: A framework on the use of mathematics in upper-division physics

    Caballero, Marcos D.; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Pollock, Steven J.


    At the University of Colorado Boulder, as part of our broader efforts to transform middle- and upper-division physics courses, we research students' difficulties with particular concepts, methods, and tools in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. Unsurprisingly, a number of difficulties are related to students' use of mathematical tools (e.g., approximation methods). Previous work has documented a number of challenges that students must overcome to use mathematical tools fluently in introductory physics (e.g., mapping meaning onto mathematical symbols). We have developed a theoretical framework to facilitate connecting students' difficulties to challenges with specific mathematical and physical concepts. In this paper, we motivate the need for this framework and demonstrate its utility for both researchers and course instructors by applying it to frame results from interview data on students' use of Taylor approximations.

  15. ACER: An Analytic Framework for Students' Use of Mathematics in Upper-Division Physics

    Wilcox, Bethany R; Rehn, Daniel A; Pollock, Steven J


    Many students in upper-division physics courses struggle with the mathematically sophisticated tools and techniques that are required for advanced physics content. We have developed an analytical framework to assist instructors and researchers in characterizing students' difficulties with specific mathematical tools when solving the long and complex problems that are characteristic of upper-division. In this paper, we present this framework, including its motivation and development. We also describe an application of the framework to investigations of student difficulties with direct integration in electricity and magnetism (i.e., Coulomb's Law) and approximation methods in classical mechanics (i.e., Taylor series). These investigations provide examples of the types of difficulties encountered by advanced physics students, as well as the utility of the framework for both researchers and instructors.

  16. ACER: A Framework on the Use of Mathematics in Upper-division Physics

    Caballero, Marcos D; Pepper, Rachel E; Pollock, Steven J


    At the University of Colorado Boulder, as part of our broader efforts to transform middle- and upper-division physics courses, we research students' difficulties with particular concepts, methods, and tools in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. Unsurprisingly, a number of difficulties are related to students' use of mathematical tools (e.g., approximation methods). Previous work has documented a number of challenges that students must overcome to use mathematical tools fluently in introductory physics (e.g., mapping meaning onto mathematical symbols). We have developed a theoretical framework to facilitate connecting students' difficulties to challenges with specific mathematical and physical concepts. In this paper, we motivate the need for this framework and demonstrate its utility for both researchers and course instructors by applying it to frame results from interview data on students' use of Taylor approximations.

  17. Morphological characters of the flowers and the structure of the nectaries of Acer platanoides L.

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska


    Full Text Available The micromorphology of the nectaries and of other elements of the flower was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The anatomy of the nectaries was determined using light microscopy (LM. The inflorescences of A. platanoides comprise flowers included in two categories: functionally male and female. Nectaries of similar structure are found in both types of these flowers. The nectary gland located on the surface of the receptacle belongs to interstaminal nectaries. It has the form of a fleshy ring situated between the petals and the pistil. The bases of the staminal filaments are located in the depressions of the nectary. The outer diameter of the nectary reaches ca. 5 mm, while the thickness of this gland's tissues is 400-700 μm. In the epidermis of the nectary gland, there are numerous, evenly distributed stomata through which nectar release occurs. The stomata function asynchronously. In some stomata, we could observe nectar drops flowing out and a layer of this secretion around the stomata. The secretory parenchyma of the nectary is composed of several layers of thick-walled cells, whereas the ends of the vascular bundles with xylem and phloem elements are situated in the subglandular parenchyma. Chloroplasts are found both in the epidermal cells and in the glandular parenchyma cells and photosynthesis can take place in them due to the nectary's good exposure to light. The presence of starch grains was found in the chloroplasts; they can be energy material for nectar production.

  18. S1415CD, Trial Assessing CSF Prescribing Effectiveness and Risk (TrACER)


    Febrile Neutropenia; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage 0 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer

  19. Proteome analysis of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds dormancy breaking and germination: influence of abscisic and gibberellic acids

    Pawłowski Tomasz A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed dormancy is controlled by the physiological or structural properties of a seed and the external conditions. It is induced as part of the genetic program of seed development and maturation. Seeds with deep physiological embryo dormancy can be stimulated to germinate by a variety of treatments including cold stratification. Hormonal imbalance between germination inhibitors (e.g. abscisic acid and growth promoters (e.g. gibberellins is the main cause of seed dormancy breaking. Differences in the status of hormones would affect expression of genes required for germination. Proteomics offers the opportunity to examine simultaneous changes and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during seed dormancy breaking and germination. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and the related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in seed dormancy breaking, would expand our knowledge about this process. Results A proteomic approach was used to analyse the mechanism of dormancy breaking in Norway maple seeds caused by cold stratification, and the participation of the abscisic (ABA and gibberellic (GA acids. Forty-four proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these, eight spots were identified as water-responsive, 18 spots were ABA- and nine GA-responsive and nine spots were regulated by both hormones. The classification of proteins showed that most of the proteins associated with dormancy breaking in water were involved in protein destination. Most of the ABA- and GA-responsive proteins were involved in protein destination and energy metabolism. Conclusion In this study, ABA was found to mostly down-regulate proteins whereas GA up-regulated proteins abundance. Most of the changes were observed at the end of stratification in the germinated seeds. This is the most active period of dormancy breaking when seeds pass from the quiescent state to germination. Seed dormancy breaking involves proteins of various processes but the proteasome proteins, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, glycine-rich RNA binding protein, ABI3-interacting protein 1, EF-2 and adenosylhomocysteinase are of particular importance. The effect of exogenously applied hormones was not a determining factor for total inhibition (ABA or stimulation (GA of Norway maple seed dormancy breaking and germination but proteomic data has proven these hormones play a role.

  20. Evaluación de lombricompuestos como sustrato de crecimiento de Acer Negundo l. en Río Turbio

    Estefanía Ayelen Cosio


    Full Text Available Con el fin de buscar una alternativa de uso a la deposición final de residuosbiodegradables (RB se procesaron las corrientes más significativas de RB para Río Turbio mediante el compostaje y vermicompostaje de los mismos; con el objetivo dedeterminar la factibilidad de uso de estos lombricompuestos como sustrato de crecimiento de Acernegundo L. Para esto se realizó un ensayo en invernadero con un diseño completamente aleatorizado donde se evaluaron los siguientes sustratos de crecimiento: 100 % lombricompuesto de conejo, 100 % lombricompuesto de RSUB, 50% lombricompuesto de conejo y 50% de turba, 50% lombricompuesto RSUB y 50% turba y 100% turba. Para estimar la factibilidad del uso de los lombricompuestos, en elmes de abril se tomaron datos sobre alturay diámetro de cuello de los plantines y número de plantas logradas por tratamiento. Se registraron diferencias significativas en las alturas de plantines para cada tratamiento. Los plantines de mayor tamaño se produjeron en las bandejas de los sustratos formados por 100 % turba, 100% lombricompuesto deconejo, 50% lombricompuesto de conejo y 50% turba, seguidos por 50%lombricompuesto RSUB y 50% turba, siendo los de menor tamaño los obtenidos mediante 100%lombricompuesto de RSUB. La calidad de los plantines obtenidos a partir de sustratos de crecimiento constituidos por lombricompuesto de conejo y turba son comparables, no así los obtenidos a partir de sustratos con lombricompuestos de RSUB. Sin embargo ypese aque se obtuvo un menor rendimiento con el sustrato de RSUB, su uso resultó factible para los fines perseguidos, teniendo en cuenta además, que su utilización presenta ventajas ambientales para Río Turbio.

  1. Location, Location, Location: Implications of Geographic Situation on Australian Student Performance in PISA 2000. ACER Research Monograph Number 58

    Creswell, John; Underwood, Catherine


    The primary focus of this report is to examine the effect that geographical location may have on the performance of students from schools from all parts of Australia who participated in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2000). Approximately 5,477 students from 231…

  2. Responses of secondary chemicals in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B, springtime warming and nitrogen additions

    Sager, E.P.S.; Hutchinson, T.C. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Environmental Studies


    Elevated UV-B radiation due to climatic change and ozone depletion may represent a significant springtime environmental stressor to germinating seedlings in temperate forest regions. This study aimed to determine the effects of UV-B, nitrogen (N) fertilization and climate warming on the concentrations of base cations and secondary metabolites in the foliage of sugar maple seedlings growing in acid or alkaline soils. The influence of measured flavonoids and phenolics on herbivore activity was examined, as well as the relationship between foliar concentrations of calcium (Ca); manganese (Mn); and N and the production of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Experimental plots were established in mature hardwood forests in alkaline and acid soil locations in Bobcaygeon and Haliburton, Ontario. Pentagonal open-top chambers were used to lengthen the growing season and simulate an earlier spring. Ammonium nitrate was applied at a rate comparable with an additional deposition of 5 g N per m per year. Fertilizer was applied on 3 separate occasions. Ambient UV-B radiation was screened out with Mylar D polyester film. Sites, treatments and time of sampling had complex effects on foliar elemental chemistry, production of secondary compounds and herbivory. Foliar concentrations of individual phenols were higher in seedlings in the UV-B exclusion treatments. At both sites, removal of ambient UV-B led to increases in flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, and reduced herbivore activity. At Haliburton, ammonium nitrate fertilization led to further increases in foliar Mn. Nitrogen additions led to decreases in the concentrations of some flavonoids at both sites. It was concluded that the composition of the forest soil governs the response of seedlings when they are exposed to abiotic stressors. 63 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Phosphorylation of an envelope-associated Hsp70 homolog in amyloplasts isolated from cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Checa, S K; Viale, A M


    The presence of Hsp70 and Hsp60 molecular chaperones in amyloplasts isolated from cultured sycamore cells was analyzed by immunoblotting. Hsp70 homologs were located in both amyloplast envelope and stromal fractions, but no Hsp60 homologs were detected in any of the different suborganellar fractions. Incubation of whole amyloplasts or their envelope fraction with Mg2+ gamma-32P-ATP resulted in a rapid phosphorylation of the envelope-associated Hsp70 homolog, which constitutes a major target of phosphorylation in these plastids.

  4. [Oxygen and temperature effects on the fatty acid composition in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (author's transl)].

    Rebeille, F; Bligny, R; Douce, R


    Temperature and oxygen effects on the degree of unsaturation of membrane fatty acids have been investigated with sycamore cells in suspension culture. Sycamore cells were incubated with [14C]acetate at temperature varying from 15 to 25 degrees C and at O2 concentration from 12.5 to 305 muM. It was found that: (i) no significant difference was observed in the distribution of radioactivity between oleate and linoleate with different temperatures; (ii) in marked contrast, the aeration conditions during growth of plant cell cultures affected the fatty acid pattern of the total lipids: by maintaining the oxygen concentration below 60 muM, the molar proportion of oleate increased dramatically whereas that of the linoleate decreased. Under these conditions, the aeration of the culture medium (250 muM) induced a rapid transformation of oleate to linoleate. These results cast further doubt on the importance of the temperature on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in sycamore cells, but confirmed evidence that the formation of unsurated fatty acids by plant cells was indeed controlled by the oxygen concentration in solution.

  5. Selectivity mechanism of Anoplophora glabripennis on four different species of maples


    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a wood-boring beetle that is native to China. For a long time, it caused great losses in the economy and ecology of northwest China. Attractants are often used to control insects. The volatiles emitted from the host plant play an important role for insects in finding their target. To explore the mechanism of selec-tivity to different host plants, the response of Anoplophora glabripennis to four different host plants was investigated, which included Acer negundo L., Acer mono Maxim., Acer truncatum Bunge. and Acer platanoides L., and the com-pounds in the profiles of volatiles were identified from these species. The olfactory responses ofAnoplophora glabripennis to the odors of different plants showed preference for certain host plants: Acer negundo, Acer mono and Acer truncatum. The attraction ofAcer negundo and Acer mono was signifi-cantly different (pAcer mono Maxim.>Acer truncatum Bunge.>Acer platanoides L.. 1-penten-3-ol, ocimene and trans-Germanylacetone were repellent to Anoplophora glabripennis. 1-penten-3-ol and trans-gerranylacetone were identified in Acer platanoides, and Ocimene was the most attractive to Anoplophora glabripennis among these species. The extent of feeding damage caused by Anoplophora glabripennis differed among four species. The sequences was Acer negundo > Acer mono > Acer truncatum > Acer platanoides. The epidermal hairs of the four host plants revealed that the extent of damage was related to the physical characteristics of the host plants.

  6. 金沙槭化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Acer paxii Franch.

    金颖; 姚贺; 孙博航


    目的 对金沙槭的化学成分进行系统研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱、ODS柱色谱、HPLC等手段对金沙槭的乙醇提取物进行分离纯化,并通过化合物理化性质与波谱特征鉴定其结构.结果 分离鉴定13个化合物,分别为:槲皮素(quercetin,1)、槲皮素3-O-α-L-阿拉伯糖苷(quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinoside,2)、槲皮素3-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside,3)、槲皮素3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(quercetin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,4)、山奈酚(kaempferol,5)、山柰酚3-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(Kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside,6)、山奈酚3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,7)、山奈酚3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,8)、山奈酚3-O-α-L-阿拉伯糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-α-L-arabinoside,9)、杨梅酮(myricetin,10)、儿茶素(catechins,11)、金线吊乌龟二酮碱A(cepharadione A,12)、巴马汀(palmatine,13).结论 化合物9、12、13为首次从槭属中分离得到.化合物1-13均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  7. Disease symptoms and their frequency of occurrence in sycamores (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Rymanów Forest Unit stands

    Tadeusz Kowalski


    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the years 2003 - 2005 in the Rymanów Forest Unit in 13 stands aged between 40 to 100 years, which had 10% - 60% of the sycamore in their species composition. They grew on a mountain forest site (12 stands and mountain riparian forest (1 stand. In each of them 100 trees were examined, growing next to each other in the central part of the stands. The disease symptoms, on trunks and in the crown area of each tree, and their intensity were determined according to the predefined symptomatic - developmental code. More than 80 fragments of wood and bark were collected from trunks of living and dead trees with local cankers and bark peeling off exposing wood. From the samples, 798 isolations were made on 2% malt - agar medium. The examined sycamores in the Rymanów Forest Unit showed a large variation in the disease symptoms and their occurrence frequency. Among 1300 analyzed trees, only 13.7% did not show external, macroscopic disease symptoms. There was a relatively large share of dead trees (15.0%, which in individual stands ranged 4.0 - 32.0%. The most frequent symptoms in crowns were as follows: top dying (6.3% trees, entire branch dying (16.2% or only their tops (9.6%, crown thinning (19.4%, leaf atrophy (10.8% and leaf discoloration (11.6%. On sycamores trunks, the following symptoms were found: plate-like and strip-like necrosis of bark that was breaking, falling off and exposing wood (8.6% trees, local bark cankers (14.7%, among which healed ones dominated (10.3%, bark cracks (14.3% and tree cancer symptoms (3.8%. Bark necrosis and wood exposure formed 1.5 times more frequently on the northern and western side than on the southern and eastern side, bark cracks appeared most frequently on the southern trunk side. On the cross sections of sycamore trunks, the following symptoms were found predominantly: T-shaped discolorations which appeared in the place of local healed cankers, dead wood regions in the places of local unhealed cankers and widespread bark cankers, sometimes taking the form of a sector reaching the part near the pith, and greyish - green or greenish - brown wood discolorations in the form of numerous stains, especially in the trunk periphery part. On the trunks of 184 (14.2% sycamores, perithecia of Nectria coccinea were present. They formed in the area of cankers on bark and exposed wood alike. Fruiting bodies of Nectria cinnabarina, Eutypa acharii, Melanomma pulvis-pyrius, conidiomata of Cytospora ambiens, Aposphaeria cf. pulviscula and conidiomata of Stegonsporium pyriforme occurred sporadically. From wood, the following were isolated predominantly: Basidiomycetes sp. 1, Chalara sp. 1, Cadophora fastigiata, Nectria cinnabarina and Cytospora ambiens. Chalara sp.1, with its morphological features, best matched the anamorph of Ceratocystis coerulescens sensu lato.

  8. Aportaciones al conocimiento de las comunidades de Pistacia Terenbinthus L. y de Acer Monspessulanum L. en el Sur de la Península Ibérica

    Pavón Núñez, M.; Hidalgo Triana, N.; Pérez Latorre, A. V.


    Se aportan nuevos datos fitosociológicos sobre los terebintales-cornicabrales béticos, con la propuesta de una nueva asociación (Phillyreo latifoliae-Pistacietum terebinthi ass. nova) que representa a las formaciones de microfanerófitos mediterráneos perennifolios integrados en Quercetalia ilicis pero dominados por algunas especies caducifolias como Pistacia terebinthus. Se define también una nueva subasociación de los quejigares bético-torcalenses (Vinco difformis-Quercetum fagineae aceretos...

  9. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H


    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor, which can impede seedling survival.

  10. First surveys on genetic variability and structure of field maple (Acer campestre L. in natural and managed populations in the landscape of central and southern Italy

    Fulvio Ducci


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Four Tuscan populations (central Italy and three Italian populations from southern Italy (Campania were sampled to compare their genetic variability and genetic structure. In each geographical area one of the sampled populations is originated naturally in forest and used as a local reference. The remaining populations were originated artificially. Indeed, field maple was traditionally used in Italy to supply fresh fodder to animals in dry summer period as tree twigs or to train up grape trees in the fields edges. This tradition initiated  at the time of Etruscans and continued throughout the Roman partitioning of agriculture landscape. Biochemical markers were used to explore variability in the examined populations (5 enzyme systems by 11 loci. Results showed that the main amount of variation is due to the individual component as for most of the scattered hardwoods in Europe and that differentiation among populations for these neutral  traits is relatively low. On the other hand, the natural populations in both the geographical areas showed a very high level of panmittic equilibrium, whilst the artificial populations were really distant from this condition showing a high probability of “founder effect”. This could be determined by the former system of self-supplying reproductive material carried out by farmers, based on the wild offspring collection growing around few mother trees. Discussion is focused also on how handling the opportunity given by many hundreds kilometers of lines  in the agriculture landscape as a way of managing diversity for this species. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}


    魏希颖; 吕居娴; 李映丽; 贺浪冲


    本文通过BSLB法对元宝枫及同属植物不同部位的水提物进行了活性试验,得知:元宝枫的幼技、种皮的水提物具一定的生物致死活性;同属植物青榨槭叶和种子,秦岭槭、杈叶槭果翅的水提物也具一定的生物致死活性.本实验为元宝枫及同属植物进行进一步肿瘤细胞的体外培养试验及动物模型试验提供了科学依据.%By means of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay the authors study the watering abstracts activity of the A. truncatum Bunge. and the other plants of the same genus. The results indicate that the tender bark and seed skin of A. truncatum Bunge have the bioactivity. The leaves and seeds of A. dervidii Fr, the seed skin of A. robustum pax. have the same activity. The test offers some scientific basis for the further researches of anticancer experiments and animal model test outside the body of cell.

  12. Aprovechamiento de escorias blancas (LFS) y negras (EAFS) de acería eléctrica en la estabilización de suelos y en capas de firmes de caminos rurales

    Ortega López, Vanesa


    El trabajo que recoge la presente Tesis Doctoral estudia la idoneidad de un aprovechamiento integral de las escorias blancas de horno de cuchara (LFS) y de las escorias negras de horno eléctrico de arco (EAFS) en la estabilización de suelos arcillosos de mala calidad y en la formación de las capas del firme de caminos rurales. Para conseguir las propiedades resistentes adecuadas en terrenos naturales arcillosos sobre los que se construyen obras civiles, es preciso mezclarlos con materiale...

  13. Observation on Variation Process of the Fall-color Leaf of Different Cultivars of Acer rubrum%美国红枫不同品种秋色叶变化过程的观察

    高焕章; 赵振军; 王斌成; 陈红艳; 税玉成; 何玉枝


    以美国红枫改良品种系列中3个品种“秋红枫”(Autumn Flaze)、“十月光辉”(OctoberGlory)和“夕阳红”(Red Sunset)的容器苗为试材,采用同一视野定时拍照的方法,研究了秋季叶色变化过程.结果表明:“秋红枫”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月28日,共34 d,其中最佳观叶期为6d,秋叶变色期为27 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-橙红色-红色.“十月光辉”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月22日,共28 d,其中最佳观叶期为7d,秋叶变色期为21 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色.“夕阳红”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月26日,共32 d,其中最佳观叶期10 d,秋叶变色期为22 d,落叶期23 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色-橙红色.综上所述,“夕阳红”的观赏效果最好,其次是“十月光辉”和“秋红枫”.该研究结果为上述3个美国红枫品种的园林应用提供了实践依据.

  14. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.


    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. Influence of Heat Treatment on Color and Decay Resistance of Acer Mono Wood%热处理对色木耐腐性能和颜色的影响

    黄茹; 马振香; 杨洪杰; 王建; 刘彦龙


    为提高色木的耐腐性能,对色木进行热处理改性,探究处理温度、处理时间和干燥基准对色木的耐腐性能和颜色的影响.结果表明:随着处理温度升高,试样的耐腐性能和色差均增加,明度降低.采用本试验的热处理工艺,改性色木的耐腐性能达GB/T 13942.1-1992中的Ⅱ级,且颜色与红木类珍贵木材相似.

  16. 元宝枫生长旺季树干液流动态及影响因素%Fluctuation of Acer truncatum sap flow in rapid growth season and relevant variables

    王瑞辉; 马履一; 奚如春; 徐军亮


    利用热扩散式边材液流探针和多种气象、土壤因子传感器组成的全自动数据采集系统和美国产Licor-6400光合测定系统,于夏秋季节对北京西山地区低山成林元宝枫单株边材液流动态和叶片蒸腾作用进行了系统观测.元宝枫树干边材液流变化受天气的影响,环境胁迫或环境的改善都能改变边材液流的波动特征.在正常情况下,边材液流的日变化呈单峰曲线:日出后树干液流迅速上升,峰值在中午前后出现,然后下降,在次日早晨前达到坡谷.最热月7月液流启动和进入坡谷的时间比其他各月早1~4 h.6月树干上位液流速率大于中位和下位,其他各月树干下位液流速率大于上位和中位,这种差距在7月达2~3倍.多元回归分析表明,在整个生长旺季,元宝枫边材液流变化深受气温、太阳辐射、空气相对湿度、土壤温度和风速等环境因子的影响,但在不同的观测时段和观测部位其影响的主导因子不完全相同,只有空气温度在任何情况下都是影响液流的主导因子;元宝枫边材液流的变异规律较好地说明了其耐旱的生态策略.

  17. Necessity of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene for cardiac functions and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Liao, Fang-Tsu; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Wen-Chuan


    Prior studies have established the necessity of an angiotensin-converting enzyme-related (ACER) gene for heart morphogenesis of Drosophila. Nevertheless, the physiology of ACER has yet to be comprehensively understood. Herein, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of ACER in Drosophila's heart and swept source optical coherence tomography to assess whether ACER is required for cardiac functions in living adult flies. Several contractile parameters of Drosophila heart, including the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stress-induced cardiac performance, are shown, which are age dependent. These age-dependent cardiac functions declined significantly when ACER was down-regulated. Moreover, the lifespans of ACER knock-down flies were significantly shorter than those of wild-type control flies. Thus, we posit that ACER, the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is essential for both heart physiology and longevity of animals. Since mammalian ACE2 controls many cardiovascular physiological features and is implicated in cardiomyopathies, our findings that ACER plays conserved roles in genetically tractable animals will pave the way for uncovering the genetic pathway that controls the renin-angiotensin system.

  18. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.


    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed hardwoo

  19. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole-body energy expenditure.

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E; Lelliott, Christopher J; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A; Arends, Mark J; Brenn, Thomas; Spiegel, Sarah; Adams, David J; Watt, Fiona M; van der Weyden, Louise


    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the skin. Acer1-deficient (Acer1(-/-) ) mice showed elevated levels of ceramide in the skin, aberrant hair shaft cuticle formation and cyclic alopecia. We demonstrate that Acer1 is specifically expressed in differentiated interfollicular epidermis, infundibulum and sebaceous glands and consequently Acer1(-/-) mice have significant alterations in infundibulum and sebaceous gland architecture. Acer1(-/-) skin also shows perturbed hair follicle stem cell compartments. These alterations result in Acer1(-/-) mice showing increased transepidermal water loss and a hypermetabolism phenotype with associated reduction of fat content with age. We conclude that Acer1 is indispensable for mammalian skin homeostasis and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.


    Carya illinoensis ...Sambucus canadensis ə Ilex decidua ᝺ Cornus drummondii ə Quercus alba ə Overstory 40% Celtis occidentalis ញ Acer saccharinum 10 Carya illinoensis ...seedling) ə Carex sp. ə Saururus cernuus ə Understory 40% Ulmus americana 25 Quercus palustrus ə Carya illinoensis ə Acer saccharinum 10 flex

  1. Alkaline ceramidase 3 deficiency aggravates colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice by hyperactivating the innate immune system.

    Wang, K; Xu, R; Snider, A J; Schrandt, J; Li, Y; Bialkowska, A B; Li, M; Zhou, J; Hannun, Y A; Obeid, L M; Yang, V W; Mao, C


    Increasing studies suggest that ceramides differing in acyl chain length and/or degree of unsaturation have distinct roles in mediating biological responses. However, still much remains unclear about regulation and role of distinct ceramide species in the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that alkaline ceramidase 3 (Acer3) mediates the immune response by regulating the levels of C18:1-ceramide in cells of the innate immune system and that Acer3 deficiency aggravates colitis in a murine model by augmenting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myeloid and colonic epithelial cells (CECs). According to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, ACER3 is downregulated in immune cells in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a potent inducer of the innate immune response. Consistent with these data, we demonstrated that LPS downregulated both Acer3 mRNA levels and its enzymatic activity while elevating C(18:1)-ceramide, a substrate of Acer3, in murine immune cells or CECs. Knocking out Acer3 enhanced the elevation of C(18:1)-ceramide and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells and CECs in response to LPS challenge. Similar to Acer3 knockout, treatment with C(18:1)-ceramide, but not C18:0-ceramide, potentiated LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. In the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, Acer3 deficiency augmented colitis-associated elevation of colonic C(18:1)-ceramide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acer3 deficiency aggravated diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss and mortality. Pathological analyses revealed that Acer3 deficiency augmented colonic shortening, immune cell infiltration, colonic epithelial damage and systemic inflammation. Acer3 deficiency also aggravated colonic dysplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Taken together, these results suggest that Acer3 has an important anti-inflammatory role by suppressing cellular or tissue C(18

  2. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.


    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  3. Variation in root wood anatomy

    Cutler, D.F.


    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of four genes encoding ethylene receptors associated with pineapple (Ananas comosus L. flowering

    Yunhe eLi


    Full Text Available Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b. The 5′ flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2 were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1. The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET, whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP and flower primordia (FP appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Four Genes Encoding Ethylene Receptors Associated with Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Flowering.

    Li, Yun-He; Wu, Qing-Song; Huang, Xia; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Na; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming


    Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b). The 5' flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2) were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1). The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET), whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP) and flower primordia (FP) appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  6. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.


    Acer saccharinum), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), deciduous holly (ilex decidua), sugarberry (Celtis leavigata), ash (Fraxinus -p.), American elm (Ulmus...ivy (Rhus radicans) 13.5 American elm (Ulmus americana) 11.0 Ash (Fraxinus spp.) 10.5 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 9.5 Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) 7.3...Acer saccharinum) 60 69 Pin oak (Ouercus palustris) 31 36 Willow (Salix spp.) 12 27 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 11 17 Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) 7

  7. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test for brief cognitive assessment of adolescents suffering from migraine with aura.

    Petrusic, Igor; Pavlovski, Vera; Savkovic, Zorica; Vucinic, Dragana; Filipovic, Branislav; Jancic, Jasna


    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test (ACE-R) in the evaluation of cognitive status in migraineurs interictally. A total of 44 adolescent patients and 44 healthy controls, matched by age and gender, have undergone ACE-R testing. Migraineurs were additionally questioned about migraine aura features and presence of higher cortical dysfunctions (HCD) during an aura. According to the questionnaire results, patients were subsequently divided into HCD and Non-HCD group. ACE-R scores of migraine patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls (93.68 ± 3.64 vs 96.91 ± 2.49; t = 4.852, p aura. Also, our study has revealed that the ACE-R test is an easily administered test for brief assessment of cognitive status in migraineurs. Future perspectives could be further evaluation of ACE-R test in larger sample size and the impact of migraine with aura on cognitive function in adolescents.

  8. Use of Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination-revised to evaluate the patients’ state in general medical practice

    Nikolai Nikolayevich Ivanets


    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of cognitive impairments is of great importance in mental disorders detectable in general medical practice. Objective: to study whether Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination — Revised (ACE-R may be used in these patients. Patients and methods. The study was conducted in two steps at somatic hospitals and city polyclinics. It enrolled 130patients (36 men and 94 women with anxiety-depression spectrum disorders (ADSD, mild cognitive disorders (MCD and a concurrence of these conditions. The authors used the following psychometric scales: the hospital anxiety and depression scale; the mini-mental state examination; the frontal assessment battery; ACE-R; ten words learning test. The psychometric characteristics of ACE-R and the possibilities of its use were estimated to detect MCD. The differences in the spectrum of cognitive impairments were analyzed in patients with different types of ADSD. Results. ACE-R is shown to be an effective neuropsychological tool for the primary diagnosis, detection, and evaluation of MCD in the general medical network. The results of ACE-R use indicate that the spectrum of cognitive impairments has substantial differences in patients with different types of non-psychotic disorders.

  9. ACER多款笔记本大降价 超强攻势垄断低价市场


    刚刚一并推出四款万元NAPA的国际品牌ACER,凭借其超强的价格攻势几乎垄断了整个万元NAPA市场,可谓风头正劲。刚刚我们又得到最新消息,ACER再次将旗下三款产品大幅降价,除造就ACER AS3634NWLC、ACER AS3633NWLC两款4999新贵外,更将当前最具性价比优势的双核NAPA新品ACER AS5542NWXCi降至8499元.

  10. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  11. Plant species first recognised as naturalised or naturalising for New South Wales in 2004 and 2005

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Barker, Clive H.


    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 62 taxa of naturalised or naturalising plantsm newly recorded for the state of New South Wales during the period 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2005 and 1 species treated in the 2002 revised Flora of New South Wales Volume 2 but overlooked in an earlier paper of this series. Of these taxa, 17 are new records for Australia (prefaced with a †). The 62 taxa are: Acer palmatum, †Acer saccharinum, Achillea filipendulina, Acokanthera oblon...

  12. Regenerating the Academic Workforce: The Careers, Intentions and Motivations of Higher Degree Research Students in Australia. Findings of the National Research Student Survey (NRSS)

    Edwards, Daniel; Bexley, Emmaline; Richardson, Sarah


    This report is the culmination of a project carried out for the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in collaboration with the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE). The main findings of this report are based on the outcomes…

  13. Oocyst output and transmission rates during successive infections with Eimeria acervulina in experimental broiler flocks

    Velkers, F.C.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.


    The infection dynamics of Eimeria species determine the clinical manifestation of the disease coccidiosis in poultry flocks, and a better understanding of the dynamics may contribute to improvement of control measures. Our aim was to study the course of infection and the transmission of Eimeria acer

  14. Hvilke planter er hjemmehørende i Danmark?

    Erik, Buchwald,; Wind, Peter; Bruun, Hans Henrik;


    Der har i de senere år været debat om, hvorvidt konkrete plantearter - fx Ær (Acer pseudoplatanus) og Gyvel (Cytisus scoparius) - er hjemmehørende arter i Danmark eller indførte fremmede (Buchwald 2008, 20110: Friis 2010: Møller 2011; Bruun2011). En medvirkende årsag til diskussionerne er, at der...

  15. Hypoglycin A Concentrations in Maple Tree Species in the Netherlands and the Occurrence of Atypical Myopathy in Horses

    Westermann, C.M.; Leeuwen, van R.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Mol, H.G.J.


    Background: Atypical myopathy (AM) in horses is caused by the plant toxin hypoglycin A, which in Europe typically is found in the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). Owners are concerned about whether their horses are in danger if they graze near maple trees. Hypothesis/Objectives: To meas

  16. Environmental Impact Study of the Elm Fork Region of the Trinity River.


    Acer nequndo), Red Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and the Willow (Salix M.); common herbaceous plants along this zone are: Lpia sp. and sedges of Cyperaceae . A slightly less mesic zone is developed in scattered sites comprising 89 Euphorbia bicolor, Fleabane (Erigeron sp.), Tumblegrass

  17. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  18. Distinction between injury to tree leaves by ozone and mesophyll-feeding leafhoppers

    Hibben, C.R.


    The phytotoxic effects of ozone and mesophyll-feeding leafhoppers were contrasted microscopically and histologically on leaves of Acer saccharum Marsh., Quercus rubra L., and Cornus florida L. Injuries induced by the two agents were readily distinguished by the differences in location, configuration, color, and size of the external symptoms, and by the characteristics of affected palisade parenchyma cells.

  19. Dependence of leaf structural indices in two forest maple species from within-crown irradiance

    N.A. Belyavskaya


    Full Text Available The main leaf structural parameters of two genus Acer L. representatives ( A. platanoides and A. tataricum have been characterized. The responses of structural indices to within-crown light level have been studied. Inter-species differences have been revealed in irradiance adaptation at the cellular level.

  20. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2 GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem, Including Santiago Creek. Volume 3. Lower Santa Ana River. (Prado Dam to Pacific Ocean)


    Water Company Gas Four Corners Pipe Company Telephone Pacific Telephone Company Television Cable Vision of Orange Water City of Santa Ana Electricity City...Elderberry Sambucus mexicana XII-2 Table XII-i. (Continued) Common Names Scientific Names TREES (Continued): Big Leaf Maple Acer Macrophyllum California

  1. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Bal, Tara L.


    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  2. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Colonial Waterbird Habitats and Nesting Populations in North Carolina Estuaries: 1983 Survey.


    Verbena braziliensis 1 -- -- Part henocissus quinquefolia 1 3 4 Ptilimniwn capillacewn -- 6 -- Spartina cynosuroides -- 4 - Sonchus oleraceus -- 4...ty Zis castanea -- 2 -- Verbena spp. I- -- Calium hispiduiwn -- I -- Rubus flagilaris -- 1 2 Phytolacca canericana 1 4 Sonchus as per -- I -- Acer

  3. Impacts of Flooding Regime Modification on Wildlife Habitats of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Lower Mississippi Valley.


    styraciflua), shellbark hickory ( Carya laciniosa), and shagbark hickory (C. ovata) dominating in the control while American hornbeam and silver maple (Acer...Trees and Shrubs in the Lower Mississippi Valley (After Whitlow and Harris 1979) Common Name Scientific Name Very Tolerant* Water hickory Carya ...aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Swamp privet Forestiera acuminata Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Water locust Gleditsia

  4. Vegetation in the Flood Plain Adjacent to the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Flood Plain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago, and the Possible Impacts That Will Result from the Construction of L & D 26 and the Associated Increase in Barge Traffic,


    and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). In the southernmost region of the study area (i.e., Alexander and Union counties, Illinois), swamp cottonwood is a...ash (Fraxinus lanceolata), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), box elder (Acer negundo), and red mulberry (Morus rubra). Shrubs occurring in the Silver Maple...americana), green ash (Fraxinus lanceolata), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), and red mulberry (Morus rubra). Also

  5. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T


    oak Quercus alba Willow oak Quercus phellos Osage orange Maclura pomifera Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Loblolly pine Pinus...Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua Pignut hickory Carya glabra Shagbark hickory Ca,’ya ovata Holly h1ex opaca Black locust Acer rubrum Black oak Quercus

  6. The influence of chemical characteristics of precipitation on tree health in Banjica Forest (Belgrade, Serbia

    Radovanović M.


    Full Text Available The most represented tree species in the Banjica Forest are Acer negundo, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanus, Populus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia. According to the ICP Forests combined assessment (degree of defoliation and decolorization, endangered species are Populus nigra (64.3% of heavily damaged trees, Quercus robur (45.5%, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (37.0% and Acer negundo (26.6%, while the situation is much better for Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus ornus. For Robinia pseudoacacia, 83% of trees are without decolorization, however, defoliation is established. In the period from April to October 2009, the average pH of rainwater was 5.46, and 5.18 in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- in the period from April to October 2009 amounted to an average of 24.21 mg/l, and 28.87 mg/l in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- and pH values is a possible explanation for the condition of the trees. [Acknowledgments. The results are a part of the project III47007 funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  7. Boomkwekerij op veen : bedrijfseconomische resultaten biologische boomkwekerij

    Snoek, B.; Schuring, W.; Leijden, van J.P.H.


    Resultaten van een onderzoek op PPO-locatie Boskoop naar de bedrijfseconomische mogelijkheden van biologische boomteelt. Zes gewassen uit de gewasgroep siergewassen (Acer, Buxus, Magnolia, Mahonia, Prunus en Syringa) werden in twee jaar opgekweekt van plantgoed naar leverbaar materiaal. In tabellen

  8. Liquidus Temperature of SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass-Forming Compositions

    Abel, Brett M.; Morgan, James M.; Mauro, John C.


    Despite the important role of strontium aluminosilicate glasses in various technologies, there is no available phase diagram for this ternary system in the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database. Establishing the liquidus surface (liquidus temperature Tliq and primary devitrification phase...

  9. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie


    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  10. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas


    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  11. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris


    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and lime (Tilia cordata). We studied the chemical characteristics...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...

  12. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.


    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  13. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Michael J. Simmons


    Full Text Available Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY, New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp. trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England.

  14. Combined heat and power from cereals. Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Energiegetreide Arzberg (Sachsen); Modellversuch im Rahmen des Foerderkonzepts 'Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'. Machbarkeitsstudie

    Wilkens, B. (Energiekontor GbR, Bremerhaven (Germany))


    Growing energy acereals can occur in much more favourable ecological conditions than growing acereals for food in mixed cultures, as for cost reasons, plant protection and the use of fertilizers is considerably reduced. For the combustion plant, weighing up economic and ecological points of view, pre-furnace combustion and under feed combustion can be considered. For both plants, the limits of the TA Air can be complied with or one can fall below them with reasonable costs. The parameters of the heating powerstation site, such as the duration of annual full load use, the size of the plant and therefore the efficiency of the turbines and the specific plant costs and also availability over existing heat networks have an uneven greater effect on economy than the transport distance. In favourable site conditions, straw heating stations can be operated economically as base load stations. (orig./EF)

  15. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    Emmanuelle Sobreira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI and dementia (PDD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD.Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests.Results There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others.Conclusion Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  16. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F


    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  17. Impacts of Different Mobile User Interfaces on Students’ Satisfaction for Learning Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm

    Mazyar Seraj


    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study of learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on mobile devices. The aim of the study is to investigate and compare the impacts of two different mobile screen user interfaces on students’ satisfaction for learning the technical subject. A mobile learning prototype was developed for learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on Apple iPhone 4 operated on iPhone operating system (iOS, and Acer Inconia Tab operated on an Android operating system. Thirty students, who are either currently studying or had previously studied Computer Networks, were recruited for the usability trial. At the end of each single session, students’ satisfaction interacting with the two mobile devices was measured using QUIS questionnaire. Although there is no significant difference in students’ satisfaction between the two different mobile screen interfaces, the subjective findings indicate that Acer Inconia Tab gained higher scores as compared to Apple iPhone 4.

  18. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.


    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  19. Industrial mineral powder production in China


    The recent annual output of major industrial mineral powders in the mainland of China has been more than 100 million t, accompanied by active development of such supporting technology as comminution, classification, separation/purification, and surface modification. In particular, the present paper reviews technologies for preparing ultra-fine particles involving dry and wet processing, modification and composition, calcination of kaolin clay, and processing of spherical/acerous industrial minerals.

  20. Validating the Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-Gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky


    multiflora rose 0 Solidago caesia wreath goldenrod 6 Carex digitalis var. digitalis slender woodland sedge 6 Dioscorea villosa wild yam 5 Eurybia...species at study sites. Scientific Name Common Name C value Liriodendron tulipifera tuliptree 5 Polystichum acrostichoides Christmas fern 5 Carex ...laxiflora broad looseflower sedge 5 Galium triflorum fragrant bedstraw 5 Acer rubrum red maple 3 Prunus serotina black cherry 3 Rosa multiflora

  1. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D


    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  2. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Kevin J Dodds


    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to...

  3. Allellopathic Impacts of Leaf Litters Decomposition from Intercrop Tree Species on Soybean

    Xiaoxi Zhang; Zengwen Liu; Nan Tian; Kehao Chen; Nhu Trung Luc


    Foliar litters from 5 commonly planted intercorpped trees were collected and decayed within soil of local farm. These soil samples containing different amount of decomposed litters were then used as culture medium for a germination and seedlings growth testing of soybean. The allelopathic effects of intercropped trees on soybean were assessed. The results indicated that Eucommia ulmoides, Paulownia fortunei and Acer truncatum litters showed promotional effects at relative low concentration (7...

  4. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    Brownridge, James D


    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  5. Trophic priorities of millipedes (Diplopoda in process of rehabilitation of the territories disturbed by mining industry

    Y. L. Kulbachko


    Full Text Available The food selectivity of millipedes (Diplopoda was studied in different variants of mine spoils and chernozem fillings applied as topsoil. It was found that the ordinary chernozem fillings determines the formation of food priorities increasingly in comparison with the mine spoil. There are shown statistically significant differences between millipeds food priorities depending on the proposed feed: litter leaves of trees (Acer platanoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juniperus virginiana used in forest revegetation of mining lands.

  6. Planetary Pledge Pyramid, Facebook Application


    Create an Advert X Alt skal væk NU Macbook Air solgt til 370,- kr. Acer Ferrari ONE 200 solgt til 374,- kr. på - Klik her – Like Unlike You like this. X Mindstep | Useful Training® Interesseret i NLP og i at forbedre din bundlinie markant? Nyt NLP Business Practitioner hold i Århus, 19...

  7. Research of Recurrent Dynamic Neural Networks for Adaptive Control of Complex Dynamic Systems


    conference this activity was moved to the second quarter. The following equipment was bought: 1.Notebook Lenovo IBM 3000 G550-4Aplus Вlack (59...022219) 4801.10 UAH. 2. Notebook Lenovo IBM 3000 G550-4L-1 Вlack (59-023919) 3960.35 UAH. 3. Projector AcerX1230K(EY.J9805.001

  8. Cultural Resources Survey of Six Revetment and Levee Items Above New Orleans.


    in the sugar parishes. Often of Creole , Cajun, or German descent, these farmers cultivated subsistence crops such as corn and potatoes. Most of the...Acer rubrum Var . drnummondii). The principal animals were amphibians and aquatic life including water snakes and alligators. Waterfowl were abundant here...Technological changes are evident such as microliths, baked clay balls , unique projectile points, steatite bowls and fiber tempered pottery

  9. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River


    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  10. Archaeological Investigations of the Little Cypress Bayou Site (3CT50) Crittenden County, Arkansas. Volume 2 - Appendices


    Swanton 1946). Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ): Pecan shell was recovered from 32 features; the features also yielded the remains of other nut foods. 111-10...Scientific Common Acer sp. Maple Arundinaria gigantea Cane Asteraceae Composite Family Carya sp. Hickory Celtis sp. Hackberry or Sugarberry...presented below. 111-9 Hickory ( Carya sp.): Table 111-4 presents a summary of all nut remains recovered from various features and proveniences. It will be

  11. High Annular Resolution Stellar Interferometry.


    2. Note that or no aperture integra- proportionality have been omitted from Eq., 7. and h tion i.e.. D -; = 1) the -7,6 po6 oer Law is obe_ ed: it...the aoer~ure. . - is t-. tcc . _1sr ,ran tme acer:ure. The at-ttzci:ucs. nrugout --he analysis. two important assumptions wili se -7 t .hen

  12. Chamber and field evaluations of air pollution tolerances of urban trees

    Karnosky, D.F.


    Results are presented for a study of the relative air pollution tolerances of 32 urban-tree cultivars as determined by both chamber fumigations and field exposures. Tolerances to ozone and sulfur dioxide, alone and in combination, were determined using short-term, acute doses administered while the plants were inside a plastic fumigation chamber located inside the Cary Arboretum greenhouses. In a follow-up study still underway, representatives of the same cultivars were outplanted at four locations in the greater New York City area. To date, only oxidant-type injury has been observed on trees in the field plots. Cultivars tolerant to all chamber and field exposures were Acer platanoides Cleveland, Crimson King, Emerald Queen, Jade Glen, and Summershade; Acer rubrum Autumn Flame and Red Sunset; Acer saccharum Green Mountain and Temple's Upright; Fagus sylvatica Rotundifolia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica Summit; and Ginkgo biloba Fastigate and Sentry. Cultivars sensitive to ozone as determined by the chamber and field tests and that may serve as bioindicators of the presence of ozone were Gleditsia triacanthos inermis imperial and Platanus acerifolia Bloodgood.

  13. Recommendations for Interdisciplinary Study of Tipping Points in Natural and Social Systems

    Jordan, Teresa E.; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Stafford, Susan G.; Bubier, Jill L.; Crittenden, John C.; Cutter, Susan L.; Kay, Alan C.; Libecap, Gary D.; Moore, John C.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Shepherd, J. Marshall; Travis, Joseph


    In September 2009, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education (AC-ERE) released “Transitions and Tipping Points in Complex Environmental Systems,” a report that advocates sweeping change in the way environmental research and education are sponsored and conducted. The conviction of the committee that physical and life scientists, engineers, educators, and social scientists must work collaboratively to understand the dynamics of complex environmental systems should resonate with AGU's membership. A major theme of the AC-ERE report is that scientists need to understand environmental systems that, partly owing to human activity, may be approaching thresholds for irreversible change. This theme echoes sentiments expressed in the geosciences community, such as by Rockström et al. [2009], who estimate the magnitudes of thresholds for irreversible changes in nine key Earth subsystems and focus on how human activities have driven systems closer—or even past—some thresholds. The AC-ERE report argues that understanding natural systems will require integrated research among geoscientists, social scientists, ecologists, and others.

  14. Trade patterns of the tree nursery industry in Europe and changes following findings of citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis Forster

    René Eschen


    Full Text Available The trade in plants for planting is a major pathway for the introduction and further spread of alien plants, pests and diseases. Information about the structure of plant trade networks is not generally available, but it is valuable for better assessing the potential risks associated with the trade in live plants and the development of prevention and mitigation measures and policy. The discovery of two larvae of Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorn beetle – CLB in 2009, at a nursery importing Acer palmatum from China in one of the major Dutch tree nursery areas, has resulted in the creation of a detailed dataset on the intra-European Union trade in its potential hosts. This study describes European imports of the primary host of A. chinensis, Acer spp., into the Netherlands (1998-2012 and the effects of the finding in a tree nursery area. In addition, shipments of Acer spp. from 138 producers in the nursery area in 2009 were analysed in a one-off analysis of intra-EU trade. The volume of Acer spp. imports from Asia was stable early during the studied period, and declined to 5% of the initial imports after a period of interceptions, illustrating the effect of regulations. The number of notifications of A. chinensis infestations in imported consignments of Acer spp. increased sharply in the years up to 2007, then declined as imports also reduced. Although plants were shipped to destinations throughout Europe, each producer shipped plants only to few destinations in few countries. Most of the plants were shipped to nurseries in EU countries. These patterns could make it easier to target these high risk destinations for control measures. The lack of transaction records makes it difficult to trace the destination of plants. More systematic electronic record keeping by traders and growers and the data being collated in a database that can be made available to regulatory authorities, together with further studies of plant trade data using network

  15. 基于ITS与 trn L-F序列探讨槭树科的系统发育%Phylogeny of Aceraceae Based on ITS and trn L-F Data Sets

    田欣; 郭振华; 李德铢


    The nuclear encoded internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the plastid encoded trn L-F region were sequenced for 41 species of the Aceraceae,representing both genera Acer and Dipteronia,to reconstruct phylogeny of this family,especially within Acer.The analyses were performed in separate and combined sequence data sets,with the Sapindaceae and Hippocastanaceae being selected as outgroups.It was indicated that the Aceraceae was monophyletic and D.sinensis was basal to the rest of the family but the two genera of it might be not monophyletic because Dipteronia dyerana was nested within Acer.The result inferred from the combined data showed greater resolution within Acer than that from the two separate data sets.The monophyly of most sections in Xu's system (1996) were supported with high bootstrap values,and some relationships between (or among) sections were also inferred,such as sect.Palmata and sect.Microcarpa ; sect.Platanoidea ,sect.Lithocarpa and sect.Macrophylla ; sect.Integrifolia ,sect.Trifoliata and sect.Pentaphylla ; and sect.Acer ,sect.Goniocarpa and sect.Saccharina (sensu Ogata).However,the sectional status and circumscriptions of some of the above-mentioned sections should be further adjusted.It seemed that the Xu's delimitations of sect.Rubra and sect.Saccharodendran should be revaluated.%报道了槭树科41种(其中槭属39种)植物的 trn L-F和ITS序列(其中部分种的ITS序列为重新测定),以期通过分子手段对槭树科内部尤其是复杂的槭属的系统发育关系进行重建.以无患子科和七叶树科为外类群,基于对57个种单独的ITS序列(包括从GenBank下载的16种的序列)、41种 trn L-F序列及41种两者序列的联合数据,分别采用最大简约法(Maximum Parsimony Method)和邻接法(Neighbor-Joining Method)对槭树科的系统发育进行了分析.结果显示,整个槭树科为一单系类群;金钱槭位于槭树科的基部;但由于云南金钱槭( Dipteronia dyerana )聚在了槭属

  16. Clinical outcomes in the surgical treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Shaw, Richard; Everingham, Emma; Mahant, Neil; Jacobson, Erica; Owler, Brian


    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is a syndrome of gait disturbance, dementia and urinary incontinence. Outcomes after ventriculoperitoneal shunting for INPH are variable due to a lack of reliable, quantitative outcome data and inconsistent methods of selecting shunt candidates. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess objective and quantitative clinical outcomes of ventriculoperitoneal shunting for INPH. From 2008 to 2013, consecutive patients diagnosed with INPH based on clinical and radiological criteria were included in this single-centre study. All patients received programmable-valve ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12months post-operatively. Outcomes included gait time and scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III), the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Thresholds for improvements were set a priori as ⩾20% decrease in gait time, ⩾10point decrease in UPDRS-III score, ⩾5point increase in ACE-R score and ⩾2point increase in MMSE score at last follow-up. The proportion of patients improving varied between measures, being gait time (60%), UPDRS-III (69%), MMSE (63%), and ACE-R (56%). Overall, improvement in at least one outcome measure was observed in 85% of patients and 38% improved in gait time, UPDRS-III score and cognitive scores. Only 15% of patients experienced no improvement on any measure. This study demonstrates that the majority of INPH patients can sustain improvements in multiple symptoms up to 12months after shunting.

  17. 7个常见绿化树种的抗逆性研究%Resistance of Seven Common Greening Species



    Through treatments of water & shading stress with varying degrees on Fraxinus rhynchophylla,Cotinus coggygyia,Rhus typhina,Prunus sibirica,Acer negundo,Euonymus alatus,Acer truncatum,related physiological indicators were determined.The characteristics of drought resistance &shading tolerance of these seven species were preliminarily discussed.Result shows that:Acertruncatum,Fraxinusrhynchophylla &Acernegundo whose resis-ting dehydration are stronger are more drought-tolerant species;Euonymus alatus,Fraxinus rhynchophylla,Acer negundo &Rhustyphina show optimal shade tolerance;Cotinuscoggygyia &Acertruncatum have poor shade tol-erance.Prunus sibirica has certain shading tolerance,but the shade intensity should not be too large.%通过对花曲柳、黄栌、火炬树、山杏、复叶槭、卫矛、五角枫等7个树种进行不同程度的水分胁迫处理和遮阴胁迫处理,进行相关生理指标测定,初步探讨了这7个树种的耐旱性及耐阴性特点,结果表明:五角枫、花曲柳、复叶槭的抗脱水能力较强,是较为耐旱的树种;卫矛、花曲柳、复叶槭和火炬树表现出很好的耐阴性,黄栌和五角枫的耐阴性较差,山杏具有一定的耐阴性,但遮阴强度不宜过大。


    A. Faur


    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  19. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming

    Marchin, Renée M.; Broadhead, Alice A.; Bostic, Laura E.


    .5-1.3 kPa on transpiration and stomatal conductance (gs ) of tree seedlings in the temperate forest understory (Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA). We observed peaked responses of transpiration to VPD in all seedlings, and the optimum VPD for transpiration (Dopt ) shifted proportionally with increasing...... chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata...

  20. Varied reasoning schema in students' written solutions

    Weliweriya, Nandana; Sayre, Eleanor C; Zollman, Dean


    The Mathematization project investigates students' use of mathematical tools across the undergraduate physics curriculum. As a part of this project, we look at intermediate mechanics students' written homework solutions to understand how they use those tools in approaching traditional mechanics problems. We use a modified version of the ACER framework to analyze students' solutions and to identify patterns of mathematical skills used on traditional problems. We apply techniques borrowed from network analysis and the Resources Framework to build a "fingerprint" of students' mathematical tool use. In this paper, we present preliminary findings on patterns that we identified in students' problem solving.

  1. EST Table: FS868688 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Full Text Available FS868688 E_FL_fner_37J17_R_0 10/09/28 98 %/295 aa ref|NP_001036859.1| ecdysteroid-i...nducible angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene product [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAA97657.1| BmAcer [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAH23568...263 aa AGAP009754-PA Protein|3R:42366470:42368566:1|gene:ANCE4 10/09/10 58 %/265 aa gnl|Amel|GB11983-PA 10/0

  2. 运行《现代战争2》提示显存不足.


    Acer Aspire5740DG笔记本配置为Intel酷睿i5—430M处理器、4GB内存、AMD Mobility RadeonHD5650独立显卡(1GB容量显存),可在运行《现代战争2》游戏时却提示显存不足并无法启动3D模式,这是怎么回事呢?

  3. Transculturalidade entre fronteiras no continente norte-americano: The tortilla curtain, de T. C. Boyle, e Volkswagen Blues, de Jacques Poulin

    Montarroyos Santos Umbelino, Cristiane


    Partindo do pressuposto de que a literatura pode ser constituída por metaficções historiográficas, este trabalho analisa comparativamente os romances The Tortilla Curtain (1995), do escritor estadunidense T. C. Boyle, e Volkswagen Blues (1984), do escritor quebequense Jacques Poulin, com o objetivo de delinear os recursos linguísticos e literários que tais autores utilizam para representar as fronteiras entre o Canadá, os Estados Unidos e o México. Para tanto, argumentamos acer...

  4. Host-Pathogen Interactions : XXIV. Fragments Isolated from Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cell Walls Inhibit the Ability of the Cells to Incorporate [C]Leucine into Proteins.

    Yamazaki, N; Fry, S C; Darvill, A G; Albersheim, P


    A bioassay to measure the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into acid-precipitable polymers of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells is described. Using this assay, cell wall fragments solubilized from sycamore cell walls by partial acid hydrolysis are shown to contain components that inhibit the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into the acid-precipitable polymers. This inhibition was not attributable to a suppression of [(14)C]leucine uptake. The effectiveness of the wall fragments in inhibiting [(14)C]leucine incorporation was substantially relieved by plasmolysis of the cells. Fragments released from starch and citrus pectin are shown not to possess such inhibitory activities.

  5. Survival of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells Cooled to the Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen.

    Sugawara, Y; Sakai, A


    Suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) which were immersed in liquid nitrogen after prefreezing to the temperatures from -30 to -50 C in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide and glucose as cryoprotective additive could proliferate vigorously when rewarmed rapidly in water at 40 C. For maintaining high viability of the cells after immersion in liquid nitrogen, it seems to be essential to use the cells at the later lag phase or the early cell division phase. This study provides a possibility for long term preservation in liquid nitrogen of plant-cultured lines.

  6. Intraspecific sequence variation of chloroplast DNA among the component species of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan.

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Aoki, Kyoko; Seo, Akihiro; Murakami, Noriaki


    To select appropriate plant materials for a phylogeography of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan, we surveyed intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation in 34 species found in these forests. A relatively large number of intraspecific cpDNA variations were detected in ten species: Carpinus japonica (nucleotide diversity pi=0.00083), C. laxiflora (pi=0.00221), Magnolia obovata (pi=0.00134), Lindera triloba (pi=0.00255), L. obtusiloba (pi=0.00289), Pourthiaea villosa var. leavis (pi=0.00263), Acer japonicum (pi=0.00170), A. micranthum (pi=0.00237), Euonymus oxyphyllus (pi=0.00322) and Styrax obassia (pi=0.00100).

  7. Sexismo y androcentrismo en la escuela técnica : Experiencia de mujeres jóvenes en torno a la sexualidad y la condición juvenil

    Seoane, Viviana Isabel


    En este trabajo retomamos el uso que le ha dado a la categoría experiencia la teoría feminista para indagar en la subjetividad, las sexualidades y los cuerpos. De este modo experiencia alude, tal como sugiere Teresa De Lauretis, al “proceso por el cual se construye la subjetividad de todos los seres sociales” (1992:253). Entendemos que no es posible sostener una separación tajante entre sujeto y objeto, y que el estudio centrado en las experiencias puede brindarnos información sustantiva acer...

  8. Obtención de un acero de calidad S355J2 partiendo de un acero microaleado


    El acero ha sido, y sigue siendo, un material clave en el desarrollo de nuestra civilización. Es por ello, que la consecución de nuevas calidades es clave en los entornos industriales de este sector. Este proyecto se encamina a la consecución de una calidad de acero determinada, el tipo y grado S 355 J2 +AR, dentro de un entorno industrial concreto formado por una acería eléctrica seguida de un tren de laminación de perfiles estructurales. Esta calidad concreta plantea ventajas en cuanto a...

  9. The gall mites Vasates quadripedes and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Acari: Eriophyidae) new to Denmark

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Soika, Grazyna


    We report the first records from Denmark of the gall mite species Vasates quadripedes Shimer, 1869 and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Nalepa, 1893). V quadripedes is native to North America and forms pouch galls on leaves of some American species of maple. In Europe, it has been found on planted silver...... maple, Acer saccharinum L., only. The species has spread across Europe in recent years. C. psilaspis forms bud galls of species of Taxus in Europe only the native Taxus baccata L. The species is native to Europe and has been introduced to North America....

  10. Conference Proceedings of Applications of Mesh Generation to Complex 3-D Configurations Held at the Specialists’ Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Panel in Leon, Norway on 24th-25th May 1989


    ilod en’it’s, de iiouiibrtux ml es(ii0 1)1:1 f;iit I ’ohjetl dv dhviloppeciiii. poluss(- ut peiivoit 4’trv direclemnci. iitiliss lois de Ia...iatpiriques qui conasistetnt i coitsiclrer le ianillage comne n treillis (de points relia~s par des ressorts et des bar res de torsionas assuratat Ia r...ri a it, L, at a i 1 pas sensible i cette oricn tatioa ii eSt. a lois it vssa ire do. Ive rvii pl acer d a s I ’e xprcssio de1 ai paro: J - det Vx

  11. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda


    Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales), especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de e...

  12. 4 种新烟碱类内吸性杀虫剂对光肩星天牛毒力研究



    @@ 光肩星天牛(Anoplophora glabripennis)不仅严重为害中国西北地区杨树等树木,而且它也威胁美国城市树木、森林及木材等相关工业.该虫为害的主要树种有槭树(Acer spp.)、桦树(Betula spp.)、杨树(Populus spp.)、榆树(Ulmus spp.)、柳树(Salix spp.)等,在中国还发现沙枣(Elaeagnus angustifolia)也是成虫的适宜寄主.


    Kaiqiang Xu; Xiongli Xu; Zhiji Ding; Meihua Zhou


    Graft copolymers of sodium alginate (SA) with acrylamide (AM) were synthesized using aceric ion initiated solution polymerization technique. The acrylamide conversions were studied by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, molecular weight of sodium alginate and reaction time. The flocculation performance of the graft copolymer(SAG) was investigated in kaolin suspension and also in dyeing waste water. It was found that SAG is more efficient in flocculation behavior as compared to polyacrylamide and SA in kaolin suspension, and in removal capacities for CODCr and colority in dyeing wastewater.

  14. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Stanisława Kuziel


    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  15. Emergency Survey and Excavation in Southwestern New Mexico.


    1917), iron or manganese was added to clear glass. If exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet light, the glass would turn purple. One bottle base had writing...recovered from those sites impacted by borrow activ- ities. Only at Virden 3 #3 is there a possibility that data were lost. It should be stressed that...SP. 4 8 JLIGLANS 2 ACER 1 GRAMI NEAE 5 13 CHENO-A4 24 10 COMPOSITE, HIGH SPINE 1 2 EPHEDRA 1 PORTULACA 1 RANUNCULACEAE I LEGUMINOSEAE 1 PROSOPIS

  16. mudo brasileño

    Juan Pablo Silva-Escobar


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un recorrido histórico y crítico acer- ca del cine mudo brasileño y ver las relaciones significantes y significativas que éste mantiene con la modernidad y la cultura brasileña a través de un conjunto de representaciones y discursos que el cine hace circular masiva- mente. Sostengo que con el cine mudo se da inicio a un imaginario social que contribuye a sustentar la matriz civilizadora de la modernidad: indus- trialización, urbanización, tecnología, racionalización.

  17. Notebook Positioning by Perceptual Map and Laddering Method

    Mehdi Zaribaf


    Full Text Available The purpose of this applied paper is to determine positioning of laptops by perceptual map and laddering method. Data collection method was survey using questionnaire. First by using the views of computer experts of selected brands, including Sony, Acer, Asus, Dell and Msi, 5 among 20 attributes, which were considered more important, were selected through application of factor analysis technique. Then, after classification of these features by laddering technique, they were analyzed by using another questionnaire to determine the position of each brand in the perceptual map. We try to show factors and laptop brands position with regard two factors of price and quality in the resulted perceptual map.

  18. Contrasting the morphology, anatomy and fungal colonization of new pioneer and fibrous roots.

    Zadworny, Marcin; Eissenstat, David M


    Not all roots born as first-order branches are the same and this has important consequences for overall function. We hypothesized that, compared with fibrous roots, pioneer roots are built to live longer at the expense of absorptive capacity. We tested this hypothesis by investigating pioneer and fibrous roots in their first 14 d of life in the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species: Acer negundo, Acer saccharum, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera and Populus tremuloides. Root observations were made with root-access boxes that allowed roots to be sampled at known ages in field-grown trees. Compared to fibrous roots, pioneer roots had larger diameter, lower specific root length, greater average length and a lack of mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization. Pioneer roots < 14 d old had more layers of hypodermis with a lower percentage of putative passage cells and more protoxylem groups than similar age fibrous roots. Our results suggest that pioneer roots are constructed for defense against biotic and abiotic challenges, exploration of soil distal to the stem, high fibrous root branching and secondary development with high axial hydraulic conductivity at the expense of mycorrhizal colonization and high absorptive capacity for water and nutrients.

  19. Effect of Cd Stress in Soil on Activity of Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Protective Enzymes in Seedlings of Four Northern Broadleaved Tree Species%镉污染胁迫对4种北方阔叶树苗木膜脂过氧化和保护酶活性的影响

    李亚藏; 王庆成


    采用盆栽方法研究了镉污染胁迫对五角槭(Acer mono Maxim)、山荆子(Malus bacata Borkh)、山梨(Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim)和茶条槭(Acer ginnala Maxim)苗木膜脂过氧化和保护酶活性的影响.在栽培基质中加入CdCl2·2.5H2O,形成镉质量分数不同的土壤,并设置对照.苗木生长75 d以后,取叶样测定.结果表明:随着土壤镉质量分数的增高,叶片中叶绿素质量分数和叶绿素a/b值降低,相对电导率、丙二醛(MDA)质量分数和过氧化物酶(POD)活性明显升高,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性先上升后下降,上述指标(除质膜透性外)的变化幅度均为五角槭和山梨大于山荆子和茶条槭.茶条槭和山荆子表现出较强的耐性,可以作为城市镉污染环境中绿化的优选树种.

  20. Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Weighted Comparison Approach

    A.J. Larner


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There are many cognitive screening instruments available to clinicians when assessing patients' cognitive function, but the best way to compare the diagnostic utility of these tests is uncertain. One method is to undertake a weighted comparison which takes into account the difference in sensitivity and specificity of two tests, the relative clinical misclassification costs of true- and false-positive diagnosis, and also disease prevalence. Methods: Data were examined from four pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies from one clinic which compared the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory (TYM test, and the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, respectively. Results: Weighted comparison calculations suggested a net benefit for ACE-R, MoCA, and MMP compared to MMSE, but a net loss for TYM test compared to MMSE. Conclusion: Routine incorporation of weighted comparison or other similar net benefit measures into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration to better inform clinicians of the relative value of cognitive screening instruments.

  1. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests



    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  2. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, as a Component of Heterotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine. Part 2

    Chaplygina A. B.


    Full Text Available The role of the robin as a determinant of heterotrophic consortia is considered. The robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae, connected with the determinants by fabric links. The robin also belongs to the concentr of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and it is also the main determinant in species composition of the insects inhabiting bird nests. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of invertebrates in the robin nests, it has been found out that the most numerous class was Insecta (9 orders and 27 families, with the dominance of Coleoptera (30.7 %. The nidicolous fauna of the robin (38 species was dominated by zoophages along with parasites and hematophages such as Hippoboscidae (46.4 %. The percentage of phytophages and saprophages among the invertebrate nest inhabitants was somewhat less (21 % each, then followed necrophages (12 %. Zoophages and parasites also dominated according to the number of objects in the nests (42 %; n = 150, the less was the portion of phytophages (34 %, saprophages (18 %, and necrophages (6 %. The highest number of species and objects of zoophages was recorded for climax and mature biocenoses (oak forests in NNP “HL” and pine cenoses in NNP “H””.

  3. Memory Impairment at Initial Clinical Presentation in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Husain, Masud; Thompson, Sian; Kipps, Christopher; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Butler, Christopher R


    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by core visuospatial and visuoperceptual deficits, and predominant atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. The most common underlying pathology is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Existing diagnostic criteria suggest that episodic memory is relatively preserved. The aim of this study was to examine memory performance at initial clinical presentation in PCA, compared to early-onset AD patients (EOAD). 15 PCA patients and 32 EOAD patients, and 34 healthy controls were entered into the study. Patients were tested on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), consisting of subscales in memory and visuospatial skills. PCA and EOAD patients were significantly impaired compared to controls on the ACE total score (p skills (p skills compared to EOAD patients (p presentation. The findings suggest that memory impairment must be considered in assessment and management of PCA. Further study into memory in PCA is warranted, since the ACE-R is a brief screening tool and is likely to underestimate the presence of memory impairment.

  4. Potential tree species for use in urban areas in temperate and oceanic climates

    Miklas Scholz


    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology. Among tree species in this study, Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple occurred most frequently (17%; others were Tilia spp. L. (Lime; 16%, Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash; 12%, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore; 10% and Prunus avium L. (wild cherry; 8%. The study concludes that 44% of the damage was to impermeable pavements and 22% to permeable pavements. Other damage to structures included kerbs (19%, retaining walls (5%, footpaths (4%, roads (3% and walls (3%. Concerning the severity of damage, 66% were moderate, 21% light and 19% severe. Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut caused the greatest damage (59% expressed in percentage as a ratio of the tree number related to damage over the corresponding tree number that was found close to structures.

  5. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy


    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species.

  6. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient.

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Cserháti, Csaba; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla


    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP-OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree.

  7. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt


    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ∼46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ∼3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  8. Cognitive function in schizophrenia and its association with socio-demographics factors

    Bharti T Talreja


    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

  9. La reconversión industrial de la siderúrgica integrada en Colombia

    Patricia Carolina Barreto Bernal


    Full Text Available La reconversión industrial en Colombia tiene su origen como iniciativa política, buscando modernizar y preparar su aparato productivo, ante la entrada de competidores atraídos por el cambio de modelo económico. Los autores pretenden explicar los principales cambios y transformaciones surgidas en el proceso de reconversión industrial del país, particularmente el caso de Acerías Paz del Río, mediante la implementación de un método hermenéutico y la técnica de análisis documental. Como resultado de la revisión se puede establecer que los procesos de reconversión están relacionados con las formas de gestión organizacional y la disposición de la estructura de capital de la empresa. Para la empresa Acerías el proceso de reconversión resultaría importante para apalancar su perdurabilidad, no obstante las dificultades a las cuales tuvo que hacer frente la gestión de la compañía.

  10. A laccase-like activity is correlated with lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia elegans

    Liu, Lan; Dean, J.F.D.; Eriksson, K.E.L. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))


    The authors have previously shown that a laccase (p-diphenol:O[sub 2] oxidoreductase, EC purified from suspension cultures of Acer pseudoplatanus polymerizes monolignols to form water-insoluble, lignin-like polymers (Sterjiades et al. Plant Physiol. 99:1162). Using chromogenic substrates suitable for staining Acer laccase, we have followed the development of a laccase-like activity in lignifying tissues of Zinnia elegans. We have also used a variety of compounds to examine these same tissues for peroxidase activity, as well as hydrogen peroxide generation. Although peroxidase activity was detected throughout Zinnia stem tissues, evidence will be presented to suggest that the laccase-like activity is more specifically correlated with lignification of vascular tissues during normal development than is peroxidase activity. We are working to characterize the enzyme extracted from Zinnia tissues to determine whether it is indeed a true laccase or some other phenoloxidase. In addition, we are attempting to examine the developmental sequence of Zinnia laccase expression using gene probes and specific antibodies developed against the laccase purified form A. pseudoplatanus.

  11. Quantitative relationships between vegetation and several pollen taxa in surface soil from North China


    According to the vegetation investigation and pollen analysis of surface samples sampled along a precipitation gradient of the Northeast China Transect (NECT), several pollen taxa, including Pinus, Betula, Quercus, Tilia, Acer, Ulmus, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, were chosen to make the regression and correlation analyses. The results indicated that there exists a close relationship between vegetation and pollen taxa in surface samples. The regression parameters for ten taxa in the forests in the eastern part of NECT were different from those in the steppes in the western part. Pinus, Betula, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae, which have large slope and y-intercept terms, were over-representative taxa. Acer, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, which have small slope and y-intercept terms, were under-representative taxa. Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus whose slope terms have negative correlation with y-intercept terms were equi-representative taxa. The pollen taxa with large slope or large y-intercept terms have small variability coefficients, implying that the slope and y-intercept terms for these pollen taxa are of high accuracy in the estimation of plant abundance from pollen frequencies.

  12. A validated method for quantifying hypoglycin A in whole blood by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Moreau, Cécile; Boyer, Baptiste; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Habyarimana, Jean; Gault, Gilbert; Gaillard, Yvan


    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is the toxic principle in ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig), a nutritious and readily available fruit which is a staple of the Jamaican working-class and rural population. The aril of the unripe fruit has high concentrations of HGA, the cause of Jamaican vomiting sickness, which is very often fatal. HGA is also present in the samara of several species of maple (Acer spp.) which are suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy in Europe, often fatal for horses. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying HGA in blood that would be sensitive enough to provide toxicological evidence of ackee or maple poisoning. Analysis was carried out using solid-phase extraction (HILIC cartridges), dansyl derivatization and UHPLC-HRMS/MS detection. The method was validated in whole blood with a detection limit of 0.35 μg/L (range: 0.8-500 μg/L). This is the first method applicable in forensic toxicology for quantifying HGA in whole blood. HGA was quantified in two serum samples from horses suffering from atypical myopathy. The concentrations were 446.9 and 87.8 μg/L. HGA was also quantified in dried arils of unripe ackee fruit (Suriname) and seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (France). The concentrations were 7.2 and 0.74 mg/g respectively.

  13. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L


    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  14. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot ‘Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial’ (PODCAST) Randomised Controlled Trial

    Scutt, Polly; Blackburn, Daniel J.; Ankolekar, Sandeep; Krishnan, Kailash; Ballard, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Mant, Jonathan; Passmore, Peter; Pocock, Stuart; Reckless, John; Sprigg, Nikola; Stewart, Rob; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Ford, Gary A.


    Background Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial. Methods In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP) 125–170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP <125 mmHg) or guideline (target SBP <140 mmHg) BP lowering. The subset of patients with ischaemic stroke and total cholesterol 3.0–8.0 mmol/l were also assigned randomly to intensive (target LDL-cholesterol <1.3 mmol/l) or guideline (target LDL-c <3.0 mmol/l) lipid lowering. The primary outcome was the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). Results We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8) years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1–48). Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference –10·6/–5·5 mmHg; p<0·01), as was total/LDL-cholesterol with intensive lipid lowering compared to guideline (difference –0·54/–0·44 mmol/l; p<0·01). The ACE-R score during treatment did not differ for either treatment comparison; mean difference for BP lowering -3.6 (95% CI -9.7 to 2.4), and lipid lowering 4.4 (95% CI -2.1 to 10.9). However, intensive lipid lowering therapy was significantly associated with improved scores for ACE-R at 6 months, trail making A, modified Rankin Scale and Euro-Qol Visual Analogue Scale. There was no difference in rates of dementia or serious adverse events for either comparison. Conclusion In patients with recent stroke and normal cognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted. Trial Registration

  15. Linking charring temperature and wood source to the structure and degradation rates of pyrogenic organic matter in soil

    Hatton, P.; Dastmalchi, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Le Moine, J.; Filley, T. R.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R.; Bird, J. A.


    Fire is a major controller of forest C cycling by releasing CO2 to the atmosphere and by contributing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) to soils. Recent studies have shown that much of fire-derived PyOM may turn over in soils at century time scales. Two likely controllers of the chemical structure of PyOM and its resulting decay rate are pyrolysis temperature and the source biomass. However, we know little of how these two factors determine the chemical structure and bioreactivity of the resulting PyOM. To gain further insight into controls on the structure and fate of PyOM, we examined two species of dual-labeled (13C/15N), wood-based PyOM (Pinus banksiana and Acer rubrum) made with 5 pyrolysis temperatures (0, 200, 300, 450, 600 °C) using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, isotopic and elemental composition (C, H, O, and N), and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, we are investigating the fate of a subset of these PyOM materials applied to forest soils in a long-term field study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI, USA. We will present data of the loss of PyOM C as CO2 and DOC during the first year in situ. We found complementary lines of evidence for a facile removal of cellulose and hemicellulose and a progressive alteration of nitrogenous moieties across the charring gradient for wood-derived PyOM of both tree species as temperature was increased from 0 to 600 °C. Our NMR results show a significant species by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM chemical structure with considerably less condensation for Acer- than Pinus-derived PyOM at 300 °C. In the first year after addition to soil, Acer-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C mineralized faster than Pinus-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C. Increasing pyrolysis temperatures for Pinus-derived PyOM also resulted in slower CO2 mineralization rates during the first year of field decay. These results relate pyrolysis temperature to the resulting Py

  16. New contribution in the study of the Pontian flora from Batoti (Mehedinti county

    Florina Diaconu


    Full Text Available In Early Pontian deposits from Batoţi (Mehedinţi county has been described a macroflora formed, until now, of 35 taxa, many other being in course of determination. By this paper the floristic epitome is filled with other 10 taxa: Pinus sp. binae, Magnolia sp. aff. M. acuminata Linné, Sassafras subtriloba (Konno Tanai et Onoe, Ostrya sp. aff. O. virginiana (Miller C. Koch, Castanea gigas (Goepp. Iljinsk., Quercus cf. meuhlenbergii Engelmann, Juglans acuminata Al. Braun, Acer tricuspidatum Bronn, A. cf. campestre L. and Berchemia multinervis (Al. Br. Heer. The stage of knowledge of the Pontian flora from Batoţi contains 45 taxa. Trough the listed taxa the degree of confidence of the paleoecologycal and paleophytocenotical rendering grows.


    Florentina ŞTEFLEA


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  18. European energy law. Basic texts. 3. ed.; Basistexte zum Europaeischen Energierecht

    Baur, Juergen F.; Bremme, Christopher; Heitling, Tim (eds.)


    The third, revised edition retains the well-established text structure. It contains excerpts from the EU treaties, i.e. the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It also presents the fundamentals of the Council Regulation for the Management of the Internal Market, the electricity and gas regulations, the regulation on cross-border exchanges of electricity and access to gas transmission networks, and the regulation establishing the ACER agency, the key element of European energy regulation. Further, there are the European regulations on security of electricity and gas supply and on energy efficiency. Important interpretative notes by the European Commission are contained in the book as well; they are presented here only in English as in the original. Finally, the book contains the legislation on European cartel law and European public procurement law. (orig./RHM)

  19. Dendroflora of the historical park in Rzepiszew (Łódź province

    Paulina Kałczak


    Full Text Available The historical, manor park in Rzepiszew was established in the 19th century in the English landscape style. The park and manor have a long and rich history and deserve to be protected. The inventory of dendroflora showed that within the park boundaries grow more thana thousand of arborescent plants deriving from 35 species and 17 families. They are mostly common, native woody plant species, associated with deciduous forests (Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, Acer pseudoplatanus. The most valuable are the magnificent trees. Among all the trees inventoried, 123 splendid trees were found, among which 8 are monuments of nature legally protected and 33 trees with circumferences that exceed minimal values to be protected. Valuable and well-preserved elements of the park are Aesculus hippocastanum and Carpinus betulus alleys. Currently, the park in Rzepiszew is subjected to a gradual naturalization and loses its primary, spatial arrangement, therefore this object requires reassessment.

  20. New and remarkable records of microfungi from Turkey.

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Christiaans, B; Dündar, A E


    During a botanical excursion of the University of Essen in the year 2002 to North-, Central- and South-Anatolia we have collected representatives of about 100 genera of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for Turkey: Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis, Pseudocercospora ligustri on Ligustrum ovalifolium, Passalora smilacis on Smilax aspera, Uromyces limonii on Limonium spec., Puccinia jasmini on Jasminim spec., Sawadea bicornis on Acer negundo, Puccinia sii-falcariae on Falcaria vulgaris, Phomia hedericola on Hedera helix, Camorosporium pistaciae on Pistacia terebinthus, Erysiphe bahrii on Silene spec., Ramularia heraclei on Apium graveolens. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca parva, collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha.

  1. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions

    Gaber Hashem Gaber Ahmed


    Full Text Available Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions, while solely carbon dots (C-dots were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum, under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  2. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions.

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García; García, Marta Elena Díaz


    Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  3. Application of ant colony algorithm in plant leaves classification based on infrared spectroscopy

    Guo, Tiantai; Hong, Bo; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun


    This paper proposes to use ant colony algorithm in the analysis of spectral data of plant leaves to achieve the best classification of different plants within a short time. Intelligent classification is realized according to different components of featured information included in near infrared spectrum data of plants. The near infrared diffusive emission spectrum curves of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora and Acer saccharum Marsh are acquired, which have 75 leaves respectively, and are divided into two groups. Then, the acquired data are processed using ant colony algorithm and the same kind of leaves can be classified as a class by ant colony clustering algorithm. Finally, the two groups of data are classified into two classes. Experiment results show that the algorithm can distinguish different species up to the percentage of 100%. The classification of plant leaves has important application value in agricultural development, research of species invasion, floriculture etc.

  4. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen dioxide and other environmental drivers on tar spot of sycamore.

    Gosling, Laura; Ashmore, Mike; Sparks, Tim; Bell, Nigel


    Elevated sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were the major cause of the absence of symptoms of tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), in urban areas in the 1970s. The subsequent large decline in SO2 concentrations has not always been accompanied by increased tar spot symptoms, for reasons that have remained unresolved. We used a large citizen science survey, providing over 1000 records across England, to test two competing hypotheses proposed in earlier studies. We were able to demonstrate the validity of both hypotheses; tar spot symptoms were reduced where there were fewer fallen leaves as a source of inoculum, and elevated nitrogen dioxide concentrations reduced tar spot symptoms above a threshold concentration of about 20 μg m(-3). Symptom severity was also lower at sites with higher temperature and lower rainfall. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science to resolve competing hypotheses about the impacts of air pollution and other environmental drivers.

  5. Increase of xylan synthetase activity during xylem differentiation of the vascular cambium of sycamore and poplar trees.

    Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H


    The activity of a β-(1-4)-xylan synthetase, a membrane-bound enzymic system, was measured in particulate enzymic preparations (1,000 g and 1,000-100,000 g pellets) obtained from homogenates of cambial cells, differentiating xylem cells and differentiated xylem cells isolated from actively growing trees of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatamus) and poplar (Populus robusta). The specific activity (nmol of xylan formed min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) as well as the activity calculated on a per cell basis (nmol of xylan formed min(-1) cell(-1)) of this enzymic system, markedly increased as cells differentiate from the vascular cambium to xylem. This increase is closely correlated with the enhanced deposition of xylan occurring during the formation of secondary thickening. The possible control of xylan synthesis during the biogenesis of plant cell wall is discussed.

  6. External beam analysis of living sycamore xylem infected by pathogenic fungi

    Grime, G. W.; Pearce, R. B.


    Interactions between the living xylem (sapwood) of sycamore ( Acer pseudoplatanus) and wood inhabiting fungi have been investigated using a number of techniques including conventional histochemical and biochemical methods, non-invasive NMR imaging and external beam micro PIXE analysis using a 200 μm diameter beam of 3 MeV protons from the new external beam facility on the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe. The site of the fungal lesion on a living tree was exposed by a fresh cut immediately prior to analysis and both longitudinal and radial profiles through the infected regions were obtained in a point-by-point fashion. Profiles of several inorganic elements were obtained which correlated well with the observed discoloration due to the infection. The new external beamline at Oxford is described and results are presented. These are discussed in relation to the investigation of anti-microbial defence mechanisms in living trees.

  7. Modulation of DNA methylation and gene expression in cultured sycamore cells treated by hypomethylating base analog.

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Akazawa, T


    The selective suppression of photosynthetic genes in both the nuclear and plastid genomes of the nonphotosynthetic white wild-type cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) has been found to be inversely related to the presence of a variety of methylated bases, especially 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) and N6-methyladenine (N6-MeAde), localized in regions of the plastid genome containing silent genes. We used hypomethylating base analogs to manipulate the level of cytosine and adenine methylation in the white cells of sycamore, and examined the effects of changes in methylation on gene expression. Treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaCyd) and N6-benzyladenine (N6-BzlAde) decreased cytosine and adenine methylation. This was accompanied by restoration of transcriptional activity in photosynthetic genes which are usually suppressed. Both 5-MeCyt and N6-MeAde suppressed nuclear gene expression, but only 5-MeCyt suppressed plastid gene expression.

  8. Wood Species Identification, A Challenge of Scientific Conservation

    Maria Cristina TIMAR


    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important step in the scientific approach of conservation of the wooden cultural heritage. The paper refers to the microscopic identification of the wooden species for two artisanal objects, investigated for conservation purposes. A previous macroscopic analysis of these objects, after thorough cleaning of the surfaces offered some basic information on the possible wood species involved, but due to the degradation of the support this was not conclusive for some elements of these objects, so that relevant samples were taken out, prepared and investigated. The identified wooden species were: poplar (Populus spp, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus, fir and beech (Fagus sylvatica. This identification was based on the microscopic keys of wood identification, reference microscopic slides of the respective wood species and microscopic measurements followed by data processing employing the ImageJ software.

  9. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Nicolae T̡icleanu


    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  10. Importance of Patent Document Drafting as Shown in Langke v. Huaqi

    Wei Zheng


    @@ On 16 September 2002,the Shenzhen Langke Science and Technology Co., Ltd.(Langke) sued the Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Code Science and Technology(affiliated to the Taiwan Acer Group), the Shenzhen Fuguanghui Electronics Co.,Ltd. and the agencies concerned in the Shenzhen Municipal Intermediate People's Court on the grounds of infringement of its Invention Patent 99117225.6 (hereinafter referred to as the Langke's patent). This lawsuit was taken by the media as one of the ten major IP cases in 2002.On 25 September 2002, the Patent Reexamination Board(PRB) of the State Intellectual Property Office accepted the request filed by Huaqi for invalidation of Langke's patent.On 1 June 2004, the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court made the first-instance ruling before PRB, establishing that the defendants'infringement was constituted.

  11. Maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in Rhododendron and other species.

    Crombie, D S; Milburn, J A; Hipkins, M F


    The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.

  12. La salud. Una perspectiva bioética

    Tomás y Garrido, Gloria María


    La manifestación más patente de la debilidad congénita de la naturaleza humana es la enfermedad, el dolor y el sufrimiento. El fisioterapia, con una preparación profesional íntegra, se capacita para curar técnicamente y para ayudar humanamente a sus pacientes. El concepto de salud, desde una perspectiva bioética, enseña a dar sentido al sin-sentido del dolor, y muestra cómo la lícita claidad de vida a la que aspiramos no se reduce a lo material; si fuera así la vida se empequeñacería y perver...

  13. ¿Qué nos puede aportar el psicoanálisis en la comprensión de las relaciones en la escuela?


    Este artículo se propone como resultado de la práctica educativa de la autora en ambientes escolares y universitarios. La necesidad de una formación sólida en teoría pedagógica a los estudiantes que inician su formación en Educación es importante, pero también lo es brindarles herramientas para enfrentar las demandas que los ideales educativos culturales imponen tanto a los educadores y educadoras como a los niños, niñas y adolescentes. La propuesta aquí esbozada es una reflexión teórica acer...

  14. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C


    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  15. Estudio de las propiedades viscoelásticas en aceros amorfos

    Cozar Rabaza, Raul


    aquest projecte s'han estudiat acers amorfs de composició Fe(65-x)Cr(x)Mo(14)C(15)B(6), (x=0,2,4,6), produïts per solidificació ràpida amb roda freda. Les mostres s'han caracteritzat emprant microscòpia electrònica (SEM), difracció de raigs X (XRD) i calorimetria (DSC). S'ha determinat que la temperatura de cristal·lització augmenta amb el contingut de Cr de les mostres, tot i que la composició amb un 4% de Cr és la que presenta una diferència més gran entre les temperatures de transició vitr...

  16. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.

    Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W


    Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants.

  17. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F


    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  18. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M


    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  19. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda


    Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

  20. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on herbaceous ground flora and epiphytic foliose lichen species in southern Ontario hardwood forests.

    McDonough, Andrew M; Watmough, Shaun A


    In this study 70 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated plots in Ontario, Canada were sampled in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and herbaceous plant and epiphytic foliose lichen species data were compared against modeled N and S deposition data, climate parameters and measured soil and plant/lichen S and N concentration. Herbaceous plant species richness was positively correlated with temperature and indices of diversity (Shannon Weiner and Simpson's Index) were positively correlated with soil pH but not N or S deposition or standardized foliar N scores. Herbaceous community composition was strongly controlled by traditional factors, but there was a small and significant influence of atmospheric S and N deposition. Epiphytic lichen species richness exhibited a strong negative relationship with standardized foliar N score and only one lichen species (Phaeophyscia rubropulchra) was observed at sites with a standardized foliar N score of 0.76.

  1. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) to Volatile Components of Host-Plant

    Fan Hui; Li Jiquan; Jin Youju


    Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of adult A. glabripennis (Motsch.) to volatiles from ashleaf maple(Acer negundo L.) were investigated to identify semiochemicals involved in host location. Measurable electroantennogram (EAG)responses were elicited to all compounds tested, the most effective antennal stimulants were trans-2-hexen-1-al,decyl aldehyde andtrans-2-hexen-1-ol.These profiles were similar between males and females. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, above three com-pounds with certain concentration, trans-2-hexen-1-al (1%), trans-2-hexen-1-ol (1%) and decyl aldehyde (10%), were significantlyattractive to the adults in laboratory. The results show that either EAG or olfactory responding to a particular volatile compound aremarkedly influenced by the concentration.

  2. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla


    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load.

  3. Towards a theoretical basis for students' alternative frameworks in science and for science teaching

    Jones, Brian L.; Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.


    As there is nothing as practical as a good theory, there is a continuing need in the field of science education enquiry to look for theories which help to interpret the findings about students' alternative frameworks and to inform the design of teaching strategies which relate to a research focus on ‘how the student learns’. The developmental model of cognitive functioning based on the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982) as updated in 1991 (Biggs & Collis, 1991; Collis & Biggs, 1991) is being applied in this way. Questionnaire data from two large studies of science learning of Australian students (conducted by ACER and NBEET) are being re-analysed in terms of the current theory. This paper illustrates the theory and describes a plan of further research.

  4. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae from Greece

    Valentina Kuznetsova


    Full Text Available In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826 (6 populations and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845 (7 populations (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0 and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  5. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece.

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Golub, Natalia V; Aguin-Pombo, Dora


    In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  6. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku


    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  7. 进境种苗中朱顶红短体线虫的鉴定%Identification of Pratylenchus hippeastri from imported seedlings

    顾建锋; 王宁; 何洁; 陈吴健


    2013年,浙江和宁波口岸入境的日本鸡爪槭(Acer palmatum)和以色列孤挺花种球(Hippeastrum vittatum)中分离到一种短体线虫,通过形态学特征以及基于核糖体 rRNA-ITS 区及28S rRNA-D2/D3区序列的系统发育分析,证实其为朱顶红短体线虫(Pratylenchus hippeastri Inserra, Troccoli,Gozel,Bernard,Dunn & Duncan,2007)。该线虫的主要形态鉴别特征为:虫体细长;头前端平;唇环2个;口针基部球椭圆形;受精囊小,矩形,内无精子;尾圆锥形,末端钝尖,有时腹面有凹陷,或呈光滑的半球形。该线虫至今仅报道发生于美国,这是国际上首次在日本和以色列种苗中截获。%Pratylenchus hippeastri was detected from Japan Acer palmatum plant and Israel Hippeastrum vittatum bulbs. It is characterised by slender body, flat and smooth face, head with two lip annuli, ellipsoidal stylet knobs, small rectangular empty spermatheca with large round cavity, and conoid tail with bluntly pointed terminus, usually showing a ventral constriction, or subhemispherical and smooth. It is identified by morphological and DNA sequence analysis of the ITS region and 28S rRNA-D2/D3 gene. This species has only been reported in USA, and this is the first report of its distribution in Japan and Israel.

  8. Sapling herbivory, invertebrate herbivores and predators across a natural tree diversity gradient in Germany's largest connected deciduous forest.

    Sobek, Stephanie; Scherber, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja


    Tree species-rich forests are hypothesised to be less susceptible to insect herbivores, but so far herbivory-diversity relationships have rarely been tested for tree saplings, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We expected that diverse tree communities reduce the probability of detection of host plants and increase abundance of predators, thereby reducing herbivory. We examined levels of herbivory suffered by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple saplings (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L.) across a tree species diversity gradient within Germany's largest remaining deciduous forest area, and investigated whether simple beech or mixed stands were less prone to damage caused by herbivorous insects. Leaf area loss and the frequency of galls and mines were recorded for 1,040 saplings (>13,000 leaves) in June and August 2006. In addition, relative abundance of predators was assessed to test for potential top-down control. Leaf area loss was generally higher in the two species of maple compared to beech saplings, while only beech showed a decline in damage caused by leaf-chewing herbivores across the tree diversity gradient. No significant patterns were found for galls and mines. Relative abundance of predators on beech showed a seasonal response and increased on species-rich plots in June, suggesting higher biological control. We conclude that, in temperate deciduous forests, herbivory-tree diversity relationships are significant, but are tree species-dependent with bottom-up and top-down control as possible mechanisms. In contrast to maple, beech profits from growing in a neighbourhood of higher tree richness, which implies that species identity effects may be of greater importance than tree diversity effects per se. Hence, herbivory on beech appeared to be mediated bottom-up by resource concentration in the sampled forest stands, as well as regulated top-down through biocontrol by natural enemies.

  9. Hippocampal transcriptional and neurogenic changes evoked by combination yohimbine and imipramine treatment.

    Husain, Basma Fatima Anwar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Marathe, Swananda V; Rajendran, Rajeev; Vaidya, Vidita A


    Adjunct α2-adrenoceptor antagonism is a potential strategy to accelerate the behavioral effects of antidepressants. Co-administration of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine hastens the behavioral and neurogenic effects of the antidepressant imipramine. We examined the transcriptional targets of short duration (7days), combination treatment of yohimbine and imipramine (Y+I) within the adult rat hippocampus. Using microarray and qPCR analysis we observed functional enrichment of genes involved in intracellular signaling cascades, plasma membrane, cellular metal ion homeostasis, multicellular stress responses and neuropeptide signaling pathways in the Y+I transcriptome. We noted reduced expression of the α2A-adrenoceptor (Adra2a), serotonin 5HT2C receptor (Htr2c) and the somatostatin receptor 1 (Sstr1), which modulate antidepressant action. Further, we noted a regulation of signaling pathway genes like inositol monophosphatase 2 (Impa2), iodothyronine deiodinase 3 (Dio3), regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (Rgs4), alkaline ceramidase 2 (Acer2), doublecortin-like kinase 2 (Dclk2), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (Nfkbia) and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1), several of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Comparative analysis revealed an overlap in the hippocampal regulation of Acer2, Nfkbia, Sgk1 and Impa2 between Y+I treatment, the fast-acting electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) paradigm, and the slow-onset chronic (21days) imipramine treatment. Further, Y+I treatment enhanced the quiescent neural progenitor pool in the hippocampal neurogenic niche similar to ECS, and distinct from chronic imipramine treatment. Taken together, our results provide insight into the molecular and cellular targets of short duration Y+I treatment, and identify potential leads for the development of rapid-action antidepressants.

  10. Permeabilidad del arbolado urbano a la radiación solar: Estudio de dos especies representativas en entornos urbanos de baja densidad del Área Metropolitana de Mendoza, Argentina

    Mariela Edith Arboit


    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es generar conocimientos que permitan determinar la influencia del arbolado urbano, público o privado, sobre el potencial solar de los entornos urbano- edilicios de baja densidad del Área Metropolitana de Mendoza (AMM. El estudio de la permeabilidad del arbolado urbano ha sido desarrollado para situaciones típicas del área de Capital, Mendoza, representada por especies como: Plátano 21,80%, Morera 32,7%, Fresno europeo 20,95% y Paraíso 2,72% (Cantón, 1994-2000. Sin embargo para determinar la permeabilidad arbórea de entornos urbanos de baja densidad del AMM, en una primera etapa fue necesario realizar una recolección muestral que permitió identificar la presencia de ejemplares no evaluados como Acer 9,95% y Paraíso sombrilla 8,37%. En una segunda etapa, se elaboró un plan de mediciones para un ciclo anual, sobre un conjunto de 8 ejemplares por especie seleccionada. Los resultados obtenidos indican una reducción de la energía solar disponible, del 52,88% al 75,93% en la estación de invierno y del 85,96% al 98,38 % en verano para Acer y Paraíso Sombrilla respectivamente. El estudio ha permitido avanzar en la determinación del potencial solar en ambientes urbanos considerando la permeabilidad de dos especies arbóreas representativas del AMM.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pharmacotherapy for Hematemesis-Melena Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis

    Doddy de Queljoe


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute variceal haemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that can be life threatening. It is a pharmacist’s duty to ensure therapeutic and pharmaceutical care which is not only safe and effective for the patient but also is cost-effective in order to attain improvement of the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, pharmacoeconomic evaluation especially cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, which compares costs and consequences of drug therapy, is needed. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic cost-effectiveness of hematemesis-melena treatment in hepatic cirrhotic patients. METHODS: A total of 42 patients receiving vitamin K and vitamin K-transamin were studied retrospectively from patients’ medical records in 2 years and analyzed with cost-effectiveness grid and average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER based on Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP Score. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness grid was dominant for vitamin K in patients with CTP Score A. ACER analysis showed a lower score for vitamin K in all patients included CTP Score classification. There was no significant difference in duration of cessation of bleeding treatment in patients with vitamin K compared with vitamin K-transamin in patients with CTP Score A and B, while significant difference was found in patients with CTP Score C. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K appeared to be more cost effective as compared with vitamin K-transamin in all patients. The use of vitamin K had greater benefit than the combination with transamin in all patients and CTP Score classification, and thus should be considered as a primary therapy. Therefore, transamin addition as an alternative therapy for hepatic cirrhosis patients with hematemesis-melena should be considered. KEYWORDS: CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis, child-turcotte-pugh score, hepatic cirrhosis, hematemesismelena, vitamin K, transamin.

  12. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    James R Burrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM, is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. METHODS: Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R, with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. RESULTS: In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold <50% performed significantly worse on the visuospatial sub-task of the ACE-R than other CBS patients. Cortical function correlated with atrophy of the primary and pre-motor cortices, and the thalamus, while apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and

  13. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    Ricklefs, Robert E


    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  14. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland

    Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna


    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency–Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.–and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest’s models’ quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors’ importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an ‘explanation jump’ at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant’s hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion. PMID:27992516

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of abiraterone and sipuleucel-T in asymptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Gong, Cynthia L; Hay, Joel W


    Of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 0% to 20% experience disease progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Recently, 4 novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of mCRPC; of these, abiraterone and sipuleucel-T have been studied in the asymptomatic, pre-docetaxel population. Both have shown clinical benefits compared with placebo. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone acetate and sipuleucel-T compared with prednisone in asymptomatic, pre-docetaxel mCRPC from a US societal perspective. A Markov model was constructed to simulate stable disease, progressed disease, and death. Survival and event rates were derived from published clinical trial data. Costs were derived from the literature and government reimbursement schedules. Outcomes were measured as average cost-effectiveness ratios (ACERs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and net monetary benefits (NMBs). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model. The base-case ACER was $114K/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) for abiraterone, $85K/QALY for sipuleucel-T, and $31K/QALY for prednisone. The base-case ICER was $389K/QALY for abiraterone and $547K/QALY for sipuleucel-T. Prednisone dominates both abiraterone and sipuleucel-T in terms of NMB at willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds of $400K or less. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to overall survival and utility inputs. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed abiraterone to be cost-effective 50% or more of the time at a WTP of greater than $400K, whereas sipuleucel-T was cost-effective 50% or more of the time at a WTP of greater than $270K. Neither abiraterone nor sipuleucel-T was found to be cost-effective compared with prednisone in the treatment of asymptomatic, pre-docetaxel mCRPC.

  16. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Caputo, Jesse PhD.; Beier, Colin M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.


    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification – and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits – have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100 years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production – although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred – may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern

  17. Effects of grazing on natural regeneration of tree and herb species of Kheyroud forest in northern Iran

    Mohsen Javanmiri Pour; Mohmmad Reza Marvie Mohadjer; Vahid Etemad; Mahmoud Zobeiri


    We investigated the effects of grazing on natural regeneration,quantity,and diversity of woody species and dominant herb species in Kheyroud forest in northern Iran.We sampled vegetation in 5m2 plots in custom units,which are demarcated resource areas traditionally used by local livestock producers.The authors quantified number of species,height of seedlings,and diameter of seedlings.Height classes were 0-30 cm,30-130 cm,and >130 cm,and diameter classes were 0-2.5 cm,2.5-5 cm and 5-7.5 cm.The density of seedlings declined with distance from corral until reaching the custom unit boundary.Most seedlings had diameters of 0-2.5 cm and heights of 0-30 cm.Predominant species,Carpinus betulus and Acer capadocicum,were in plots near the centers of custom units,Fagus orientalis,Acer velutinum,Quercus castanifolia species were dominant in plots near the custom unit boundary.Plant species such as Oplismenus undulatifolius,Euphorbia amygdaloides,Rubus fruticos and Pteridium aquilinum were dominant in plots nearer to forest corral.Healthy seedlings were more numerous in plots nearest the corral,while defective and deformed seedlings were more abundant away from the corral.We conclude that grazing had negative effects on the quantity and quality of vegetative regeneration.Continuation of overgrazing will not only endanger the sustainability of forest ecosystems,but also will increase the challenge of sustainable forest management.

  18. 种子萌发过程中响应脱落酸与赤霉素的蛋白质组变化研究进展%Research Advances on Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Responsive Proteomics during Seed Germination

    刘静静; 戴绍军


    蛋白质组学技术平台为探究激素功能应答蛋白质提供了有效手段。目前通过蛋白质组学方法已经鉴定出水稻(Oryzasativa)、欧洲山毛榉(Fagus sylvatica)、挪威槭(Acer platanoides)等多个物种种子萌发过程中ABA-和GA-应答蛋白质。综述了种子萌发过程中响应脱落酸和赤霉素的蛋白质组变化相关研究的进展,包括与转录、蛋白质降解、活性氧清除、能量代谢等相关的蛋白质,以及其他代谢相关的蛋白质.以期为揭示种子萌发过程中的激素应答调控机制提供参考。%Proteomies technology platform provides an effective method for exploring hormone-responsive proteins.Recently,many ABA-and GA-responsive proteins upon seed germination have been identified in rice (Oryza s ativa), European been (Fagus sylvatica), Norway maple (Acer platanoides )and other species.Research advances on abscisic acid-and gibberellin-responsive proteomics during seed germination were reviewed, including proteomics related with transcription,protein degradation and degradation, energy metabolism, and other related proteomics, so as to provide references for reveal regulation mechanism of hormones response during seed germination.

  19. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea; Thomas, Frank M


    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acer platanoides) revealed a "home field advantage" of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself.

  20. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Baranyai, Edina [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Agilent Atomic Spectroscopy Partner Laboratory, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Braun, Mihály [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Herteleni Laboratory of Environmental Studies, 4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/C (Hungary); Cserháti, Csaba [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 2 (Hungary); Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tóthmérész, Béla [HAS-UD Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)


    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air.

  1. Exposed tree root analysis as a dendrogeomorphic approach to estimating bank retreat at the South River, Virginia

    Stotts, Stephanie; O'Neal, Michael; Pizzuto, James; Hupp, Cliff


    We use a biometric approach based on anatomical changes in the wood of exposed tree roots to quantify riverbank erosion along South River, Virginia, a site where commonly applied techniques for determining bank erosion rates are either not appropriate because of the required spatial scale of analysis (i.e., erosion pins, traditional surveys, LiDAR analysis) or have failed to detect obvious erosion (i.e., photogrammetric techniques). We sampled 73 exposed roots from 22 study reaches and identified the year of exposure macroscopically (2 to 20 times magnification) and microscopically (20 to 100 times magnification), comparing the estimated erosion rates between levels of magnification and to those obtained with photogrammetric techniques. We found no statistical differences between the results of macroscopic and microscopic analyses (t-test, α = 0.01) but encountered difficulty in identifying the year of root exhumation in some samples. When comparing exposed root analysis to photogrammetric techniques, the results indicate that the exposed root approach is a feasible and effective method for estimating annual- to decadal-scale bank erosion. In addition to producing erosion rates statistically indistinguishable from photogrammetric techniques at sites with erosion rates large enough for detection using historical aerial photographs (regression analysis and t-test, α = 0.01), exposed root analysis was able to estimate erosion rates at sites where photogrammetric techniques failed. We also identify deciduous species well suited for this approach (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and others that prove more problematic (e.g., Acer negundo, Celtis occidentalis, Acer saccharinum). This study is significant because it describes a robust tool that provides insights into annual- to decadal-scale erosion where other commonly applied techniques may not be appropriate or easily applied.

  2. Comparison of budburst dynamics between species on altitudinal gradient

    Davi, H.; Gillmann, M.; Ibanez, T.


    Phenology of plants is a key ecosystem parameter controlling carbon and water fluxes and also acting on the dynamics of communities. This parameter is highly sensitive to the climate and consequently is often used as a proxy of global change. In this paper, we attempt to analyse the dynamics of budburst every week for seven species (Fagus sylvatica L., Acer opalus Mill , Sorbus aria L., Quercus pubescens Willd. Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus nigra Arnold) in two altitudinal gradients, one in a northern slope and one in a southern slope in the Ventoux mountain. The originality of this work is to assess not only the budburst date but to more precisely analyse the dynamics of budburst and its variation with altitude according to the species. Two important results are highlighted. First, the dynamics of budburst changes according to the species. Three distinct patterns can be drawn, a rapid sigmoid increase for the deciduous species, a short sigmoid increase for the pines and an intermediate curve for silver fir. These dynamics can be slowing down for coniferous when frost arises during the budburst. The second topic is the link between budburst and temperature by analysing respectively the year, the altitudinal and the aspect (north and south) effects. In 2007, budburst occurs earlier for Fagus, Acer, and Abies, it does not change for pines and is delayed for Sorbus. Date of beech budburst is the same between north and south in spite of higher temperature in south. The altitude effect on budburst varies greatly according to species and the year with a weak effect on Fagus and a stronger effect for the others species showing a threshold at 1200 m. By analysing the mean of temperatures at each altitude, we conclude that temperature effect acts differently between years or between altitudes. To conclude, we highlighted the complex effect of temperatures on budburst varying between species and situations.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    Vikram K Reddy


    Full Text Available Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS. Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA B agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods : This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in 60 participants with uncomplicated AWS. Clinical efficacy was measured by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar scores. Lorazepam was used as supplement medication if withdrawal symptoms could not be controlled effectively by the study drugs alone. Both direct and indirect medical costs were considered and the CEA was analyzed in both patient′s perspective and third-party perspective. Results : The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER in patient′s perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 5,308.61 and Rs. 2,951.95 per symptom-free day, respectively. The ACER in third-party perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 895.01 and Rs. 476.29 per symptom-free day, respectively. Participants on chlordiazepoxide had more number of symptom-free days when compared with the baclofen group on analysis by Mann-Whitney test (U = 253.50, P = 0.03. Conclusion : Both study drugs provided relief of withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide was more cost-effective than baclofen. Baclofen was relatively less effective and more expensive than chlordiazepoxide.

  4. Structured self monitoring of blood glucose in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes; A cost consequence analysis

    Aghili Rokhsareh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG is considered as a key factor in management of people with diabetes which is a growing and cost demanding health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive patient management using structured SMBG on metabolic control as well as its cost consequence analysis. Methods Sixty subjects were recruited in an observational study for a period of 6 months. They were provided with the ACCU-CHEK 360° View tool to fill in the values of the 7-point blood glucose profiles in three consecutive days during the study on a monthly basis. Changes in metabolic control were assessed by HbA1c and lipid profile measurement at the beginning and at the end of the study. In addition, cost consequence analysis was done considering different level of health care professionals with or without insurance coverage. The Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ACER as well as Cost saving analysis were calculated and compared. Results The analysis showed significant reduction in HbA1c during the 6-month period in all subjects (P = 0.000. Furthermore, a positive effect was observed on lipid profile. The cost of endocrinologist’s visit in private sector was estimated to be 265.76 USD while this figure was149.15 USD for general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Total complications and mortality cost saving was 154.8 USD. The lowest ACER was calculated for intervention with general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Conclusion Structured SMBG results in significant improvement of glycemic status. Moreover, it is more cost saving in public sector with insurance coverage. It seems that general practitioner visits with insurance coverage is the most affordable option for people with type 2 diabetes.

  5. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    徐丽娜; 金光泽


    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  6. 色素指标对园林彩叶植物叶色表达的影响%Effects of Pigment Indicators on the Color Expression of Leaves of the Colored-leaf Garden Plants



    Objective] In this study, the relationship between the pigments and the color expression of leaves of colored-leaf plants was discussed. [Method] The colors of leaf blades of 6 kinds of plants were analyzed with the Royal Horticultural Soci-ety Colour Chart. The chlorophyl content, carotenoids content and anthocyanin con-tent in leaf blades were determined. In addition, the color types of leaf blades, kinds of pigments, pigment contents and pigment distributions of 6 kinds of plants were compared. [Result] The chlorophyl contents ranked as Populus canadensis Moench (green leaves) > Populus deltoids cv. Zhonghuahongye (purple green leaves) > Populus euramericana cv. Quanhong (red leaves); Acer palmatum Thunb. (green leaves) > Acer palmatum cv. Atropurpureum (purple red leaves) > Acer pal-matum Thunb. cv. Atropurpureum (red leaves). The ranking of anthocyanin contents was just opposite. The chlorophyl content was negatively related to the anthocyanin content. The leaf color of plants is determined by various pigments. The more the chlorophyl is, the greener the leaf is. The more the anthocyanin is, the redder the leaf is. In the colored-leaf plants, the chlorophyl content represents about 80% of the content of pigments, the carotenoids content represents about 17%, and the an-thocyanin represents about 3%. There is a difference in the chlorophyl content be-tween colored-leaf plants and green plants. However, the relatively low chlorophyl content wil not hamper the normal life activities of colored-leaf plants. [Conclusion] We hoped to provide reference and basis for the production and landscaping of col-ored-leaf plants.%[目的]为了探索彩叶植物的叶色表达与色素的关系。[方法]对6种植物叶片用‘英国皇家园艺协会比色卡’进行比色,并分别测定了6种植物叶片中的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素和花青素含量,比较了6种植物叶片叶色类型、色素种类、含量以及分布状况。[结果]叶绿素含量的

  7. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

    Kerry D. Woods


    Full Text Available Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009, combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study. Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis.CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated; snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer

  8. Development of a ligno-cellulosic polymeric and reinforced sheet molding compound (SMC)

    Mills, Ryan Harris

    The overall objective of this dissertation was to study the surface energy and acid-base characteristics of natural fibers, glass, a wood extract, and a sheet molding compound prepreg to facilitate the fabrication of totally synthetic and partially renewable sheet molding compounds (SMCs). The water absorption and micro-mechanical performance of the totally synthetic and partially renewable SMC composites were compared through accelerated aging experiments. Reinforcing glass sized for polyester, bast kenaf fibers, hot water extract from Acer rubrum, and a dicyclopentadiene modified polyester prepreg were analyzed by inverse gas chromatography to evaluate and help predict how the various components may interact in a crosslinked composite SMC. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) was used to determine how the components in the SMC changed as a function of hygrothermal aging by analyzing the glass transitions of the individual components in the SMC. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results indicated that the polyester prepreg material had an experimental dispersive surface energy value of 47 mJ/m2 that compared well with a rule of mixture analysis of the components in the SMC giving a value of 50 mJ/m2 both at 30°C. IGC results also indicated that the kenaf-prepreg material has a higher acid base interaction then the glass-prepreg material. The IGC results indicated that surface sizing of the kenaf fibers with styrene-maleic anhydride might improve the cohesiveness of the final kenaf based SMC. IGC results also indicated that hot water extract from Acer rubrum had a dispersive energy close to polystyrene and should be miscible in the prepreg material. Hygrothermal aging was done by soaking SMC samples at 70°C for 3, 168, and 1032 hour time intervals. Standard SMC fabricated with glass reinforcement had water uptakes of less than 5 weight percent after 1032 hours. SMC fabricated with kenaf had water uptakes at 1032 hours approaching 20 weight percent indicating

  9. Spatial Pattern for Fraxinus mandshurica Population in Second Growth Forest of Maoershan Mountains%帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳种群格局分析

    吴文娟; 王庆成; 许丽娟


    采用点格局分析法研究帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳( Fraxinus mandshurica)不同龄级的种群空间分布格局及水曲柳与五角槭( Acer mono)、春榆( Ulmus propinqua)和白桦(Betula platyphylla )种群的空间关联性。结果表明:水曲柳龄级I林木个体在1~50 m尺度上呈现聚集分布;龄级II与龄级III的聚集程度较龄级I缓和;水曲柳龄级III与龄级I、龄级II林木个体在所有尺度上都表现为显著负相关或有负相关趋势。林分内主要树种种群有不同的空间格局分布,其中水曲柳在小尺度(10~22 m)上表现聚集分布,在大尺度则呈随机分布;五角槭、春榆和白桦在各个尺度下均呈聚集分布。种间关联性分析表明:水曲柳与五角槭、白桦和春榆在空间关联上都呈现正相关或有正相关趋势。水曲柳种群与群落内其它优势树种形成的斑块在群落中镶嵌分布,具有较高的群落稳定性;但水曲柳幼树在大树聚集的斑块不易存活,影响了水曲柳种群发展。%We analyzed spatial pattern distributions for different age classes of Fraxinus mandshurica and spatial associations be-tween Fraxinus mandshurica and other dominant species ( Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla) for second growth forest in Maoershan Mountains .Individuals in age class I of Fraxinus mandshurica show clumped distribution at scales from 1 m to 50 m.Individuals of age class II and age class III show weaker clumped distribution than those of age class I.Age class III shows negative correlation with age class I at most scales, and it also exhibits negative association with age class II.Fraxinus mandshurica population shows clumped distribution at small-scale (10-22 m) and random dis-tribution at large-scale (23-50 m).The spatial pattern distributions of Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla show clumped distribution.With the association analysis, they have

  10. Tree phyllosphere bacterial communities: exploring the magnitude of intra- and inter-individual variation among host species

    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe


    Full Text Available Background The diversity and composition of the microbial community of tree leaves (the phyllosphere varies among trees and host species and along spatial, temporal, and environmental gradients. Phyllosphere community variation within the canopy of an individual tree exists but the importance of this variation relative to among-tree and among-species variation is poorly understood. Sampling techniques employed for phyllosphere studies include picking leaves from one canopy location to mixing randomly selected leaves from throughout the canopy. In this context, our goal was to characterize the relative importance of intra-individual variation in phyllosphere communities across multiple species, and compare this variation to inter-individual and interspecific variation of phyllosphere epiphytic bacterial communities in a natural temperate forest in Quebec, Canada. Methods We targeted five dominant temperate forest tree species including angiosperms and gymnosperms: Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca. For one randomly selected tree of each species, we sampled microbial communities at six distinct canopy locations: bottom-canopy (1–2 m height, the four cardinal points of mid-canopy (2–4 m height, and the top-canopy (4–6 m height. We also collected bottom-canopy leaves from five additional trees from each species. Results Based on an analysis of bacterial community structure measured via Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene, we demonstrate that 65% of the intra-individual variation in leaf bacterial community structure could be attributed to the effect of inter-individual and inter-specific differences while the effect of canopy location was not significant. In comparison, host species identity explains 47% of inter-individual and inter-specific variation in leaf bacterial community structure followed by individual identity (32% and canopy location (6%. Discussion Our results suggest that

  11. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

    Chaplygina A. B.


    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  12. Effect of the cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identified brain atrophy

    Petr Nilius


    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyse the development of cognitive functions and effect of cognitive rehabilitation on patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as a result of brain atrophy. Design: A quantitative non-randomized intervention study on a control sample of patients. Methods: The effect was observed in a group of patients ranging 59-91 years of age (N = 36. Only patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild cognitive disorder diagnosed by tomography (CT that had undergone 22 sessions, were involved in the clinical sample (n = 21. The control sample (n = 15 consisted of patients without any neurological diagnosis and who did not undergo cognitive sessions. Results: The effect of cognitive rehabilitation was measured by Addenbrooke's cognitive test, revised in 2010 (ACE-R; affective changes were measured by Beck´s scale of depression BDI-2 and by a scale used to detect anxiety and depression: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Subjective change and improvement were observed using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI psychiatric scale. Changes in the functional state of patients were measured by means of the activities of daily living scale (ADL, including the instrumental version (IADL. The effect was examined in the form of entry and output tests, which were verified by statistical analysis, a significant level being p > 0.05. Conclusions: Significant differences in verbal tests and ACE-R were observed in the clinical sample of patients. Some significant changes were observed in the field of affective symptoms, according to the HADS and BDI-2. The clinical sample showed a significant improvement in subjective clinical state (CGI. The ADL and IADL questionnaires seem to have been inadequate for purpose due to their low sensitivity. The effect of cognitive rehabilitation in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive disorder can be seen and verified in comparison with the control sample

  13. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

    Popiela Agnieszka


    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  14. Evaluating the ecological impacts of salvage logging: can natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote coexistence?

    Royo, Alejandro A; Peterson, Chris J; Stanovick, John S; Carson, Walter P


    Salvage logging following windthrow is common throughout forests worldwide even though the practice is often considered inimical to forest recovery. Because salvaging removes trees, crushes seedlings, and compacts soils, many warn this practice may delay succession, suppress diversity, and alter composition. Here, over 8 yr following windthrow, we experimentally evaluate how salvaging affects tree succession across 11 gaps in Eastern deciduous forests of Pennsylvania, wherein each gap was divided into salvaged and control (unsalvaged) halves. Our gaps vary in size and windthrow severity, and we explicitly account for this variation as well as variation in soil disturbance (i.e., scarification) resulting from salvaging so that our results would be generalizable. Salvage logging had modest and ephemeral impacts on tree succession. Seedling richness and density declined similarly over time in both salvaged and unsalvaged areas as individuals grew into saplings. The primary impact of salvaging on succession occurred where salvaging scarified soils. Here, salvaging caused 41 to 82% declines in sapling abundance, richness, and diversity, but these differences largely disappeared within 5 yr. Additionally, we documented interactions between windthrow severity and scarification. Specifically, low-severity windthrow and scarification combined reinforced dominance by shade-tolerant and browse-tolerant species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia). In contrast, high windthrow severity and scarification together reduced the density of a fast-growing pioneer tree (Prunus pensylvanica) and non-tree vegetation cover by 75% and 26%, respectively. This reduction enhanced the recruitment of two mid-successional tree species, Acer rubrum and Prunus serotina, by 2 and 3-fold, respectively. Thus, our findings demonstrate that salvaging creates novel microsites and mitigates competing vegetation, thereby enhancing establishment of important hardwoods and promoting tree species

  15. Does Tree Architectural Complexity Influence the Accuracy of Wood Volume Estimates of Single Young Trees by Terrestrial Laser Scanning?

    Carsten Hess


    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of the wood volume or biomass of individual trees have gained considerable importance in recent years. The accuracy of wood volume estimation by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS point cloud data may differ between individual trees due to species-specific differences in tree architecture. We selected three common and ecologically important central European deciduous tree species, which differ considerably in tree architectural complexity in early ontogenetic stages: Acer pseudoplatanus (simple, Sorbus aucuparia (intermediate and Betula pendula (complex. We scanned six single young trees for each species (18 trees in total under optimal scan conditions (single tree stand, leafless state, four scanning positions, high resolution. TLS-based volume estimates were derived for the total tree as well as for the two compartments; trunk and branches, using a voxel-based bounding box method. These estimates were compared with highly accurate xyolmetric (water displacement volume measurements. Coefficients of determination between xylometric measurements and bounding box estimates were very high for total trees (R2adj = 0.99, trunks (R2adj = 0.99, and high for branches (R2adj = 0.78. The accuracy of estimations for total tree and trunk volume was highly similar among the three tree species. In contrast, significant differences were found for branch volume estimates: the accuracy was very high for Sorbus aucuparia, intermediate for Betula pendula, and low for Acer pseudoplatanus. A stepwise multiple regression showed that the accuracy of branch volume estimates was negatively related to the number of the first-order branches within diameter sizes of D ≤ 5 mm and crown surface area (R2adj = 0.61. We conclude that the accuracy in total tree and trunk volume estimates was not affected by the studied types of tree architectural complexity. The impact of the structural variability of branches and occlusion by branches was, thus, not as high as




    , a 30 m wide belt of white willow (Salix alba has developed. Above this, a zone of water-demanding tall forb community has established which tolerates temporary inundation. Further away up to the original shoreline, a strip of vegetation composed of box elder (Acer negundo has appeared. Unlike the white willow belt, this zone developed slowly. At first, knee-high box elder saplings vegetated in the dry grassland, but once their roots has reached permanently wet soil layers, their growth has greatly accelerated. In the former riverbed, the mass appearance of invasive plants (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Solidago gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Fallopia x bohemica raises serious concerns for nature protection.


    I. HAHN


    , a 30 m wide belt of white willow (Salix alba has developed. Above this, a zone of water-demanding tall forb community has established which tolerates temporary inundation. Further away up to the original shoreline, a strip of vegetation composed of box elder (Acer negundo has appeared. Unlike the white willow belt, this zone developed slowly. At first, knee-high box elder saplings vegetated in the dry grassland, but once their roots has reached permanently wet soil layers, their growth has greatly accelerated. In the former riverbed, the mass appearance of invasive plants (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Solidago gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Fallopia x bohemica raises serious concerns for nature protection.

  18. Retrieval deficiency in brain activity of working memory in amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients: A brain event-related potentials study

    Binyin eLi


    Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory

  19. Transformation of Carbon and Nitrogen by Earthworms in the Decomposition Processes of Broad-leaved Litters

    DONG Weihua; YIN Xiuqin


    Earthworms are the important constituents in the decayed food web and the main ecological conditioners in the process of decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The transformation of organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in the broad-leaved litters ingested by earthworms was researched by means of a laboratory experiment. Experimental samples were collected from broad-leaved Korea Pine mixed forest in Liangshui National Natural Reserve (47°10'50"N, 128°53'20"E) in the northeastern Xiao Hinggan Mountains of Northeast China. The contents of organic C and total N in earthworms, leaf litters and earthworm faeces were analyzed. Results show that the organic C content was in the following order: leaf litters>faeces>earthworms, while total N content was contrary to that of the organic C. The organic C contents in the different leaf litters were in the following order: Tilia amurensis>Betula costata>Acer mono, whereas the total N contents in the different leaf litters were: Betula costata>Tilia amurensis>Acer mono. The contents of organic C and total N in the faeces from the different leaf litters were almost consistent with the contents of the leaf litters. After the leaf litters were ingested by earthworms, the organic C, which was transformed to increase earthworms' weights, accounted for 3.90%-13.31% of the total ingestion by earthworms, while that in the earthworm faeces accounted for 6.14%-13.70%. The transformed organic C through the other metabolism (e.g., respiration) of earthworms accounted for 75.04%-89.92%. The ingested organic C by earthworms was mostly used for metabolic activities. The N ingested by earthworms was less than organic C. It is estimated that 37.08% of total N was transformed to increase the earthworm's weight, 19.97% into earthworm faeces and 47.86% for the consumption of the earthworm's activities. The earthworms not only increased the content of organic C and total N in the soil, but also decreased the values of C/N in

  20. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas


    , Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yatağan basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  1. Retrieval Deficiency in Brain Activity of Working Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Brain Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di


    In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), working memory (WM) deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in WM is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled 46 subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample (DMS) task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP) recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test) and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory retrieval. The findings in the

  2. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.


    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate

  3. Experiencias de investigación en tecnologías de biorremediación: Revisión para un planteamiento experimental de biorremediación en aguas residuales generadas por la fabricación de coque de hulla

    Sánchez Nieves Jimena


    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de literatura que identifica los datos y experimentos relevantes para plantear metodologías de biorremediación como parte de un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales generadas por la fabricación de coque de hulla. Tras el análisis de los documentos
    consultados se identifican y describen tres tipos de aguas residuales generadas por este proceso minero-industrial: lixiviados, agua de lavado y agua contaminada de coquería. Con base en las caracterizaciones disponibles para el caso de la coquería de la empresa siderúrgica Acerías Paz del Río, restringidas a agua contaminada de coquería, se discute la pertinencia del uso de herramientas metodológicas de biorremediación en el planteamiento de un sistema de tratamiento de esta agua residual industrial. Finalmente, con el objetivo de guiar la experimentación
    que evalúe los análisis realizados en esta monografía, se presentan un protocolo experimental y una clave dicotómica; ésta última constituye una herramienta para la selección de pasos subsecuentes y de métodos específicos que aseguren la mayor depuración del agua contaminada
    de coquería.

  4. A Quantitative Index of Forest Structural Sustainability

    Jonathan A. Cale


    Full Text Available Forest health is a complex concept including many ecosystem functions, interactions and values. We develop a quantitative system applicable to many forest types to assess tree mortality with respect to stable forest structure and composition. We quantify impacts of observed tree mortality on structure by comparison to baseline mortality, and then develop a system that distinguishes between structurally stable and unstable forests. An empirical multivariate index of structural sustainability and a threshold value (70.6 derived from 22 nontropical tree species’ datasets differentiated structurally sustainable from unsustainable diameter distributions. Twelve of 22 species populations were sustainable with a mean score of 33.2 (median = 27.6. Ten species populations were unsustainable with a mean score of 142.6 (median = 130.1. Among them, Fagus grandifolia, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, and Nothofagus solandri were attributable to known disturbances; whereas the unsustainability of Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, Calocedrus decurrens, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, and Prunus serotina populations were not. This approach provides the ecological framework for rational management decisions using routine inventory data to objectively: determine scope and direction of change in structure and composition, assess excessive or insufficient mortality, compare disturbance impacts in time and space, and prioritize management needs and allocation of scarce resources.

  5. Relationships between xylem embolism and eco-physiological indices in eight woody plants in sltu(Ⅱ):The relationship with photosynthetic eco-physiological indices

    AN Feng; CAI Jing; JIANG Zaimin; ZHANG Yuanying; ZHAO Pingjuan; ZHANG Shuoxin


    The relationship between xylem embolism and eco-physiology indices (I.e.photosynthetic available radiation,temperature,relative humidity,photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance and water use efficiency) in eight tree species was investigated in situ.The species studied,Robinia pseudoacacia L.,Acer truncatum Bge.,Hippophae rhamnoides L.,Ulmus pumila L.,Pinus tabulaeformis Carr., Pinus bungeana Zucc.ex Endl.,Ligustrum lucidum Ait.,and Salix matsudana Koidz.f.pendula Schneid,grow well on the Xilin campus of Northwest A&F University.Results indicated that photosynthetic available radiation,air temperature and relative humidity can affect xylem embolism by daily adjustment of stomatal conductance,transpiration rate and water relations of a tree.Embolism was a common case in the daily growth of the plants,and there was some correlation between xylem embolism and photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stornatal conductance,and water use efficiency.Embolism may thus be an adaptive mechanism by some tree species to water stress.

  6. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Artemisia annua L.: a novel approach to reduce oxidative browning in plant tissue culture.

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell Phineas; Saxena, Praveen Kumar


    Oxidative browning is a common and often severe problem in plant tissue culture systems caused by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. The current study was conducted to investigate a novel preventative approach to address this problem by inhibiting the activity of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme (PAL), thereby reducing the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. This was accomplished by incorporating 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a competitive PAL inhibitor, into culture media of Artemisia annua as a model system. Addition of AIP into culture media resulted in significant reductions in visual tissue browning, a reduction in total phenol content, as well as absorbance and autoflourescence of tissue extracts. Reduced tissue browning was accompanied with a significant increase in growth on cytokinin based medium. Microscopic observations demonstrated that phenolic compounds accumulated in discrete cells and that these cells were more prevalent in brown tissue. These cells were highly plasmolyzed and often ruptured during examination, demonstrating a mechanism in which phenolics are released into media in this system. These data indicate that inhibiting phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with AIP is an effective approach to reduce tissue browning in A. annua. Additional experiments with Ulmus americana and Acer saccharum indicate this approach is effective in many species and it could have a wide application in systems where oxidative browning restricts the development of biotechnologies.

  7. Stable carbon isotope ratios and intrinsic water-use efficiency of Miocene fossil leaves compared to modern congeners

    Marshall, J.D.; Zhang, J.; Rember, W.C.; Jennings, D.; Larson, P. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States))


    Miocene fossil leaves of forest trees were extracted from the Clarkia, Idaho fossil beds and their stable carbon isotope ratios were analyzed. Fossils had higher lignin concentrations and lower cellulose concentrations that modern leaves due to diagenesis and the HF used to extract the fossils. Therefore, [delta][sup 13]C of extracted fossil lignin was compared to that of modern lignin. Fossil lignin [delta][sup 13]C was significantly different from that of congeneric modern leaves (paired t-test, P<0.0001), but was 1.9% less negative. Gymnosperms (Metasequoia, Taxodium) were less negative than angiosperms (e.g., Magnolia, Quercus, Acer, Persea), but no difference between evergreen and deciduous species was detected. Using published estimates of the concentration and [delta][sup 13]C of atmospheric CO[sub 2] during the Miocene was estimated the CO[sub 2] partial pressure gradient across the stomata (intrinsic water-use efficiency). Intrinsic water-use efficiency was at least 70% higher during this past [open quotes]greenhouse[close quotes] period than at present.

  8. Physical and chemical properties of some imported woods and their degradation by termites.

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R; Sundararaj, R


    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (Lamiales: Oleaceae), F. excelsior L., Padauk, Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert (Fabales: Fabaceae), (from two countries), Jamba, Xylia dolabrifiormis Roxburgh, Shorea laevis Ridley (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), S. macoptera Dyer, S. robusta Roth, Teak, Tectona grandis L.f. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (from five countries), and rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis Müller Argoviensis (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) from India. The termites present were: Odontotermes horni (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Termitidae), O. feae, O. wallonensis, and O. obeus (Rambur). A significant conelation was found between density, cellulose, lignin, and total phenolic contents of the wood and degradation by termites. The higher the density of the wood, the lower the degradation. Similarly, higher amount of lignin and total phenolic contents ensured higher resistance, whereas cellulose drives the termites towards the wood.

  9. Rhododenol and raspberry ketone impair the normal proliferation of melanocytes through reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of GADD45.

    Kim, Minjeong; Baek, Heung Soo; Lee, Miri; Park, Hyeonji; Shin, Song Seok; Choi, Dal Woong; Lim, Kyung-Min


    Rhododenol or rhododendrol (RD, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanol) occurs naturally in many plants along with raspberry ketone (RK, 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone), a ketone derivative, which include Nikko maple tree (Acer nikoense) and white birch (Betula platyphylla). De-pigmenting activity of RD was discovered and it was used as a brightening ingredient for the skin whitening cosmetics. Recently, cosmetics containing RD were withdrawn from the market because a number of consumers developed leukoderma, inflammation and erythema on their face, neck and hands. Here, we explored the mechanism underlying the toxicity of RD and RK against melanocytes using B16F10 murine melanoma cells and human primary epidermal melanocytes. Treatment with RD or RK resulted in the decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner which appeared from cell growth arrest. Consistently, ROS generation was significantly increased by RD or RK as determined by DCF-enhanced fluorescence. An antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase was depleted as well. In line with ROS generation, oxidative damages and the arrest of normal cell proliferation, GADD genes (Growth Arrest and DNA Damage) that include GADD45 and GADD153, were significantly up-regulated. Prevention of ROS generation with an anti-oxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) significantly rescued RD and RK-suppressed melanocyte proliferation. Consistently, up-regulation of GADD45 and GADD153 was significantly attenuated by NAC, suggesting that increased ROS and the resultant growth arrest of melanocytes may contribute to RD and RK-induced leukoderma.

  10. Phytopatological monitoring of Inonotus rickii and GPS-GIS applications, Rome, Italy

    Moriondo M


    Full Text Available Plant disease management may be improved by collecting, storing, manipulating, analysing and displaying epidemiological information using a Geographic Information System (GIS, a useful tool to evaluate plant disease problems in a spatial context. In this study, GIS analysis was applied along with global positioning systems (GPS to integrate field data-collected with the spatial distribution of the pathogen Inonotus rickii. This pathogen provokes a decay of sapwood/heartwood and cankers, determining a progressive crown dieback and structural weakness of the trees, therefore increasing risk of branch breaks and tree failures. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical countries and it has already been recorded in many areas in Rome on Acer negundo, Albizia julibrissin, Koelreuteria paniculata, Celtis australis and Platanus x acerifolia. A survey was carried out in different boulevards of A. negundo and A. julibrissin with the aim of evaluating disease symptoms such as sparse foliage, dead twigs and branches, wood decay and presence of fungal structures. In this survey, I. rickii was recorded also on Robinia pseudoacacia, which is a new host. The study allowed to obtain thematic maps showing the spatial distribution of all infected trees, as well as the presence of anamorph and/or teleomorph structures of the fungus. Moreover, a map representing the incidence of the pathogen in different boulevards was obtained. The usefulness of GIS analysis in studies aimed to support and refine management strategies for disease control in urban trees is discussed.

  11. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  12. Effects of Repeated Growing Season Prescribed Fire on the Structure and Composition of Pine–Hardwood Forests in the Southeastern Piedmont, USA

    Matthew J. Reilly


    Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.

  13. Forest structure and woody plant species composition after a wildfire in beech forests in the north of Iran

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Ali Omidi; Daniel C Dey


    Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forest covers about 565,000 ha of land in Guilan province,north of Iran and forms a major carbon pool.It is an important economic,soil protection and recreation resource.We studied long-term effects of fire on the structure and composition 37 years after fire occurrence in these forests.To do this research,we selected 85 ha burned and 85 ha unbumed beech forests).The results indicated that the fire had not changed the overall uneven-aged structure,but it changed forest composition from pure stands to mixed stands that now include species such as Carpinus betulus,Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata.The density of trees and regeneration was significantly increased,while the density of shrubs significantly decreased.The main reasons for increased tree regeneration were attributed to (1) reduction of litter depth,and (2) increase in available light from opening of the canopy and reduction in shrub competition.It is apparent that the forest is on a path to return to its natural state before the fire after 37 years.

  14. Cadmium distribution in forest ecosystems irrigated with treated municipal waste water and sludge

    Sidle, R.C.; Sopper, W.E.


    Treated municipal waste water was irrigated in an abandoned old field area from 1964 to 1974 and in a mixed hardwood area (old gamelands) from 1964 to 1974. Total applications of Cd in the old field and old gamelands areas were 0.47 and 0.61 kg/ha, respectively. White spruce (Picea glauca Moench Voss.) and wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana Duchesne) foilage sampled from the old field showed no increase in Cd concentrations due to effluent irrigation, while goldenrod (Solidago sp. Ait.) had lower Cd levels in the treated area than in the unirrigated control area. Foilage sampled from red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), and wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis L.), in the old gamelands, showed no increase in Cd as a result of waste water irrigation. Soil Cd levels were not significantly affected by waste water irrigation in either area, except for the increase in soil Cd in the 0 to 5 cm depth of the old gamelands. The Cd/Zn ratios of the vegetation foilage were not significantly different between the treated and control areas.

  15. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha


    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland.

  16. Application of Foliage Plants and Ornamental Fruit Plants to Garden Building%秋色叶及观果树木在园林造景中的应用

    吴思政; 聂东伶; 柏文富


    我国秋色叶和观果树木资源极其丰富,开发利用秋色叶及观果树木资源对我国园 林建设具有重要意义.分析了枫香、鸡爪槭、重阳木等18种秋色叶植物及南天竺、天目琼花等7种观果植物的形态美学特征及在秋季的观赏特性,探讨了它们在园林造景中的应用.%The resources of foliage and ornamental fruit plants in China are very rich, and the exploitation and utilization of foliage and ornamental fruit plan ts are of great significance. This paper discusses the morphological aestheti cs features and the autumnal ornamentation features of 18 foliage plants (Liquidambar formosan,Acer sapium,Bischofia racemosa,etc.) an d 7 ornamental fruit plants( Na ndina domestica,Vibumam sargentw,etc.). The application of the plants is als o discussed.




    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  18. Arboriculture for quality timber production with hardwood: results after 20 years from planting

    Barreca L


    Full Text Available In the last decades, production forestry plantations has been developed using typical forest tree species, or species of agricultural interest, such as walnut and cherry. The use of these species in a context different than the traditional one put a number of problems not easy to solve. The present study has considered some timber-quality plantations of hardwoods species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Prunus avium L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Juglans regia L. established on the Serre Catanzaresi (VV, with the aim of assessing the achievements obtained both in quantitative (growth and qualitative (shape of the stems, degree of branching terms. The results of the analyses carried out revealed that the studied plantations are an interesting example of possibilities and limits of cultivation of commonly used hardwoods in relation to the practices adopted. The observed differences are mainly related to the different species used. Some of them (sycamore and wild cherry guaranteed satisfactory results, others (ash and walnut showed severe limitations, due to the poor quality of planting material, the incompatibility between the species needs and site characteristics, or because these species usually constitute mixed populations.

  19. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    Hans J. Overgaard


    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  20. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    John Kilgo


    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  1. Breeding bird assemblages associated with stages of forest succession in large river floodplains

    Knutson, M.G.; McColl, L.E.; Suarez, S.A.


    Floodplain forests rival all other habitat types in bird density and diversity. However, major successional changes are predicted for floodplain forests along the Mississippi River in the coming decades; young forests may replace the existing mature silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) forests in some areas. We wanted to assess how the breeding bird community might respond to these changes. We studied stands of young forests along the middle Mississippi River, comparing the breeding bird assemblages among three stages of forest succession: shrub/scrub, young cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall) and willow (Salix nigra Marshall) forests, and mature silver maple dominated forests. We recorded a total of 54 bird species; the most frequently observed species were the indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Bird species richness differed among the habitat types, with mature forests supporting the largest number of species and the most species of management concern. The shrub/scrub and mature forest bird assemblages were distinct and shared few species, but the young forests had no identifiable bird species assemblage, sharing species found in both of the other habitat types. The bird assemblages we observed in young forests may become more prevalent as aging floodplain forests are replaced with younger stages of forest succession. Under this scenario, we would expect a temporary local decrease in bird species richness and habitat for species of management concern.

  2. 贵州植物区系新资料%New Records to the Flora of Guizhou

    安明态; 王建中; 周云龙; 刘忠华; 张钢民


    In this paper,9 species and 1 variety of seed plants were reported as new records to the flora of Guizhou province.They were Fissistigma oldhamii,Dendropanax proteus,Boehmeria formosana,Urena procumbens,Acer longipes,Callicarpa integerrima var.chinensis,Impatiens commellinoides,Ardisia chinensis,Psychotria yunnanensis and Fimbristylis bisumbellata.The specimen citation and the distribution of these plant species were also presented.%报道了贵州省种子植物9个新记录种和1个新记录变种,即瓜馥木(Fissistigma oldhami)i、变叶树参(Dendropanax proteus)、海岛苎麻(Boehmeria formosana)、梵天花(Urena procumbens)、长柄槭(Acerlongipes)、藤紫珠(Callicarpa integerrima var.chinensis)、鸭跖草状凤仙花(Impatiens commellinoides)、小紫金牛(Ardisia chinensis)、云南九节(Psychotria yunnanensis)和复序飘拂草(Fimbristylis bisumbellata),列出了这些新记录种的标本引证和地理分布。

  3. Flora and ecological characteristics of rare plant communities on the southern slope of Shennongjia Mountain


    According to the investigation of sampling area of 6800 m2 on the south slope of Shennongjia Mountain, there were 126 vascular plant species, belonging to 108 genera and 64 families, in the investigated rare plant communities, of which 9 rare plant species were recorded, accounting for 27.3% of the total rare plants. The communities were about 30 m in height and were divided into three layers as tree layer, shrub layer, and herb layer. The flora of the communities had obvious temperate character. Phanerophytes (accounted for 65.9%), Mesophyllous (62.7%), Papyraceous (84.1%), simple leaf (83.3%), un-entire leaf (69.8%) were dominant in life form, leaf size class, leaf texture, leaf form, and leaf margin respectively. According to important value of species, the communities were divided into three types as Davidia involucrata + Litsea pungens community, Cercidiphyllum japanicum + Padus wilsonii community, and Padus wilsonii + Acer mono community. The indexes of species diversity of tree layer had little difference among communities and evenness was high. The results indicated that the communities had complex structure and relative stability.

  4. Dynamics of nitrogen nutrition of coexisting dominant trees in mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Li Yuwen


    Chemical analysis of ammonium, nitrate and total nitrogen in tree leaves and roots and an in-vivo bioassay for nitrate reductase activity (NRA) were used to monitor the seasonal variations in nitrogen assimilation among four coexisting dominant tree species, including Pinus koraiensis, Ti/ia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica and Acer mono, in a virgin mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest. The soil study included individual horizons of L+F (0-5 cm), Ah (5-11 cm) and Aw (11-25 cm). All four species had nitrate and ammonium in their roots and leaves, and also NRA in leaves. This indicated that these coexisting species were adapted to ammonium + nitrate nutrition. A negative correlation existed between nitrate use and ammonium use. Ammonium concentration was higher than that of nitrate in tree leaves and roots, and also in soils, which indicated climax woody species had a relative preference for ammonium nutrition. There was a positive relationship between tree nitrogen nutrition use and soil nitrogen nutrient supply. Utilization of ammonium and nitrate as well as the seasonal patterns differed significantly between the species. Peaks of ammonium, nitrate, NRA and total nitrogen in one species were therefore not necessarily synchronous with peaks in other species, and which indicated a species-specific seasonal use of nitrogen. The species-specific temporal differentiation in nitrogen use might reduce the competition between co-existing species and may be an important mechanism promoting stability of virgin mixed broad-leaved∥Korean pine forest.

  5. How fresh is maple syrup? Sugar maple trees mobilize carbon stored several years previously during early springtime sap-ascent.

    Muhr, Jan; Messier, Christian; Delagrange, Sylvain; Trumbore, Susan; Xu, Xiaomei; Hartmann, Henrik


    While trees store substantial amounts of nonstructural carbon (NSC) for later use, storage regulation and mobilization of stored NSC in long-lived organisms like trees are still not well understood. At two different sites with sugar maple (Acer saccharum), we investigated ascending sap (sugar concentration, δ(13) C, Δ(14) C) as the mobilized component of stored stem NSC during early springtime. Using the bomb-spike radiocarbon approach we were able to estimate the average time elapsed since the mobilized carbon (C) was originally fixed from the atmosphere and to infer the turnover time of stem storage. Sites differed in concentration dynamics and overall δ(13) C, indicating different growing conditions. The absence of temporal trends for δ(13) C and Δ(14) C indicated sugar mobilization from a well-mixed pool with average Δ(14) C consistent with a mean turnover time (TT) of three to five years for this pool, with only minor differences between the sites. Sugar maple trees hence appear well buffered against single or even several years of negative plant C balance from environmental stress such as drought or repeated defoliation by insects. Manipulative investigations (e.g. starvation via girdling) combined with Δ(14) C measurements of this mobilized storage pool will provide further new insights into tree storage regulation and functioning.

  6. Oxidant-induced damage to equine erythrocytes from exposure to Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia terebinthus, and Pistacia chinensis.

    Walter, Kyla M; Moore, Caroline E; Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Magdesian, K Gary; Woods, Leslie W; Puschner, Birgit


    Two horses were referred for methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following 5 acute deaths in their herd from an unidentified toxin source. Horses have a greater risk than other mammalian species of developing methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following ingestion of oxidizing toxins, due to deficiencies in the mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Their susceptibility to oxidative erythrocyte damage is evident in the numerous cases of red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis. The suspected toxins causing A. rubrum toxicosis are tannic acid, gallic acid, and a metabolite of gallic acid, pyrogallol. These compounds can be found in a variety of plants, posing a risk to equine health. In order to quickly identify toxin sources, 2 rapid in vitro assays were developed to screen plant extracts for the ability to induce methemoglobin formation or cause hemolysis in healthy equine donor erythrocytes. The plant extract screening focused on 3 species of the genus Pistacia: P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis, which were located in the horse pasture. Extracts of the seeds and leaves of each species induced methemoglobin formation and resulted in hemolysis, with seed extracts having greater potency. The in vitro assays used in the current study provide a useful diagnostic method for the rapid identification of oxidizing agents from unidentified sources. There is no effective treatment for oxidative erythrocyte damage in horses, making rapid identification and removal of the source essential for the prevention of poisoning.

  7. Ecology of red swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile

    Golet, Francis C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; DeRagon, William R.


    This report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches its greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey, where it comprises 60-800/o of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses. On a regional scale, red maple swamps support at least 50 species of trees, more than 90 species of shrubs and vines, and more than 300 species of nonwoody plants. These swamps also provide habitat for a rich faunal community, including several wetland-dependent species. In areas that are becoming urbanized, these wetlands often constitute critical habitat for facultative species as well. Red maple swamps also are important sites for flood storage, water quality improvement, recreation, scenic beauty, and open space.

  8. Bioprospecting traditional Pakistani medicinal plants for potent antioxidants.

    Inayatullah, Samia; Prenzler, Paul D; Obied, Hassan K; Rehman, Ata-Ur; Mirza, Bushra


    Antioxidant potential of four methanol extracts from three selected plant species, namely Salvia nubicola (Lamiaceae), Acer oblongifolium (Aceraceae) and Hedera nepalensis (Araliaceae) was measured using assays in aqueous and lipid systems. Antioxidant activities were investigated in aqueous systems by using DPPH radical-scavenging assay, ABTS radical-scavenging assay and DNA protection assay, while antioxidant activity in a lipid system was determined by using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Additionally, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to measure total phenolic content. Methanol extracts of leaves and flowers of S. nubicola showed the highest Trolox equivalent (TE) values in the case of the DPPH assay, 2484±4.9mmol TE/g extract, as well as total phenolic content, 139±0.2mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Three fractions (A-C) of the methanol extract of S. nubicola leaves and flowers were produced by semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction B was found to be the most active in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay and had the highest total phenol content. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS revealed rosmarinic acid in S. nubicola extracts and chlorogenic acid and rutin in H. nepalensis extracts as the main phenolic antioxidants.

  9. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Nancy J. Turner


    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  10. Effects of heating and cooling rate on transformation behaviors in weld heat affected zone of low carbon steel; Teitanso koban no yosetsu netsu eikyobu no hentai kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsu reikyaku sokudo no eikyo

    Kanetsuki, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    Discussions were given on effects of welding heat cycles on transformation behaviors in a weld heat affected zone (HAZ). Test pieces are low-carbon fine ferrite pearlite organization steel sheets, which have been treated with a thermomechanical control process (TMCP). The heat cycling was experimented at a maximum temperature of 1350 degC by using a high-frequency heating coil, heating rates from 0.15 to 200 degC/s, cooling rates from 10 to 80 degC/s at an elevated temperature region (higher than 900 degC), and transformation regions (lower than 900 degC) from 0.5 to 6 degC. A transformation curve in actual welding heat cycling was interpreted from these results. Shear-type inverse transformation (from ferrite to austenite) occurs in a rate region corresponding to the heating rate realized during welding. Austenite containing internal stress and a lower structure formed by this inverse transformation accelerates transformation into grain boundary ferrite (GBF) and acerous ferrite (AF). On the other hand, slow cooling in the elevated temperature region releases the internal stress, restores the lower structure, and suppresses the GBF and AF transformation. The GBF tends to precipitate pearlite in adjacent regions and deteriorates the HAZ tenacity. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and applicability of the Brazilian version of the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS

    Thais Bento Lima-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Staging scales for dementia have been devised for grading Alzheimer's disease (AD but do not include the specific symptoms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. Objective: To translate and adapt the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: The cross-cultural adaptation process consisted of the following steps: translation, back-translation (prepared by independent translators, discussion with specialists, and development of a final version after minor adjustments. A pilot application was carried out with 12 patients diagnosed with bvFTD and 11 with AD, matched for disease severity (CDR=1.0. The evaluation protocol included: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Executive Interview (EXIT-25, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS and Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR. Results: The Brazilian version of the FTD-FRS seemed appropriate for use in this country. Preliminary results revealed greater levels of disability in bvFTD than in AD patients (bvFTD: 25% mild, 50% moderate and 25% severe; AD: 36.36% mild, 63.64% moderate. It appears that the CDR underrates disease severity in bvFTD since a relevant proportion of patients rated as having mild dementia (CDR=1.0 in fact had moderate or severe levels of disability according to the FTD-FRS. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of the FTD-FRS seems suitable to aid staging and determining disease progression.

  12. A heat wave during leaf expansion severely reduces productivity and modifies seasonal growth patterns in a northern hardwood forest.

    Stangler, Dominik Florian; Hamann, Andreas; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Spiecker, Heinrich


    A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period. We evaluated both growth phenology (onset, cessation, duration of radial growth, time of maximum daily growth rate) and productivity (monthly and seasonal average growth rates, maximum daily growth rate, tree-ring width) and tested for differences and interactions among species and years. Productivity of sugar maple was drastically compromised by a 3-day spring heat wave in 2010 as indicated by low growth rates, very early growth cessation and a lagged growth onset in the following year. Sugar maple also responded more sensitively than yellow birch to a prolonged drought period in July 2012, but final tree-ring width was not significantly reduced due to positive responses to above-average temperatures in the preceding spring. We conclude that sugar maple, a species that currently dominates northern hardwood forests, is vulnerable to heat wave disturbances during leaf expansion, which might occur more frequently under anticipated climate change.


    Ericka F. Alves,


    Full Text Available In Part 1 of this series it was observed that one of the eucalypti (EGC 39 was more reactive than the other two in kraft and soda-AQ (SAQ cooking. However, the lignin in EGC 39 contained equal or less syringyl (S units than the other two eucalypti. In the present research an attempt was made to compare the guaiacyl (G fraction of the three lignins. The approach was to use SAQ treatment to cleave β-O-4 bonds in dimeric units containing uncondensed guaiacyl A-rings (those rearranging to quinone methides. The coniferyl alcohol, vinylguaiacol and isoeugenol generated from β-O-4 cleavage are then trapped as dimers by ethylguaiacol that is included in the SAQ liquor. Research with sugar maple (Acer saccharum showed that the estimate of these structures (uncondensed G-β-O-4 by this approach was in close agreement with traditional but more tedious methods such as permanganate oxidation and 31P NMR. It was also shown that the lignin in the EGC 39 hybrid contained a higher concentration of uncondensed G-β-O-4 structures than the other two eucalypti lignins.

  14. Preliminary studies on allelopatic effect of some woody plants on seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue.

    Arouiee, H; Nazdar, T; Mousavi, A


    In order to investigation of allelopathic effects of some ornamental trees on seed germination of rye-grass (Lolium prenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), this experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 3 replicates at the laboratory of Horticultural Sciences Department of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2008. In this research, we studied the effect of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Afghanistan pine (Pinus eldarica), arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica), black locust (Robinia psedue acacia) and box elder (Acer negundo) leaves that prepared in 1:5 ratio on seed germination percent and rate for two grasses. The results showed that all extracts decreased statistically seed germination in compared to control treatment. The highest germination percentage and germination rate of tested grass detected in control treatment. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of all woody plants (15, 30%) were completely inhibited seed germination of rye-grass and tall fescue. Also aqueous extract of arizona cypress was completely inhibited seed germination of tall fescue and had more inhibitory activity than other aqueous extracts on rye-grass. Between aqueous extracts, the highest and lowest seed germination of rye-grass was found in Afghanistan pine and arizona cypress, respectively.

  15. A Study of Multi-Signal Monitoring System Establishment for Hemodynamic Energy Detection

    YeonSoo Shin


    Full Text Available Deaths due to cardiovascular diseases are increasing worldwide, and multi-signal monitoring systems to diagnose such diseases are under development. However, only a few researches are underway for devices that monitor hemodynamic energy, which is a marker for pulsatile flow generated by the contraction and relaxation of the heart. Therefore, this study aimed to integrate multiple monitoring devices into a single device, while also incorporating hemodynamic energy monitoring. Blood pressure and flow were measured with two channels each, while electrocardiogram (ECG, photoplethysmography (PPG, and temperature were measured with one channel each. All signals were processed at hardware level, and then converted into analog voltage. The seven signals were then converted into digital signals with a data acquisition board (DAQ. The software was developed with Labview™ (National Instruments, U.S.A to form a graphic user interface (GUI on a tablet computer (ACER, U.S.A through USB 2.0, to allow for monitoring and analysis of the signals obtained. Development of this system successfully formed a multi-signal monitoring system that integrates multiple signals into one device. Future directions include development of cardiovascular diagnosis algorithm and evaluation of the system via preclinical animal experiments.

  16. Acute O 3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment.

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Jones, Wendy S; Burton, Andrew J; Nagy, John; Kubiske, Mark E


    We studied the effect of high ozone (O(3)) concentration (110-490 nmol mol(-1)) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O(3) pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O(3) exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O(3) and/or CO(2) for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O(3) damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O(3) damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O(3) damage as it directly controlled O(3) uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O(3) exposure. Moreover, elevated CO(2) did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O(3) dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O(3) levels.

  17. Conversion trials in mixed coppices of Gargano (Puglia, Italy: first results


    Full Text Available Six plots have been drawn in an mixed aged coppice stand, 40 years after last coppicing; they represent a typical expression of Doronico-Carpinetum phytosociological association and they are characteristic of many woods of Gargano’s territory, composed by Quercus cerris L. (turkey oak, Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak, Acer opalus Mill. (italian maple, Carpinus betulus L. (european hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (hop hornbeam. Compared treatments are: natural evolution of the coppice without thinning versus two thinning regimes with different intensity, both aimed to convert the stands into high forests. 1200 and 1600 stems per hectare were released in the conversion plots. Plots, control and treated in 2001, have been measured before and immediately after thinning and remeasured five years later. At the present time, stands are characterized by a basically monolayered structure, in which turkey oak is prevalent in term of basal area. Moreover in thinned areas, losses on the released shoots number are unimportant both in absolute and in percent terms; in control plot, instead, competition by plants of upper storey on the dominated ones means high values of mortality.

  18. Acute O3 damage on first year coppice sprouts of aspen and maple sprouts in an open-air experiment

    Darbah, J.N.; Nagy, J.; Jones, W. S.; Burton, A. J.; Kubiske, M. E.


    We studied the effect of high ozone (O{sub 3}) concentration (110-490 nmol mol{sup -1}) on regenerating aspen (Populus tremuloides) and maple (Acer saccharum) trees at an open-air O{sub 3} pollution experiment near Rhinelander WI USA. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of acute O{sub 3} exposure on aspen and maple sprouts after the parent trees, which were grown under elevated O{sub 3} and/or CO{sub 2} for 12 years, were harvested. Acute O{sub 3} damage was not uniform within the crowns of aspen suckers; it was most severe in the mature, fully expanded photosynthesizing leaves. Young expanding leaves showed no visible signs of acute O{sub 3} damage contrary to expectations. Stomatal conductance played a primary role in the severity of acute O{sub 3} damage as it directly controlled O{sub 3} uptake. Maple sprouts, which had lower stomatal conductance, smaller stomatal aperture, higher stomatal density and larger leaf surface area, were tolerant of acute O{sub 3} exposure. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} did not ameliorate the adverse effects of acute O{sub 3} dose on aspen and maple sprouts, in contrast to its ability to counteract the effects of long-term chronic exposure to lower O{sub 3} levels.

  19. Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    Ean-Jeong Seo


    Full Text Available Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50 of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others.

  20. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Defense/Stress Responses Activated by Chitosan in Sycamore Cultured Cells

    Massimo Malerba


    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHT is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L. cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO. We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation.

  1. A simple and efficient method for the long-term preservation of plant cell suspension cultures

    Boisson Anne-Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The repeated weekly subculture of plant cell suspension is labour intensive and increases the risk of variation from parental cells lines. Most of the procedures to preserve cultures are based on controlled freezing/thawing and storage in liquid nitrogen. However, cells viability after unfreezing is uncertain. The long-term storage and regeneration of plant cell cultures remains a priority. Results Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus and Arabidopsis cell were preserved over six months as suspensions cultures in a phosphate-free nutrient medium at 5°C. The cell recovery monitored via gas exchange measurements and metabolic profiling using in vitro and in vivo 13C- and 31P-NMR took a couple of hours, and cell growth restarted without appreciable delay. No measurable cell death was observed. Conclusion We provide a simple method to preserve physiologically homogenous plant cell cultures without subculture over several months. The protocol based on the blockage of cell growth and low culture temperature is robust for heterotrophic and semi-autotrophic cells and should be adjustable to cell lines other than those utilised in this study. It requires no specialized equipment and is suitable for routine laboratory use.

  2. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: II. The Hemicellulose of the Walls of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells.

    Bauer, W D; Talmadge, K W; Keegstra, K; Albersheim, P


    The molecular structure, chemical properties, and biological function of the xyloglucan polysaccharide isolated from cell walls of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells are described. The sycamore wall xyloglucan is compared to the extracellular xyloglucan secreted by suspension-cultured sycamore cells into their culture medium and is also compared to the seed "amyloid" xyloglucans.Xyloglucan-or fragments of xyloglucan-and acidic fragments of the pectic polysaccharides are released from endopolygalacturonase-pretreated sycamore walls by treatment of these walls with 8 m urea, endoglucanase, or 0.5 n NaOH. Some of the xyloglucan thus released is found to cochromatograph with the acidic pectic fragments on diethylaminoethyl Sephadex. The chemical or enzymic treatments required for the release of xyloglucan from the walls and the cochromatography of xyloglucan with the acidic pectic fragments indicate that xyloglucan is covalently linked to the pectic polysaccharides and is noncovalently bound to the cellulose fibrils of the sycamore cell wall.The molecular structure of sycamore xyloglucan was characterized by methylation analysis of the oligosaccharides obtained by endoglucanase treatment of the polymer. The structure of the polymer is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of 4 residues of beta-1-4-linked glucose and 3 residues of terminal xylose. A single xylose residue is glycosidically linked to carbon 6 of 3 of the glucosyl residues.

  3. Ethylene is involved in stress responses induced by fusicoccin in sycamore cultured cells.

    Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella


    The phytohormone ethylene is involved in many physiological and developmental processes of plants, as well as in stress responses and in the development of disease resistance. Fusicoccin (FC) is a well-known phytotoxin, that in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, induces a set of stress responses, including synthesis of ethylene. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of ethylene in the FC-induced stress responses of sycamore cells by means of Co(2+), a well-known specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. Co(2+) inhibited the accumulation of dead cells in the culture, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and of the molecular chaperone Binding Protein (BiP) in the endoplasmic reticulum induced by FC. By contrast, Co(2+) was ineffective on the FC-induced accumulation of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and only partially reduced the accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol. In addition, we compared the effect of FC on the above parameters with that of the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon (2-chloroethane phosphonic acid). The results suggest that ethylene is involved in several stress responses induced by FC in sycamore cells, including a form of cell death that does not show apoptotic features and possibly involves NO as a signaling molecule.

  4. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM{sub 10} capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    Tiwary, Abhishek [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Technology Division, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Sackville St, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Peachey, Christopher [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Leonardi, Giovanni [Centre for Radiation, Chemical, and Environmental Health Hazards, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Grundy, Chris [Public and Environmental Health Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, Environment and Sustainable Technology Division, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Sackville St, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R. [Land Regeneration and Urban Greenspace Research Group, Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey, GU10 4LH (United Kingdom)


    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM{sub 10} pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM{sub 10} concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM{sub 10} capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr{sup -1}, equating to 0.009 t ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  5. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.

    Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella


    Chitosan (CHT) is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation.

  6. Structure of Plant Cell Walls : XXVI. The Walls of Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cells Contain a Family of Rhamnogalacturonan-I-Like Pectic Polysaccharides.

    Ishii, T; Thomas, J; Darvill, A; Albersheim, P


    Considerable information has been obtained about the primary structures of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell-wall pectic polysaccharides, i.e. rhamnogalacturonan I, rhamnogalacturonan II, and homogalacturonan. However, these polysaccharides, which are solubilized from the walls by endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase, account for only about half of the pectic polysaccharides known to be present in sycamore cell walls. We now report that, after exhaustive treatment with endo-alpha-1,4-polygalacturonase, additional pectic polysaccharides were extracted from sycamore cell walls by treatment with Na(2)CO(3) at 1 and 22 degrees C. These previously uncharacterized polysaccharides accounted for approximately 4% of the cell wall. Based on the glycosyl and glycosyl-linkage compositions and the nature of the products obtained by treating the quantitatively predominant NaCO(3)-extracted polysaccharides with lithium metal dissolved in ethylenediamine, the polysaccharides were found to strongly resemble rhamnogalacturonan I. However, unlike rhamnogalacturonan I that characteristically had equal amounts of 2- and 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues in its backbone, the polysaccharides extracted in Na(2)CO(3) at 1 degrees C had markedly disparate ratios of 2- to 2,4-linked rhamnosyl residues. We concluded that polysaccharides similar to rhamnogalacturonan I but with different degrees of branching are present in the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells.

  7. Cyclosporin A inhibits programmed cell death and cytochrome c release induced by fusicoccin in sycamore cells.

    Contran, N; Cerana, R; Crosti, P; Malerba, M


    Programmed cell death plays a vital role in normal plant development, response to environmental stresses, and defense against pathogen attack. Different types of programmed cell death occur in plants and the involvement of mitochondria is still under investigation. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, the phytotoxin fusicoccin induces cell death that shows apoptotic features, including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In this work, we show that cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the permeability transition pore of animal mitochondria, inhibits the cell death, DNA fragmentation, and cytochrome c release induced by fusicoccin. In addition, we show that fusicoccin induces a change in the shape of mitochondria which is not prevented by cyclosporin A. These results suggest that the release of cytochrome c induced by fusicoccin occurs through a cyclosporin A-sensitive system that is similar to the permeability transition pore of animal mitochondria and they make it tempting to speculate that this release may be involved in the phytotoxin-induced programmed cell death of sycamore cells.

  8. Sycamore amyloplasts can import and process precursors of nuclear encoded chloroplast proteins.

    Strzalka, K; Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Watanabe, A; Akazawa, T


    Amyloplasts isolated from white-wild suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) are found to import and process the precursor of the small subunit (pS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of spinach, but they lack the ability to form its holoenzyme due to the absence of both the large subunit and its binding-protein. They also import the precursor of the 33-kDa extrinsic protein (p33-kDa) of the O2-evolving complex of Photosystem II from spinach, but process is only to an intermediate form (i33-kDa). Chloroplasts from green-mutant cells of sycamore process p33-kDa to its mature form in this heterologous system. These results suggest that the thylakoid-associated protease responsible for the second processing step of p33-kDa is missing in amyloplasts, possibly due to the absence of thylakoid-membranes. In contrast, the apparent import of the precursor of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding apoprotein (pLHCP) from spinach was not detected. Sycamore amyloplasts may lack the ability to import this particular thylakoid-protein, or rapidly degrade the imported molecules in the absence of thylakoid-membranes for their proper insertion.

  9. Historical accounts of the transformation of a prairie town

    Todd D. Fagin


    Full Text Available Prior to European settlement, the area that would later become Norman, Oklahoma was dominated by prairie vegetation. Woody vegetation was limited to riparian zones and isolated groves presumably protected from the effects of fire. The contemporary landscape of Norman, stands in stark contrast to this “treeless” prairie, and is now characterized by a so-called urban forest. In this paper, we analyze a number of archival sources, ranging from early expedition and traveler accounts to postsettlement photography in order to qualitatively assess the nature of the landscape in and around the present-day city of Norman prior to and immediately following European settlement. We also utilize repeat photography to document the floristic and vegetation changes that have occurred. We found that the pre-European settlement landscape was characterized by rolling prairies heavily influenced by the grazing of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus, bison (Bison bison, and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana. Forbs were limited and herbaceous vegetation was dominated primarily by closely grazed grasses. Woody vegetation was limited primarily to watercourses and ravines, though numerous accounts cite thickets of oaks (Quercusspp. occurring in the adjacent cross timbers. Today, the vegetation of Norman is characterized by the dominance of woody vegetation. Within Norman’s historical residential areas, commonly occurring species include hackberry (Celtis occidentalis, Shumard’s oak (Q. shumardii, silver maple (Acer saccharinum, and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis.

  10. Auxin requirements of sycamore cells in suspension culture.

    Moloney, M M; Hall, J F; Robinson, G M; Elliott, M C


    Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cell suspension cultures (strain OS) require 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in their culture medium for normal growth. If the 2,4-D is omitted, rates of cell division are dramatically reduced and cell lysis may occur. Despite this ;auxin requirement,' it has been shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that the cells synthesize indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA). Changes in free 2,4-D and IAA in the cells during a culture passage have been monitored.There is a rapid uptake of 2,4-D by the cells during the lag phase leading to a maximum concentration per cell (125 nanograms per 10(6) cells) on day 2 followed by a decline to 45 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 9 (middle of linear phase). The initial concentration of IAA (0.08 nanograms per 10(6) cells) rises slowly to a peak of 1.4 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 9 then decreases rapidly to 0.2 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 15 (early declining phase) and 0.08 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 23 (early stationary phase).

  11. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  12. Immunogold localization of xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan I in the cell walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells.

    Moore, P J; Darvill, A G; Albersheim, P; Staehelin, L A


    PLANT CELL WALLS SERVE SEVERAL FUNCTIONS: they impart rigidity to the plant, provide a physical and chemical barrier between the cell and its environment, and regulate the size and shape of each cell. Chemical studies have provided information on the biochemical composition of the plant cell walls as well as detailed knowledge of individual cell wall molecules. In contrast, very little is known about the distribution of specific cell wall components around individual cells and throughout tissues. To address this problem, we have produced polyclonal antibodies against two cell wall matrix components; rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), a pectic polysaccharide, and xyloglucan (XG), a hemicellulose. By using the antibiodies as specific markers we have been able to localize these polymers on thin sections of suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). Our results reveal that each molecule has a unique distribution. XG is localized throughout the entire wall and middle lamella. RG-I is restricted to the middle lamella and is especially evident in the junctions between cells. These observations indicate that plant cell walls may have more distinct chemical (and functional?) domains than previously envisaged.

  13. Defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.

    Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella


    Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, non-toxic, and inexpensive compound obtained by partial alkaline deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and other arthropods. The unique physiological and biological properties of CHT make this polymer useful for a wide range of industries. In agriculture, CHT is used to control numerous pre- and postharvest diseases on various horticultural commodities. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to CHT as an elicitor of defense responses in plants, which include raising of cytosolic Ca(2+), activation of MAP kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonate, phytoalexins, and pathogenesis-related proteins. In this work, we investigated the effects of different CHT concentrations on some defense/stress responses of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells. CHT induced accumulation of dead cells, and of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and nitric oxide, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol and of HSP70 molecular chaperone binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, accompanied by marked modifications in the architecture of this cell organelle.

  14. Morphological and molecular identification of phytophthora species from maple trees in Serbia

    Milenković Ivan


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study performed with aims to determine the presence and diversity of Phytophthora species on maple trees in Serbia. Due to high aggressiveness and their multicyclic nature, presence of these pathogens is posing significant threat to forestry and biodiversity. In total, 29 samples of water, soil and tissues were taken from 10 different localities, and six different maple hosts were tested. After the isolation tests, 17 samples from five different maple hosts were positive for the presence of Phytophthora spp., and 31 isolates were obtained. After the detailed morphological and physiological classification, four distinct groups of isolates were separated. DNA was extracted from selected representative isolates and molecular identification with sequencing of ITS region was performed. Used ITS4 and ITS6 primers successfully amplified the genomic DNA of chosen isolates and morphological identification of obtained isolates was confirmed after the sequencing. Four different Phytophthora species were detected, including P. cactorum, P. gonapodyides, P. plurivora and P. lacustris. The most common isolated species was homothallic, and with very variable and semipapillate sporangia, P. plurivora with 22 obtained isolates. This is the first report of P. plurivora and P. gonapodyides on A. campestre, P. plurivora and P. lacustris on Acer heldreichii and first report of P. lacustris on A. pseudoplatanus and A. tataricum in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008

  15. Phytophthora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe.

    Man In 't Veld, Willem A; Rosendahl, Karin C H M; van Rijswick, Patricia C J; Meffert, Johan P; Westenberg, Marcel; van de Vossenberg, Bart T L H; Denton, Geoff; van Kuik, Fons A J


    In the past decade several Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Pachysandra terminalis plants suffering stem base and root rot, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium. All isolates were homothallic and had a felt-like colony pattern, produced semi-papillate sporangia, globose oogonia and had a maximum growth at ~ 27 C. Several additional Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Buxus sempervirens plants, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium, which had sustained stem base and root rot; similar strains also were isolated from Acer palmatum, Choisya ternata and Taxus in the United Kingdom. All isolates were homothallic and had a stellate colony pattern, produced larger semi-papillate sporangia and smaller globose oogonia than the isolates from Pa. terminalis and had a maximum growth temperature of ~ 30 C. Phylogenetic analyses of both species using the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuc rDNA (ITS), mt cytochrome oxidases subunit I gene (CoxI) and nuc translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1α) revealed that all sequences of each species were identical at each locus and unique to that species, forming two distinct clusters in subclade 2a. Sequence analysis of partial β-tubulin genes showed that both taxa share an identical sequence that is identical to that of Ph. himalsilva, a species originating from Asia, suggesting a common Asian origin. Pathogenicity trials demonstrated disease symptoms on their respective hosts, and re-isolation and re-identification of the inoculated pathogens confirmed Koch's postulates.

  16. Aplicabilidad de un concreto de escoria activada alcalinamente como material protector del acero de refuerzo

    Robinson de Jesús Torres Gómez, William A. Aperador Ch., Enrique Vera López,Rubi Mejía de Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis electroquímico de las  barras  de  acero  embebidas  en  un  concreto  no convencional usado internacionalmente para reparación de estructuras. Este concreto utiliza materiales de desecho de otros procesos; en este caso específico se empleó escoria siderúrgica de  la empresa Acerías Paz del Río S.A. Se estudio el comportamiento frente a la corrosión generada por  los iones cloruro, con el uso de la técnica de resistencia lineal a la polarización LPR y pulso galvanostático GPT. Simultáneamente, se compararon los resultados con otras probetas  fabricadas  con  cemento  Portland  tipo  I.  Se realizaron mediciones con  intervalos de veinte días durante nueve  meses  y  finalmente  se  establecieron  las características protectoras del concreto.

  17. Ecology and Taxonomy of Water Canyon, Canadian County, Oklahoma, Master's Thesis, University of Oklahoma 1961 [Revised 2013

    Constance E. Taylor


    Full Text Available Numerous canyons have been cut into the Rush Springs Sandstone of Permian age in West Central Oklahoma and subsequently refilled. Some of these canyons have been partly exposed by erosion of the sediment fill. Fossils collected indicate the canyon fill is sub-Pleistocene to geologically recent. The microclimate of these canyons is more mesic compared to the dryer prairie uplands. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum persists there, far west of its other locations in very eastern Oklahoma. Beginning in 1932 several of these sediment-filled canyons began a process of rapid erosion, exposing the rock walls of the canyons. This study is a comparison of Water Canyon and two of its branches: Water Branch Canyon, a stable canyon wooded with mature vegetation including sugar maple and Activity Branch Canyon, a newly excavated canyon branch that began eroding after excessive rainfall in 1932. This study was completed in 1960. Six transects are used to show the distribution of the 233 plant species found in the Water Canyon complex. Herbaceous species generally were unique to each canyon type.

  18. Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary

    Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál


    The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

  19. Absorption of some mineral salts by root system of different woody species and accumulation over a whole vegetative cycle (1963); Absorption de quelques sels par l'appareil radiculaire de differentes especes ligneuses et accumulation au cours d'un cycle vegetatif complet (1963)

    Gagnaire, J.; Gerard, J.M. [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The concentration power of plant tissues and the translocation speed of mineral salts are considerably varying with the absorbed salt, the botanical species, the considered tissue and the part of the vegetative cycle. In Grenoble, with Picea excelsa, the 'true dormancy' is short (half-november, end of december). It is accompanied by a pre-dormancy period (October, half-november) and a post dormancy period (January, february, march). In vegetative period, Picea excelsa leaves are less concentrating mineral salt than Acer campestris leaves (coefficient 2 for calcium - 3 for phosphates) and Populus nigra leaves (coefficient 3 for calcium, coefficient 5 for phosphates). (author) [French] Le pouvoir de concentration de tissus vegetaux, et particulierement la vitesse de transport des sels mineraux varient beaucoup selon le sel mineral absorbe, l'espece vegetale, le tissu considere ainsi que la periode du cycle vegetatif. A Grenoble, pour les epiceas 'la dormance veritable' est courte (mi-novembre, fin decembre). Elle est encadree par des periodes de pre-dormance (octobre, mi-novembre) et de post-dormance (janvier, fevrier, mars). Pendant la periode vegetative, le pouvoir de concentration de sels mineraux des aiguilles d'epiceas est plus faible que celui des feuilles d'erables (coefficient 2 pour le calcium - coefficient 3 pour les phosphates) ou que celui des feuilles de peupliers (coefficient 3 pour le calcium - coefficient 5 pour les phosphates). (auteur)

  20. Graph Transformation and Designing Parallel Sparse Matrix Algorithms beyond Data Dependence Analysis

    H.X. Lin


    Full Text Available Algorithms are often parallelized based on data dependence analysis manually or by means of parallel compilers. Some vector/matrix computations such as the matrix-vector products with simple data dependence structures (data parallelism can be easily parallelized. For problems with more complicated data dependence structures, parallelization is less straightforward. The data dependence graph is a powerful means for designing and analyzing parallel algorithms. However, for sparse matrix computations, parallelization based on solely exploiting the existing parallelism in an algorithm does not always give satisfactory results. For example, the conventional Gaussian elimination algorithm for the solution of a tri-diagonal system is inherently sequential, so algorithms specially for parallel computation has to be designed. After briefly reviewing different parallelization approaches, a powerful graph formalism for designing parallel algorithms is introduced. This formalism will be discussed using a tri-diagonal system as an example. Its application to general matrix computations is also discussed. Its power in designing parallel algorithms beyond the ability of data dependence analysis is shown by means of a new algorithm called ACER (Alternating Cyclic Elimination and Reduction algorithm.

  1. Habitat diversity of the Multicolored Asian ladybeetle Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in agricultural and arboreal ecosystems: a review

    Vandereycken, A.


    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, native to Asia, is an invasive species in many European and American countries. Initially introduced as a biological control agent against aphids and coccids in greenhouses, this alien species rapidly invaded many habitats such as forests, meadows, wetlands, and agricultural crops. This paper reviews the habitats (forests, crops, herbs, gardens and orchards where H. axyridis has been observed, either during insect samplings or as part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs. Studies have referenced H. axyridis on 106 plant taxa (35 arboreal species, 21 crop species, 27 herbaceous species, 11 ornamental species, and 12 orchard species and have identified 89 plant-prey relationships (34 arboreal species, 16 crop species, 13 herbaceous species, 10 ornamental species, and 16 orchard species in different countries. Harmonia axyridis is more abundant in forest areas, principally on Acer, Salix, Tilia and Quercus, than in agroecosystems. Some plant species, such as Urtica dioica L., which surround crops, contain large numbers of H. axyridis and could constitute important reserves of this alien species in advance of aphid invasions into crops. This review highlights the polyphagy and eurytopic aspect of H. axyridis.

  2. Natural and experimental tests of trophic cascades: gray wolves and white-tailed deer in a Great Lakes forest.

    Flagel, D G; Belovsky, G E; Beyer, D E


    Herbivores can be major drivers of environmental change, altering plant community structure and changing biodiversity through the amount and species of plants consumed. If natural predators can reduce herbivore numbers and/or alter herbivore foraging behavior, then predators may reduce herbivory on sensitive plants, and a trophic cascade will emerge. We have investigated whether gray wolves (Canis lupus) generate such trophic cascades by reducing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on saplings and rare forbs in a northern mesic forest (Land O' Lakes, WI). Our investigation used an experimental system of deer exclosures in areas of high and low wolf use that allowed us to examine the role that wolf predation may play in reducing deer herbivory through direct reduction in deer numbers or indirectly through changing deer behavior. We found that in areas of high wolf use, deer were 62 % less dense, visit duration was reduced by 82 %, and percentage of time spent foraging was reduced by 43 %; in addition, the proportion of saplings browsed was nearly sevenfold less. Average maple (Acer spp.) sapling height and forb species richness increased 137 and 117 % in areas of high versus low wolf use, respectively. The results of the exclosure experiments revealed that the negative impacts of deer on sapling growth and forb species richness became negligible in high wolf use areas. We conclude that wolves are likely generating trophic cascades which benefit maples and rare forbs through trait-mediated effects on deer herbivory, not through direct predation kills.

  3. Recognition of Time-Equivalent Leaf-Based Signals of Atmospheric CO2 and El Niño Variability in Florida Wetland Species

    Wagner, F.; Dilcher, D. L.; Visscher, H.; Kuerschner, W. M.


    Trees are equipped with a plastic phenotype, capable of sustained adjustment of numbers of leaf stomata to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. With high temporal resolution and accuracy, stomatal frequency data demonstrate that Holocene climate evolution has been influenced by century-scale CO2 fluctuations. Apart from adapting to changes in atmospheric CO2, leaf-epidermal properties are known to be sensitive to environmental factors such as water availability. In long-lived hygrophilous plants, epidermal tissue expansion is likely to be significantly influenced by changes in water availability. Concurrent analysis of the leaf morphology in CO2 sensitive trees (Myrica, Quercus, Acer) and a water-stress sensitive fern species (Osmunda regalis) from leaf assemblages preserved in peat deposits in Florida (USA), reveal distinct temporal changes in epidermal properties over the past 130 years. Stomatal frequency changes in the deciduous trees reflects the human induced CO2 increase. Epidermal-cell density changes in fern leaves, could well be interpreted in terms of El Niño / La Niña related precipitation trends. By quantifying the leaf morphological adaptation to known environmental conditions during historical times, a new paleobotanical proxy for past precipitation changes is introduced. Hence, in ENSO-sensitive regions, analysis of buried leaf assemblages offers the unique possibility of a direct recognition of time-equivalent leaf-based signals of paleo-atmospheric CO2 and El Niño variability.

  4. Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth

    Jacobson, J.S.; Van Rye, D.M.; Lassoie, J.P.


    Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are attempting to determine the effects acid rain may have on these crucial stages in the life histories of northeastern tree species. The first stage of this work assessed the effects of acidity in the growth medium on in vitro pollen germination for four deciduous forest species common to central New York State, Betula lutea (yellow birch), B. lenta (black birch), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). Measurements were taken at the end of the growth period to determine the percentage of grains which had germinated, and to estimate the average tube length. To determine the effects of pollen on the growth medium, the pH of the germination drop was measured at the end of the growth period.

  5. Conspecific Leaf Litter-Mediated Effect of Conspecific Adult Neighborhood on Early-Stage Seedling Survival in A Subtropical Forest

    Liu, Heming; Shen, Guochun; Ma, Zunping; Yang, Qingsong; Xia, Jianyang; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xihua


    Conspecific adults have strong negative effect on the survival of nearby early-stage seedlings and thus can promote species coexistence by providing space for the regeneration of heterospecifics. The leaf litter fall from the conspecific adults, and it could mediate this conspecific negative adult effect. However, field evidence for such effect of conspecific leaf litter remains absent. In this study, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of conspecific leaf litter on the early-stage seedling survival of four dominant species (Machilus leptophylla, Litsea elongate, Acer pubinerve and Distylium myricoides) in early-stage seedlings in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. Our results consistently showed that the conspecific leaf litter of three species negatively affected the seedling survival. Meanwhile, the traditional conspecific adult neighborhood indices failed to detect this negative conspecific adult effect. Our study revealed that the accumulation of conspecific leaf litter around adults can largely reduce the survival rate of nearby seedlings. Ignoring it could result in underestimation of the importance of negative density dependence and negative species interactions in the natural forest communities.

  6. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of 15N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests

    van Huysen, Tiff L.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.; Chen, Hua


    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using 15N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7–20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  7. The Effect of Edaphic Factors on the Similarity of Parasitic Nematodes in the Soil Sampled in Nurseries of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

    Chałańska Aneta


    Full Text Available The largest faunistic similarity of nematodes was found in soils sampled in coniferous nurseries where arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis - Cupressaceae, spruces (Picea spp. - Pinaceae and pines (Pinus spp. - Pi-naceae were grown. In soil sampled from deciduous tree and shrub nurseries, similar species composition of parasitic nematodes was found in stands of oaks (Quercus spp. - Fagaceae, black locusts (Robiniapseudo-acacia - Fabaceae and maples (Acer spp. - Sapindaceae. In soils, especially the light and medium, from stands of coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, Aphelenchus avenae was often isolated. Bitylenchus dubius occurred in both types of nurseries, particularly in light soils. The largest faunistic similarities between nematodes isolated from places of growth of coniferous and deciduous plants were recorded in soils of loamy sand and sandy loam. The most abundant nematode species and the greatest similarity in species of plant parasitic nematodes were observed in soils with neutral pH or slightly acidic. Aphelenchus avenae was found in soil samples collected from both coniferous and deciduous plants, with no relation to soil acidity.

  8. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David


    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  9. Roseomonas aceris sp. nov. isolated from a mono maple tree in the Shirakami Mountains in Japan.

    Tonouchi, Akio; Tazawa, Daisuke


    A novel bacterial strain belonging to the genus Roseomonas was isolated from the trunk surface of a mono maple (Acer mono) tree growing in the Shirakami Mountains. The strain, designated R-1(T), was Gram-negative, non-motile, and oval-rod, and formed reddish colonies on agar plates, as has previously been described for Roseomonas species. Although motility was not observed, cells were peritrichously flagellated. Strain R-1(T) preferred organic acids over carbohydrates as growth substrates. The major cellular fatty acid was C₁₈:₁ ω7c (48.79%). Ubiquinone-10 was the major respiratory quinone. Strain R-1(T) demonstrated the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Roseomonas pecuniae N75(T) (96.9%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain R-1(T) was a member of the genus Roseomonas and formed a cluster with R. pecuniae N75(T). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain R-1(T) and R. pecuniae N75(T) yielded 21.7% relatedness. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic, and chemotaxonomic char-acteristics, strain R-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas aceris sp. nov. has been proposed. The type strain is R-1(T) (NBRC 109410(T) = DSM 26554 (T)).

  10. Self-Organizing Feature Maps and selected conventional numerical methods for assessment of environmental quality

    Piotr Kosiba


    Full Text Available The investigations concerned sites of Acer platanoides L. infected or not by Rhytisma aceriniu (Pers. Fr. The aim of the study was to check the occurrence of R. acerinium, and whether it reflects the environmental status. Furthermore, an analysis was carried out to find out whether the applied SOFM offers additional advantages to solve problems in relation to conventional methods. Concentrations of selected elements in soils and leaves, and leaf and "tar-spot" morphometric traits were also measured. A significant differentiation was found between sites in relation to the analyzed traits. It appeared, that sites showing lower concentrations of chemical elements and proper developmental habitat conditions massive infections take place. The study showed that R. acerinium is a good biological indicator for assessment of environmental status. The applied, conventional statistical methods, SOFM and image techniques showed similar, but not identical results for assessment of environmental quality using R. acerinium. SOFM appeared to be more useful for ordination of results and ought to be taken into account as a proper tool of estimation of various plants and their biotopes.

  11. Impact of air pollution on the occurrence of Rhytisma acerinium "tar-spot" on mapie leaves

    Piotr Kosiba


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was, to find out whether the occurrence of Rhytisma acerinium and the variability of numbers of the "tar-spot" fungus on Acer platanoides leaves depend on the degree of environmental pollution. A significant variability was found between sites in relation to contents of chemical elements in soils, leaves and numbers of "tar-spots". The similarity of sites presented in dendrograms classified them as industrial, urban-agglomeration and vehicle-transport areas. The factor and PCA analyses showed that two factors differentiate the soil of the sites in respect of Fe, Cu, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, Cd and N, S, Mn, Pb. In case of leaves of A. platanoides populations differentiate them in respect of N, S, Fe, Pb, Zn, Co, Be, Cr, Cd and Mn, Cu, Mo. The different air pollutions affect significantly the numbers of "tar-spots" on leaves. Sites with the highest contents of elements do not show "tar-spots", and the factors restricting their occurrence are the high contents, mainly of N, S (NOX, SOX and heavy metals. In sites, with the lowest contents of these elements massive infections take place. The occurrence of R. acerinium corresponding with the level of site pollution can be used as a tool for evaluation of the degree of environmental pollution.

  12. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees.

    Richardson, Andrew D; Carbone, Mariah S; Keenan, Trevor F; Czimczik, Claudia I; Hollinger, David Y; Murakami, Paula; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei


    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars in a subset of trees using the radiocarbon ((14) C) bomb spike. With these data, we then tested different carbon (C) allocation schemes in a process-based model of forest C cycling. We found that the nonstructural carbohydrates are both highly dynamic and about a decade old. Seasonal dynamics in starch (two to four times higher in the growing season, lower in the dormant season) mirrored those of sugars. Radiocarbon-based estimates indicated that the mean age of the starch and sugars in red maple (Acer rubrum) was 7-14 yr. A two-pool (fast and slow cycling reserves) model structure gave reasonable estimates of the size and mean residence time of the total NSC pool, and greatly improved model predictions of interannual variability in woody biomass increment, compared with zero- or one-pool structures used in the majority of existing models. This highlights the importance of nonstructural carbohydrates in the context of forest ecosystem carbon cycling.

  13. Seasonal Effect on Tree Species Classification in an Urban Environment Using Hyperspectral Data, LiDAR, and an Object- Oriented Approach.

    Voss, Matthew; Sugumaran, Ramanathan


    The objective of the current study was to analyze the seasonal effect on differentiating tree species in an urban environment using multi-temporal hyperspectral data, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data, and a tree species database collected from the field. Two Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral images were collected, covering the Summer and Fall seasons. In order to make both datasets spatially and spectrally compatible, several preprocessing steps, including band reduction and a spatial degradation, were performed. An object-oriented classification was performed on both images using training data collected randomly from the tree species database. The seven dominant tree species (Gleditsia triacanthos, Acer saccharum, Tilia Americana, Quercus palustris, Pinus strobus and Picea glauca) were used in the classification. The results from this analysis did not show any major difference in overall accuracy between the two seasons. Overall accuracy was approximately 57% for the Summer dataset and 56% for the Fall dataset. However, the Fall dataset provided more consistent results for all tree species while the Summer dataset had a few higher individual class accuracies. Further, adding LiDAR into the classification improved the results by 19% for both fall and summer. This is mainly due to the removal of shadow effect and the addition of elevation data to separate low and high vegetation.

  14. A Review of the Characteristics of Small-Leaved Lime (Tilia cordata Mill. and Their Implications for Silviculture in a Changing Climate

    Tanguy De Jaegere


    Full Text Available Tilia cordata Mill. is a minor European broadleaved species with a wide but scattered distribution. Given its scarcity and low value in the wood market, it has received little attention from researchers and forest managers. This review summarizes the main aspects of T. cordata ecology and growth. Its main limiting factor is its need for warm summer temperatures to ensure successful seed production. It has a height growth pattern relatively similar to that of Acer pseudoplatanus L., with a slight delay in the early stages. Yield tables report great productivity, especially in eastern Europe. T. cordata used to be a major species in Europe, in contrast to its present distribution, but it is very likely to receive renewed interest in the future. Indeed, with the potential change of competition between species in some regions and the need for important diversification in others, T. cordata may play an important role in forest adaptation to climate change, especially owing to its wide ecological tolerance and its numerous ecosystem services. It is necessary to increase our knowledge about its regeneration and its responses to environmental and silvicultural factors, to establish clear management recommendations.

  15. Allellopathic Impacts of Leaf Litters Decomposition from Intercrop Tree Species on Soybean

    Xiaoxi Zhang


    Full Text Available Foliar litters from 5 commonly planted intercorpped trees were collected and decayed within soil of local farm. These soil samples containing different amount of decomposed litters were then used as culture medium for a germination and seedlings growth testing of soybean. The allelopathic effects of intercropped trees on soybean were assessed. The results indicated that Eucommia ulmoides, Paulownia fortunei and Acer truncatum litters showed promotional effects at relative low concentration (75-150 g litters decomposed in 6.5 kg soil, that is 75-150 g/pot, but inhibitory effects at high concentration (300 g/pot, thus these trees should be planted with soybean with a low intercrop proportion. Populus canadensis litters showed promotional effects at low and high concentration (75 or 300 g/pot, but inhibitory effects at moderate concentration (150 g/pot and this tree should be planted with a moderate intercrop proportion. Zanthoxylum bungeanum litters exhibited promoting effects at all concentrations, thus this tree was recommened to be planted with soybean with any tested intercrop proportion.

  16. Impact of Hot-Water Extraction on Acetone-Water Oxygen Delignification of Paulownia Spp. and Lignin Recovery

    Chen Gong


    Full Text Available A hardwood-based biorefinery process starting with hot-water extraction (HWE is recommended in order to remove most of the hemicelluloses/xylans before further processing. HWE may be followed by delignification in acetone/water in the presence of oxygen (AWO for the production of cellulose and lignin. In this study, the HWE-AWO sequence was evaluated for its effectiveness at removing lignin from the fast-growing species Paulownia tomentosa (PT and Paulownia elongata (PE, in comparison with the reference species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum, SM. HWE might lead to a remarkable increase in lignin accessibility, and as a result, a greater AWO delignification degree was observed for extracted PT, PE, and SM than for unextracted ones. Organosolv lignin was recovered from the spent liquor of AWO delignification of PT with/without prior HWE and characterized to evaluate the benefits of HWE on the lignin structure and purity. The lignin recovered from the spent liquor of HWE-AWO sequence is of higher purity and lighter color than that recovered from the AWO spent liquor. These properties along with low sulfur content are desirable for lignin high-value applications.

  17. Dynamic of Plant Composition and Regeneration following Windthrow in a Temperate Beech Forest.

    Mollaei Darabi, Sakineh; Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen


    The effects of soil pedoturbation (i.e., pit and mound microtopography, PM) on development of herbaceous plant species and woody species regeneration were examined in a temperate beech forest (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in northern Iran. We recorded the vegetation in 20 pairs of disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots and established a chronosequence of PM ages to study the effect of time since microsite formation on cover percent of herbaceous plants and woody regeneration status. According to our findings, Carex acutiformis L., Sambucus ebulus L., Brachypodium pinnatum L., and Cyclamen coum L. are found only in the PM microsites, whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L. is recorded only under closed canopy. The coverage percent of Rubus caesius L. increased in PM microsites compared to closed canopy intensively. In addition, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is detected in PM microsite, whereas the Acer cappadocicum B. and Prunus persica L. species were recorded only under closed canopy. We found significant differences in understory species diversity between different ages of PM, and disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots. Our study supports that the PM complex will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species.

  18. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin


    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  19. Engineered wood flooring with a densified surface layer for heavy-duty use

    Chang-Hua Fang


    Full Text Available High-density wood is required in wood flooring, especially in engineered wood flooring (EWF designed for heavy-duty applications. However, high-density wood resources are limited and their cost is high. A densification treatment makes it possible for low- or moderate-density woods to replace harder species by modifying them into high-performance and high-value products, such as engineered wood flooring for heavy-duty applications. The general objective of this study was to develop a prototype of engineered wood flooring using sugar maple hygro-thermally densified surface layers. The results showed that thin sugar maple lumber densified at 200 °C under the combined effects of steam, heat, and pressure with a heat-resistant fabric had great potential for the manufacturing of engineered wood flooring for heavy-duty use. As a result of treatment, it acquired high density, improved mechanical properties, and it had a relatively high dimensional stability and an attractive color. Tests in conditioning rooms showed that the EWF with a densified sugar maple (Acer saccharum March. surface layer presented the lowest amplitude distortion between the dry and humid conditions compared with the standard EWF (0.15 mm vs. 0.17mm and 0.25mm.

  20. Urban tree effects on soil organic carbon.

    Jill L Edmondson

    Full Text Available Urban trees sequester carbon into biomass and provide many ecosystem service benefits aboveground leading to worldwide tree planting schemes. Since soils hold ∼75% of ecosystem organic carbon, understanding the effect of urban trees on soil organic carbon (SOC and soil properties that underpin belowground ecosystem services is vital. We use an observational study to investigate effects of three important tree genera and mixed-species woodlands on soil properties (to 1 m depth compared to adjacent urban grasslands. Aboveground biomass and belowground ecosystem service provision by urban trees are found not to be directly coupled. Indeed, SOC enhancement relative to urban grasslands is genus-specific being highest under Fraxinus excelsior and Acer spp., but similar to grasslands under Quercus robur and mixed woodland. Tree cover type does not influence soil bulk density or C∶N ratio, properties which indicate the ability of soils to provide regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and flood mitigation. The trends observed in this study suggest that genus selection is important to maximise long-term SOC storage under urban trees, but emerging threats from genus-specific pathogens must also be considered.

  1. Vascular flora of the Prometanj site (Mokra Gora, northern Prokletije Mt.

    Radak Boris Đ.


    Full Text Available Floristic research of the Prometanj site, located in the northwestern part of Mokra Gora Mt. along the right bank of the Ibar River, was conducted during 2011. A total of 340 species and five subspecies of vascular plant taxa were registered. Families with the largest number of species were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, while the most numerous genera were Trifolium, Acer, Campanula, Geranium, Veronica, Ranunculus and Vicia. Floral elements of analyzed plant taxa were grouped into ten areal types, with domination of Central European and Eurasian and significant participation of Mediterranean-Submediterranean. The biological spectrum was characterized by the dominance of hemicryptophytes. Five strictly protected and 43 protected species were registered. Prometanj is the only remaining locality in Serbia for tertiary species Adenophora liliifolia. Floristic research of Prometanj should be extended to entire area of Mokra Gora Mt. together with the Ibar River gorge, in order to explore the whole botanical richness of this area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173030

  2. Study of some characteristic Mediterranean vegetation species best suited for renaturalization of terminal-phase municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Puglia (Southern Italy)

    De Mei, Massimiliano; Di Mauro, Mariaida


    Natural recovery of worked-out or closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills is a current topic, but knowledge about the adaptability of Mediterranean vegetation species to such stressful conditions is still quite poor. Autochthonous plants were selected to withstand the stresses such as hot climate and drought typical of Mediterranean areas; this characteristic potentially allows the plants an easier, efficient adaptation. Our aim was to provide information in order to obtain an adequate quality of environmental renewal of a landfill and a reduced management cost while ensuring rehabilitation to an acceptable naturalistic state. The investigation lasted 3 years; some Mediterranean scrub native plant species were selected and monitored in their morphological (total and relative height, basal diameter, number of inter-nodes) and physiological (photosynthetic rate and water potential) activity. In order to test dependence on CO 2 concentration, different meteorological parameters were also monitored. Ceratonia siliqua, Phillyrea latifolia, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex showed considerable adaptability, reacting positively to every improvement in environmental conditions, particularly those of a meteorological nature. Survival and growth was satisfactory in Hedysarum coronarium, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis and Viburnum tinus. Fraxinus ornus and Acer campestre suffered stress during the summer dry period and recovered quickly when atmospheric conditions improved. A drop irrigation system to ensure a satisfactory soil moisture during summer dry periods was the fundamental element for survival.

  3. Effects of herbaceous vegetation on the survival and growth of hardwood tree seedlings

    Carlson, E.W.


    First year survival and growth of several hardwood tree species planted with herbaceous vegetation on recently mined areas where soil, lime, and fertilizers were used at five locations throughout the bituminous coal region of Pennsylvania is discussed. In one study begun in 1978, five tree species (Robinia pseudacaia, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus robusta, and Juglans nigra) were planted in vegetated and non-vegetated plots. Survival was good for all species except Populus robusta, which failed due to poor quality stock. Height growth of Robinia pseudoacacia was good, all other species were poor. In another study in 1978, herbaceous competition was evaluated using three grass-legume mixtures (Lotus corniculatus L. with either Festuca arundinacea L., Eragrostis curvula L.), seeded at two rates, and using two herbicides on an area with a previously established cover. No significant differences occurred between herbaceous covers in survival and first year height growth of the two species (Robinia pseudoacacia and Quercus rubra) used. In a third study begun in 1979, eight tree species (the five already mentioned plus Alnus gluthosa, Acer saccharum, and Fraxinus americana) were planted in non-seeded plots and in plots seeded with two different mixtures (Festuca arundinacea L. with either Lotus corniculatus or Cornilla varia L.). Early survival was good for all species.

  4. The use of cover crops to control tree invasion on a right-of-way near Tobermory. IV. Crop persistance and tree invasion in the third growing season

    Brown, D.


    A study was carried out to determine the ability of grasses, legumes, and the natural right-of-way vegetation cover to interfere with tree invasion. The location, in the Tobermory area of the Bruce Peninsula, was used to test 6 treatments at 6 sites, consisting of: soil scarification and seeding with creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra); soil scarification and seeding with juno orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata); soil scarification and seeding with birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus); soil scarification and seeding with a mixture of penngift crown vetch (Coronilla varia) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum); soil scarification with no seeding; and no soil scarification and no seeding. A design change in 1991 involved the addition of a slow release fertilizer and planting of green ash (Flaxinus pennsylvanica), sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) to directly measure the interference potential of the crops. Orchard grass had the highest frequency (93[plus minus]3%), the largest cover (32[plus minus]7%) and the tallest canopy. Red fescue was present with a similarly high frequency and cover but did not appear to be as vigorous as the orchard grass. The frequencies of birdsfoot trefoil and crown vetch declined, and had extremely poor covers. The density of incompatible trees varied at each site but was not affected by the treatments. 41 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Decline of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests exposed to chronic nitrogen additions.

    van Diepen, Linda T A; Lilleskov, Erik A; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Miller, R Michael


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are important below-ground carbon (C) sinks that can be sensitive to increased nitrogen (N) availability. The abundance of AM fungi (AMF) was estimated in maple (Acer spp.) fine roots following more than a decade of experimental additions of N designed to simulate chronic atmospheric N deposition. Abundance of AMF was measured by staining and ocular estimation, as well as by analyzing for the AMF indicator fatty acid 16:1omega5c in phospholipid (biomass indicator) and neutral lipid (lipid storage indicator) fractions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biomass, storage structures and lipid storage declined in response to N addition measured by both methods. This pattern was found when AM response was characterized as colonization intensity, on an areal basis and in proportion to maple above-ground biomass. The phospholipid fraction of the fatty acid 16:1omega5c was positively correlated with total AMF colonization and the neutral lipid fraction with vesicle colonization. Decreased AMF abundance with simulated N deposition suggests reduced C allocation to these fungi or a direct soil N-mediated decline. The fatty acid (phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions) 16:1omega5c was found to be a good indicator for AMF active biomass and stored energy, respectively.

  6. Drought and shade deplete nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in seedlings of five temperate tree species.

    Maguire, Andrea J; Kobe, Richard K


    Plants that store nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) may rely on carbon reserves to survive carbon-limiting stress, assuming that reserves can be mobilized. We asked whether carbon reserves decrease in resource stressed seedlings, and if NSC allocation is related to species' relative stress tolerances. We tested the effects of stress (shade, drought, and defoliation) on NSC in seedlings of five temperate tree species (Acer rubrum Marsh., Betula papyrifera Marsh., Fraxinus americana L ., Quercus rubra L., and Quercus velutina Lam.). In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings were subjected to combinations of shade, drought, and defoliation. We harvested seedlings over 32-97 days and measured biomass and NSC concentrations in stems and roots to estimate depletion rates. For all species and treatments, except for defoliation, seedling growth and NSC accumulation ceased. Shade and drought combined caused total NSC decreases in all species. For shade or drought alone, only some species experienced decreases. Starch followed similar patterns as total NSC, but soluble sugars increased under drought for drought-tolerant species. These results provide evidence that species deplete stored carbon in response to carbon limiting stress and that species differences in NSC response may be important for understanding carbon depletion as a buffer against shade- and drought-induced mortality.

  7. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia


    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  8. Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species.

    Rietveld, W J


    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arbor-escens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonicera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus, andP. sylvestris) being considered for mixed plantings withJugions nigra (black walnut). All species were sensitive to juglone, but seed germination and radicle elongation were less affected than shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation. Seed germination and radicle elongation were affected by juglone in 6 and 11 species, respectively, mainly by the higher concentrations (10(-3) M and 10(-4) M). Shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation of all species were affected by juglone; many species were sensitive to concentrations as low as 10(-6) M. Seedlings of all species were severely wilted and eventually killed by 10(-3) M juglone, and most were chlorotic and severely retarded by 10(-4) M juglone. Seedlings inhibited by 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M juglone did not showany visible signs of injury. Based on the effects on seedling shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation, the five species found to be most sensitive to juglone were:Lonicera maackii, Lespedeza cuneata, Trifolium incarnatum, Alnus glutinosa, and Elaeagnus umbellata.

  9. Carbon content variation in boles of mature sugar maple and giant sequoia.

    Lamlom, Sabah H; Savidge, Rodney A


    At present, a carbon (C) content of 50% (w/w) in dry wood is widely accepted as a generic value; however, few wood C measurements have been reported. We used elemental analysis to investigate C content per unit of dry matter and observed that it varied both radially and vertically in boles of two old-growth tree species: sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Bucholz). In sugar maple there was considerable variation in tree ring widths among four radii for particular annual layers of xylem, revealing that the annual rate of C assimilation differs around the circumference and from the base of each tree to its top, but the observed variation in C content was unrelated to diameter growth rate and strongly related to the calendar year when the wood was formed. Carbon content in sugar maple wood increased in an approximately linear fashion, from 55% across many hundreds of years of heartwood, but it declined abruptly at the sapwood-heartwood boundary and remained lower in all sapwood samples, an indication that heartwood formation involves anabolic metabolism. Factors that may be responsible for the different C contents and trends with age between sugar maple and sequoia trees are considered. Tree-ring data from this study do not support some of the key assumptions made by dendrochronology.

  10. Environmental studies in two communes of Santiago de Chile by the analysis of magnetic properties of particulate matter deposited on leaves of roadside trees

    Muñoz, David; Aguilar, Bertha; Fuentealba, Raúl; Préndez, Margarita


    Emissions from motor vehicles are considered to be one of the main sources of airborne particulate matter in Santiago. International researchers have shown that particulate matter contains metal oxides and magnetic particles, both of which are emitted mainly from vehicles exhaust pipes. On the other hand, trees are effective in reducing such contamination, so that they act as passive collectors of particulate matter. This work presents the results obtained from the first magnetic study of the particulate matter collected in two areas of the city of Santiago de Chile. Magnetic susceptibility and Saturation Isothermic Remanent Magnetization (SIRM) were determined in leaves from abundant urban trees and from urban dust samples. Results indicate that most of the samples contain ferromagnetic minerals with magnetite (Fe3O4) as the main carrier. Values of magnetic susceptibility (SI ×10-6 m3/kg) in the range 0.04-0.24 for leaves and in the range 10-45 for urban dust were determinated. In one of the city areas studied, significant correlation between the particulate matter deposited on leaves of Platanus orientalis and measured traffic flows was obtained. In addition, it was possible to estimate that the species Platanus orientalis and Acer negundo have a better ability to capture particulate matter than the species Robinia pseudoacacia.

  11. Silencio en la contratación. Análisis del Código Civil peruano y de la Convención de Viena sobre compraventa interna- cional de mercaderías

    Luis Cárdenas Rodríguez


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se enfoca el rol del silencio en la celebración de contratos. Más que un estudio de teoría general, se busca un acer- camiento práctico a la aplicación de la normativa del Derecho peruano y de la Convención de Viena. Para ello se incluyen alusiones a pronunciamientos jurisprudenciales sobre: contratos de seguro, fianza y compraventa internacional. Se brinda especial atención a los casos donde exista un uso para el comercio o una práctica entre las partes de contratación sin respuesta expresa. Asimismo, se explica la importancia de la buena fe en la calificación del silencio circunstanciado, pues en ocasiones se deriva de ella un deber o una carga de hablar en caso de que no se quiera que se dote al silencio de valor positivo conducente a la conclusión del contrato. Finalmente, se resalta el papel de la buena fe y la costumbre en pos de una actitud flexible frente a novedosos supuestos y perma- nentes exigencias que impone la práctica.

  12. Espejo cultural africano: imágenes de los reinos del Congo y Angola en la Costa Caribe del reino de Nueva Granada

    Andrea Guerrero Mosquera


    Full Text Available Esta investigación pretendió a nalizar los escritos sobre África realizados durante el siglo XVII, con el fin de adentrarse a los imaginarios que se plasmaron acerca de las culturas de los reinos del Congo y Angola . Para el caso particula r de esta investigación , se usaron los textos de los capuchinos Giovanni António Cavazzi y Anto nio de Teruel . Estos textos son discursos escritos desde una perspectiva de lo observado y bajo el amparo de un discurso histórico - antropológico del africano, una imagen eurocentrista y católica que permeó tanto en Europa como en la s Indias. Con estos textos se intentó un acer camiento a los Black Atlantic Studies con lo que se logró a partir de las imágenes que se interpretar on , realizar una confrontación con la herencia cultural que se manifestaba en los escritos de la época y establecer los imaginar ios que llegaron desde África al reino de Nueva Granada .

  13. Preparation and characterisation of biodegradable pollen-chitosan microcapsules and its application in heavy metal removal.

    Sargın, İdris; Kaya, Murat; Arslan, Gulsin; Baran, Talat; Ceter, Talip


    Biosorbents have been widely used in heavy metal removal. New resources should be exploited to develop more efficient biosorbents. This study reports the preparation of three novel chitosan microcapsules from pollens of three common, wind-pollinated plants (Acer negundo, Cupressus sempervirens and Populus nigra). The microcapsules were characterized (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis) and used in removal of heavy metal ions: Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Their sorption capacities were compared to those of cross-linked chitosan beads without pollen grains. C. sempervirens-chitosan microcapsules exhibited better performance (Cd(II): 65.98; Cu(II): 67.10 and Zn(II): 49.55 mg g(-1)) than the other microcapsules and the cross-linked beads. A. negundo-chitosan microcapsules were more efficient in Cr(III) (70.40 mg g(-1)) removal. P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules were found to be less efficient. Chitosan-pollen microcapsules (except P. nigra-chitosan microcapsules) can be used in heavy metal removal.

  14. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S


    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests.

  15. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

    Jörg Kunz


    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  16. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China


    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  17. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Angelica Feurdean


    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  18. Effect of Chipping and Solarization on Emergence and Boring Activity of a Recently Introduced Ambrosia Beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Southern California.

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Paine, Timothy D


    Polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) has recently invaded southern California. The beetle, along with its associated fungi, Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp., and Acremonium sp., causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and box elder (Acer negundo L.). With the spread of the beetle through Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in California, there is increasing concern that felled trees and pruned branches infested with polyphagous shot hole borer should receive sanitation treatment to reduce the potential spread of the beetle from the movement of untreated wood. We tested two sanitation methods to reduce beetle populations, chipping with a commercial chipper and solarization by covering logs with clear or black plastic in full sun. Both chipping and solarization decreased beetle emergence and boring activity compared to untreated control logs. Chipping was most effective for chip sizes <5 cm. Solarization was most effective using clear polyethylene sheeting during hot summer months, particularly August, when daily maximum temperatures were ≥35°C. Beetles persisted for 2 mo or more when solarization was applied during the spring or fall.

  19. Inventory of epiphytic macrolichens on trees used in urban arborization in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Lucas Nogueira


    Full Text Available The floristic composition of epiphytic macrolichens on the following tree species used in urban arborization in Curitiba was analysed: Acer negundo, Lagerstroemia indica, Ligustrum lucidum, Parapiptadenia rigida, Cassia leptophylla, Syagrus romanzoffi ana, Tabebuia alba, Tabebuia chrysotricha, Tabebuia heptaphylla, and Tipuana tipu. A total of 84 species are reported, from which 14 are recorded for the fi rst time in Paraná State and Flavoparmelia soredians is recorded for the fi rst time in Brazil. Parmeliaceae was the best represented family, with 45 species distributed in nine genera, followed by Physciaceae with 24 species in six genera. The native tree species showed greater lichen species richness and a higher number of exclusive lichen species than the exotic tree species. The highest lichen species richness was found in Tabebuia chrysotricha with 62 taxa, followed by Syagrus romanzoffi ana with 47. Candelaria concolor, Canoparmelia crozalsiana, Canoparmelia texana, Dirinaria applanata, Dirinaria confl uens, Heterodermia obscurata, Myelochroa lindmanii, Parmotrema pilosum, Physcia poncinsii, Punctelia borreri, Punctelia reddenda, Pyxine subcinerea, Ramalina celastri and Ramalina peruviana are suggested as macrolichen species with the greatest potential for future biomonitoring studies of air quality in Curitiba.

  20. Evaluation of radiocesium concentrations in new leaves of wild plants two years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Sugiura, Yuki; Shibata, Michihiro; Ogata, Yoshimune; Ozawa, Hajime; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato


    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) transfer to plants immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated by collecting newly emerged leaf and soil samples between May 2011 and November 2012 from 20 sites in the Fukushima prefecture. Radiocesium concentrations in leaf and soil samples were measured to calculate concentration ratios (CR). Woody plants exhibited high CR values because (137)Cs deposited on stems and/or leaves were transferred to newly emerging tissues. The CR values in 2012 declined as compared to that in 2011. Exchangeable (137)Cs rates in soil (extraction rate) samples were measured at five sites. These rates decreased at four sites in 2012 and depended on environmental conditions and soil type. Both CR values and extraction rates decreased in 2012. However, CR values reflected the changes in extraction rates and characteristics of each species. Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Polygonaceae, which had been identified as Cs accumulators, presented no clear (137)Cs accumulation ability. In 2012, the perennial plant Houttuynia cordata and deciduous trees Chengiopanax sciadophylloides and Acer crataegifolium displayed high CR values, indicating that these species are (137)Cs accumulators and may be considered as potential species for phytoremediation.


    C. Brullo


    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the class Querco-Fagetea sylvaticae in Sicily, based on literature data and unpublished relevés, is presented. This class groups the mesophilous woods characterized by the dominance of deciduous trees (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Quercus sp. pl., Acer sp. pl., and more rarely by conifers (Taxus baccata, Pinus nigra subsp. calabrica, as well as by other broadleaved trees, such as Betula aetnensis, Populus tremula, Castanea sativa. In Sicily, these woody communities are widespread in the northern and north-eastern districts of the island, chiefly on the highest peaks (Madonie, Nebrodi, Peloritani, and Etna. This class is represented in Sicily by two, both floristically and ecologically well differentiated orders: Fagetalia sylvaticae, with the sole alliance Geranio versicoloris-Fagion sylvaticae, and Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae, with the endemic alliance Pino calabricae-Quercion congestae. On the whole, 22 associations have been recognized within the class Querco-Fagetea and for each of them nomenclature, floristic assessment, ecology, syndinamic relationships, and chorology are examined.

  2. Touch Interaction with 3D Geographical Visualization on Web: Selected Technological and User Issues

    Herman, L.; Stachoň, Z.; Stuchlík, R.; Hladík, J.; Kubíček, P.


    The use of both 3D visualization and devices with touch displays is increasing. In this paper, we focused on the Web technologies for 3D visualization of spatial data and its interaction via touch screen gestures. At the first stage, we compared the support of touch interaction in selected JavaScript libraries on different hardware (desktop PCs with touch screens, tablets, and smartphones) and software platforms. Afterward, we realized simple empiric test (within-subject design, 6 participants, 2 simple tasks, LCD touch monitor Acer and digital terrain models as stimuli) focusing on the ability of users to solve simple spatial tasks via touch screens. An in-house testing web tool was developed and used based on JavaScript, PHP, and X3DOM languages and Hammer.js libraries. The correctness of answers, speed of users' performances, used gestures, and a simple gesture metric was recorded and analysed. Preliminary results revealed that the pan gesture is most frequently used by test participants and it is also supported by the majority of 3D libraries. Possible gesture metrics and future developments including the interpersonal differences are discussed in the conclusion.

  3. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.


    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  4. Airborne pollen grains in Bursa, Turkey, 1999-2000,.

    Bicakci, Adem; Tatlidil, Sevcan; Sapan, Nihat; Malyer, Hulusi; Canitez, Yakup


    In this study, pollen grains were sampled by using a Lanzoni trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000) in atmosphere of Bursa in 1999 and 2000. During two years. a total of 13,991 pollen grains/m3 which belonged to 59 taxa and unidentified pollen grains were recorded. A total of 7.768 pollen grains were identified in 1999 and a total of 6.223 in 2000. From these taxa, 36 belong to arboreal and 23 taxa to non-arboreal plants. Total pollen grains consist of 78.61% arboreal. 20.37% non-arboreal plants and 1.03% unidentified pollen grains. In the region investigated, Pinus sp., Olea sp., Platanus sp., Gramineae, Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Quercus sp., Acer sp.. Morus sp. Xanthium sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Corvlus sp., Artemisia sp., Urtica sp.and Fraxinus sp. were responsible for the greatest amounts of pollen. During the study period the pollen concentration reached its highest level in April.

  5. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    Shu Yi eShen


    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  6. Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sirisopa, Patcharawan; Mikolo, Bertin; Malterud, Karl E; Wangensteen, Helle; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Paulsen, Berit S; Massamba, Daniel; Duchon, Stephane; Corbel, Vincent; Chandre, Fabrice


    The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii) is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis]), a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis), and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis). The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female), but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  7. Plant resources in seven Jeonju City reservoirs: Osongjae, Gisijae, Sunggokjae, Gujujae, Seounjae, Hwanghakjae and Hacksojae

    Dong-Ok Lim


    Full Text Available The vascular plants of the seven reservoirs of Jeonju City were identified as consisting of 309 taxa; 87 families, 231 genera, 270 species, 35 varieties, and four forms. Eight taxa of endemic Korean plants were identified, including Taxus cuspidata var. caepitosa and Aster koraiensis. Ten taxa of rare and endangered species were identified, including T. cuspidata and Penthorum chinense. A total of 26 taxa of floristic special plants were recorded: class V species (5 taxa included Magnolia kobus and Prunus yedoensis; class IV species (3 taxa included Prunus davidiana and Campanula takesimana; class III species (5 taxa included Acer palmatum and Alisma orientale. The hydrophytes of the seven reservoirs of Jeonju City were investigated and, of a total of 56 taxa, 46 taxa of emerged plants, two taxa of submerged plants, five taxa of floating-leaved plants, and three taxa of floating plants were identified. Thirty-two taxa of naturalized plants were identified. Among these, Sicyos angulatus, Lactuca scariola, Paspalum distichum var. indutum and P. distichum were identified, which are all wild plants that may disturb the ecosystem. The study suggests that these areas require management for the physical removal of these wild plants.

  8. Comparison of Leaf Breakdown for Native and Non-native Riparian Species in Streams Draining Urban, Agricultural, and Forested Land Cover.

    Powers, M. D.; Benfield, E. F.


    Organic matter breakdown rates in streams vary among riparian tree species and are dependent on a variety of in-stream biological, chemical, and physical factors. These factors and the composition and distribution of riparian vegetation are changed by anthropogenic modification of the landscape. This may result in altered energy flow through stream ecosystems that is reflected in changes in organic matter input and breakdown. The goal of this study was to compare leaf breakdown rates between a native (box elder, Acer negundo) and non-native (weeping willow, Salix babylonica) species among three land cover categories: urban, agricultural, and forested. We conducted this study over 14 weeks in 13 streams near Roanoke, Virginia. Box elder occurs naturally along disturbed riparian corridors in this region, while weeping willow has been actively planted for its aesthetic value. Our results indicate weeping willow breakdown rates were faster than box elder across all land cover categories. Breakdown rates for both species were slowest in the urban streams, intermediate in agricultural streams, and fastest in forested streams.

  9. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Loehle, C.


    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri


    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  11. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G


    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  12. A Systems Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the Aubrey Reservoir Project on Elm Fork of the Trinity River in North Texas.


    viridis 5 3 1 Morus rubra 13 1 Ulmus americana 2 2 Maclura pomifera 2 Cercis canadensis 6 Acer negundo 1 1 Carya illinoensis 1 Ulmus alata 9 Ulmus rubra... Carya illinoensis 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 Ulmus alata 0.4 0.4 13.6 0 0.0 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.3 0.4 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 q .4 228 Y I Table 17. The species of trees found...viridis 0.3 1.0 13.6 7.2 0.8 1.1 Cercis canadensis 0.1 0.3 9.1 4.4 0.5 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.1 0.3 4.6 3.2 0.4 0.4 Carya illinoensis 0.2 4.6 7.5 0.9 0.2 229

  13. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Roger D. Applegate


    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  14. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz


    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  15. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

    Guarrera Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  16. Effect Size (Cohen's d of Cognitive Screening Instruments Examined in Pragmatic Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

    Andrew J. Larner


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many cognitive screening instruments (CSI are available to clinicians to assess cognitive function. The optimal method comparing the diagnostic utility of such tests is uncertain. The effect size (Cohen's d, calculated as the difference of the means of two groups divided by the weighted pooled standard deviations of these groups, may permit such comparisons. Methods: Datasets from five pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies, which examined the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory test (TYM, and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, were analysed to calculate the effect size (Cohen's d for the diagnosis of dementia versus no dementia and for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia (subjective memory impairment. Results: The effect sizes for dementia versus no dementia diagnosis were large for all six CSI examined (range 1.59-1.87. For the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia, the effect sizes ranged from medium to large (range 0.48-1.45, with MoCA having the largest effect size. Conclusion: The calculation of the effect size (Cohen's d in diagnostic accuracy studies is straightforward. The routine incorporation of effect size calculations into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration in order to facilitate the comparison of the relative value of CSI.

  17. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  18. Large ontogenetic declines in intra-crown leaf area index in two temperate deciduous tree species.

    Nock, C A; Caspersen, J P; Thomas, S C


    The widespread occurrence of age-related changes in leaf morphology and allocation suggests that the leaf area index of individual trees (intra-crown LAI) may decline late in ontogeny. We used direct, within-canopy measurements to quantify the LAI of canopy trees with exposed crowns of two temperate deciduous species. Intra-crown LAI declined from approximately 7 to 4 in Acer saccharum, and from approximately 9.5 to 6.5 in Betula alleghaniensis, as tree size increased (from 15 to 72 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]). For A. saccharum, age (which varied from 30 to 160 years) was a significantly better predictor of LAI decline than dbh. We also modeled the effect of ontogenetic declines in LAI on understory light availability and found that light transmission increases significantly as canopy trees grow and mature. Our results thus suggest that gradual declines in LAI with tree age may play an important and overlooked role in contributing to the heterogeneity of sub-canopy light regimes in mature forests.

  19. Electrostatic forces in wind-pollination—Part 1: Measurement of the electrostatic charge on pollen

    Bowker, George E.; Crenshaw, Hugh C.

    Under fair weather conditions, a weak electric field exists between negative charge induced on the surface of plants and positive charge in the air. This field is magnified around points (e.g. stigmas) and can reach values up to 3×10 6 V m -1. If wind-dispersed pollen grains are electrically charged, the electrostatic force (which is the product of the pollen's charge and the electric field at the pollen's location) could influence pollen capture. In this article, we report measurements of the electrostatic charge carried by wind-dispersed pollen grains. Pollen charge was measured using an adaptation of the Millikan oil-drop experiment for seven anemophilous plants: Acer rubrum, Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus deodara, Juniperus virginiana, Pinus taeda, Plantago lanceolata and Ulmus alata. All species had charged pollen, some were positive others negative. The distributions (number of pollen grains as a function of charge) were bipolar and roughly centered about zero although some distributions were skewed towards positive charges. Most pollen carried small amounts of charge, 0.8 fC in magnitude, on average. A few carried charges up to 40 fC. For Juniperus, pollen charges were also measured in nature and these results concurred with those found in the laboratory. For nearly all charged pollen grains, the likelihood that electrostatics influence pollen capture is evident.

  20. Impact of host tree on forest tent caterpillar performance and offspring overwintering mortality.

    Trudeau, M; Mauffette, Y; Rochefort, S; Han, E; Bauce, E


    One of the most damaging insect pests in deciduous forests of North America is the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner. It can feed on a variety of plants, but trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) is its preferred host and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) serves as a secondary one in the northern part of its distribution. Because host plant characteristics influence insect performance and survival, we evaluated the impact of trembling aspen and sugar maple foliage on M. disstria performance. Host effects on insect cold hardiness and overwintering survival of offspring were also studied. Forest tent caterpillar reared on aspen leaves had a shorter development time, higher pupal weights and fecundity, and superior egg parameters (length and weight) compared with those reared on sugar maple leaves. Larvae from the two food treatments had low glucose levels during diapause, whereas glycerol content of insects reared on maple was significantly higher during diapause than larvae fed on aspen. Lower glycerol content may explain the higher overwinter mortality of pharate larvae from aspen-reared parents even though their supercooling points were as low as -36 degrees C. This study shows the influence of host plant on insect life history and the need to consider overwintering success and offspring performance in studies to understand and predict population growth and cycling.

  1. Impacts of leaves, roots, and earthworms on soil organic matter composition and distribution in sycamore maple stands

    Rivera, N.; Mueller, K. E.; Mueller, C. W.; Oleksyn, J.; Hale, C.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.


    The relative contributions of leaf and root material to soil organic matter (SOM) are poorly understood despite the importance of constraining SOM sources to conceptual and numeric models of SOM dynamics. Selective ingestion and bioturbation of litter and soil by earthworms can alter the fate and spatial distribution of OM in soils, including stabilization pathways of leaf and root litter. However, studies on the contributions of leaves, roots, and earthworms to SOM dynamics are rare. In 3 stands of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) with minimal O horizon development and high earthworm activity, we sampled surface litter (> 2 mm) from the Oi horizon, fine roots (cutin was low relative to plant litter, confirming the often-observed selective preservation of aliphatic over aromatic biomolecules. The ratio of lignin to cutin/suberin acids in earthworm casts was also low; based on the minimal extent of decomposition in casts evident by lignin acid to aldehyde ratios, we attribute this to selective ingestion by L. terrestris of leaf litter rich in aliphatic biomolecules at the expense of woody debris and petioles rich in lignin, rather than selective preservation.

  2. Differential anatomical responses to elevated CO2 in saplings of four hardwood species.

    Watanabe, Yoko; Satomura, Takami; Sasa, Kaichiro; Funada, Ryo; Koike, Takayoshi


    To determine whether an elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) can induce changes in the wood structure and stem radial growth in forest trees, we investigated the anatomical features of conduit cells and cambial activity in 4-year-old saplings of four deciduous broadleaved tree species - two ring-porous (Quercus mongolica and Kalopanax septemlobus) and two diffuse-porous species (Betula maximowicziana and Acer mono) - grown for three growing seasons in a free-air CO(2) enrichment system. Elevated [CO(2)] had no effects on vessels, growth and physiological traits of Q. mongolica, whereas tree height, photosynthesis and vessel area tended to increase in K. septemlobus. No effects of [CO(2)] on growth, physiological traits and vessels were seen in the two diffuse-porous woods. Elevated [CO(2)] increased larger vessels in all species, except B. maximowicziana and number of cambial cells in two ring-porous species. Our results showed that the vessel anatomy and radial stem growth of Q. mongolica, B. maximowicziana and A. mono were not affected by elevated [CO(2)], although vessel size frequency and cambial activity in Q. mongolica were altered. In contrast, changes in vessel anatomy and cambial activity were induced by elevated [CO(2)] in K. septemlobus. The different responses to elevated [CO(2)] suggest that the sensitivity of forest trees to CO(2) is species dependent.

  3. The Application of Plant Gene Barcode Technology in the Investigation of a Traffic Accident%植物DNA条形码技术用于交通命案的调查

    雷湘华; 周倩; 高必达


    目的以rDNA-ITS序列片段为植物DNA条形码,对涉及一例交通命案的植物检材进行种属鉴定,判断三轮车左侧车体上提取的树皮样物质与农用车所运的树木是否为同一树种.方法采用改良CTAB法提取植物DNA,先将DNA纯化,再进行rDNA-ITS的PCR扩增,然后对PCR产物切胶、回收,克隆、测序,对测序结果进行BLAST分析,并构建系统发育树.结果三轮车上粘附的树皮来源于柑橘(Citrus sunki),农用车所运的树木为界山三角槭(Acer buergerianum),两者非同一种属.结论用rDNA-ITS序列片段用作植物DNA条形码对植物种属进行鉴定,可获得可靠的鉴定意见.

  4. Significado físico del correlador de n puntos en perturbaciones cosmológicas

    Heíner R. S. Cogollo


    Full Text Available Resumen. Los avances realizados en materia de mediciones en la temper atu- ra de la radiación cósmica de fondo (RCF prometen cotas de me dición, en particular en la amplitud del espectro P ζ de la perturbación primordial en la curvatura ζ , su respectivo índice espectral n ζ , y nivel de no gaussianidad f NL , que permitirían una mayor discriminación entre modelos co smológicos inflacionarios propuestos para la explicación del origen de la estructura a gran escala de nuestro Universo. La herramienta utilizada p ara indagar acer- ca de las propiedades estadísticas de las anisotropías en la temperatura de la RCF y los modelos teóricos construidos para describir tal es anisotropías, son los correladores de n puntos en perturbaciones cosmológicas tales como ζ . Este trabajo pretende interpretar el significado del corre lador de n puntos en perturbaciones cosmológicas, poniendo de manifiesto su c ontenido físico como un promedio espacial. Como consecuencia se obtiene una expresión para P ζ , y se analizan las implicaciones de esta interpretación en e l cálculo de f NL .

  5. Urban tree effects on soil organic carbon.

    Edmondson, Jill L; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Inger, Richard; Potter, Jonathan; McHugh, Nicola; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R


    Urban trees sequester carbon into biomass and provide many ecosystem service benefits aboveground leading to worldwide tree planting schemes. Since soils hold ∼75% of ecosystem organic carbon, understanding the effect of urban trees on soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil properties that underpin belowground ecosystem services is vital. We use an observational study to investigate effects of three important tree genera and mixed-species woodlands on soil properties (to 1 m depth) compared to adjacent urban grasslands. Aboveground biomass and belowground ecosystem service provision by urban trees are found not to be directly coupled. Indeed, SOC enhancement relative to urban grasslands is genus-specific being highest under Fraxinus excelsior and Acer spp., but similar to grasslands under Quercus robur and mixed woodland. Tree cover type does not influence soil bulk density or C∶N ratio, properties which indicate the ability of soils to provide regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and flood mitigation. The trends observed in this study suggest that genus selection is important to maximise long-term SOC storage under urban trees, but emerging threats from genus-specific pathogens must also be considered.

  6. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran



    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Asgari F, Reif A, Abedi R. 2012. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 72-78. In this study, the effect of plantations on plant species diversity was investigated in Darabkola, Mazandaran province, north of Iran. To conduct the study, a natural mixed forest, a broad–leaved plantation (Alnus subcordata-Acer velutinum and a coniferous plantation (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis-Pinus brutia were selected. 35 sampling plots were taken in systematic random method in each area. Data analysis was carried out using Simpson, Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Mc Arthur's N1 diversity indices, Smith and Wilson evenness index and species richness. Results revealed that there were 32 plant species in natural forest and 30 plant species were found in each plantation. Rosaceae and Lamiaceae were the main families in the studied areas. Diversity and evenness indices of all vegetation layers had the most values in the natural forest. Richness of woody plants had the highest value in the natural forest, while herbaceous richness was the highest in coniferous plantation. Mc Arthur's N1 had the highest value among diversity indices and followed by Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices, respectively. In addition, results showed that there were significant differences among diversity, evenness and richness indices in all vegetation layers in the three studied areas.

  7. Research on Diurnal Variations of Photosynthesis and Adaptability of Four Sylvicultural Trees in Karst Area, Southwest China%西南喀斯特地区四种造林树种光合作用日变化及生态适应性研究

    殷庆仓; 宋同清; 彭晚霞; 曾馥平


    以西南喀斯特地区4种造林树种茶条木(Delavaya toxocarpa)、樟叶槭(Acer albopurpurascens)、狗骨木(Cornus wilsoniana)、无患子(Sapindu smukorossi)为研究对象,分12个月每月于自然条件下利用Li-6400便携式光合测定系统测定了植物叶片气孔气体交换的相关特征和环境因子的日变化,以分析树种的生态适应性.结果表明:4种植物的净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)日变化趋势均呈"双峰"曲线,中午出现光合"午休"均为非气孔因素限制,12:00~15:00光合速率降低则主要受气孔因素限制;水分利用效率(WUE)总体上呈递减趋势,傍晚C0升高在一定程度上促进了水分利用效率的提高;对Pn影响最为显著的生态生理因子为Par、Gs,其次为Ci、Rh、Ta;茶条木、狗骨木Pn、WUE均相对较高,4种植物的初步适应性评价为:茶条木>狗骨木>樟叶槭>无患子.%Delavaya toxocarpa, Acer albopurpurascens, Comus wilsoniana and Sapindus smukorossi being sylvicultural trees in karst area in Southwest China, were chosen for the study on diurnal variation of stomatal gas exchange and environmental factors by the Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system. Measurements demonstrated that the diurnal curves of net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of all the four trees had two peaks and indicated evident of midday-depression, non-stomatal limitation may likely be a course of the midday decline of the photosynthetic efficiency, while the decline of the photosyntheti efficiency at 12:00 to 15:00 may be attributed to stomatal limitation. The water use efficiency (WUE) was in a descending status as a whole, and CO2 increase in the evening to some extent, contributed to the improvement of water use efficiency. The eeo-physiological factors with the greatest effects on Pn was Par and Gs, followed by Ci、Rh and Ta. The values of Ph and WUE ofD. toxocarpa and C. wilsoniana were

  8. 不同药剂和不同施药方法防治农田灰巴蜗牛效果评价%Evaluation of the control efficiency of various molluscicides with different application techniques to Bradybaena ravida in farmland

    马丽; 弓利英; 袁水霞; 王素平; 刘松涛; 王应君; 封洪强


    一些蜗牛常栖息在高大植株上活动为害,为探索其有效防治方法,分别在玉米田及美国红枫(Acer rubrum L.)园选用5种杀软体动物剂进行喷雾法(在玉米田仅对植株喷雾、在美国红枫园对树体和地面喷雾)和撒粒法的防效对比试验。重复测量方差分析结果表明:26%四聚·杀螺胺悬浮剂1.125 L/hm2、45%三苯基乙酸锡可湿性粉剂1.125 kg/hm2、70%杀螺胺乙醇胺盐可湿性粉剂0.75 kg/hm2、40%四聚乙醛悬浮剂1.125 L/hm2喷雾防治灰巴蜗牛(Bradybaena ravida )的效果均显著高于6%四聚乙醛颗粒剂7.5 kg/hm2地面撒粒的防效。不同药剂不同施用方法的防治效果随用药后时间的增加而降低。用药后第3天,4种喷雾处理在美国红枫上的防效均在90%左右,在玉米上的防效在80%左右。当蜗牛在高大的植株上栖息为害时,可用上述药剂按750 L/hm2的药液用量对植株均匀喷雾,必要时同时进行地面喷雾防效更佳。%Some snails often rest or live on tall plants and cause damage.In order to explore an effective method to control the snails,we compared the efficiency of two different application techniques,i.e.,spraying vs distribu-ting granule,in controlling Bradybaena ravida (Benson)with 5 formula of molluscicides on corn and American red maple (Acer rubrum L.).The repeated measures ANOVA indicated that the control efficiencies of spraying 4 molluscicides,i.e.,26% metaldehyde·niclosamide SC 1.125 L/hm2 ,45% fentin acetate WP 1.125 kg/hm2 , 70% niclosamide clamine WP 0.75 kg/hm2 and 40% metaldehyde SC 1.125 L/hm2 ,were all higher than that of distributing 6% metaldehyde GR 7.5 kg/hm2 .The efficiencies of various molluscicides with different application techniques decreased with elapse of time.The control efficiencies of spraying the 4 molluscicides were 90% on A-merican red maple and 80% on corn at the third day after application.When snails rest or

  9. Study on the gap characteristics and the correlation between gap and gap edge wood of permanent plots in Baotianman Nature Reserve%宝天曼固定样地林窗特征及与林窗边缘木的相关性研究

    庄静静; 刘晓静; 叶永忠; 朱学灵


    The forest gaps of the core area of 25 hm2 fixed monitoring plots in the Baotianman were studied in order to understand deeply the forest gap formation characteristics and the correlation between gap and edge wood in Baotianman Nature Reserve. The result showed that; the CG and EG were 36 and 46 in plot, the average area of CG is 18. 2 m2 , the forest gap area < 15 m2 is the maximum quantity in plot, and 31 -45 m area is the maximum area in plot, respectively 53% and 29% , the average area of EG is 133.6 m2 , the area of 101 ~ 150 m2 has the maximum quantity and area , for 48% and 42% , respectively. Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata is the main gap formation wood in permanent plot, next comes is the Pinus armandii and Acer grosseri, each accounting for 65. 5% ,21. 8% and 3. 6% in forest gap formation it has wood, which reflects the diversity of the species of this area; the less big gaps the area has, the more small gaps; forest gaps were caused by a variety of reasons, such as fallen trees, dead trees or the ground, each forming gaps accounting for 38.9% ,55.6% and 5.5%. Quercus aliena is the main gap edge wood in plot, the diameters at breast height ranging from 20 to 50 cm, 30 to 40 cm are the maximum of number.%为了深入理解宝天曼保护区内林窗的形成特征及其形成与林窗边缘木的关系,对核心区内25 hm2固定监测样地的林窗进行了研究.结果表明,样地内林冠林窗(CG)和扩展林窗(EG)分别为36个和46个,CG的平均面积为18.2 m2,以<15 m2的数量比最大,而31 ~45 m2的面积比最大,分别为53%和29%;EG的平均面积为133.6 m2,以101 ~ 150 m2的数量比和面积比最大,分别为48%和42%;林窗形成木主要以锐齿槲栎(Quercus aliena)为主,其次是华山松(Pinus armandi)和葛罗槭(Acer grosseri),各占林窗形成木的65.5%,21.8%和3.6%;倒树、枯树或平地是林窗形成的主要原因,各占形成林窗的8.9%,55.6%,5.5%;林窗边

  10. 北京市常见落叶树种叶片滞纳空气颗粒物功能%Atmospheric Particle Retaining Function of Common Deciduous Tree Species Leaves in Beijing

    王兵; 王晓燕; 牛香; 张维康; 汪金松


    In order to explore the atmospheric particle-retaining function of common deciduous tree species leaves in Beijing, six typical tree species (Populus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Koelreuteria paniculata, Salix babylonica, Acer truncatum, Ginkgo biloba) were chosen to measure retaining amount of unit leaf area of air total suspended particles (TSP), coarse particles and fine particulate with aerosol generator (QRJZFSQ-I). The results showed that ① All six tree species leaves had a certain level of retaining ability to different sizes of atmospheric particles, and different species exhibited some differences. For different sizes of atmospheric particle, retaining amounts of unit leaf area were higher in Koelreuteria paniculata and Robinia pseudoacacia than those of other four species, and the amount of Populus was the lowest among all tree species; ②The retaining amount of unit leaf area for different tree species was not entirely increased with sampling time. The retaining amounts of TSP and coarse particles for all tree species on the eighth day after rain were significantly higher than those on the fifth day after rain, however, the retaining amount of fine particles was not significantly different under different sampling times. In order to select deciduous tree species for ecological management of air pollution in Beijing, Koelreuteria paniculata should be considered as the priority, followed by Robinia pseudoacacia, compared with Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Acer truncatum and Populus.%为了探求北京市常见落叶乔木树种滞纳空气颗粒物的功能,选取了6种典型落叶乔木树种(杨树、刺槐、栾树、垂柳、元宝枫、银杏),利用空气气溶胶再发生器(QRJZFSQ-I)测定了不同树种单位面积叶片对空气总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)、粗颗粒物和细颗粒物的滞纳量。结果表明:①6个树种的叶片对不同粒径空气颗粒物均能起到一定的滞纳作用,且不同树种滞纳量表现出较大

  11. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Heput, T.


    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of landscape exploitation and application of wild tree and shrub resources in Mount Yuntai of Jiangsu Province%云台山野生乔灌木资源园林开发利用综合评价

    丁彦芬; 张佳平


    不同野生观赏植物的利用前景良莠不齐,利用综合评价,可使园林开发利用的目的更明确,重点突出,避免无序、任意的选择.选取连云港云台山的80种野生乔木和灌木作为研究对象,采用层次分析法(AHP),建立了包括适应能力、观赏价值和开发价值的3个评价准则层和13个评价因子的评价体系.对其园林开发利用前景进行了综合评价,特别关注树种的生态和美化效用,并获得评价值的排序结果;白木乌桕Sapium japonicum,单叶蔓荆Vitex trifolia var.simplicifolia和大叶胡颓子Elaeagnus macrophylla等25种乔灌木为第1等级资源,多具备各类抗性和较高观赏价值,且多含当地珍稀濒危植物和具备较高科研价值及文化意义的名木古树;社梨Pyrus betulaefolia,茶条槭Acer ginnala和紫金牛Ardisia japonica等25种乔灌木,以及尾叶樱桃Prunus dielsiana,糠椴Tilia mandshurica和楤木Aralia chinensis等30种乔灌木,分别为第2和第3等级资源.通过综合评价.可为云台山及气候型相近地区的野生观赏乔灌木资源的开发利用提供参考.%The application prospect of different wild ornamental plants varies greatly. Comprehensive evaluation can provide clear goals and prominent keys on the landscape exploitation and application avoiding unordered and random selection. A synthetical assessment was established to evaluate the potential on landscape exploitation and application of 80 wild trees and shrubs in Mount Yuntai of Lianyungang based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), which included adaptability, ornamental value, and exploitation value as criterion layers and 13 evaluation factors, especially concerning ecological functions and beautification benefits. Sequence was obtained: 25 species, such as Sapium japonicum, Vitex trifolia var. simplicifolia, Elaeagnus macrophylla, ect, were divided into the first level, most of which have stronger adaptabilities, special ecological

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds from Four Color-leaf Tree Species%四个彩叶树种挥发性有机化合物成分分析

    王金凤; 陈卓梅; 韩素芳; 林飞凡


    Four color-leaf tree species likeLiquidambar formosana,Zelkova serrate,Acer buergerianum andGinkgo biloba were selected for collecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by dynamic headspace air-circulation method. The collected VOCs were identified by the thermal desorption system gas chromatography/mass spectrum (TDS-GC/MS). The result showed that there were 76 types of VOCs from testes tree species, among them, terpenes occupied the major part. 61 types of VOCs were identified fromG. biloba, including 13 terpenes (about 26.31%), mainly longifolene (8.26%) and longifolene-(V4) (7.79%). 31 types of VOCs were identified fromL. formosana, including 13 terpenes,(57.46%), mainly longifolene (35.97%), longicyclene (5.15%), longipinene (3.15%) and cedrene (2.81%). 29 types of VOCs were identified fromZ. serrata, including 12 terpenes(60.03%), mainly longifolene (36.85%), longicyclene (4.52%), cedrene (3.37%), longipinene (2.96%) and caryophyllene (2.73%). 23 types of VOCs were identified fromA. buergerianum, including 11 terpenes(72.67%), mainly longifolene (47%),α-pinene (7.13%), longicyclene (5.23%) and cedrene (2.6%).%选取枫香(Liquidambar formosana)、榉树(Zelkova serrata)、三角槭(Acer buergerianum)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)4个园林绿化中常用的彩色乔木树种,采用动态顶空采集法和TDS-GC-MS联用技术,对其挥发性有机物(VOCs)成分进行分析,结果表明:从4种彩色乔木树种中共鉴定出76种VOCs,萜类化合物是4个彩色乔木树种挥发性有机化合物的主要成分,其中,从银杏中共检测到61种VOCs,含萜类13种,相对含量为26.31%,萜类化合物主要是长叶烯(8.26%)和长叶松萜烯(7.79%);从枫香中共检测出31种VOCs,有萜类13种(57.46%),萜类物质主要是长叶烯(35.97%)、长叶环烯(5.15%)、长叶蒎烯(3.15%)、雪松烯(2.81%);从榉树中共检测出29种VOCs中,含有萜类12种(60.03%),萜

  14. 45S rDNA在多种植物中期染色体上的定位%Physical Mapping of 45S rDNA on Metaphase Chromosomes in Several Plant Species

    刘博; 陈成彬; 李秀兰; 陈瑞阳; 宋文芹


    应用荧光原位杂交技术首次确定了日本小檗(Berberis thunbergii DC)、车前(Plantago major L.)、野芹菜(Sanicula lamelligera Hance)、荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)、槭树(Acer buergerianum Miq.)、天目琼花(Viburnum sargentii Koehne.)、丹参(Salvia miltorrhiza Bunge.)、榆树(Ulmus pumila L.)中45S rDNA在中期染色体上的位置.根据rDNA的位点数和位置的变化,分为四种类型:①在日本小檗、车前和野芹菜中,荧光信号正好位于随体染色体的次缢痕或端部;②荔枝和槭树,分别有1对和3对染色体具随体,但荧光原位杂交却检测到3对和5对染色体上具有杂交信号;③天目琼花,具有4对随体染色体,但仅在其中一对随体上显示了杂交信号;④在丹参和榆树中,有的杂交信号位于着丝粒部位或长臂的末端,杂交信号的数目成奇数.黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)的染色体45S rDNA信号正好位于6条染色体的着丝粒部位,这与Dal-Hoe和Hoshi等人的结果是一致的.上述结果表明:45S rDNA可以作为染色体的一个识别指标,对识别染色体的个体性具有一定的参考价值.另外还对45S rDNA位点分布的多态性进行了讨论.%The genomic distribution of ribosomal RNA genes has been determined for the first time by fluo rescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in Berberis thunbergii DC. , Plantago major L. , Sanicula lamelligera Hance, Litchi chinensis Sonn. , Acer buergerianum Miq. , Viburnum sargentii Koehne. , Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. , and Ulmus pumila L.. These species could be divided into four groups based on the difference on the number and sites of their rDNA loci: the fluorescence signals lay in the secondary constrictions or the terminal regions of SAT-chromosomes in B. thunbergii, P. major, and S. lamelligera; 3 and 5 pairs of signals were de tected in L. chinensis and A. buergerianum, respectively which had 1 and 3 pairs of satellites respectively ; there were 4 pairs of SAT-chromosomes in V

  15. Study on Winter Survival of the 1-year-old Seedlings of 19 Landscaping Tree Species%19种园林绿化树木1年生播种苗越冬研究

    马晓辉; 刘燕; 王良民


    In this experiment, freezing injuries in winter for the 1-year-old seedlings of 19 landscaping tree species common in the central Shanxi were compared to examine the winter survival ability of landscaping tree seedlings and to provide a practical reference guide for seedling propagation in the area. The results indicated: (1) the 1-year-old seedlings of Acer mono, Platycladus orientalis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Euonymus bungeanus, Koelreuteria paniculata, Gleditsia japonica, Syringa reticulata and Ligustrum obtusifolum could safely survive winter in the area, without or with little freezing injuries. Seedling propagation was appropriate for these species in the area. (2) The seedlings of Firmiana simplex and Hibiscus syriacus suffered most serious freezing injuries, resulting in very low survival rates despite under protection in the winter. Seedling propagation was not appropriate for the two species in the area. (3) The seedlings of Cornus alba, Albizia julibrissin, Pterocarya stenoptera, Acer negundo, Platanus acerifolia, Cercis chinensis, Toona sinensis, Lagerstroemia indica and Catalpa bungei suffered varying degrees of freezing injuries and needed to be observed in the second even third winters to decide if seedling propagation was appropriate for these species in this area. (4) The freezing injury index with properly weighted class 4 could more objectively reflect and compare freezing injuries of the different tree seedlings. The results from this study could provide a practical reference guide for seedling propagation of the 19 species in the area.%为了检测山西中部园林绿化树种播种苗的越冬特性,进而为苗木培育提供实用参考依据,对19种山西中部地区常见的园林绿化树种的1年生播种苗进行了越冬受冻害比较研究.结果表明:(1)五角枫、侧柏、洋白蜡、丝棉木、栾树、山皂荚、暴马丁香和水蜡的1年生播种苗可以在该地区安全越冬,不受冻害影响或受冻害影响很

  16. Inhibitory Activities and Application of Four Plant Essential Oils%4种植物精油的抑菌活性及应用

    邓业成; 宁蕾


    Inhibitory activities of four plant essential oils against eleven animal pathogenic bacteria and environmental mould were determined using broth dilution method and gaseous fumigation. The results showed that The MICs of oils from Litsea mollis , Citrus reticulata, Erigeron acer and Ageratum cony-zoides to the tested animal pathogenic bacteria were 0. 062 5Z~0. 5,0. 125~1 >2~4 and 0- 062 5~0. 125 mL/L,respectively. The inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis,C. reticulata and E. acer were high, and that of A. coNryzoides oil was relatively low. At a dose of 16 μ.L per utensil,the four plant essential oils had inhibition against environmental mould,and the inhibitory activities of oils from L. mollis and C. reticulata were higher than that of another two oils. The oils of L, mollis and C. reticulata also had inhibitory effect on mould growth of bread at 27 °C and RH 80%. By studying the formulation of mouth-wash of plant essential oil,the optimum proportion of all components in the mouthwash was confirmed, and the mouthwash of L. mollis essential oil prepared. The removing rate of mouth bacteria by the new mouthwash reached 39. 96% , which was similar to the removing rate by commercial mouthwash and met the demand of industrial product. The principal compounds of four plant essential oils were also identified using GC/MS technique.%采用液体培养基稀释法测定4种植物精油对11种动物病原细菌的最低抑制浓度(MIC),山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油、飞蓬精油和胜红蓟精油的MIC分别为0.062 5~0.5、0.125~1、2~4和0.062 5~0.125mL/L;山苍子精油、南丰蜜橘精油和胜红蓟精油对供试病原细菌的抑菌活性好,飞蓬精油的抑菌活性相对较差.采用气态熏蒸法测定4种植物精油对环境常见霉菌的抑菌效果,当精油剂量为16μL/皿时,4种植物精油对环境霉菌有抑制作用,山苍子精油和南丰蜜橘精油的抑制效果较好(此2种精油在27℃下对面包霉变

  17. Vegetation history of the walnut forests in Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia): natural or anthropogenic origin?

    Beer, Ruth; Kaiser, Franziska; Schmidt, Kaspar; Ammann, Brigitta; Carraro, Gabriele; Grisa, Ennio; Tinner, Willy


    Extensive forests of common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) occur in the mountains of the Fergana and the Chatkal Ranges of Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia), where they form a rich cultural landscape with a mosaic of natural and planted forest stands, fields, pastures, and drier open areas. These remote forests are likely to be an important genetic resource for J. regia, not only for in situ conservation but also as a resource for tree breeding. Pollen and charcoal analyses of the sediments of four lakes and two peat bogs in the core regions of the walnut forests provide new data to infer the vegetation history of the last 6800 years in the Fergana and Chatkal Ranges in Kyrgyzstan. Our results suggest that the potential natural forests or woods in the modern walnut forest region were dominated by Juniperus together with trees of Betula, Fraxinus, Rosaceae, and possibly Acer. A special focus was put on the vegetation history of J. regia, as it has been suggested that the walnut forests of Kyrgyzstan might be a refuge for this tree. However, our results suggest that the stands of J. regia are at the most 2000 years old, most of them even only about 1000 years old and probably of anthropogenic origin, confirming an old legend that is still orally transmitted in Kyrgyzstan. As with other old and widespread cultivated plants, it is not easy to reconstruct the original distribution and determine the borders of the past natural ranges. A review of paleoecological data points to refugia in southern Europe, Syria, Kyrgyzstan, China, and the Himalaya, where Juglans possibly outlived the last glaciation.

  18. Aboveground Net Primary Productivity in a Riparian Wetland Following Restoration of Hydrology

    Melissa Koontz


    Full Text Available This research presents the initial results of the effects of hydrological restoration on forested wetlands in the Mississippi alluvial plain near Memphis, Tennessee. Measurements were carried out in a secondary channel, the Loosahatchie Chute, in which rock dikes were constructed in the 1960s to keep most flow in the main navigation channel. In 2008–2009, the dikes were notched to allow more flow into the secondary channel. Study sites were established based on relative distance downstream of the notched dikes. Additionally, a reference site was established north of the Loosahatchie Chute where the dikes remained unnotched. We compared various components of vegetation composition and productivity at sites in the riparian wetlands for two years. Salix nigra had the highest Importance Value at every site. Species with minor Importance Values were Celtis laevigata, Acer rubrum, and Plantanus occidentalis. Productivity increased more following the introduction of river water in affected sites compared to the reference. Aboveground net primary productivity was highest at the reference site (2926 ± 458.1 g·m−2·year−1, the intact site; however, there were greater increase at the sites in the Loosahatchie Chute, where measurements ranged from 1197.7 ± 160.0 g m−2·year−1·to 2874.2 ± 794.0 g·m−2·year−1. The site furthest from the notching was the most affected. Pulsed inputs into these wetlands may enhance forested wetland productivity. Continued monitoring will quantify impacts of restored channel hydrology along the Mississippi River.

  19. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik


    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  20. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Braun, Mihaly [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Vidic, Andreas [Department fuer Naturschutzbiologie, Vegetations- und Landschaftsoekologie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bogyo, David [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Fabian, Istvan [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tothmeresz, Bela [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)


    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: > We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. > We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. > Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. > Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. > Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  1. Photosynthetic Response of Soybean to Microclimate in 26-Year-Old Tree-Based Intercropping Systems in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    Xiaobang Peng

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of light competition and microclimatic modifications on the net assimilation (NA, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. as an understory crop, three 26-year-old soybean-tree (Acer saccharinum Marsh., Populus deltoides X nigra, Juglans nigra L. intercropping systems were examined. Tree competition reduced photosynthetically active radiation (PAR incident on soybeans and reduced net assimilation, growth and yield of soybean. Soil moisture of 20 cm depth close (< 3 m to the tree rows was also reduced. Correlation analysis showed that NA and soil water content were highly correlated with growth and yield of soybean. When compared with the monoculture soybean system, the relative humidity (RH of the poplar-soybean, silver maple-soybean, and black walnut-soybean intercropped systems was increased by 7.1%, 8.0% and 5.9%, soil water content was reduced by 37.8%, 26.3% and 30.9%, ambient temperature was reduced by 1.3°C, 1.4°C and 1.0°C, PAR was reduced by 53.6%, 57.9% and 39.9%, and air CO2 concentration was reduced by 3.7μmol·mol(-1, 4.2μmol·mol(-1 and 2.8μmol·mol(-1, respectively. Compared to the monoculture, the average NA of soybean in poplar, maple and walnut treatments was also reduced by 53.1%, 67.5% and 46.5%, respectively. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that PAR, ambient temperature and CO2 concentration were the dominant factors influencing net photosynthetic rate.

  2. Predicting tree biomass growth in the temperate-boreal ecotone: Is tree size, age, competition, or climate response most important?

    Foster, Jane R; Finley, Andrew O; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B; Banerjee, Sudipto


    As global temperatures rise, variation in annual climate is also changing, with unknown consequences for forest biomes. Growing forests have the ability to capture atmospheric CO2 and thereby slow rising CO2 concentrations. Forests' ongoing ability to sequester C depends on how tree communities respond to changes in climate variation. Much of what we know about tree and forest response to climate variation comes from tree-ring records. Yet typical tree-ring datasets and models do not capture the diversity of climate responses that exist within and among trees and species. We address this issue using a model that estimates individual tree response to climate variables while accounting for variation in individuals' size, age, competitive status, and spatially structured latent covariates. Our model allows for inference about variance within and among species. We quantify how variables influence aboveground biomass growth of individual trees from a representative sample of 15 northern or southern tree species growing in a transition zone between boreal and temperate biomes. Individual trees varied in their growth response to fluctuating mean annual temperature and summer moisture stress. The variation among individuals within a species was wider than mean differences among species. The effects of mean temperature and summer moisture stress interacted, such that warm years produced positive responses to summer moisture availability and cool years produced negative responses. As climate models project significant increases in annual temperatures, growth of species like Acer saccharum, Quercus rubra, and Picea glauca will vary more in response to summer moisture stress than in the past. The magnitude of biomass growth variation in response to annual climate was 92-95% smaller than responses to tree size and age. This means that measuring or predicting the physical structure of current and future forests could tell us more about future C dynamics than growth responses

  3. Looking for age-related growth decline in natural forests: unexpected biomass patterns from tree rings and simulated mortality.

    Foster, Jane R; D'Amato, Anthony W; Bradford, John B


    Forest biomass growth is almost universally assumed to peak early in stand development, near canopy closure, after which it will plateau or decline. The chronosequence and plot remeasurement approaches used to establish the decline pattern suffer from limitations and coarse temporal detail. We combined annual tree ring measurements and mortality models to address two questions: first, how do assumptions about tree growth and mortality influence reconstructions of biomass growth? Second, under what circumstances does biomass production follow the model that peaks early, then declines? We integrated three stochastic mortality models with a census tree-ring data set from eight temperate forest types to reconstruct stand-level biomass increments (in Minnesota, USA). We compared growth patterns among mortality models, forest types and stands. Timing of peak biomass growth varied significantly among mortality models, peaking 20-30 years earlier when mortality was random with respect to tree growth and size, than when mortality favored slow-growing individuals. Random or u-shaped mortality (highest in small or large trees) produced peak growth 25-30% higher than the surviving tree sample alone. Growth trends for even-aged, monospecific Pinus banksiana or Acer saccharum forests were similar to the early peak and decline expectation. However, we observed continually increasing biomass growth in older, low-productivity forests of Quercus rubra, Fraxinus nigra, and Thuja occidentalis. Tree-ring reconstructions estimated annual changes in live biomass growth and identified more diverse development patterns than previous methods. These detailed, long-term patterns of biomass development are crucial for detecting recent growth responses to global change and modeling future forest dynamics.

  4. 10种亚热带绿化树种净化大气能力初步研究%Preliminary Study on Air Purification of 10 Greening Tree Species

    宋绪忠; 杨华; 邹景泉; 余家中; 潘忠民; 叶华琳; 姚刚


    通过对香樟(Cinnamonum campora)、广玉兰(Magnolia grandiflora)、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、朴树(Celtis sinensis)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)、桂花(Osmanthus fragrans)、马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)、含笑(Michelia figo)、杜鹃(Rhododendron spp.)、三角枫(Acer buergerianum)10种亚热带绿化树种对大气中的粉尘、N、S、Cl 4种有害物质的吸收净化能力的初步测定,结果表明:单位面积滞尘量最高的树种是朴树,氮吸收最高的树种是乌桕,硫吸收最高的树种是银杏,氯吸收最高的树种是杜鹃;乔木树种的全氮含量、全硫含量、单位面积滞尘量都比灌木树种的含量高,但是全氯含量比灌木树种的含量低;落叶树种的各净化指标平均值都比常绿树种的高.%Determinations were conducted on air purification capability of ten greening tree species in Hangzhou. The result demonstrated that Celtis sinensis had the strongest capacity of dust retention, Sapium sebiferum had the best effect of absorption of N, and Ginkgo biloba of S, Rhododendron ssp of Cl. TN, TS, unit area dust retention of arbor species was larger than that of shrub species, except TCL. The air purification cabilities of deciduous trees were higher than that of evergreen trees.

  5. A floristic survey of the Hyrcanian forests in Northern Iran, using two lowland-mountain transects

    Alireza Naqinezhad; Hassan Zare-Maivan; Hamid Gholizadeh


    We investigated the floristic composition of the Hyrcanian forests and the related forest-steppe ecotone in Northern Iran by using two long ecological transects, from lowland to upper mountain areas. The study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 and yielded the identification of 395 plant taxa belonging to 233 genera and 78 families. Dicots with 300 taxa were the richest groups of the flora, followed by monocots with 75 taxa, pteridophytes with 18 species, and gymnosperms with two species. The largest families were Asteraceae (33 taxa); Rosaceae (32 taxa); and Poa-ceae (30 taxa), and the most diverse genera included Carex (15 taxa); Alchemilla (7 taxa); and Poa, Geranium and Acer (6 taxa each). Hemicryptophytes were the most dominant life forms in the area (40%); followed by geo-phytes (31.4%); phanerophytes (15.4%); therophytes (11.4%);and chamaephytes (1.8%). Phytogeographically, Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian elements (86 taxa, 21.8%) and Euro-Siberian elements (85 taxa, 21.5%) were the most common chorotypes in the area. Out of 395 taxa, 66 taxa (16.7%) were endemics and subendemics in Iran, of which 26 taxa were exclusively endemics of Iran. According to the IUCN Red List Categories, 48 threatened plant taxa were found in the study area. Plant diversity, life form, and chorotypes in the current study were compared with similar transect studies in other areas of the Hyrcanian forests and in different altitudinal belts, using Sørenson similarity indices. Floristic composition of the surveyed transects demonstrated almost 50% similarity between them.

  6. Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

    Nevřelová Marta


    Full Text Available Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus. The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7% of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%.

  7. Responses of deciduous trees to elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2]: Productivity, phytochemistry, and insect performance

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.; Platz, C.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))


    Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to directly affect forest ecosystems. This research evaluated the effects of enriched CO[sub 2], on the productivity and phytochemistry of forest trees and performance of associated insects. Our experimental system consisted of three tree species (quaking aspen [Populus tremuloides], red oak [Quercus rubra], sugar maple [Acer saccharum]) and two species of leaf-feeding insects (gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar] and forest tent caterpillar [Malacosma disstria]). Three questions were evaluated: in response to enriched CO[sub 2]: (1) relative increases in tree growth rates (2) relative decreases in protein and increases in carbon-based compounds, and (3) relative reductions in insect performance. Aspen responded the most to enriched CO[sub 2], atmospheres whereas maple responded the least. Proportional growth increases, were highest for oak and least for maple. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2], on biomass allocation patterns differed among the three species. Enriched CO[sub 2], altered concentrations of primary and secondary metabolites in leaves, but the magnitude and direction of effects were species-specific. Consumption rates of insects fed high-CO[sub 2], aspen increased dramatically, but growth rates declined. Gypsy moths grew better on high-CO[sub 2], oak, whereas forest tent caterpillars were unaffected; tent caterpillars grew less on high-CO[sub 2], maple, while gypsy moths were unaffected. Changes in insect performance parameters were related to changes in foliar chemistry. This study illustrates that tree productivity and chemistry, and the performance of associated insects, will change under CO[sub 2], atmospheres predicted for the next century. Changes in higher level ecological processes, such as community structure and nutrient cycling, are also implicated. 61 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per


    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  9. Integration of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Host Plant Identification by the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Yv, Fei L; Hai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Zhigang; Yan, Aihua; Liu, Bingxiang; Bi, Yongguo


    Some insects use host and mate cues, including odor, color, and shape, to locate and recognize their preferred hosts and mates. Previous research has shown that the Asian longicorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), uses olfactory cues to locate host plants and differentiate them from non-host plants. However, whether A. glabripennis adults use visual cues or a combination of visual and olfactory cues remains unclear. In this study, we tested the host location and recognition behavior in A. glabripennis, which infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, Europe and Asia. We determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues from Acer negundo in host plant location and recognition, as well as in the discrimination of non-host plants (Sabina chinensis and Pinus bungeana), by female and male A. glabripennis. Visual and olfactory cues from the host plants (A. negundo), alone and combined, attracted significantly more females and males than equivalent cues from non-host plants (S. chinensis and P. bungeana). Furthermore, the combination of visual and olfactory cues of host plants attracted more adults than either cue alone, and visual cues alone attracted significantly more adults than olfactory cues alone. This finding suggests that adult A. glabripennis has an innate preference for the visual and/or olfactory cues of its host plants (A. negundo) over those of the non-host plant and visual cues are initially more important than olfactory cues for orientation; furthermore, this finding also suggests that adults integrate visual and olfactory cues to find their host plants. Our results indicate that different modalities of host plant cues should be considered together to understand fully the communication between host plants and Asian longhorned beetles.

  10. Quantifying Age-Related Hydraulic and Biochemical Constraints on Tree Photosynthesis in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Missik, J.; Benson, M. C.; Oishi, A. C.; Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C.


    Forest carbon accumulation generally declines with age, a trend largely attributed to reductions in gross primary production (GPP). However, for many species, uncertainty remains about the specific mechanisms limiting GPP. We examine both tree hydraulic and biochemical parameters affecting carbon uptake across a successional gradient in the southern Appalachian Mountains, utilizing a chronosequence approach with 5-, 10-, and 85-year old forest stands. We conducted measurements on four of the dominant species in the region: Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula lenta, Acer rubrum, and Quercus alba. To assess biochemical photosynthetic capacity, we estimated Vcmax and Jmax from over 140 gas exchange A/Ci curves. We determined that leaf gas exchange measurements performed on excised branches of A. saccharum, L. tulipifera, and Q. alba significantly underestimated assimilation by 35, 26, and 63% on average, respectively. Therefore, A/Ci measurements were performed on in situ canopy branches, using an 18 m boom lift to access the tallest trees. We examine how these photosynthetic parameters vary with age, height, and foliar nitrogen content among tree species and canopy positions. In order to investigate hydraulic factors driving stomatal behavior and therefore carbon uptake, we collected measurements of mid-day and pre-dawn leaf water potential (ψmd and ψpd) and xylem cavitation vulnerability. Preliminary results suggest that ψmd-ψpd decreases with along the chronosequence in anisohydric species, whereas ψmd-ψpd increases or remains stable with age/height in isohydric species. These data will be analyzed together with site- and species-specific hydraulic vulnerability data to assess whether the hydraulic safety margin changes with tree age/height, and explore how these patterns vary among species representing different xylem anatomies and a range of isohydric/anisohydric water management strategies. These results will provide improved estimates of common parameters in

  11. The shifting phenological landscape: Within- and between-species variation in leaf emergence in a mixed-deciduous woodland.

    Cole, Ella F; Sheldon, Ben C


    Many organisms rely on synchronizing the timing of their life-history events with those of other trophic levels-known as phenological matching-for survival or successful reproduction. In temperate deciduous forests, the extent of matching with the budburst date of key tree species is of particular relevance for many herbivorous insects and, in turn, insectivorous birds. In order to understand the ecological and evolutionary forces operating in these systems, we require knowledge of the factors influencing leaf emergence of tree communities. However, little is known about how phenology at the level of individual trees varies across landscapes, or how consistent this spatial variation is between different tree species. Here, we use field observations, collected over 2 years, to characterize within- and between-species differences in spring phenology for 825 trees of six species (Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Fagus sylvatica, Betula pendula, Corylus avellana, and Acer pseudoplatanus) in a 385-ha woodland. We explore environmental predictors of individual variation in budburst date and bud development rate and establish how these phenological traits vary over space. Trees of all species showed markedly consistent individual differences in their budburst timing. Bud development rate also varied considerably between individuals and was repeatable in oak, beech, and sycamore. We identified multiple predictors of budburst date including altitude, local temperature, and soil type, but none were universal across species. Furthermore, we found no evidence for interspecific covariance of phenology over space within the woodland. These analyses suggest that phenological landscapes are highly complex, varying over small spatial scales both within and between species. Such spatial variation in vegetation phenology is likely to influence patterns of selection on phenology within populations of consumers. Knowledge of the factors shaping the phenological environments

  12. Air quality in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor


    There has been studied the quality of the surface atmosphere in the mountain climate-balneological resort Kislovodsk (MCBRK) to treat by means of climate and landscape (TCL) of the patients suffering from bronchial asthma (PBA) [1]. 60 children (31 boys and 29 girls at the age of 9-11 years) were examined in the course of 34 days of the resort treatment in MCBRK, PBA (ICD-10 G45,0) in a remission stage. There have been used the data of the long-term bioclimatic monitoring (BCM) that is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol monitoring of IFA RAS, landscape monitoring of SNP in Kislovodsk Resort Park (KRP) as well as the data of medical monitoring, daily testing of meteopathic reactions (MPR), indicators dynamics of bronchial patency, cardiac rhythm, neurovascular reactivity, psychoemotional status of patients. TCL was carried out in the form of walks under the canopy of Betula pendula Roth., Salix f. pendula, acer platanoides globosum, Aesculus hippocastanum L., Phellodendron amurense, Tilia caucasica in KRP daily lasting from 1 till 2 hours. The results of a complex research showed that at TCL in KRP the favourable heat balance had 92% warm relations (TB300C), aerosol growth till 6-12 particles/cm3 in the blocking anti-cyclone. Conclusion: the surface atmosphere in KRP is mainly at the level of background rural territories, it is perspective for usage in the medical and improving purposes. Episodes of slightly polluted surface atmosphere are connected with forest fires, autopollution during the periods of the blocking anti-cyclones. References 1. Resort study of Caucasian Mineral Vody region/Under the general edition of MD, prof. V.V. Uyba. Scientific publication. - Pyatigorsk: PRIC FMBA. Volume 1. - 2009. - 335p; Volume 2. - 2011. - 368p.

  13. Structure of a forested urban park: implications for strategic management.

    Millward, Andrew A; Sabir, Senna


    Informed management of urban parks can provide optimal conditions for tree establishment and growth and thus maximize the ecological and aesthetic benefits that trees provide. This study assesses the structure, and its implications for function, of the urban forest in Allan Gardens, a 6.1 ha downtown park in the City of Toronto, Canada, using the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban Forest Managers (STRATUM). Our goal is to present a framework for collection and analysis of baseline data that can inform a management strategy that would serve to protect and enhance this significant natural asset. We found that Allan Garden's tree population, while species rich (43), is dominated by maple (Acer spp.) (48% of all park trees), making it reliant on very few species for the majority of its ecological and aesthetic benefits and raising disease and pest-related concerns. Age profiles (using size as a proxy) showed a dominance of older trees with an inadequate number of individuals in the young to early middle age cohort necessary for short- to medium-term replacement. Because leaf area represents the single-most important contributor to urban tree benefits modelling, we calculated it separately for every park tree, using hemispheric photography, to document current canopy condition. These empirical measurements were lower than estimates produced by STRATUM, especially when trees were in decline and lacked full canopies, highlighting the importance of individual tree condition in determining leaf area and hence overall forest benefits. Stewardship of natural spaces within cities demands access to accurate and timely resource-specific data. Our work provides an uncomplicated approach to the acquisition and interpretation of these data in the context of a forested urban park.

  14. Light-receiving characteristics of a distributed solar module with a plant shoot configuration

    Obara, Shin' ya; Tanno, Itaru; Shiratori, Taichiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tomakomai National College of Technology, Nishikioka 443, Tomakomai, Hokkaido 0591275 (Japan)


    The object of this study is to develop a solar power generation system with high energy density. In order to improve the energy density of a solar power generation system, compaction of the system (improvement of light-receiving density) and a directive fall (dependency on the solar position is excluded) are required. So, in this study, because the issues described above are resolved, a solar cell module is divided and distributed. In this paper, the relation between the shoot shape of a 'dogwood tree,' 'ginkgo tree,' 'Dendropanax trifidus,' and 'Acer palmatum var. matsumurae' and the light-receiving amount is clarified by numerical analysis, and the optimal solution of each shoot shape and result of the light-receiving density were obtained. Furthermore, the characteristics of variables, such as leaf size, installation location, length of the branch of a leaf, and light-receiving amount of each shoot, were examined. As a result, in the distribution of the solar cell module with the shoot shape of each plant except dogwood, the light-receiving density showed clear improvement compared with the distribution of a square module. Compared with a square leaf, the maximum differences of each light-receiving density of D. trifidus, ginkgo, and A. palmatum var. matsumurae were 2.0 times, 7.4 times, and 6.4 times in January, respectively. On the other hand, they were 1.9 times, 8.7 times, and 7.3 times in July. (author)

  15. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus in a New England forest

    Ahmed A. Siddig


    Full Text Available Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m2 and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]. The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus

  16. Looking for age-related growth decline in natural forests: unexpected biomass patterns from tree rings and simulated mortality

    Foster, Jane R.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.


    Forest biomass growth is almost universally assumed to peak early in stand development, near canopy closure, after which it will plateau or decline. The chronosequence and plot remeasurement approaches used to establish the decline pattern suffer from limitations and coarse temporal detail. We combined annual tree ring measurements and mortality models to address two questions: first, how do assumptions about tree growth and mortality influence reconstructions of biomass growth? Second, under what circumstances does biomass production follow the model that peaks early, then declines? We integrated three stochastic mortality models with a census tree-ring data set from eight temperate forest types to reconstruct stand-level biomass increments (in Minnesota, USA). We compared growth patterns among mortality models, forest types and stands. Timing of peak biomass growth varied significantly among mortality models, peaking 20–30 years earlier when mortality was random with respect to tree growth and size, than when mortality favored slow-growing individuals. Random or u-shaped mortality (highest in small or large trees) produced peak growth 25–30 % higher than the surviving tree sample alone. Growth trends for even-aged, monospecific Pinus banksiana or Acer saccharum forests were similar to the early peak and decline expectation. However, we observed continually increasing biomass growth in older, low-productivity forests of Quercus rubra, Fraxinus nigra, and Thuja occidentalis. Tree-ring reconstructions estimated annual changes in live biomass growth and identified more diverse development patterns than previous methods. These detailed, long-term patterns of biomass development are crucial for detecting recent growth responses to global change and modeling future forest dynamics.

  17. ¿Arqui tec tu ra para quién? ¿Arquitectura para qué?

    Carlos Vera Guardia


    Full Text Available En este dis cur so el au tor pre sen ta una vi sión crítica, filosófica, ética y epistémica de la Arquitec - tura entendida como una disciplina cientí fica y hu - manís tica. En tal sentido Arquitectura es sinónimo de: i representación sim bólica, conceptual y estéti - ca de la rea li dad, ii de sa rro llo de las ba ses ma te ria - les de la vida en su con di ción de há bi tat, y iii com - pro mi so éti co con la de fen sa y pro tec ción de las in - teracciones bióticas y ecológicas entre la naturaleza y el pro gre so hu ma no. ¿Pa ra quién y para qué?, son dos “pre gun tas para pen sar”, acer ca de los fi nes y los me dios que con vier ten a la Arqui tec tu ra en un sa ber in ter pre tar y cons truir el há bi tat de la vida hu - mana desde la perspectiva histó rica, social, am - bien tal, eco nó mi ca y po lí ti ca en la que los se res hu - manos se desenvuelven.

  18. Establishment success of coexisting native and exotic trees under an experimental gradient of irradiance and soil moisture.

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia


    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant. Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  19. Boron toxicity characteristics of four northern California endemic tree species

    Glaubig, B.A.; Bingham, F.T.

    A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the characteristics of soil B toxicity for four tree species endemic to The Geysers area in northern California: digger pine (Pinus sabiniana Dougl. ex D. Don), California laurel (or, California bay) (Umbellularia californica (Hoo. and Arn. Nutt.)), madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh). Significant exponential relationships were found between soil B concentration and relative growth, and between tissue B concentration and relative growth for the four species. Significant linear relationships were found between both soil and tissue B concentration and foliar damage for the four species. Foliar damages over 25% of the leaf or needle area on digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively, occurred at saturated soil extract concentrations (mmol B/L) of 1.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.08. Twenty-five percent foliar damage was associated with leaf or needle tissue concentrations (mmol B/kg) of 115, 100, 50, and 30 for the digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively. Growth decrements of 25% occurred at saturated soil extract concentrations (mmol B/L) of 1.6, 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 for the digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively. Twenty-five percent growth decrements were associated with leaf or needle tissue concentrations (mmol B/kg) of 140, 100, 20, and 7 for the digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively. By comparison with two agronomic crops - cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) - the four tree species were placed into one of six B tolerance classes.

  20. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Schultz, Peter B.; Frank, Steven D.; Chong, Juang H.; Reding, Michael E.


    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  1. Dynamic relationships between microbial biomass, respiration, inorganic nutrients and enzyme activities: informing enzyme based decomposition models

    Daryl L Moorhead


    Full Text Available We re-examined data from a recent litter decay study to determine if additional insights could be gained to inform decomposition modeling. Rinkes et al. (2013 conducted 14-day laboratory incubations of sugar maple (Acer saccharum or white oak (Quercus alba leaves, mixed with sand (0.4% organic C content or loam (4.1% organic C. They measured microbial biomass C, carbon dioxide efflux, soil ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate concentrations, and β-glucosidase (BG, β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG, and acid phosphatase (AP activities on days 1, 3, and 14. Analyses of relationships among variables yielded different insights than original analyses of individual variables. For example, although respiration rates per g soil were higher for loam than sand, rates per g soil C were actually higher for sand than loam, and rates per g microbial C showed little difference between treatments. Microbial biomass C peaked on day 3 when biomass-specific activities of enzymes were lowest, suggesting uptake of litter C without extracellular hydrolysis. This result refuted a common model assumption that all enzyme production is constitutive and thus proportional to biomass, and/or indicated that part of litter decay is independent of enzyme activity. The length and angle of vectors defined by ratios of enzyme activities (BG/NAG versus BG/AP represent relative microbial investments in C (length, and N and P (angle acquiring enzymes. Shorter lengths on day 3 suggested low C limitation, whereas greater lengths on day 14 suggested an increase in C limitation with decay. The soils and litter in this study generally had stronger P limitation (angles > 45˚. Reductions in vector angles to < 45˚ for sand by day 14 suggested a shift to N limitation. These relational variables inform enzyme-based models, and are usually much less ambiguous when obtained from a single study in which measurements were made on the same samples than when extrapolated from separate studies.


    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.


    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive N in N-limited systems and may be capable of incorporating reactive N compounds directly into leaves through the foliar uptake pathway. A proxy for atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation would be useful to estimate the impact of direct foliar N uptake on plant metabolism. Natural abundance foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) is a practical tool for this purpose because plant-available N sources often have different isotopic compositions. Current understanding of foliar δ15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of soil δ15N, direct foliar N uptake, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we estimated the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N patterns in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along an N deposition gradient in New York State. We found that mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ15N in red maple seedlings from 0.03 - 1.01‰ across sites. Along the same temporal and spatial scales, we examined the influence of soil δ15N, foliar N uptake, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in adult stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), red maple (A. rubrum), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Using multiple regression models, atmospheric NO2 concentration explained 0%, 69%, 23%, and 45% of the residual variation in foliar δ15N remaining in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for soil δ15N. Our results suggest that foliar δ15N may be used to estimate pollution-derived atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation via the foliar N uptake pathway.

  3. Projected change in climate thresholds in the Northeastern U.S.: implications for crops, pests, livestock, and farmers

    Chase, L. [Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Hayhoe, K. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Petzoldt, C. [Integrated Pest Management Program, Cornell University, Geneva, NY (United States); Seaman, A. [Integrated Pest Management Program, Cornell University, Geneva, NY (United States); Wolfe, D. W. [Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Most prior climate change assessments for U.S. agriculture have focused on major world food crops such as wheat and maize. While useful from a national and global perspective, these results are not particularly relevant to the Northeastern U.S. agriculture economy, which is dominated by dairy milk production, and high-value horticultural crops such as apples (Malus domestica), grapes (vitis vinifera), sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa), cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), and maple syrup (sugar maple, Acer saccharum). We used statistically downscaled climate projections generated by the HadCM3 atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, run with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change future emissions scenarios Alfi (higher) and B1 (lower), to evaluate several climate thresholds of direct relevance to agriculture in the region. A longer (frostfree) growing season could create new opportunities for farmers with enough capital to take risks on new crops (assuming a market for new crops can be developed). However, our results indicate that many crops will have yield losses associated with increased frequency of high temperature stress, inadequate winter chill period for optimum fruiting in spring, increased pressure from marginally over-wintering and/or invasive weeds, insects, or disease, or other factors. Weeds are likely to benefit more than cash crops from increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Projections of thermal heat index values for dairy cows indicate a substantial potential negative impact on milk production. At the higher compared to lower emissions scenario, negative climate change effects will occur sooner, and impact a larger geographic area within the region. Farmer adaptations to climate change will not be cost- or risk-free, and the impact on individual farm families and rural communities will depend on commodity produced, available capital, and timely, accurate climate projections.

  4. A Grassroots Remote Sensing Toolkit Using Live Coding, Smartphones, Kites and Lightweight Drones.

    K Anderson

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the development of an android-based smartphone application for capturing aerial photographs and spatial metadata automatically, for use in grassroots mapping applications. The aim of the project was to exploit the plethora of on-board sensors within modern smartphones (accelerometer, GPS, compass, camera to generate ready-to-use spatial data from lightweight aerial platforms such as drones or kites. A visual coding 'scheme blocks' framework was used to build the application ('app', so that users could customise their own data capture tools in the field. The paper reports on the coding framework, then shows the results of test flights from kites and lightweight drones and finally shows how open-source geospatial toolkits were used to generate geographical information system (GIS-ready GeoTIFF images from the metadata stored by the app. Two Android smartphones were used in testing-a high specification OnePlus One handset and a lower cost Acer Liquid Z3 handset, to test the operational limits of the app on phones with different sensor sets. We demonstrate that best results were obtained when the phone was attached to a stable single line kite or to a gliding drone. Results show that engine or motor vibrations from powered aircraft required dampening to ensure capture of high quality images. We demonstrate how the products generated from the open-source processing workflow are easily used in GIS. The app can be downloaded freely from the Google store by searching for 'UAV toolkit' (UAV toolkit 2016, and used wherever an Android smartphone and aerial platform are available to deliver rapid spatial data (e.g. in supporting decision-making in humanitarian disaster-relief zones, in teaching or for grassroots remote sensing and democratic mapping.

  5. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.


    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  6. A Grassroots Remote Sensing Toolkit Using Live Coding, Smartphones, Kites and Lightweight Drones.

    Anderson, K; Griffiths, D; DeBell, L; Hancock, S; Duffy, J P; Shutler, J D; Reinhardt, W J; Griffiths, A


    This manuscript describes the development of an android-based smartphone application for capturing aerial photographs and spatial metadata automatically, for use in grassroots mapping applications. The aim of the project was to exploit the plethora of on-board sensors within modern smartphones (accelerometer, GPS, compass, camera) to generate ready-to-use spatial data from lightweight aerial platforms such as drones or kites. A visual coding 'scheme blocks' framework was used to build the application ('app'), so that users could customise their own data capture tools in the field. The paper reports on the coding framework, then shows the results of test flights from kites and lightweight drones and finally shows how open-source geospatial toolkits were used to generate geographical information system (GIS)-ready GeoTIFF images from the metadata stored by the app. Two Android smartphones were used in testing-a high specification OnePlus One handset and a lower cost Acer Liquid Z3 handset, to test the operational limits of the app on phones with different sensor sets. We demonstrate that best results were obtained when the phone was attached to a stable single line kite or to a gliding drone. Results show that engine or motor vibrations from powered aircraft required dampening to ensure capture of high quality images. We demonstrate how the products generated from the open-source processing workflow are easily used in GIS. The app can be downloaded freely from the Google store by searching for 'UAV toolkit' (UAV toolkit 2016), and used wherever an Android smartphone and aerial platform are available to deliver rapid spatial data (e.g. in supporting decision-making in humanitarian disaster-relief zones, in teaching or for grassroots remote sensing and democratic mapping).

  7. BIFoR FACE: A ten-year Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) Experiment in Old Growth Deciduous English Woodland

    Thomas, R. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Ellsworth, D.; Hemming, D.; Crous, K.; Pope, F.; Blaen, P.; Poynter, A.; Hamilton, L.; Blenkhorn, D.; Jarvis-Rouse, F.


    The Birmingham Institute of Forest research (BIFoR) will perform fundamental physical, biological, ecological, social and cultural research of direct relevance to forested landscapes worldwide. A core platform for BIFoR to study the ten-year response of a mature temperate deciduous forest ecosystem to against a large step-change in atmospheric [CO2] is the BIFoR Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment. BIFoR FACE is being established in Mill Haft, a mature (~150 year-old) oak (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) coppice-with-standards woodland in central England. The facility will enable elevated CO2 (eCO2) treatments to be introduced in 30 m diameter rings (3 treatment and 6 control plots), commencing in spring 2016. Under eCO2 conditions primary research questions will investigate carbon uptake and storage, corresponding nutrient limitations, and biodiversity and ecosystem responses. As well as describing the facility and experimental design, we present baseline data collected throughout 2015, prior to fumigation. These data include: biophysical tree properties; atmospheric CO2/H2O fluxes; airborne and ground laser scatterometry; leaf area index; geophysical survey data; phenology camera derivatives; soil and water chemical and physical properties; and invertebrate surveys. Data from an intensive campaign conducted during august 2015 are also shown, including in- and above- canopy characterisation of biogenic VOCs using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer, aerosol loading including bioaerosols, and enhanced atmospheric chemistry. Further campaign results are presented from leaf level photosynthetic carbon-dioxide response curve (A/Ci) performed at different canopy heights on oak trees, and on the dominant understory species - hazel and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatinus) across the site. BIFoR FACE is an exciting new international facility for forest science - ideas for collaborations are encouraged. Please see http

  8. BIFoR FACE: A Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) facility in old-growth temperate deciduous woodland

    MacKenzie, Rob; Thomas, Rick; Ellsworth, David; Hemming, Debbie; Crous, Kristine; Blaen, Phillip; Poynter, Alex; Blenkhorn, Daniel; Pope, Francis


    The Birmingham Institute of Forest research (BIFoR) focuses on fundamental physical, biological, ecological, social and cultural research of direct relevance to forested landscapes worldwide. A core platform for BIFoR is a Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) facility, with which we study the ten-year response of a mature temperate deciduous forest ecosystem to a 150-ppmv step-change in atmospheric [CO2]. BIFoR FACE is being established in Mill Haft, a mature (~150 year-old) oak (Quercus robur) and hazel (Corylus avellana) coppice-with-standards woodland in central England, UK. The facility enables elevated CO2 (eCO2) treatments to be introduced in 30 m diameter rings (3 treatment plots, 3 fully-replicated control plots, and 3 unmodified ambient controls). Primary research questions focus on carbon uptake and storage, corresponding nutrient limitations, and biodiversity and ecosystem responses to elevated CO2. Here we describe the facility and experimental design, and present baseline data collected through the growing season of 2015. These data include: biophysical tree properties; atmospheric CO2/H2O fluxes; airborne and ground laser scatterometry; leaf area index; geophysical survey data; canopy phenology; soil and water chemical and physical properties; and invertebrate surveys. Data from an intensive campaign conducted during august 2015 are also shown, including in- and above- canopy characterisation of biogenic VOCs using a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer, aerosol loading including bioaerosols, and air quality. Further campaign results are presented from leaf level photosynthetic carbon-dioxide response curve (A/Ci) performed at different canopy heights on oak trees, and on the dominant understory species - hazel and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) across the site. BIFoR FACE is intended to be an international facility for forest science - ideas for collaborations are encouraged. Please see http

  9. Visualizing the Stability of Char: Molecular- to Micron-scale Observations of Char Incubated in a Tropical Soil

    Heckman, K. A.; Ramon, C.; Weber, P. K.; Torn, M. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Nico, P. S.


    The persistence of pyrogenic materials (hereafter referred to as char) in terrestrial ecosystems is of interest both from a carbon cycle modelling perspective and a climate change mitigation standpoint. However, the fate of newly introduced char in soils remains unclear. Recent reviews attempting to summarize trends in char decomposition have come to differing conclusions, further stressing the complexity of factors dictating char stability in soils. The current dataset specifically addresses the stability of char additions to a tropical clay-rich soil, possible priming effects, and interactions among char, microbial communities and the mineral matrix. 13C- and 15N-labeled Acer rubrum(red maple) wood was combusted at 400°C and added to surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soils from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Soils were incubated for 13 and 345 days at 26°C. Following incubation, intact microaggregates were frozen and cryosectioned into thin sections of approximately 5 μm thickness and mounted on gold-coated quartz slides. Thin sections were examined by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS). The combination of these μm to nm scale techniques allowed us to create corresponding spatial maps of native organic matter, char, and mineral phase distribution, track spatial variability in organic matter molecular structure, and dispersion of 13C and 15N isotopic labels. We present preliminary results indicating a high degree of stability of char in these wet tropical soils throughout the incubation period, suggesting that applied char may persist for long periods of time in similar soils.

  10. Non-Native Ambrosia Beetles as Opportunistic Exploiters of Living but Weakened Trees.

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Frank, Steven D; Chong, Juang H; Reding, Michael E


    Exotic Xylosandrus spp. ambrosia beetles established in non-native habitats have been associated with sudden and extensive attacks on a diverse range of living trees, but factors driving their shift from dying/dead hosts to living and healthy ones are not well understood. We sought to characterize the role of host physiological condition on preference and colonization by two invaders, Xylosandrus germanus and Xylosandrus crassiusculus. When given free-choice under field conditions among flooded and non-flooded deciduous tree species of varying intolerance to flooding, beetles attacked flood-intolerant tree species over more tolerant species within 3 days of initiating flood stress. In particular, flood-intolerant flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) sustained more attacks than flood-tolerant species, including silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor). Ethanol, a key host-derived attractant, was detected at higher concentrations 3 days after initiating flooding within stems of flood intolerant species compared to tolerant and non-flooded species. A positive correlation was also detected between ethanol concentrations in stem tissue and cumulative ambrosia beetle attacks. When adult X. germanus and X. crassiusculus were confined with no-choice to stems of flood-stressed and non-flooded C. florida, more ejected sawdust resulting from tunneling activity was associated with the flood-stressed trees. Furthermore, living foundresses, eggs, larvae, and pupae were only detected within galleries created in stems of flood-stressed trees. Despite a capability to attack diverse tree genera, X. germanus and X. crassiusculus efficiently distinguished among varying host qualities and preferentially targeted trees based on their intolerance of flood stress. Non-flooded trees were not preferred or successfully colonized. This study demonstrates the host-selection strategy exhibited by X. germanus and X. crassiusculus in non-native habitats involves

  11. Long term evolution of tree growth, understorey vegetation and soil properties in a silvopastoral system of northern Greece

    S.F. Gakis


    Full Text Available Tree growth, understorey characteristics and soil parameters were evaluated in a silvopastoral system in northern Greece at seven and twelve years after its establishment. The experiment was laid out in 1992 and included three understorey treatments (grass, legume and control- unsown, two tree species - sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and two tree spacings (2.5 x 2.5 m and 3.5 x 3.5 m. Tree height was taller in the control and in the dense stands while Scots pine had better growth but, higher mortality than sycamore in the both periods. In 2004, understorey vegetation was uniform under the three understorey treatments and a significant decrease in sward above ground biomass was recorded under the dense treatment, compared with the open stand. In the same year, organic C and N, Mg and K concentrations as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore numbers were found significantly higher under sycamore than Scots pine plots in the 0-20 cm soil depth. The results show that, although understorey vegetation became uniform over time, the initial plant composition of the understorey treatments continued to affect tree growth, indicating the importance of the understorey vegetation at the establishment stage of silvopastoral systems. However, as time passed initial tree spacing started to affect tree growth and tree species, particularly sycamore to improve soil properties. These results indicate an evolution of the initial silvopastoral system to a forest.

  12. A novel sucrose synthase pathway for sucrose degradation in cultured sycamore cells.

    Huber, S C; Akazawa, T


    Enzymes of sucrose degradation and glycolysis in cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells were assayed and characterized in crude extracts and after partial purification, in an attempt to identify pathways for sucrose catabolism. Desalted cell extracts contained similar activities (20-40 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) of sucrose synthase, neutral invertase, glucokinase, fructokinase, phosphofructokinase, and UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase (assayed with 2 micromolar pyrophosphate (PPi). PPi-linked phosphofructokinase activity was virtually dependent upon fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and the maximum activity exceeded that of ATP-linked phosphofructokinase. Hexokinase activity, with glucose as substrate, was highly specific for ATP, whereas fructokinase activity was relatively nonspecific. At 1 millimolar nucleoside triphosphate, fructokinase activity decreased in the order: UTP > ATP > CTP > GTP. We propose two pathways for sucrose degradation. One involves invertase action, followed by classical glycolysis of hexose sugars, and the other is a novel pathway initiated by sucrose synthase. The K(m) for sucrose of sucrose synthase was severalfold lower than that of neutral invertase (15 versus 65 millimolar), which may determine carbon partitioning between the two pathways. The sucrose synthase pathway proposed involves cycling of uridylates and PPi. UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase, which is shown to be an effective ;PPi-scavenger,' would consume PPi and form UTP. The UTP could be then utilized in the UTP-linked fructokinase reaction, thereby forming UDP for sucrose synthase. The source of PPi is postulated to arise from the back reaction of PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Sycamore cells contained a substantial endogenous pool of PPi (about 3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, roughly 1/10 the amount of ATP in these cells), and sufficient fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (0.09 nanomole per gram fresh weight) to activate the PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Possible

  13. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: I. The Macromolecular Components of the Walls of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells with a Detailed Analysis of the Pectic Polysaccharides.

    Talmadge, K W; Keegstra, K; Bauer, W D; Albersheim, P


    This is the first in a series of papers dealing with the structure of cell walls isolated from suspension-cultured sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus). These studies have been made possible by the availability of purified hydrolytic enzymes and by recent improvements in the techniques of methylation analysis. These techniques have permitted us to identify and quantitate the macromolecular components of sycamore cell walls. These walls are composed of 10% arabinan, 2% 3,6-linked arabinogalactan, 23% cellulose, 9% oligo-arabinosides (attached to hydroxyproline), 8% 4-linked galactan, 10% hydroxyproline-rich protein, 16% rhamnogalacturonan, and 21% xyloglucan.The structures of the pectic polymers (the neutral arabinan, the neutral galactan, and the acidic rhamnogalacturonan) were obtained, in part, by methylation analysis of fragments of these polymers which were released from the sycamore walls by the action of a highly purified endopolygalacturonase. The data suggest a branched arabinan and a linear 4-linked galactan occurring as side chains on the rhamnogalacturonan. Small amounts or pieces of a xyloglucan, the wall hemicellulose, appear to be covalently linked to some of the galactan chains. Thus, the galactan appears to serve as a bridge between the xyloglucan and rhamnogalacturonan components of the wall.The rhamnogalacturonan consists of an alpha-(1 --> 4)-linked galacturonan chain which is interspersed with 2-linked rhamnosyl residues. The rhamnosyl residues are not randomly distributed in the chain but probably occur in units of rhamnosyl- (1 --> 4)-galacturonosyl- (1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl. This sequence appears to alternate with a homogalacturonan sequence containing approximately 8 residues of 4-linked galacturonic acid. About half of the rhamnosyl residues are branched, having a substituent attached to carbon 4. This is likely to be the site of attachment of the 4-linked galactan.The hydroxyprolyl oligo-arabinosides of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein

  14. Partial base-methylation and other structural differences in the 17 S ribosomal RNA of sycamore cells during growth in cell culture.

    Miassod, R; Cecchini, J P


    Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cytoplasmic rRNA was investigated in rapidly dividing cells, cells starting mitosis after the lag phase of growth (4 days) induced by deconditioning of the culture medium and also in growth-arrested cells from 10 day-old cultures deprived of exogenous auxin (i.e. exponential, early exponential and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-deprived cultures). rRNA was extracted and purified from mixed 14C-labelled exponential cultures and 3H-labelled early exponential cultures. A 14C-labelled exponential culture and a 3H-labelled 2,4-D-deprived culture were analyzed in the same way. The 17 S rRNA molecules from both early exponential and 2,4-D-deprived cultures displayed a lower electrophoretic mobility on polyacrylamide gels than those from exponential cultures. Alkaline and acid hydrolysates of purified 17 S rRNA labelled on the phosphate groups or the methyl groups were analyzed on ion-exchange resins. There was no change in the extent of ribose methylation of the molecule from the three different cultures. However, the base methylation of the 17 S rRNA was decreased in early exponential cultures and in 2,4-D-deprived cultures. Part of the molecules synthesized in early exponential cultures specifically lacked 7-methylguanine, N6-methyladenine and N6,N6-dimethyladenine. The possible significance of these changes in the 17 S rRNA were discussed.

  15. Quantifying flooding regime in floodplain forests to guide river restoration

    Christian O. Marks


    Full Text Available Abstract Determining the flooding regime needed to support distinctive floodplain forests is essential for effective river conservation under the ubiquitous human alteration of river flows characteristic of the Anthropocene Era. At over 100 sites throughout the Connecticut River basin, the largest river system in New England, we characterized species composition, valley and channel morphology, and hydrologic regime to define conditions promoting distinct floodplain forest assemblages. Species assemblages were dominated by floodplain-associated trees on surfaces experiencing flood durations between 4.5 and 91 days/year, which were generally well below the stage of the two-year recurrence interval flood, a widely-used benchmark for floodplain restoration. These tree species rarely occurred on surfaces that flooded less than 1 day/year. By contrast abundance of most woody invasive species decreased with flooding. Such flood-prone surfaces were jointly determined by characteristics of the hydrograph (high discharges of long duration and topography (low gradient and reduced valley constraint, resulting in increased availability of floodplain habitat with increasing watershed area and/or decreasing stream gradient. Downstream mainstem reaches provided the most floodplain habitat, largely associated with low-energy features such as back swamps and point bars, and were dominated by silver maple (Acer saccharinum. However, we were able to identify a number of suitable sites in the upper part of the basin and in large tributaries, often associated with in-channel islands and bars and frequently dominated by sycamore (Platanus occidentalis and flood disturbance-dependent species. Our results imply that restoring flows by modifying dam operations to benefit floodplain forests on existing surfaces need not conflict with flood protection in some regional settings. These results underscore the need to understand how flow, geomorphology, and species traits

  16. Quality assessment of urban trees using growth visual and chlorophyll fluorescence indicators

    Uhrin Peter


    Full Text Available Urbanised landscape represents composed structures of technical and biotic elements where social and economy activities create living space for human society but with strongly changed environment. To dominant characters belong climate changes with increased air temperature, drought and emission load, which has developed wide spectrum of stress factors influencing the urban vegetation. For the assessment of plant growth and adaptation response, we have used Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. as study model woody plant. In the framework of visual characters, we assessed the following indicators: (a assimilation organs (leaf necrosis; (b crown quality (degree of foliage and degree of dead tree crown; (c trunk and branch quality (mechanical damage, incidence of wood destroying fungus and trunk cavities and callus healing of trunk wounds. Each indicator was assessed in five-point scale, and in the end, the common index of quality was calculated. The quality index achieved 9.33 points in the first and 10.33 in the second evaluation periods in the Nitra city and 2.66 at the both assessed periods in the comparable rural park. In the group of physiological indicators, chlorophyll a fluorescence marker and its Fv/Fm parameter were used. Within three repeating assessment during growing season (June, August and September, the average values reached Fv/Fm = 0.814 in the city and Fv/Fm = 0.829 in rural park. The results confirmed statistical significances between loaded city conditions and relatively clean rural locality. Used markers have shown as appropriate tools for growth response measurements of street trees in a changed urban environment.

  17. Substrate influences ecophysiological performance of tree seedlings.

    Pröll, Gisela; Hietz, Peter; Delaney, Christina M; Katzensteiner, Klaus


    Unfavourable soil conditions frequently limit tree regeneration in mountain forests on calcareous bedrock. Rocky, shallow organic soils on dolomite pose a particular problem for tree regeneration due to commonly restricted water and nutrient supplies. Moreover, an often dense layer of understorey vegetation competes for the limited resources available. Hence, an array of interacting factors impairs tree seedlings' performance on dolomite, but there is little information on the ecophysiological mechanisms. We studied the effects of substrate, competing vegetation and foliar nutrient concentrations on the photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potentials (ψ) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and larch (Larix decidua Mill.) under controlled (well-watered/drought-stressed) conditions and under prevailing field conditions. While A and gs of well-watered spruce in the pot experiment were reduced by the mineral substrate, the organic dolomite substrate with dense competing vegetation reduced gs and ψ of sycamore, spruce and larch under drought-stressed conditions in the field. For sycamore and spruce, A and gs were strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) concentrations in the pot experiment. In contrast, soil water primarily affected beech and larch. Finally, dense competing vegetation negatively affected A and gs of spruce and A of larch on dolomite. Our results highlight the critical role of N, K and water availability for tree seedlings in shallow soils on calcareous bedrock. On these sites, natural tree regeneration is at particular risk from episodic drought, a likely consequence of climate change.

  18. Ionic liquids influence on the surface properties of electron beam irradiated wood

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Doroftei, Florica; Parparita, Elena; Vasile, Cornelia [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Department, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Iasi (Romania)


    Highlights: • Wood veneers impregnated with three imidazolium-based ionic liquids and irradiated with electron beam were studied by FTIR-ATR, SEM/EDX, AFM, contact angle and image analysis. • ILs preserve the surface properties of the wood (surface energy, roughness, color) upon irradiation, in comparison with the reference wood, but the surface composition is changed by treatment with IL-s, mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. • Under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of three imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) on the structure and surface properties of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) veneers submitted to electron beam irradiation with a dose of 50 kGy has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, as well as image, scanning electron microscopy/SEM/EDX, atomic force microscopy and contact angle analysis. The experimental results have proven that the studied ionic liquids determine a better preservation of the structural features of wood (cellulose crystallinity index and lignin concentration on the surface) as well as some of surface properties such as surface energy, roughness, color upon irradiation with electron beam, in comparison with the reference wood, but surface composition is changed by treatment with imidazolium-based ionic liquids mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. Also, under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface.

  19. Climate change triggers effects of fungal pathogens and insect herbivores on litter decomposition

    Butenschoen, Olaf; Scheu, Stefan


    Increasing infestation by insect herbivores and pathogenic fungi in response to climate change will inevitably impact the amount and quality of leaf litter inputs into the soil. However, little is known on the interactive effect of infestation severity and climate change on litter decomposition, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We assessed changes in initial chemical quality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple litter (Acer platanoides L.) in response to infestation by the gall midge Mikiola fagi Hart. and the pathogenic fungus Sawadaea tulasnei Fuckel, respectively, and investigated interactive effects of infestation severity, changes in temperature and soil moisture on carbon mineralization in a short-term laboratory study. We found that infestation by the gall midge M. fagi and the pathogenic fungus S. tulasnei significantly changed the chemical quality of beech and maple litter. Changes in element concentrations were generally positive and more pronounced, and if negative less pronounced for maple than beech litter most likely due to high quality fungal tissue remaining on litter after abscission. More importantly, alterations in litter chemical quality did not translate to distinct patterns of carbon mineralization at ambient conditions, but even low amounts of infested litter accelerated carbon mineralization at moderately increased soil moisture and in particular at higher temperature. Our results indicate that insect herbivores and fungal pathogens can markedly alter initial litter chemical quality, but that afterlife effects on carbon mineralization depend on soil moisture and temperature, suggesting that increased infestation severity under projected climate change potentially increases soil carbon release in deciduous forests in Central Europe.

  20. Phytophthora species recovered from the Connecticut River Valley in Massachusetts, USA.

    Brazee, Nicholas J; Wick, Robert L; Hulvey, Jonathan P


    Little is currently known about the assemblage of Phytophthora species in northeastern North America, representing a gap in our understanding of species incidence. Therefore, Phytophthora species were surveyed at 20 sites in Massachusetts, with 16 occurring in the Connecticut River Valley. Many of the sampled waterways were adjacent to active agricultural lands, yet were buffered by mature floodplain forests composed of Acer, Platanus, Populus and Ulmus. Isolates were recovered with three types of baits (rhododendron leaves, pear, green pepper) in 2013 and water filtration in 2014. Overall, 457 isolates of Phytophthora were recovered and based on morphological characters and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (β-tub) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (cox1) sequences, 18 taxa were identified, including three new species: P. taxon intercalaris, P. taxon caryae and P. taxon pocumtuck. In addition, 49 isolates representing five species of Phytopythium also were identified. Water filtration captured a greater number of taxa (18) compared to leaf and fruit baits (12). Of the three bait types rhododendron leaves yielded the greatest number of isolates and taxa, followed by pear and green pepper, respectively. Despite the proximity to agricultural lands, none of the Phytophthora species baited are considered serious pathogens of vegetable crops in the region. However, many of the recovered species are known woody plant pathogens, including four species in the P. citricola s.l. complex that were identified: P. plurivora, P. citricola III, P. pini and a putative novel species, referred to here as P. taxon caryae. An additional novel species, P. taxon pocumtuck, is a close relative of P. borealis based on cox1 sequences. The results illustrate a high level of Phytophthora species richness in the Connecticut River Valley and that major rivers can serve as a source of inoculum for pathogenic Phytophthora species in the northeast.