WorldWideScience

Sample records for acer freemanii

  1. Sapindaceae and Acer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Acer (maples) is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Six species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ec...

  2. ACER 2013-2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) is one of the world's leading educational research centres. ACER's mission is to create and promote research-based knowledge, products and services that can be used to improve learning across the life span. This annual report describes ACER's milestones and accomplishments for the 2013-2014…

  3. Polyploidy in Acer rubrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Duffield

    1943-01-01

    Acer rubrum L. is a highly polymorphic species occupying a range which includes almost all of the United States east of the prairies, southeastern Canada, and a portion of Newfoundland. The range of habitats occupied is equally impressive. Cytological study of this species was first undertaken by Mottier in 1893, but the first indication of...

  4. Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Accelerator Center for Energy Research (ACER) exploits radiation chemistry techniques to study chemical reactions (and other phenomena) by subjecting samples to...

  5. Two New Butenolide Derivatives from Erigeron acer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Two new butenolide derivatives, named as erigeracerin A and erigeracerin B, which are a pair of epimers, were isolated from Erigeron acer. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS.

  6. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  7. Flowering and sex expression in Acer L. : a biosystemic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The paper further includes notes on t

  8. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  9. Seed dormancy in Acer: Endogenous germination inhibitors and dormancy in Acer pseudoplatanus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D P; Wareing, P F

    1972-06-01

    Dormant seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus L. contain two zones of inhibition on paper chromatograms in "10:1:1" as detected by the lettuce and cress seed germination, and the wheat coleoptile bioassays. One zone at Rf 0.6-0.8 was partitioned into ethyl acetate at acid pH and was shown to contain ABA by its behaviour on GLC and isomerization under ultra-violet light. The other zone at Rf 0.9 was detected only in the germination bioassays and was partitioned into ethyl acetate over a range of pH indicating the presence of one or more neutral compounds.The inhibitors present in the embryo of dormant sycamore seeds inhibited the germination of non-dormant sycamore seeds at relatively low concentrations. A comparison with the effects of application of exogenous ABA indicated that endogenous ABA could not solely account for the inhibitory activity of seed extracts, which appeared to be due partly to the presence of ABA and partly to that of neutral compounds present in the embryo. Leaching treatments that removed dormancy led to a decrease in the level of inhibitors present mainly in the basic fraction. The exogenous application of kinetin to dormant sycamore seeds increased germination whereas gibberellic acid had no effect. Similar responses were obtained with lettuce seeds inhibited by the basic fraction of dormant sycamore seeds.It is suggested that an inhibitor-cytokinin interaction may be involved in the dormancy of sycamore seeds.

  10. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two duplicated odorant receptor genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, in Apis cerana cerana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huiting Zhao; Pengfei Gao; Haiyan Du; Weihua Ma; Songhao Tian; Yusuo Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Insects use olfaction to recognize a wide range of volatile cues, to locate food sources, mates, hosts and oviposition sites. These chemical volatiles are perceived by odorant receptors (ORs) expressed on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons, most of which are housed within the chemosensilla of antennae. Most insect ORs are tandemly arrayed on chromosomes and some of them are formed by gene duplication. Here, we identified a pair of duplicated Or genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and reported their molecular characterization and temporal expression profiles. The results showed that these two genes shared high similarity both in sequence and the gene structure. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of temporal expression pattern indicated that in drones the expression pattern of these two genes were very similar. The transcripts expressed weakly in larvae and pupae, then increased gradually in adults. In workers, the expression level of AcerOr1 changed more drastically and expressed higher than that of AcerOr3. However, both reached their highest expression level in one-day-old adults. In addition, the expression profiles between different sexes revealed that AcerOr3 appear to be expressed biased in male antennae. These results suggest that AcerOr1 may perceive odours of floral scents, while AcerOr3 may detect odours critical to male behaviour, such as the queen substance cues.

  11. Probability of foliar injury for Acer sp. based on foliar fluoride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Dixon, Murray J; Terry, Debbie T; Todd, Aaron K; Luciani, Michael A; Williamson, Michele L; Roszak, Danuta S; Farias, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014. Hydrogen fluoride is the major emission source associated with the manufacturing facilities resulting with highly elevated foliar fluoride close to the facilities and decreasing with distance. Consistent with other studies, indicative fluoride injury was observed over a wide range of foliar concentrations (9.9-480.0 μg F(-) g(-1)). The logistic regression model was statistically significant for the Acer sp. group, A. negundo and A. saccharinum; consequently, A. negundo being the most sensitive species among the group. In addition, A. saccharum and A. platanoides were not statistically significant within the model. We are unaware of published foliar fluoride values for Acer sp. within Canada, and this research provides policy maker and scientist with probabilities of indicative foliar injury for common urban Acer sp. trees that can help guide decisions about emissions controls. Further research should focus on mechanisms driving indicative fluoride injury over wide ranging foliar fluoride concentrations and help determine foliar fluoride thresholds for damage.

  12. The perspectives of involvement of Acer platanoides L. in medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Cherpak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of tannins, flavonoids, β-carotene, chlorophyll a, anthocyanins, coumarins and alkaloids in leaves of Acer platanoides was ascertained on the basis of phytochemical study.

  13. PENGARUH KUALITAS PRODUK DAN KUALITAS PELAYANAN TERHADAP KEPUASAN PELANGGAN (SURVEI TERHADAP PENGGUNA LAPTOP MEREK TOSHIBA DAN PENGGUNA LAPTOP MEREK ACER)

    OpenAIRE

    Rizan, Mohammad; Prasetya, Rheza; Kresnamurti R.P., Agung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research are: to know the description of product quality, service quality, and customer satisfaction of Toshiba Notebook Users and Acer Notebook Users, test empirically the influence of product quality toward customer satisfaction of Toshiba notebook users and Acer notebook users, test empirically the influence of service quality toward customer satisfaction of Toshiba notebook users and Acer notebook users, test empirically the influence of product quality and service qua...

  14. A New Neolignan Glycoside from the Leaves of Acer truncatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yang Liu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new neolignan glycoside, (7R,8R-7,8-dihydro-9′-hydroxyl-3′-methoxyl- 8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1′-benzofuranpropanol 9′-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the leaves of Acer truncatum along with (7R,8R-7,8-dihydro-9′-hydroxyl-3′-methoxyl-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-O-α-L-rhamno- pyranosyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1′-benzofuranpropanol (2, schizandriside (3, lyoniresinol (4, berchemol (5, (--pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, hecogenin (7, chlorogenic acid (8 and neochlorogenic acid (9. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 was established by its CD spectrum. The antibacterial activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated.

  15. Laccase from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Polymerizes Monolignols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterjiades, R; Dean, J F; Eriksson, K E

    1992-07-01

    Current understanding of the final oxidative steps leading to lignin deposition in trees and other higher plants is limited with respect to what enzymes are involved, where they are localized, how they are transported, and what factors regulate them. With the use of cell suspension cultures of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), an in-depth study of laccase, one of the oxidative enzymes possibly responsible for catalyzing the dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols in the extracellular matrix, was undertaken. The time course for secretion of laccase into suspension culture medium was determined with respect to age and mass of the cells. Laccase was completely separated from peroxidase activity by hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and its purity was assessed with different types of gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing-, native-, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Amino acid and glycosyl analyses of the purified enzyme were compared with those reported from previous studies of plant and fungal laccases. The specific activity of laccase toward several common substrates, including monolignols, was determined. Unlike a laccase purified from the Japanese lacquer tree (Rhus vernicifera), laccase from sycamore maple oxidized sinapyl, coniferyl, and p-coumaryl alcohols to form water-insoluble polymers (dehydrogenation polymers).

  16. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  17. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  18. The mechanical properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fardad golbabaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The major engineering properties of Acer velutinum var. glabrescens wood growing in different regions of Caspian forests (North of Iran was determined. Test materials were selected randomly from Acer velutinum var. glabrescens tree plantation and the test specimens were prepared according to ASTM D-143 standard. Mechanical and physical properties were measured on both green and air-dried samples (12% moisture content. The results of the measurement were statistically analyzed based on randomized block design and factorial experiment. The influence of specimen locations at different stem heights was examined. Based on the results of this study, Significant areas of habitat in the area, Maple Vysr Mazandaran species most resistant of the Maple Sangdeh Frame has the lowest resistance. Keywords: Maple, statice bending, compression parallel to grain, compression perpendicular to grain, tension perpendicular to grain, Acer velutinum var. glabrescens.

  19. Canopy accession strategies and climate-growth relationships in Acer Rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin L. Hart; Megan L. Buchanan; Scott J. Torreano

    2012-01-01

    A pervasive pattern of forest composition change is occurring throughout the Central Hardwood Forest of the eastern US. Acer rubrum has invaded the understory of Quercus stands across a variety of site types. The proliferation of A. rubrum, and that of other shade-tolerant mesophytes, inhibits the regeneration of Quercus. Without alterations in disturbance or climate...

  20. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Acer (maple): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; Gao, Ying; Shen, Jie; He, Chunnian; Liu, Haibo; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Chunhong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-08-02

    The genus Acer (Aceraceae), commonly known as maple, comprises approximately 129 species that primarily grow in the northern hemisphere, especially in the temperate regions of East Asia, eastern North America, and Europe. These plants have been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in East Asia and North America. Moreover, clinical studies have shown that medicinal plants belonging to Acer are highly effective in the treatment of rheumatism, bruises, hepatic disorders, eye disease, and pain, and in detoxification. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of the traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of plants of the genus Acer. This review is based on a literature study of scientific journals and books from libraries and electronic sources such as SciFinder, ScienceDirect, Springer, PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science. The literature in this review related to chemical constituents and pharmacological activities dates from 1922 to the end of October 2015. Furthermore, ethnopharmacological information on this genus was obtained from libraries and herbaria in China and USA. In traditional medicine, 40 species, 11 subspecies, and one varieta of the genus Acer are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities. To date, 331 compounds have been identified from 34 species of the genus Acer, including flavonoids, tannins, phenylpropanoids, diarylheptanoids, terpenoids, benzoic acid derivatives, and several other types of compounds, such as phenylethanoid glycosides and alkaloids. Preliminary pharmacological studies have shown that the extracts and compounds isolated from this genus exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and antiobesity activities, as well as promoting osteoblast differentiation. To date, reports on the toxicity of Acer species to humans are very limited, and

  1. The effect of desiccation on viability and membrane lipid composition of Acer pseudoplatanus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Pukacka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The viability of desiccation-intolerant sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L. seeds during desiccation was investigated by tetrazolium and by a germinability test, together with membrane permeability and membrane phospholipid composition. Loss of viability was associated with an increase of solute leakage, reduced content of all phospholipid groups, decrease of unsaturated fatty acids and the unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio. Growth of malondialdehyde content was also observed. Some results were compared with those for tolerant to desiccation Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds. The results indicate active participation of membranes in the desiccation process in tolerant seeds and their decomposition in intolerant ones. The destruction of membranes was the result of lipid peroxidation, probably due to the free radical effect.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIF KHADEMI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Khademi H, Mehregan I, Assadi M, Nejadsatari T, Zarre S. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biodiversitas 17: 16-23. This study was carried out on the Acer monspessulanum complex growing wild in Iran. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences for 75 samples representing five different subspecies of Acer monspessulanum were analyzed. Beside this, 86 previously published ITS sequences from GenBank were used to test the monophyly of the complex worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. The results indicate that most samples of A. monspessulanum species from Iran were part of a monophyletic clade with 8 samples of A. ibericum from Georgia, A. hyrcanum from Iran and one of A. sempervirens from Greece (PP= 1; BS= 79%. Our results indicate that use of morphological characteristics coupled with molecular data will be most effective.

  3. BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCE DURING THE IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION PHASE OF SOME SPECIES AND VARIETIES OF THE ACER GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Elena Concioiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the behavior of several Acer varieties: Acer palmatum 'Dissectum Atropurpureum' and Acer platanoides 'Crimson King', 'Drummondii' and 'Globosum', during the first subculture of the in vitro multiplication phase. There were used explants from the initiation phase and passed on the multiplication nutrient media. The nutrient media tested were MS, DKW and WPM and each had a different content of growth hormones. In order to determine the multiplication rate, was tested the influence of zeatin and thidiazuron, in concentration of 1.5 mg/l, on a constant level of indole-butyric acid (0.5 mg/l. In the growing chamber were a constant temperature and a photoperiod of 14 hours light/24 hours, at a luminosity of 2500 lux. From the observations and registered data was determined the multiplication rate (microshoots/explant for the four genotypes.

  4. Flavonoid Glycosides from Acer truncatum%元宝槭树叶中的黄酮苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢百波; 许福泉; 李良波; 陈昌祥

    2005-01-01

    从槭树科植物元宝槭(Acer truncatum Bunge)树叶中分离得到6个黄酮苷化合物.通过波谱分析鉴定其结构分别为:kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(1);quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside(2);quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(3);quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside(4);isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside(5);myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside(6).

  5. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  6. Occurrence of heterogeneity of N-linked oligosaccharides attached to sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) laccase after excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Onozaki, K; Nishimura, M; Takahashi, N

    1993-03-01

    The N-linked oligosaccharide moieties of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) laccase are known to be highly heterogeneous. We confirmed that this oligosaccharide heterogeneity was caused not only during the oligosaccharide biosynthesis in Golgi apparatus, but also after the excretion of laccase protein into a culture medium. The culture medium for the sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) contained beta-galactosidase, alpha-L-fucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase and beta-xylosidase activities. We showed that the largest sugar chain in laccase, oligosaccharide F, [formula: see text] was degraded to [formula: see text] by a crude exoglycosidase mixture in the culture medium.

  7. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, Matthias M.; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan–proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  8. Frequency of inversions affects senescence phenology of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Christina; Kirchner, Manfred; Jakobi, Gert; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In mountainous regions, inversion situations with cold-air pools in the valleys occur frequently, especially in fall and winter. With the accumulation of inversion days, trees in lower elevations experience lower temperature sums than those in middle elevations. In a two-year observational study, deciduous trees, such as Acer pseudoplatanus and Fagus sylvatica, on altitudinal transects responded in their fall leaf senescence phenology. Phenological phases were advanced and senescence duration was shortened by the cold temperatures in the valley. This effect was more distinct for late phases than for early phases since they experienced more inversion days. The higher the inversion frequency, the stronger the signal was. Acer pseudoplatanus proved to be more sensitive to cold temperatures compared to Fagus sylvatica. We conclude that cold-air pools have a considerable impact on the vegetation period of deciduous trees. Considering this effect, trees in the mid hillside slopes gain advantages compared to lower elevations. Our findings will help to improve knowledge about ecological drivers and responses in mountainous forest ecosystems.

  9. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics.

  10. Contrasting nutritional acclimation of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. and red maple (Acer rubrum L. to increasing conifers and soil acidity as demonstrated by foliar nutrient balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Collin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall, SM is believed to be more sensitive to acidic and nutrient-poor soils associated with conifer-dominated stands than red maple (Acer rubrum L., RM. Greater foliar nutrient use efficiency (FNUE of RM is likely the cause for this difference. In the context of climate change, this greater FNUE could be key in favouring northward migration of RM over SM. We used the concept of foliar nutrient balances to study the nutrition of SM and RM seedlings along an increasing gradient in forest floor acidity conditioned by increasing proportions of conifers (pH values ranging from 4.39 under hardwoods, to 4.29 under mixed hardwood-conifer stands and 4.05 under conifer-dominated stands. Nutrients were subjected to isometric log-ratio (ilr transformation, which views the leaf as one closed system and considers interactions between nutrients. The ilr method eliminates numerical biases and weak statistical inferences based on raw or operationally’’ log-transformed data. We analyzed foliar nutrients of SM and RM seedlings and found that the [Ca,Mg,K|P,N] and [Ca,Mg|K] balances of SM seedlings were significantly different among soil acidity levels, whereas they did not vary for RM seedlings. For SM seedlings, these differences among soil acidity levels were due to a significant decrease in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations with increasing forest floor acidity. Similar differences in foliar balances were also found between healthy and declining SM stands estimated from literature values. Conversely, foliar balances of RM seedlings did not differ among soil acidity levels, even though untransformed foliar nutrient concentrations were significantly different. This result highlights the importance of using ilr transformation, since it provides more sensitive results than standard testing of untransformed nutrient concentrations. The lower nutrient requirements of RM and its greater capacity to maintain nutrient equilibrium are

  11. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido W. Grimm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  12. Peculiarities of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in shoots of various species of acer genus in conditions of coke process

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    V. S. Bilchuk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The research results on influence of the by-product-coking industry emission on starch and saccharose accumulation in sprouts of the Acer L. species are presented. The toxic ingredients of the coke production wastes inhibit the process of starch hydrolysis that provokes considerable decrease of the sugars content and negative influence on the plants’ winter hardiness are established.

  13. Codominance of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia: the role of Fagus root sprouts along a slope gradient in an old-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Koichi; Arii, Ken; Lechowicz, Martin J

    2010-09-01

    We studied how the unusual capacity of mature Fagus grandifolia to form clumps of clonal stems from root sprouts can contribute to its frequent codominance with Acer saccharum in southern Quebec, Canada. In an old-growth forest, the degree of dominance by the two species shifted along topographic gradients spanning a few hundreds of meters, with Fagus more frequent on lower slopes and Acer on upper slopes. The frequency distribution of Fagus stem diameter had an inverse J distribution at all slope positions, which is indicative of continuous recruitment. Acer stem diameter also had an inverse J pattern, except at lower slope positions where size structure was discontinuous. For stems Fagus regenerated mainly by sprouts at the upper and mid-slopes, while regeneration from seed was more pronounced on the lower slope. This change of regeneration mode affected the spatial pattern of Fagus stems. Understory trees of Fagus were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees on upper and mid-slopes, but not on lower slopes where Fagus regenerated mainly by seedlings. Understory trees of Acer were positively correlated with conspecific canopy trees only on the mid-slope. There were many Fagus seedlings around Acer canopy trees at the lower slope, suggesting the potential replacement of Acer canopy trees by Fagus. This study suggests that the regeneration traits of the two species changed with slope position and that Fagus patches originating from root sprouts can contribute to the maintenance of Acer-Fagus codominance at the scale of local landscapes.

  14. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie

    2009-05-01

    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  15. Qualitative changes in the proteins of cotyledons during cold and warm stratification of Acer platanoides seeds

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    Tomasz Malinowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds, during dormancy breakage there appeared some qualitative changes in protein composition of the cotyledons. After 48h of soaking and in the first week of stratification, the number of different proteins decreased. This decrease in number of proteins was probably associated with the effect of hydration of embryo tissue. Protein patterns from imbibed seeds exposed to cold (3oC and warm (15oC treatments were not significantly different. The influence of temperature on protein patterns became visible in the third week of stratification, when a few new proteins appeared. One of them, designated B, appeared only during cold stratification before radicles protrusion. They were also present in seeds that had completed germination. These proteins are presumably associated with the process of dormancy breakage.

  16. The Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation Dose on the Mechanical Performance of Red Maple (Acer rubrum

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    Timothy Starr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand how electron beam irradiation affects wood physically and chemically, irradiated maple beams (Acer rubrum and veneers were examined using three-point bend tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, and NIR- and FTIR- spectroscopy. The MOR from the bending tests revealed a significant decline in the red maple’s strength after a dose of 80 kGy. DMA results showed evidence of crosslinking of the amorphous content of the wood at low doses, followed by degradation at higher doses, with the change in response occurring around 80 kGy. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the components of wood that were most impacted were the phenolic hydroxyl structures of lignin and cellulose hydroxyls, with the greatest effects being seen after 80 kGy.

  17. Effects of cadmium on cation concentrations in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): application of EDXRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, M L; Silveira, L; Casimiro, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge of the element content of biological systems is important in enabling understanding of uptake mechanisms and physiological response to stress conditions. In this work concentrations of mineral elements in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells grown in the presence of cadmium have been analysed and compared with concentrations in control cells. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify the nutrients K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn present in the cells. The reproducibility and accuracy of the technique were demonstrated by analysis of biological reference materials. Exposure of sycamore cells to cadmium had induced variation in the content of some elements. Mn, Cu, Zn, and, particularly, Fe concentrations in cells exposed to Cd were higher than those found in control cells. Ca is adsorbed on the cell walls and the concentration of K is not affected by the presence of Cd.

  18. Effect of sucrose starvation on sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell carbohydrate and Pi status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rébeillé, F; Bligny, R; Martin, J B; Douce, R

    1985-03-15

    The mobilization of stored carbohydrates during sucrose starvation was studied with sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells. When sucrose was omitted from the nutrient medium, the intracellular sucrose pool decreased rapidly during the first hours of the experiment, whereas the starch content remained practically unchanged. After 10h of sucrose starvation, starch hydrolysis replaced sucrose breakdown. From this moment, the phosphate-ester pool and respiration rate decreased with time. Conversely, the intracellular Pi concentration increased. 31P n.m.r. of intact sycamore cells indicated that, under these conditions, most of the Pi accumulated in the vacuole. These results strongly suggest that starch breakdown, in contrast with sucrose hydrolysis, is not rapid enough to maintain a high cellular metabolism.

  19. Morphometric characteristics of the leaves of Greek maple (Acer heldreichii Orph in central Serbia

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    Perović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic characteristics of Greek maple (Acer heldreichii Orph were studied based on the analysis of leaf characteristics, by comparative-morphological method. The study was performed at three localities in central Serbia: Goč, Jastrebac and Rudnik. 30 normally developed trees were selected per each locality, and 30 leaves were selected from each tree for the analysis. The study includes 8 measured and 15 derived characteristics of leaves. The study results were statistically processed by correlation analysis, analysis of variance and cluster-analysis. It is concluded that there are two varieties, var. heldreichii and var. macropterum. Four forms are set aside in the variety macropterum: f. typicum f. dissectum, f. Equiloba and f. rotundiloba. The populations are relatively homogeneous, and both varieties occur at all three localities in significant numbers.

  20. Enfermedad pulmonar por amianto en trabajadores de acería

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    Rita Zurbriggen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades relacionadas al amianto se producen por la inhalación de fibras de asbestos en su variedad crisotilo o amianto blanco. A pesar de que en la Argentina la prohibición data del año 2003, existen numerosas industrias donde se sigue trabajando con este mineral, entre ellas las metalúrgicas y acerías. Actualmente se conoce la alta patogenicidad de este material, por lo que en muchos países existen programas de seguimiento de los trabajadores expuestos. Se describen las características generales y manifestaciones clínicas pulmonares de 27 pacientes que trabajaron en una gran acería de América del Sur. El diagnóstico de amiantopatías se realizó mediante historia clínica laboral, antecedente de exposición al amianto, estudios complementarios de función pulmonar e imágenes del tórax. Se analizaron la fuente de exposición (laboral, doméstica y ambiental, tiempo de exposición y período de latencia en los pacientes de los cuales se detectó enfermedad relacionada. Los antecedentes de tabaquismo fueron tenidos en cuenta para el análisis. En 22 pacientes se presentaron patologías benignas (81.4%, 16 de ellos tenían lesiones exclusivamente pleurales y otros 6 asbestosis. Las patologías malignas se presentaron en 5 pacientes (18.5%, en 4 fueron mesoteliomas y en uno carcinoma pulmonar. El problema de la exposición al amianto tiene vigencia actual. De ahí la necesidad de un programa de vigilancia en trabajadores expuestos al amianto actualmente o en el pasado, para detectar, notificar, registrar e investigar las características de estas patologías.

  1. Tracing the mode and speed of intrageneric evolution : a phylogenetic case study on genus Acer L. (Aceraceae) and genus Fagus L. (Fagaceae) using fossil, morphological, and molecular data

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Guido W.

    2003-01-01

    Aus der Korrelation fossiler, morphologischer und molekulargenetischer Datensätze wird ein detaillierter Einblick in die intragenerische Evolution zweier Baumgattungen aufgezeigt. Die ausgewählten Gattungen Acer (dt. Ahorn) und Fagus (dt. Buche) unterscheiden sich dabei sowohl in ihrer morphologischen Vielfältigkeit (Acer mit ca. 120 Arten, Fagus mit ca. 10 Arten) als auch ihrer genetischen Variabilität, die exemplarisch am intern transkribierten Spacer der nukleären ribosomalen DNS untersuch...

  2. Influence of bigleaf maple (Acer Macrophyllum Pursh) on soil properties in a conifer forest of southwest British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Julia

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of this research was to detect the influence of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh) on soils in a conifer forest of southwest British Columbia. Forest floor properties were measured beneath bigleaf maple along six transects and on two 36 m x 36 m plots. Wavelet analysis, kriging, spatial autocorrelation analysis, local indicators of spatial association, and parametric statistics were used to explore and confirm bigleaf maple patterns of influence on surrounding soils...

  3. 糖槭叶的化学成分%The Chemical Constituents from Leaves of Acer saccharum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 赵宏

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents of leaves of Acer accharum.Methods:The leaves of Acer saccharum were extracted by ethanol.The concentrated material Wag partitioned by petroleum ether,ethyl acetate,and,n-butanoL After extracted by ethyl acetate,the extract was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization.The compound structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and chemical methods.Results:Seven compounds were isolated from the leaves of Acer saccha run.Their compound structures were identified as 3-keton-ursane,3β-hydroxy-12-olean-12-en and 5-en-7-hydroxy-sitosterol.Conclu sion:All the three compounds identified are isolated from this genus for the first time.%目的:研究槭树科槭树属植物糖槭(Acer saccharum)叶的化学成分.方法:利用硅胶柱色谱进行分离纯化,根据化合物的理化性质和光谱数据鉴定其结构.结果:从糖槭叶中分离得到7个化合物,鉴定其中3个化合物,分别是-3酮基-乌苏烷、3β-羟基-12-齐墩果烯、5-烯-7-羟基谷甾醇.结论:本实验所分离并鉴定的化合物为三萜类和甾醇类化合物,均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  4. Effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants on herbivore assemblages on congeneric Acer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Murakami, Masashi; Hirao, Toshihide

    2014-08-01

    Historical, niche-based, and stochastic processes have been proposed as the mechanisms that drive community assembly. In plant-herbivore systems, these processes can correspond to phylogeny, leaf traits, and the distribution of host plants, respectively. Although patterns of herbivore assemblages among plant species have been repeatedly examined, the effects of these factors among co-occurring congeneric host plant species have rarely been studied. Our aim was to reveal the process of community assembly for herbivores by investigating the effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of closely related host plants of the genus Acer. We sampled leaf functional traits for 30 Acer species in Japan. Using a newly constructed phylogeny, we determined that three of the six measured leaf traits (leaf thickness, C/N ratio, and condensed tannin content) showed a phylogenetic signal. In a field study, we sampled herbivore communities on 14 Acer species within an elevation gradient and examined relationships between herbivore assemblages and host plants. We found that herbivore assemblages were significantly correlated with phylogeny, leaf traits, phylogenetic signals, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants. Our results indicate that the interaction between historical and current ecological processes shapes herbivore community assemblages.

  5. Growth and posture control strategies in Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings in response to canopy disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Catherine; Fournier, Mériem; Ningre, François; Hounzandji, Ablo Paul-Igor; Constant, Thiéry

    2011-06-01

    Forest tree saplings that grow in the understorey undergo frequent changes in their light environment to which they must adapt to ensure their survival and growth. Crown architecture, which plays a critical role in light capture and mechanical stability, is a major component of sapling adaptation to canopy disturbance. Shade-adapted saplings typically have plagiotropic stems and branches. After canopy opening, they need to develop more erect shoots in order to exploit the new light conditions. The objective of this study was to test whether changes in sapling stem inclination occur after canopy opening, and to analyse the morphological changes associated with stem reorientation. A 4-year canopy-opening field experiment with naturally regenerated Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus saplings was conducted. The appearance of new stem axes, stem basal diameter and inclination along the stem were recorded every year after canopy opening. Both species showed considerable stem reorientation resulting primarily from uprighting (more erect) shoot movements in Fagus, and from uprighting movements, shoot elongation and formation of relay shoots in Acer. In both species, the magnitude of shoot uprighting movements was primarily related to initial stem inclination. Both the basal part and the apical part of the stem contributed to uprighting movements. Stem movements did not appear to be limited by stem size or by stem growth. Stem uprighting movements in shade-adapted Fagus and Acer saplings following canopy disturbance were considerable and rapid, suggesting that stem reorientation processes play a significant role in the growth strategy of the species.

  6. The genetic potential of mother trees as a basis for Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Atropurpureum’ plant production

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    Šijačić-Nikolić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. is one of the most valuable species of Serbia’s noble hardwoods. Based on the results of previous research, it can be concluded that this is a species with a pronounced ecological plasticity and high genetic potential. From the aspect of ornamentalness, one of the most frequent cultivars in urban green spaces and tree rows is the cv ‘Atropurpureum’, also known as ‘Spaethii’ or ‘Purpureum’. It is distinguished by dark green leaf adaxials and purple undersides, which give the crown an extraordinarily attractive appearance. The genetic potential of the analyzed mother trees can be used for the mass production of the Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Atropurpureum’ and Acer pseudoplatanus plants needed for urban green area maintenance and creation of tree rows. Special attention should be paid to the potential of mother trees 5 and 3; their descendants, along with purple leaf undersides, also have high average height values for five-year old plants.

  7. Acer-Fraxinus dominated woods of the Italian peninsula: a floristic and phytogeographical analysis

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    Claudia Angiolini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest communities dominated by noble broad-leaved trees (maple, lime and ash in Europe are of elevated scientific and con­servation interest for the European Union. In this paper, we first present a synthesis of the maple and ash forests in peninsular Italy. By classifying these forests, we distinguish seven main groups for the territory, which only broadly match the syntaxa proposed in the literature. The variability of the Apennine data is then analysed floristically and phytogeographically (using chorological components in a central-southern European context, using numerical classification, INSPAN, and direct ordination of several synoptic tables. These analyses allow us to identify six different groups of European Acer-Fraxinus communities. Canonical Vari­ates Analysis (CVA of the geographical components confirms the existence of distinct phytogeographical groups. In particular, we highlight the clear distinction between central European (including the Alps and southern European coenoses. Among the latter there was a clear floristic and chorological distinction between Balkan and Apennine groups. These results reflect the biogeographical subdivisions of Europe, but do not support the syntaxonomical schemes proposed by other authors, which are based only on floristic-ecological information or (recently use a smaller data set of Italian relevés. This study also shows that syntaxonomical schemes above the association level should pay more attention to phytogeographical aspects rather than focus on floristic-ecological information alone, in order to propose models that are of value on a geographical scale.

  8. COENOTICAL CHAINS OF ACER PLATANOIDES AND QUERCUS ROBUR IN THE FORESTS OF NOVGOROD-SEVERSKOYE POLESYE

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    Skliar V. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarized information on association of small undergrowth of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. and English oak (Quercus robur L. under the canopy of the forest with plants that form the grass-shrub layer within Novgorod-Severskoye Polesye. We founded that the association at certain extent depends on the type of population behavior of undergrowth and grasses. Small undergrowth of A. platanoides being the tolerant species according to the type of population behavior demonstrates negative association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. The pattern of association of A. platanoides with tolerant species depends on their vegetative mobility: the maple has positive association with species with no vegetative mobility and positive and negative association with species characterized by high extent of vegetative mobility. The undergrowth of Q. robur which is the competitive species due to population behavior shows positive association with the herbs that have high competitive ability. We estimated the coenotic parameters that are required for successful resumption of maple and oak in the region of research. We also shown that coenotic optimum for A. platanoides corresponds to the environment with weak intensity of competition in the living soil cover with thin grass layer and density of coverage does not exceed 50%. Q. robur has coenotic optimum among habitats in the herbaceous layer with domination of green moss and (or Convallaria majalis L., Fragaria vesca L. with no grains and density of coverage in living ground cover not more than 60%.

  9. A test for pre-adapted phenotypic plasticity in the invasive tree Acer negundo L.

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    Laurent J Lamarque

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is a key mechanism associated with the spread of exotic plants and previous studies have found that invasive species are generally more plastic than co-occurring species. Comparatively, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasion has received less attention, and in particular, the genetic basis of plasticity is largely unexamined. Native from North America, Acer negundo L. is aggressively impacting the riparian forests of southern and eastern Europe thanks to higher plasticity relative to co-occurring native species. We therefore tested here whether invasive populations have evolved increased plasticity since introduction. The performance of 1152 seedlings from 8 native and 8 invasive populations was compared in response to nutrient availability. Irrespective of nutrients, invasive populations had higher growth and greater allocation to above-ground biomass relative to their native conspecifics. More importantly, invasive genotypes did not show increased plasticity in any of the 20 traits examined. This result suggests that the high magnitude of plasticity to nutrient variation of invasive seedlings might be pre-adapted in the native range. Invasiveness of A. negundo could be explained by higher mean values of traits due to genetic differentiation rather than by evolution of increased plasticity.

  10. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se.

  11. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Galloyl Derivatives and Antidiabetic Activities of Acer ginnala

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    Kwan Hee Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic isolation of the 80% MeOH extract of Acer ginnala (AG yielded seven galloyl derivatives: gallic acid (1, ginnalin B (2, acertannin (3, maplexin D (4, maplexin E (5, quercetin-3-O-(2′′-galloyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (6, and kaempferol-3-O-(2′′-galloyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (7. This is the first study to report the isolation of compounds 4 and 5 from AG. Galloyl derivatives 3–7 exhibited potent radical scavenging activities, with 5 and 7 showing particularly strong inhibitory activities against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharides- (LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, oral administration of AG extract (500 mg/kg b.w. improved symptoms of hyperglycemia and blunted the increases in serum GOT/GPT levels in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that galloyl derivatives (1–7 are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents and that AG extract has potential as a functional material or novel herbal medicine for treating diabetes mellitus.

  12. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

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    Dana L Royer

    Full Text Available The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2 concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2 has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2 conditions. The CO(2 treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  13. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L

    2012-01-01

    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2) has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple) in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2) conditions. The CO(2) treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  14. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future.

  15. Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Respiration of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, N.; Douce, R.

    1993-12-01

    The effects of iron deficiency on cell culture growth, cell respiration, mitochondrial oxidative properties, and the electron transport chain were studied with suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Iron deprivation considerably decreased the initial growth rates and limited the maximum density of the cells. Under these conditions, the cells remained swollen throughout their growth. The absence of iron led to a steady decline in the uncoupled rate of O2 consumption. When the uncoupled rate of O2 uptake closely approximated the respiratory rate, the cells began to collapse. At this stage, the level of all the cytochromes and electron paramagnetic resonance-detectable Fe-S clusters of the mitochondrial inner membrane were dramatically decreased. Nevertheless, it appeared from substrate oxidation measurements that this overall depletion in iron-containing components solely disturbed the functioning of complex II, whereas neither complexes I, III, or IV, nor the machinery involved in ATP synthesis, was apparently impaired in iron-deficient mitochondria. However, our results suggest that the impairment of complex II resulted in a strong reduction of the overall capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which was responsible for determining the rate of endogenous respiration in sycamore cells. Finally, this situation led to a depletion of various energy metabolites that could contribute to the premature cell death.

  16. New Gallotannin and other Phytochemicals from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B; Wang, Hui; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-11-01

    The maple (Acer) genus is a reported source of bioactive (poly)phenols, including gallotannins, but several of its members, such as the sycamore maple (A. pseudoplatanus), remain uninvestigated. Herein, thirty-nine compounds, including a new gallotannin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), and thirty-eight (2-39) known compounds, consisting of four gallotannins, one ellagitannin, thirteen flavonoids, eight hydroxycinnamic acids, ten benzoic acid derivatives, and two sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sycamore maple leaves. Their structures were determined based on NMR and mass spectral analyses. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the isolates, the gallotannins were the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with thirteen-fold more potent activity compared with the clinical drug, acarbose (IC50 = 16-31 vs. 218 µM). Similarly, the gallotannins showed the highest antioxidant activities, followed by the other phenolic sub-classes, while the sesquiterpenoids were inactive.

  17. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Effects of a copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligny, R; Gaillard, J; Douce, R

    1986-07-15

    Copper-deprived sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells do not excrete molecules of active laccase in their culture medium. In the range of 2-100 micrograms of copper initially present per litre of nutrient solution, the total laccase activity measured in the cell suspensions at the end of the exponential phase of growth was closely proportional to the amount of added copper. However, copper-deprived cells excreted the laccase apoprotein (laccase without copper) at the same rate as copper-supplied cells excreted the active, copper-containing, laccase. When the culture medium was initially supplied with limiting amounts of copper, the active laccase was excreted until all copper molecules were metabolized. Thereafter, the laccase apoprotein was excreted. Consequently, at the end of the exponential phase of growth, the cell supernatants contained a mixture of apoprotein and copper-containing laccase. After purification and concentration, this mixture of copper-containing laccase (blue) and laccase apoprotein (slightly yellow) showed a yellow-green colour. Under copper-limiting culture conditions an equivalent decrease of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 Cu2+ was observed. Addition of copper to copper-deficient enzyme solutions does not result in a recovery of the enzyme activity. However, when added to copper-deficient sycamore-cell suspensions, copper induced a recovery of the excretion of active enzyme, at a normal rate, within about 10 h. The first molecules of active laccase were excreted after 3-4 h.

  18. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Purification and properties of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligny, R; Douce, R

    1983-02-01

    A laccase-type polyphenol oxidase is excreted by sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. The enzyme has been purified by classical purification techniques. It is a blue copper protein of Mr 97 000, containing 45% carbohydrate and 0.24% copper. This protein consists of one single unit and the copper content corresponds to four copper atoms per protein molecule. The specific activity of the purified extracellular sycamore-cell laccase measured at pH 6.6 (optimum pH) and in the presence of 20mM-4-methhylcatechol (optimum substrate conditions) corresponded to an oxygen uptake of 32 000 nmol of O2/min per mg of protein. Under these conditions, the catalytic-centre activity of the enzyme reached 100 s-1. The excretion of laccase by sycamore cells is significant, being about 2% of the total protein synthesized by the cells during the exponential phase of growth, and is independent of cell growth. The physiological significance and the problems raised by the passage of this protein across the cytoplasmic membrane are discussed.

  19. Spread intensity and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in Lithuanian forests

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    Straigyte L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objectives of this study were to estimate seedling abundance, spread intensity, and invasiveness of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in Lithuanian forests. The species was introduced to Lithuania in 1802, and since then has subsequently become gradually invasive. Seedling understory abundance, colonization and dispersal were investigated in six forest blocks covering the principal sycamore distribution areas in southwestern Lithuania. Seedlings height and densities in the undestory were evaluated, and seedlings assigned to four height groups. Species invasiveness was estimated applying the Pest Plant Prioritization Process (PPPP, based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method. Results showed the average spread distance from the parent tree was 257 m, with a mean seedling number per hectare of 2064. Sycamore maple invasive score was 0.6426 (range: 0-1, the current relative to potential distribution rating was 0.57, and the social, environmental, and economic impact score was 0.1682. Such values were used to assess the Pest Plant Score for sycamore maple, obtaining a value (0.3537 lower than expectations (0.5. Results indicated that the species exhibits invasive properties and a rapid spread in the study area. Some implications of the above results in view of the upcoming climate change and the use of sycamore maple in Lithuanian forest plantations are discussed.

  20. Phenotypic plasticity of leaf shape along a temperature gradient in Acer rubrum.

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    Dana L Royer

    Full Text Available Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic determination can be important for understanding how plants respond to environmental change. However, little is known about the plastic response of leaf teeth and leaf dissection to temperature. This gap is critical because these leaf traits are commonly used to reconstruct paleoclimate from fossils, and such studies tacitly assume that traits measured from fossils reflect the environment at the time of their deposition, even during periods of rapid climate change. We measured leaf size and shape in Acer rubrum derived from four seed sources with a broad temperature range and grown for two years in two gardens with contrasting climates (Rhode Island and Florida. Leaves in the Rhode Island garden have more teeth and are more highly dissected than leaves in Florida from the same seed source. Plasticity in these variables accounts for at least 6-19% of the total variance, while genetic differences among ecotypes probably account for at most 69-87%. This study highlights the role of phenotypic plasticity in leaf-climate relationships. We suggest that variables related to tooth count and leaf dissection in A. rubrum can respond quickly to climate change, which increases confidence in paleoclimate methods that use these variables.

  1. Hallazgo de un endocarpo del genero Acer en niveles del Cretácico superior del embalse de Pedrezuela (Guadalix de la Sierra

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    Lesiak, M. A.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described and discussed an endocarp of Acer genus that exhibits a morphology like the living species A. buergerianum Miquel. The fruit was met in the upper part of Cretaceous series from the Pedrezuela barrier of Madrid Community. We propose a new denomination for the plant that contains this endocarp: Acer palaeobuergerianum n. fsp. This name has only taxonomic value. The prefix is give in order to the age and -buergerianum by its similarity with the actual species.Se describe y discute un endocarpo fósil perteneciente al género Acer, encontrado en el Cretácico superior del embalse de Pedrezuela (Madrid. Este fruto muestra una marcada semejanza con los endocarpos de la especie actual Acer buergerianum Miquel. Se propone una nueva denominación, con valor taxonómico, para la planta: Acer palaeobuergerianum n. fsp. El prefijo palaeo sugiere su edad y la denominación - buergerianum su semejanza morfológica con la especie actual.

  2. Seasonal dynamics of antioxidative processes in Acer negundo leaves under pollutant action

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    N. A. Khromykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1, catalase (САТ, EC 1.11.1.6, peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.9 and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, EС 2.5.1.18 were measured by spectrophotometrical method in Acer negundo leaves collected during May–August in DNU Botanical garden (control and in Dnipropetrovsk polluted ecocenoses (plots 1, 2 and 3 in order to reveal the conformities of seasonal dynamics changes of antioxidative processes under pollutant action. The seasonal dynamics of SOD activity altered significantly under chronic pollutant action especially in leaves from plots contaminated by Lorries exhaust fumes and industrial emissions (r = 0.45, r = 0.08 and r = 0.25, accordingly, on plots 1, 2 and 3. The dynamics of CAT activity because of car exhaust fumes influence was similar to control (r = 0.92, whereas it changed more considerably under influence of two other types of contamination (r = 0.80. POD activity seasonal dynamics altered insignificantly in all polluted plots, and it may indicate the predomination of catalase pathway of hydrogen peroxide detoxification in Acer negundo leaves against the background of pollutant action. Furthermore, the increasing of correlative coefficients of seasonal dynamics of CAT and POD activity (from r = –0.18 on control to r = 0.28, r = 0.64 and r = 0.73, accordingly, on plots 1, 2 and 3 may indicate more coordinative functioning of catalase and peroxidase metabolic pathways as adaptive sign of trees from polluted urbocenoses. The seasonal dynamics of GPX activity in tree leaves sgarply varied from control subject to all contaminated plots (r = 0.04, r = –0.97 and r = –0.78, and it was followed by enhancing positive correlative links between dynamics of GPX and SOD activities (from r = –0.60 on control to r = 0.51, r = 0.70 and r = 0.93 on polluted plots. The dynamics of GST activity in A. negundo leaves did not change under pollutants action

  3. Pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in Acer velutinum Boiss.seed lots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mostafa Farhadi; Mulualem Tigabu; Alireza Ghasemi Arian; Mehdi Sharifani; Abolfazl Daneshvar; Per Christer Oden

    2013-01-01

    Acer velutinum Boiss is a valuable tree species native to Iran,and its seeds possess physiological dormancy that hampers seedling production in the nursery for large-scale reforestation efforts.The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dormancy breaking treatments for A.velutinum seeds.We conducted a factorial experiment involving six seed lots collected along an elevation gradient from 300 to 1800 m at 300 m interval and four cold-moist stratification periods (0,4,8 and 16 weeks) at 4℃ and 70% relative humidity.The result shows that the germination of cold-moist stratified seeds was significantly (p < 0.0001)higher than the control for all seed lots.The highest germination capacity was recorded after 16 weeks of cold-moist stratification for all seed lots (68%-88% depending on the seed lot) except those collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) that germinated equally well (≥ 75%) after 4-and 8-week of clod-moist stratification compared to the other seed lots.The mean germination time was significantly shorter (12 to 19 days,depending on the seed lot) for seeds stratified for 16 weeks than for untreated seeds.It can be concluded that:(1) cold-moist stratification for 16 weeks is the best pre-sowing treatment for breaking dormancy in A.velutinum seeds; and (2) seeds should be collected from mid altitude sites (600 and 900 m) to get more than 80% germination within 15 days,and these seed lots even required shorter cold-moist stratification period (eight weeks) than other seed lots.

  4. Light drives vertical gradients of leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2014-02-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA, g m(-2)) is an essential trait for modeling canopy function due to its strong association with photosynthesis, respiration and leaf nitrogen. Leaf mass per area, which is influenced by both leaf thickness and density (LMA = thickness × density), generally increases from the bottom to the top of tree canopies, yet the mechanisms behind this universal pattern are not yet resolved. For decades, the light environment was assumed to be the most influential driver of within-canopy variation in LMA, yet recent evidence has shown hydrostatic gradients to be more important in upper canopy positions, especially in tall evergreen trees in temperate and tropical forests. The aim of this study was to disentangle the importance of various environmental drivers on vertical LMA gradients in a mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. We compared LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness relationships with height, light and predawn leaf water potential (ΨPre) within a closed and an exposed canopy to assess leaf morphological traits at similar heights but different light conditions. Contrary to our expectations and recent findings in the literature, we found strong evidence that light was the primary driver of vertical gradients in leaf morphology. At similar heights (13-23 m), LMA was greater within the exposed canopy than the closed canopy, and light had a stronger influence over LMA compared with ΨPre. Light also had a stronger influence over both leaf thickness and density compared with ΨPre; however, the increase in LMA within both canopy types was primarily due to increasing leaf thickness with increasing light availability. This study provides strong evidence that canopy structure and crown exposure, in addition to height, should be considered as a parameter for determining vertical patterns in LMA and modeling canopy function.

  5. Nuclear microsatellite markers for population genetic studies in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.

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    Sudhir Khodwekar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of seven new nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs was developedfor sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. using paired-end Illumina sequencing. Out of 96 primers screened in a panel of six unrelated individuals, seven markers amplified polymorphic products. The utility of these markers, in addition to six already published microsatellites, for genetic variation and gene flow studies was assessed. Out of the seven newly developed markers, three amplified multiple fragments and were interpreted as dominant (absence/presence markers, while four markers amplified a maximum of two amplification products per sample. The six published microsatellites and three of the four newly developed markers showed regular segregation in an open-pollinated single tree progeny. Observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He in 48 individuals from one population ranged from 0.436 to 0.917 and from 0.726 to 0.894, respectively. Dominant markers revealed 64 variable positions and moderate genetic variation within the population (He = 0.102, Shannon’s I = 0.193. Paternity analyses in the program CERVUS at co-dominant markers showed effective dispersal of pollen in the sugar maple population both at 95% and 80% confidence levels. Dependent on the confidence level, the mean pollen dispersal distance within the population ranged from 33.25 m to 38.75 m and gene flow from utside the stand from 78% to 82%. The absence of fine-scale Spatial Genetic Structure (SGS suggested effective dispersal of both seeds and pollen.

  6. Spectrochemical analysis of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) leaves for environmental health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, James; Butler, Holly J; McAinsh, Martin R; Martin, Francis L

    2016-05-10

    Terrestrial plants are ideal sentinels of environmental pollution, due to their sedentary nature, abundance and sensitivity to atmospheric changes. However, reliable and sensitive biomarkers of exposure have hitherto been difficult to characterise. Biospectroscopy offers a novel approach to the derivation of biomarkers in the form of discrete molecular alterations detectable within a biochemical fingerprint. We investigated the application of this approach for the identification of biomarkers for pollution exposure using the common sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) as a sentinel species. Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to interrogate leaf tissue collected from three sites exposed to different levels of vehicle exhaust emissions. Following multivariate analysis of acquired spectra, significant biochemical alterations were detected between comparable leaves from different sites that may constitute putative biomarkers for pollution-induced stress. These included differences in carbohydrate and nucleic acid conformations, which may be indicative of sub-lethal exposure effects. We also observed several corresponding spectral alterations in both the leaves of A. pseudoplatanus exposed to ozone pollution under controlled environmental conditions and in leaves infected with the fungal pathogen Rhytisma acerinum, indicating that some stress-induced changes are conserved between different stress signatures. These similarities may be indicative of stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, although further work is needed to verify the precise identity of infrared biomarkers and to identify those that are specific to pollution exposure. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate that biospectroscopy presents an effective toolkit for the utilisation of higher plants, such as A. pseudoplatanus, as sentinels of environmental pollution.

  7. Expression of Amyloplast and Chloroplast DNA in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Macherel, D; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T

    1988-01-01

    Green mutant cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.), which had been selected by mutagenic treatment of the white wild type, grow photoheterotrophically in auxin-depleted culture medium. In contrast to the wild-type cells, mutant cells exhibit photosynthetic O(2)-evolution activity during their growth coincident with increases of (a) chlorophyll, (b) protein, and (c) ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase activity. Functionally competent chloroplasts were isolated from the green cells. Mechanism(s) governing gene expression of amyloplast DNA in the heterotrophically grown white cells were compared with those of the chloroplast DNA isolated from the mutant cells. We have demonstrated in both amyloplast and chloroplast DNAs the presence of sequences homologous to the maize chloroplast genes for photosynthesis, including the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)(rbcL), the 32 kDa Q(B) protein (PG32) (psbA), the apoprotein of P700 (psaA) and subunits of CF(1) (atpA, atpB, and atpE). However, employing either enzyme assays or immunological techniques, RuBisCO and CF(1) cannot be detected in the white wild type cells. Northern blot hybridization of the RNA from the white cells showed high levels of transcripts for the 16S rRNA gene and low level of transcripts for psbA; based on comparison with results obtained using the green mutant cells, we propose that the amyloplast genome is mostly inactive except for the 16S rRNA gene and psbA which is presumably regulated at the transcriptional level.

  8. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  9. Influence of nitrogen form on growth of invasive species Acer negundo L. and Ailanthus altissima (Mill. swingle

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    Đukić Matilda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relative amounts of nutrients, especially nitrogen, the most abundant macro-element, and also the distribution of ammonium ions in relation to nitrate ions, in the soils of different ecosystems, are determined by many factors. The most important are: temperature, pH of substrate, accumulation of organic matter, presence of allelopathic compounds, degree of oxygenation, etc. The ability of plants to adapt to these variations influences their production of bio-mass, the rate of expansion in different habitats, and the impact on ecosystem and biodiversity. This paper analyzes the impact of different forms of nitrogen (NO3 - and NH4 + on the growth of seedlings of invasive species Acer negundo L. and Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle. The results show that nitrogen nutrition only in the form of NH4 + ions significantly affects the reduction in shoot dry weight. Compared to the nutrition with both forms of nitrogen together, aerial parts of Ailanthus altissima were reduced by 62.5%, and leaf area by 66.7%, while Acer negundo seedlings had reduction in dry mass of aboveground part by 89.5%, root by 81.2% and leaf area by 85.8%. Nutrition with nitrate form of nitrogen led to a proportionally small, but statistically significant decrease in dry mass of aboveground parts and roots as well as leaf area of Acer negundo, while in Ailanthus altissima seedlings, it was only the mass reduction of aboveground parts that was significantly influenced, so it can be assumed that this species is more resistant to the lack of both forms of nitrogen. The fact that both species produced significantly more biomass when nitrogen was present in both forms may be important in controlling the spread of alien species, or in their potential use in phytoremediation.

  10. Responses of Acer saccharum canopy trees and saplings to P, K and lime additions under high N deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradowski, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Thomas, S.C. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry

    2008-02-15

    This study examined the physiological and morphological responses of Acer Saccharum canopy trees and 2-year old saplings to non-nitrogenous mineral nutrients. The study was conducted to test 4 hypotheses, notably, (1) that liming increased the availability of phosphate by decreasing soil acidity; (2) that Acer Saccharum showed increased physiological and growth performance in response to liming and phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); (3) that the physiological and growth effects of liming and P and K additions are more pronounced in sapling than in mature canopy trees; and (4) that canopy physiological and shoot extension responses precede radial growth responses in mature trees. Fifty-two mature Acer saccharum trees and 138 saplings were treated with 2 fertilizers and potassium chloride alone or in combination with dolomitic lime. Treatments were applied in a 2-level factorial randomized design to mature trees and to saplings. Mineral soil samples were then collected from depths of between 0 and 30 cm. Concentrations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in mineral soil were determined using combustion analysis. Morphological chemical analyses were also conducted. Growth was examined at 5-year and 2-year intervals in order to examine nutrient addition effects on diameter increment. Data were used in a graphical vector nutrient analysis as well as in an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the study showed that nutrients were adsorbed in the mineral soil and taken up by the trees within 1 year of fertilizer application. Liming had no effect on soil P availability. Both the saplings and the trees showed significant responses to both P and K fertilization and liming, including increased foliar nutrient concentration, leaf size and shoot extension growth. It was concluded that the vector analysis of shoot extension growth was consistent with sufficiency of N, but showed marked limitation of P and co-limitation by calcium (Ca) in saplings. 111 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  12. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  13. Validation of the language component of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination--Revised (ACE-R) as a screening tool for aphasia in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K; Parsons, Faye; Gautam, Vidushi

    2011-09-01

    Several tests are available for aphasia screening following stroke. However, some of them have shortcomings such as need of specialist knowledge, low sensitivity and/or specificity and lengthy administration time. Our study aims to evaluate the language component of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination--Revised (ACE-R) as a screening tool for aphasia in stroke patients. The language component of ACE-R was administered to consecutive patients admitted to a post-acute stroke unit. Patients who were medically unstable or had a significant history of sensory impairment or mental health issues were excluded. The test was administered by two junior doctors with basic training in ACE-R administration. Patients recruited were also assessed by an experienced speech and language therapist (SLT). The results of the two assessments were documented by a different member of the team and the SLT results were used as the benchmark to calculate the ACE-R language component sensitivity and specificity.   Fifty-nine participants were recruited and 27 of them were women. The mean age was 72 (SD 11.9). Thirty-four participants had left and 11 right hemisphere stroke. Fourteen had bilateral affection. Six participants were left handed. A cut-off value of 22/26 of ACE-R language component showed 100% specificity and 83.1% sensitivity, while a cut-off value of 16/26 had 88.2% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Our results suggest that the language component of ACE-R has a satisfactory sensitivity and specificity compared with other screening tests used in strokes. It is easy to administer and free to use. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  14. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran

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    FATEMEH GHEIBI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gheibi F, Akbarinia M, Kooch Y. 2015. Effect of Alnus subcordata, Acer insigne and Sequoia sempervirens plantations on plant diversity in Hyrcanian forest of Iran. Biodiversitas 16: 10-15. Forest plantation is a common action in order to restore the degraded forests in Hyrcanian forests of Iran. This study compares the plant biodiversity in four 25-year-old stands of plantation, adjacent understory of alder (Alnus subcordata C. A. Mey., maple (Acer insigne Boiss., sequoia or red wood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don Endl. and mixed stand (maple and sequoia, located in Salmanshahr of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Research carried out in, 10 sample plots with 20m × 20m area which taken by systematic-random in each plantation. All understory species were identified, recorded and then the biodiversity indices (diversity, richness and evenness were calculated. Our findings show that the planted species had significant effects on understory diversity. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest and lowest diversity (Simpson and Shanon-Winer and richness (Margalef and Menhinic indices occurred in sequoia and alder stands, respectively. The evenness indices (Camargo and Smith-Wilson were significantly greater in maple, sequoia and mixed stands compared with the alder type. As a conclusion, floristic change trends were different according to the planted tree species. A good understanding of the complexity of vegetation processes requires long-term monitoring of vegetation change.

  15. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  16. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the replenishment of stored water of A. saccharum and L. tulipifera that was lost during the daytime. These results implied different strategies among the

  17. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  18. Long-term calcium addition increases growth release, wound closure, and health of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) trees at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett A. Huggett; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher Eager

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed and wounded forest-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees in a long-term, replicated Ca manipulation study at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Plots received applications of Ca (to boost Ca availability above depleted ambient levels) or A1 (to compete with Ca uptake and further reduce Ca availability...

  19. Managing for delicious ecosystem service under climate change: can United States sugar maple (Acer saccharum) syrup production be maintained in a warming climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a highly valued tree in United States (US) and Canada, and its sap when collected from taps and concentrated, makes a delicious syrup. Understanding how this resource may be impacted by climate change and other threats is essential to continue management for maple syrup into the future. Here, we evaluate the current...

  20. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  1. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  2. AcerDET-2.0: a particle level fast simulation and reconstruction package for phenomenological studies on high p_T physics at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Mikos, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    The fortran version of the AcerDET package has been published in [1], and used in the multiple publications on the predictions for physics at LHC. The package provides, starting from list of particles in the event, the list of reconstructed jets, isolated electrons, muons, photons and reconstructed missing transverse energy. The AcerDET represents a simplified version of the package called ATLFAST, used since several years within ATLAS Collaboration. In the fast simulation implemented in AcerDET, some functionalities of ATLFAST are absent, but the most crucial detector effects are implemented and the parametrisations are largely simplified. Therefore it is not representing details neither of ATLAS nor CMS detectors. This short paper documents a new C++ implementation of the same algorithms as used in [1]. We believe that the package can be well adequate for some feasibility studies of the high p_T physics at LHC and at planned ppFCC. The further evolution of this code is planned. [1] E. Richter-Was, AcerDET: ...

  3. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  4. 桌面的3D诱惑——Acer Aspire GD245HQ显示器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    3D当前被炒得如火如萘,3D电影、3D电视机、3D投影机、3D相机、3D蓝光机,当然还有3D显示器,可以说3D已经在我们的周围无处不在,现在你可以轻轻松松地随时随地体验3D世界。坐在显示器前,戴上眼镜,让Acer GD245HQ 3D显示器为你带来身临其境的真切画面吧。

  5. Assimilatory pigments, photosynthetic activity and ultrastructure of chloroplasts of the variegated-leaf chimera of Acer platanoides L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Więckowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assimilatory pigment composition, photosynthetic activity and ultrastructure of chloroplasts were studied in the chlorophyll - deficient chimera of Acer platanoides L. Part of the crown of this chimera is a virescent mutant with variegated leaves. It was found that there exists no qualitative difference in the pigment composition between normal and variegated leaves. The accumulation of chlorophyll in the mutated part is more delayed that the accumulation of carotenoids. The photosynthetic rate on a chlorophyll basis is much higher in variegated than in green leaves. This difference gradually falls off with development. In the early spring, chloroplasts from the yellow spots of leaf blade have no lamellar system but only many vesicles are dispersed in the stroma. Occasionally also a single granum consisting of a few thylakoids occurs in the stroma. At the end of summer chloroplasts from yellow spots of variegated leaves possess a poorly developed lamellar system.

  6. Winter climate change and fine root biogenic silica in sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum): Implications for silica in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J.; Templer, Pamela H.; Battles, John J.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.

    2017-03-01

    Winter temperatures are projected to increase over the next century, leading to reductions in winter snowpack and increased frequency of soil freezing in many northern forest ecosystems. Here we examine biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) fine roots collected from a snow manipulation experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Increased soil freezing significantly lowered the BSi content of sugar maple fine roots potentially decreasing their capacity to take up water and dissolved nutrients. The reduced silica uptake (8 ± 1 kmol silica km-2) by sugar maple fine roots is comparable to silica export from temperate forest watersheds. We estimate that fine roots account for 29% of sugar maple BSi, despite accounting for only 4% of their biomass. These results suggest that increased frequency of soil freezing will reduce silica uptake by temperate tree roots, thereby changing silica availability in downstream receiving waters.

  7. The effects of heat treatment on technological properties in Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Süleyman; Kök, M Samil; Korkut, Derya Sevim; Gürleyen, Tuğba

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on technological properties of Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures (120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and for varying durations (2h, 6h and 10h). The technological properties of heat-treated wood samples and control samples were tested. Compression strength parallel to grain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength, and tension strength perpendicular to grain were determined. The results showed that technological strength values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques with minimal losses in strength values in areas where working, and stability such as in window frames, are important factors.

  8. Distinct isoforms of ADPglucose pyrophosphatase and ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase occur in the suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroja-Fernández, E; Zandueta-Criado, A; Rodríguez-López, M; Akazawa, T; Pozueta-Romero, J

    2000-09-01

    The intracellular localizations of ADPglucose pyrophosphatase (AGPPase) and ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) have been studied using protoplasts prepared from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Subcellular fractionation studies revealed that all the AGPPase present in the protoplasts is associated with amyloplasts, whereas more than 60% of AGPase is in the extraplastidial compartment. Immunoblots of amyloplast- and extraplastid-enriched extracts further confirmed that AGPase is located mainly outside the amyloplast. Experiments carried out to identify possible different isoforms of AGPPase in the amyloplast revealed the presence of soluble and starch granule-bound isoforms. We thus propose that ADPglucose levels linked to starch biosynthesis in sycamore cells are controlled by enzymatic reactions catalyzing the synthesis and breakdown of ADPglucose, which take place both inside and outside the amyloplast.

  9. ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ORIBATID MITE COMMUNITIES IN ACER PLATANOIDES L. STAND ON THE REMEDIATED SITE OF PAVLOGRADSKAYA MINE (PAVLOGRAD, THE DNIPROPETROVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and features of ecological structure of oribatid mite communities were studied on various options of bulk artificial-mixed soil in Acer platanoides L. stand growing on the remediated site of Pavlogradskaya mine (Pavlograd, Dnipropetrovsk Region. The ecological structure of oribatid population generally was damaged and this is typical for the man-modified ecosystems. Oribatid mite density in maple litter was higher than in the top layer of bulk soil (loess loam and chernozem by 4.1–7.4 times. Species abundance of oribatid mite was almost equal in maple litter and bulk soil. Punctoribates liber Pavlitshenko, 1991 prevailed generally as eudominant species in oribatid mite structure in Acer platanoides stand. The representatives of unspecialized life-forms were dominated among the oribatid life-forms in the remediated site with chernozem bulk. Key words: oribatid mites, forest remediation, mine dumps.

  10. ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF ORIBATID MITE COMMUNITIES IN ACER PLATANOIDES L. STAND ON THE REMEDIATED SITE OF PAVLOGRADSKAYA MINE (PAVLOGRAD, THE DNIPROPETROVSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbachko Y. L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and features of ecological structure of oribatid mite communities were studied on various options of bulk artificial-mixed soil in Acer platanoides L. stand growing on the remediated site of Pavlogradskaya mine (Pavlograd, Dnipropetrovsk Region. The ecological structure of oribatid population generally was damaged and this is typical for the man-modified ecosystems. Oribatid mite density in maple litter was higher than in the top layer of bulk soil (loess loam and chernozem by 4.1–7.4 times. Species abundance of oribatid mite was almost equal in maple litter and bulk soil. Punctoribates liber Pavlitshenko, 1991 prevailed generally as eudominant species in oribatid mite structure in Acer platanoides stand. The representatives of unspecialized life-forms were dominated among the oribatid life-forms in the remediated site with chernozem bulk.

  11. Spatial and temporal changes in leaf coloring date of Acer palmatum and Ginkgo biloba in response to temperature increases in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Kyun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Su-Jong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Jinwon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding shifts in autumn phenology associated with climate changes is critical for preserving forest ecosystems. This study examines the changes in the leaf coloring date (LCD) of two temperate deciduous tree species, Acer palmatum (Acer) and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), in response to surface air temperature (Ts) changes at 54 stations of South Korea for the period 1989–2007. The variations of Acer and Ginkgo in South Korea are very similar: they show the same mean LCD of 295th day of the year and delays of about 0.45 days year-1 during the observation period. The delaying trend is closely correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.77) with increases in Ts in mid-autumn by 2.8 days °C-1. It is noted that the LCD delaying and temperature sensitivity (days °C-1) for both tree species show negligible dependences on latitudes and elevations. Given the significant LCD-Ts relation, we project LCD changes for 2016–35 and 2046–65 using a process-based model forced by temperature from climate model simulation. The projections indicate that the mean LCD would be further delayed by 3.2 (3.7) days in 2016–35 (2046–65) due to mid-autumn Ts increases. This study suggests that the mid-autumn warming is largely responsible for the observed LCD changes in South Korea and will intensify the delaying trends in the future. PMID:28346534

  12. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  13. Root vitality of Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea Liebl. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in mature mixed forest stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grygoruk Dorota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main task of the present study was to investigate the root vitality of common beech Fagus sylvatica L., sessile oak Quercus petraea Liebl. and sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the optimal g rowth conditions in south-western Poland. The study was carried out in 130-year-old mixed stand located within natural range of studied tree species. The density of roots (g/100 cm3 of soil and biomass of fine roots (g/m2 in topsoil layers (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm were determined in the tree biogroups of the same species. The mean total root density ranged from 0.248 to 0.417 g/100 cm3 in the 0-5 cm soil layer, and it decreased in the deeper soil layer (5-15 cm. There were found no statistically significant differences of total root densities between tree biogroups in topsoil layers. Diversity of fine root biomass was comparable in the tree biogroups (H’ = 1.5, but common beech showed more intensive growth of fine roots in the topsoil 0-15 cm when compared to sessile oak and sycamore maple. The results of the study point out the stability of the multi-species structure of the mixed stand studied, and consequently - the ability of beech, sessile oak and sycamore maple trees to coexist in the mixed stands - in the area of natural range of these species.

  14. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  15. The within-season and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid trunk-injected into Acer platanoides (Sapindales: Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-04-01

    Norway maple trees, Acer platanoides L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae), that were trunk-injected with imidacloprid as part of an Asian longhorned beetle eradication program, were used to study the temporal and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid in twigs from June through September. The effect of injection time during spring on imidacloprid residues across the summer season and the distribution of imidacloprid in twig bark versus twig xylem were also investigated. Overall, we observed a significant decline in imidacloprid concentrations within each plant part sampled across the study period, although the 19 trees used in the study varied greatly in the pattern of imidacloprid residues over time. The concentration of imidacloprid in twig bark per dry mass was approximately two times higher than that of the twig xylem (means +/- SD of 1.21 +/- 2.16 ppm vs. 0.63 +/- 1.08 ppm imidacloprid, respectively). The majority (> 50%) of whole twig, twig bark and twig xylem samples from injected trees contained 5 ppm imidacloprid, with a maximum of 49 ppm. The concentrations ofimidacloprid in whole twigs, twig bark, and twig xylem were highly correlated, and levels in leaves were correlated with imidacloprid levels in whole twigs.

  16. 茶条槭嫩枝扦插试验研究%Experiments of Softwood Cuttings for Acer ginnala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志刚

    2013-01-01

    通过不同激素,不同激素浓度,不同浸泡时间对茶条槭进行半木质化嫩枝扦插试验,结果表明:采用质量分数为200×10-6的NAA(萘乙酸)处理1h,插穗保留2~4个叶片,其扦插平均生根率最高,可达90%,平均根量为10个,平均根长为12.6cm。%Experiments of half-lignified softwood cuttings for Acer ginnala were conducted through different hor-mones ,different hormone concentrations and different soaking time .It determined that :the cuttings will preserve two to four blades after treating with 200 × 10 -6 NAA (naphthalene acetic acid) for 1 h ;its average rooting rate is the most highest ,being 90% ;the average numbers of the root are 10 ,and the average root length is 12 .6 cm .

  17. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors.

  18. Characterization and Intraorganellar Distribution of Protein Kinases in Amyloplasts Isolated from Cultured Cells of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, A M; Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Akazawa, T

    1991-08-01

    Incubation of amyloplasts isolated from cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) with [gamma-(32)P]ATP resulted in the rapid phosphorylation (half-time of 40 seconds at 25 degrees Celcius) of organellar polypeptides. The preferred substrate for amyloplast protein kinases was Mg(2+). ATP, and recovery of only [(32)P]serine after partial acid hydrolysis indicated the predominance of protein serine kinases in the organelle. These activities were located in the envelope and stromal fractions of the plastid, which showed different specificities toward exogenous protein substrates and distinct patterns of phosphorylation of endogenous polypeptides. A 66-kilodalton polypeptide, inaccessible to an exogenously added protease, was one of the major phosphorylated products found in intact amyloplasts at low [gamma-(32)P] adenosine triphosphate concentrations. This polypeptide represented the major phosphoprotein observed with the isolated envelope fraction. The patterns of polypeptide phosphorylation found in intact amyloplasts and chloroplasts from cultured cell lines of sycamore were clearly distinguishable. The overall results indicate the presence of protein phosphorylation systems unique to this reserve plastid present in nonphotosynthetic tissues.

  19. Golgi-specific localization of transglycosylases engaged in glycoprotein biosynthesis in suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Mitsui, T; Akazawa, T

    1986-12-01

    Golgi complex and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were isolated from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) by stepwise sucrose density gradient centrifugation using protoplasts as starting material. The purity of the two organelle fractions isolated was assessed by measuring marker enzyme activities. Localization of glycolipid and glycoprotein glycosyltransferase activities in the isolated Golgi and ER fractions was examined; three glycosyltransferases, i.e., galactosyltransferase, fucosyltransferase, and xylosyltransferase, proved to be almost exclusively confined to the Golgi, whereas the ER fractions contained glycolipid glycosyltransferase. The Golgi complex was further subfractionated on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient into two components, migrating at densities of 1.118 and 1.127 g/cm3. The two fractions differed in their compositional polypeptide bands discernible from Na-dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. Galactosyltransferase distributed nearly equally between the two protein peaks and xylosyltransferase activities using the endogenous acceptor also appeared to be localized in the two subcompartments. By contrast, fucosyltransferase, engaged in the terminal stage of glycosylation, banded in the lower density fractions. Golgi-specific alpha-mannosidase, which is presumably engaged in the sugar trimming of Asn-N-linked glycoprotein carbohydrate core, was enriched fourfold in specific activity in the fractions of the higher density. The overall experimental results indicate that the cotranslational glycosylation of Asn-N-linked glycoproteins, e.g., polyphenol oxidase (laccase), takes place in the ER, while subsequent post-translational processing of the oligosaccharide moiety proceeds successively in the two physically separable compartments of the Golgi complex.

  20. Wood anatomical changes due to uptake of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynab Shahpoori; Vilma Bayramzadeh; Vahid Reza Safdari; Manoochehr Khan Zarinkafsh; Pedram Attarod; Roghayeh Jirroodnejad

    2012-01-01

    We investigated wood anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum Boiss seedlings.Two-year old seedlings were exposed for 180 days to soil concentrations with varying cadmium and lead concentrations.We measured three wood anatomical traits,average vessel area (μm2),vessel number per square millimetre,and vessel lumen area percentage (%).For assessing the cadmium and lead accumulation,we measured the concentrations in the soil,leaf,stem,and root.Average vessel area and vessel lumen area percentage were similar (p>0.05) in control and treated seedlings.Vessel number per square millimetre showed a decreasing trend from pith to bark in control and treated seedlings,and the trend was more pronounced in treated seedlings.We conclude that vessel number per square millimetre in A.velutinum is influenced by soil contamination.A.velutinum Boiss is not a suitable species for remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium and lead but it can be used as an indicator of the soil lead contamination,because lead concentrations in seedlings increased with increasing amount of lead in the soil.

  1. Contrasting Hydraulic Strategies during Dry Soil Conditions in Quercus rubra and Acer rubrum in a Sandy Site in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Thomsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation analyses were carried out for the dynamics of leaf water potential in two broad-leaf deciduous tree species in a sandy site under a range of air vapor pressure deficits and a relatively dry range of soil conditions. During nights when the soil is dry, the diffuse-porous, isohydric and shallow-rooted Acer rubrum does not recharge its xylem and leaf water storage to the same capacity that is observed during nights when the soil is moist. The ring-porous, deep-rooted Quercus rubra displays a more anisohydric behavior and appears to be capable of recharging to capacity at night-time even when soil moisture at the top 1 m is near wilting point, probably by accessing deeper soil layers than A. rubrum. Compared to A. rubrum, Q. rubra displays only a minimal level of down-regulation of stomatal conductance, which leads to a reduction of leaf water potential during times when vapor pressure deficit is high and soil moisture is limiting. We determine that the two species, despite typically being categorized by ecosystem models under the same plant functional type—mid-successional, temperate broadleaf—display different hydraulic strategies. These differences may lead to large differences between the species in water relations, transpiration and productivity under different precipitation and humidity regimes.

  2. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Liu

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE, whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC. In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM. Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278 among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  3. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure.

  4. Invasive Acer negundo outperforms native species in non-limiting resource environments due to its higher phenotypic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porté Annabel J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the determinants of invasiveness, comparisons of traits of invasive and native species are commonly performed. Invasiveness is generally linked to higher values of reproductive, physiological and growth-related traits of the invasives relative to the natives in the introduced range. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits has also been cited to increase the success of invasive species but has been little studied in invasive tree species. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared ecophysiological traits between an invasive species to Europe, Acer negundo, and early- and late-successional co-occurring native species, under different light, nutrient availability and disturbance regimes. We also compared species of the same species groups in situ, in riparian forests. Results Under non-limiting resources, A. negundo seedlings showed higher growth rates than the native species. However, A. negundo displayed equivalent or lower photosynthetic capacities and nitrogen content per unit leaf area compared to the native species; these findings were observed both on the seedlings in the greenhouse experiment and on adult trees in situ. These physiological traits were mostly conservative along the different light, nutrient and disturbance environments. Overall, under non-limiting light and nutrient conditions, specific leaf area and total leaf area of A. negundo were substantially larger. The invasive species presented a higher plasticity in allocation to foliage and therefore in growth with increasing nutrient and light availability relative to the native species. Conclusions The higher level of plasticity of the invasive species in foliage allocation in response to light and nutrient availability induced a better growth in non-limiting resource environments. These results give us more elements on the invasiveness of A. negundo and suggest that such behaviour could explain the ability of A. negundo to outperform native tree

  5. Invasive Acer negundo outperforms native species in non-limiting resource environments due to its higher phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porté, Annabel J; Lamarque, Laurent J; Lortie, Christopher J; Michalet, Richard; Delzon, Sylvain

    2011-11-24

    To identify the determinants of invasiveness, comparisons of traits of invasive and native species are commonly performed. Invasiveness is generally linked to higher values of reproductive, physiological and growth-related traits of the invasives relative to the natives in the introduced range. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits has also been cited to increase the success of invasive species but has been little studied in invasive tree species. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared ecophysiological traits between an invasive species to Europe, Acer negundo, and early- and late-successional co-occurring native species, under different light, nutrient availability and disturbance regimes. We also compared species of the same species groups in situ, in riparian forests. Under non-limiting resources, A. negundo seedlings showed higher growth rates than the native species. However, A. negundo displayed equivalent or lower photosynthetic capacities and nitrogen content per unit leaf area compared to the native species; these findings were observed both on the seedlings in the greenhouse experiment and on adult trees in situ. These physiological traits were mostly conservative along the different light, nutrient and disturbance environments. Overall, under non-limiting light and nutrient conditions, specific leaf area and total leaf area of A. negundo were substantially larger. The invasive species presented a higher plasticity in allocation to foliage and therefore in growth with increasing nutrient and light availability relative to the native species. The higher level of plasticity of the invasive species in foliage allocation in response to light and nutrient availability induced a better growth in non-limiting resource environments. These results give us more elements on the invasiveness of A. negundo and suggest that such behaviour could explain the ability of A. negundo to outperform native tree species, contributes to its spread in European resource

  6. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Qi

    Full Text Available The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark. Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF or isolation frequency (IF. To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance, respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3 except for bark and annual twigs (0.63. Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  7. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  8. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, stimulates osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, Tasuku [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ichikawa, Saki [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Akihisa, Toshihiro [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Woo, Je Tae [Research Institute for Biological Functions, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Michi, Yasuyuki; Amagasa, Teruo [Section of Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp [Section of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Global Center of Excellence (GCOE) Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Acerogenin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation in osteogenic cells. {yields} Acerogenin A-induced osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by noggin. {yields} Acerogenin A increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Bmp-7 mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. {yields} Acerogenin A is a candidate agent for stimulating bone formation. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, on osteoblast differentiation by using osteoblastic cells. Acerogenin A stimulated the cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RD-C6 osteoblastic cells (Runx2-deficient cell line). It also increased alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 and RD-C6 cells and calvarial osteoblastic cells isolated from the calvariae of newborn mice. Acerogenin A also increased the expression of mRNAs related to osteoblast differentiation, including Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts: it also stimulated Osteocalcin and Osterix mRNA expression in RD-C6 cells. The acerogenin A treatment for 3 days increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7 mRNA expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Adding noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited the acerogenin A-induced increase in the Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression levels. These results indicated that acerogenin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP action, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent and Runx2-independent pathways.

  9. Invasive Acer negundo outperforms native species in non-limiting resource environments due to its higher phenotypic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To identify the determinants of invasiveness, comparisons of traits of invasive and native species are commonly performed. Invasiveness is generally linked to higher values of reproductive, physiological and growth-related traits of the invasives relative to the natives in the introduced range. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits has also been cited to increase the success of invasive species but has been little studied in invasive tree species. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared ecophysiological traits between an invasive species to Europe, Acer negundo, and early- and late-successional co-occurring native species, under different light, nutrient availability and disturbance regimes. We also compared species of the same species groups in situ, in riparian forests. Results Under non-limiting resources, A. negundo seedlings showed higher growth rates than the native species. However, A. negundo displayed equivalent or lower photosynthetic capacities and nitrogen content per unit leaf area compared to the native species; these findings were observed both on the seedlings in the greenhouse experiment and on adult trees in situ. These physiological traits were mostly conservative along the different light, nutrient and disturbance environments. Overall, under non-limiting light and nutrient conditions, specific leaf area and total leaf area of A. negundo were substantially larger. The invasive species presented a higher plasticity in allocation to foliage and therefore in growth with increasing nutrient and light availability relative to the native species. Conclusions The higher level of plasticity of the invasive species in foliage allocation in response to light and nutrient availability induced a better growth in non-limiting resource environments. These results give us more elements on the invasiveness of A. negundo and suggest that such behaviour could explain the ability of A. negundo to outperform native tree species, contributes to its spread

  10. Role of nitric oxide in actin depolymerization and programmed cell death induced by fusicoccin in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Massimo; Contran, Nicla; Tonelli, Mariagrazia; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2008-06-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) plays a vital role in plant development and is involved in defence mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Different forms of PCD have been described in plants on the basis of the cell organelle first involved. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, the phytotoxin fusicoccin (FC) induces cell death. However, only a fraction of the dead cells shows the typical hallmarks of animal apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. In this work, we show that the scavenging of nitric oxide (NO), produced in the presence of FC, by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) and rutin inhibits cell death without affecting DNA fragmentation and cytochrome c release. In addition, we show that FC induces a massive depolymerization of actin filaments that is prevented by the NO scavengers. Finally, the addition of actin-depolymerizing drugs induces PCD in control cells and overcomes the inhibiting effect of cPTIO on FC-induced cell death. Vice versa, the addition of actin-stabilizing drugs to FC-treated cells partially inhibits the phytotoxin-induced PCD. These results suggest that besides an apoptotic-like form of PCD involving the release of cytochrome c, FC induces at least another form of cell death, likely mediated by NO and independent of cytochrome c release, and they make it tempting to speculate that changes in actin cytoskeleton are involved in this form of PCD.

  11. Analysis of the embryo proteome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) seeds reveals a distinct class of proteins regulating dormancy release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria

    2016-05-20

    Acer pseudoplatanus seeds are characterized by a deep physiological embryo dormancy that requires a few weeks of cold stratification in order to promote germination. Understanding the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in the breaking of seed dormancy, would expand our knowledge pertaining to this process. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the changes occurring in seeds in response to cold stratification, which leads to dormancy release. In addition, the involvement of abscisic (ABA) and gibberellic acids (GA) was also examined. Fifty-three proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. An effect of ABA on protein variation was observed at the beginning of stratification, while the influence of GA on protein abundance was observed during the middle phase of stratification. The majority of proteins associated with dormancy breaking in the presence of only water, and also ABA or GA, were classified as being involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. For metabolic-related proteins, the effect of ABA on protein abundance was stimulatory for half of the proteins and inhibitory for half of the proteins. On the other hand, the effect on genetic information processing related proteins was stimulatory. GA was found to upregulate both metabolic-related and genetic information processing-related proteins. While seed dormancy breaking depends on proteins involved in a variety of processes, proteins associated with methionine metabolism (adenosine kinase, methionine synthase) and glycine-rich RNA binding proteins appear to be of particular importance.

  12. 元宝枫及同属植物种子总蛋白质含量和氨基酸的测定%Measurment of total protein and amino acid in Acer truncatum Bunge seeds and same generic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏希颖; 吕居娴; 李映丽

    2004-01-01

    An analysis and determination are made of the contents of the total protein and the components of 19 kinds of amino acids in the Acer truncatum Bunge. And the same generic plants are analyzed. The results show that there is a very high protein content in the seeds of Acer truncatum Bunge and the same generic plants. Moreover, the higher contents of Glu. and Arg. is a peculiarity of the components of amino acids in the seeds of Acer truncatum Bunge and the same generic plants.%对元宝枫及同属植物种子总蛋白质含量和氨基酸的组成进行了分析测定,结果表明元宝枫及同属植物种子含有较高的蛋白质,且其氨基酸的组成以谷氨酸、精氨酸含量较高为特点.

  13. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wesley-Smith, J

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Annals of Botany 113: 695–709, 2014 doi:10.1093/aob/mct284, available online at www.aob.oxfordjournals.org Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study... of factors affecting cell and ice structures JamesWesley-Smith1,2, Patricia Berjak1, N.W. Pammenter1 and ChristinaWalters3,* 1Plant Germplasm Conservation Research, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu- Natal(Westville Campus), Durban, 4001...

  14. Evaluación del sistema de aspiración secundario de la acería de SIDERCA Planta Campana

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal Mora, Vicente Javier; Piechocki, Joaquín; Pezzotti, Santiago; Luján, Leonardo; Ajargo, Francisco; Faut, Rogelio; Martiarena, Juan

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se aborda la problemática de captación de gases generados en los dos hornos de la acería de SIDERCA, Planta Campana, durante el proceso de carga de chatarra. En la actualidad los gases emitidos son captados por un sistema de aspiración secundaria (captación remota), a través de una campana situada sobre los hornos. El objeto del estudio es desarrollar soluciones técnicas que permitan suprimir la emisión de humos a partir de la generación de modelos de ingeniería del pro...

  15. The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Goñi, María Fernanda; Desprat, Stéphanie; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Bassinot, Frank C.; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Harrison, Sandy P.; Allen, Judy R. M.; Anderson, R. Scott; Behling, Hermann; Bonnefille, Raymonde; Burjachs, Francesc; Carrión, José S.; Cheddadi, Rachid; Clark, James S.; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Mustaphi, Colin. J. Courtney; Debusk, Georg H.; Dupont, Lydie M.; Finch, Jemma M.; Fletcher, William J.; Giardini, Marco; González, Catalina; Gosling, William D.; Grigg, Laurie D.; Grimm, Eric C.; Hayashi, Ryoma; Helmens, Karin; Heusser, Linda E.; Hill, Trevor; Hope, Geoffrey; Huntley, Brian; Igarashi, Yaeko; Irino, Tomohisa; Jacobs, Bonnie; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kawai, Sayuri; Kershaw, A. Peter; Kumon, Fujio; Lawson, Ian T.; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Liew, Ping Mei; Magri, Donatella; Marchant, Robert; Margari, Vasiliki; Mayle, Francis E.; Merna McKenzie, G.; Moss, Patrick; Müller, Stefanie; Müller, Ulrich C.; Naughton, Filipa; Newnham, Rewi M.; Oba, Tadamichi; Pérez-Obiol, Ramón; Pini, Roberta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Roucoux, Katy H.; Rucina, Stephen M.; Scott, Louis; Takahara, Hikaru; Tzedakis, Polichronis C.; Urrego, Dunia H.; van Geel, Bas; Valencia, B. Guido; Vandergoes, Marcus J.; Vincens, Annie; Whitlock, Cathy L.; Willard, Debra A.; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2017-09-01

    Quaternary records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of the vegetation and fire responses to rapid past climate changes comparable in velocity and magnitude to those expected in the 21st-century. The best documented examples of rapid climate change in the past are the warming events associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial period, which were sufficiently large to have had a potential feedback through changes in albedo and greenhouse gas emissions on climate. Previous reconstructions of vegetation and fire changes during the D-O cycles used independently constructed age models, making it difficult to compare the changes between different sites and regions. Here, we present the ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses) global database, which includes 93 pollen records from the last glacial period (73-15 ka) with a temporal resolution better than 1000 years, 32 of which also provide charcoal records. A harmonized and consistent chronology based on radiometric dating (14C, 234U/230Th, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), 40Ar/39Ar-dated tephra layers) has been constructed for 86 of these records, although in some cases additional information was derived using common control points based on event stratigraphy. The ACER database compiles metadata including geospatial and dating information, pollen and charcoal counts, and pollen percentages of the characteristic biomes and is archived in Microsoft AccessTM at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.870867.

  16. Revealing the cellular metabolism and microstructural changes in vivo in senescing Acer saccharum leaves using two-photon FLIM and full-field OCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Anna, Tulsi; Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Chiou, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal as well as climate changes have immense effect on bud burst, leaf color and leaf abscission. Autumn phenology of leaves is clearly distinguishable in deciduous plant leaves where the leaf color changes from green to red (leaf senescence). In this work, two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) were applied to study mitochondrial activity and microstructural changes, respectively, in the senescence of Acer saccharum (Sugar maple) leaves. Fluorescence lifetime of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] was recorded using 2P-FLIM to quantify the cellular metabolic changes. Compared to the green leaves, the red leaves showed a 19% increase (P face sectional images at 0.8 μm axial resolutions of the green and the red color Acer saccharum leaves via FF-OCM using white light emitting diode (WLED) showed a well-defined microstructure of epicuticular waxy layer in green leaves as compared to red leaves where disintegrated microstructure was observed. Our approach can potentially be used to correlate mitochondrial activity with epicuticular microstructural changes in senescing leaves and other biological tissues.

  17. Effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system of a cool-temperate heterodichogamous tree Acer mono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kikuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a key process for reproduction and gene flow in flowering plants. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation, however, can disrupt plant–pollinator interactions, and may have a negative impact on the reproductive success and population viability of entomophilous plants. Heterodichogamous plants containing protandrous and protogynous individuals within a population may be susceptible to habitat fragmentation due to a lack of available mating partners. In this study, we investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system in the heterodichogamous plant Acer mono, a major constituent of cool-temperate deciduous forests in Japan. Microsatellite analysis was applied to 212 adult trees and 17 seed families from continuous and fragmented forests. Dispersal kernel modeling using the neighborhood model indicated that pollen dispersal of A. mono was highly fat-tailed. The estimated parameters of the model suggested that the siring success of a pollen donor increased approximately fivefold, with a 100 cm increase in its diameter at breast height (DBH, and that disassortative mating was five times more frequent than assortative mating. The mating system parameters of each mother tree, outcrossing rate (tm, biparental inbreeding (tm−ts, and paternity correlation (rpm varied among sites and conditions, depending on the local density of potential pollen donors. Whereas A. mono was effectively outcrossed (tm=0.901, tm−ts=0.052, and the number of effective sires was 1/rpm=14.93 in the continuous forest, clumped trees within the fragmented forest showed increased biparental inbreeding and reduced pollen pool genetic diversity (tm=0.959, tm−ts=0.245,1/rpm=1.742 as a result of localized mating combined with spatial genetic structures. In contrast, the isolated trees had a higher selfing rate, but the pollen pool diversity was maintained (tm=0.801, tm−ts=0.022, and 1/rpm=15.63 due to frequent long-distance pollination. These

  18. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere.

  19. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training

  20. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  1. Comparison of glycerolipid biosynthesis in non-green plastids from sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, C; Joyard, J; Douce, R

    1989-05-01

    The availability of methods to fractionate non-green plastids and to prepare their limiting envelope membranes [Alban, Joyard & Douce (1988) Plant Physiol. 88, 709-717] allowed a detailed analysis of the biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid, phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol and monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol (MGDG) in two different types of non-green starch-containing plastids: plastids isolated from cauliflower buds and amyloplasts isolated from sycamore cells. An enzyme [acyl-ACP (acyl carrier protein):sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase) recovered in the soluble fraction of non-green plastids transfers oleic acid from oleoyl-ACP to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form lysophosphatidic acid. Then a membrane-bound enzyme (acyl-ACP:monoacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase), localized in the envelope membrane, catalyses the acylation of the available sn-2 position of 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate by palmitic acid from palmitoyl-ACP. Therefore both the soluble phase and the envelope membranes are necessary for acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The major difference between cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) membranes is the very low level of phosphatidate phosphatase activity in sycamore envelope membrane. Therefore, very little diacylglycerol is available for MGDG synthesis in sycamore, compared with cauliflower. These findings are consistent with the similarities and differences described in lipid metabolism of mature chloroplasts from 'C18:3' and 'C16:3' plants (those with MGDG containing C18:3 and C16:3 fatty acids). Sycamore contains only C18 fatty acids in MGDG, and the envelope membranes from sycamore amyloplasts have a low phosphatidate phosphatase activity and therefore the enzymes of the Kornberg-Pricer pathway have a low efficiency of incorporation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate into MGDG. By contrast, cauliflower contains MGDG with C16:3 fatty acid, and the incorporation of sn-glycerol 3

  2. Influence of Temperature on Cambial Activity and Cell Differentiation in Quercus Sessiliflora and Acer Pseudoplatanus of Different Ages

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    Jožica Gričar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the response of active cambium of sessile oak (Quercus sessiliflora and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus to experimentally increased (20–22 °C and decreased (9–11 °C temperatures. Heating and cooling experiments on 150-year old Q. sessiliflora were performed during the growth season of 2007 and on 30-year old A. pseudoplatanus in 2008. In 2009, heating experiment was carried out on 30-year old Q. sessiliflora. For each treatment, two trees were selected of each species and sampled at 21-day intervals during the vegetation period and investigated by means of light microscopy. Continuously elevated temperatures slightly promoted the development of xylem cells in old Q. sessiliflora trees in the first month of cambial activity. However, no effect of elevated or decreased temperature was detected in the timing and dynamics of wood and phloem formation. The applied treatments, therefore, had no visible impact on the structure or width of the xylem or phloem increments in 2007. On the other hand, heating young A. pseudoplatanus trees provoked the development of epicormic shoots two months after the onset of the experiment and finally the death of trees. The cambium of those trees did not reactivate in 2008; xylem and phloem increments were consequently not formed. Low temperature treatments slowed down cell production at the very beginning of the growing season, but no alterations in wood or phloem formation dynamics or structure were observed later. The heating of young Q. sessiliflora trees caused the development of epicormic shoots and the death of trees four months after the experiment. The pattern of their dying was similar as in A. pseudoplatanus but with a two month delay. The observations indicate that tree age, thickness of dead bark and duration of the applied treatments influence the response of cambium. The development of dead bark is species specific and it occurs earlier in Q. sessiliflora than in A. pseudoplatanus

  3. Kinetics in Suspension Culture of Acer ginnala%茶条槭悬浮培养的动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董杰; 詹亚光; 任健

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigated kinetics parameters during the cell culture of Acer ginnala , such as cell growth , consumption of the carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and change in the pH and electrical conductivity in the medium, as well as changes in cell fresh weight and dry weight at the various stages in the culture procedure. 1 ) The cell suspension culture cycle lasted about 15 days by which the maximum biomass in dry weight and the gallic acid content reached to 11.3 g·L-1 and 0.49% , and the maximum specific rates of cell growth and gallic acid synthesis were 0.541 d and 0. 682 d-1 , respectively. The specific gallic acid production rate was relatively high when the cell growth rate was 0. 3 -0. 4 d-1. Gallic acid accumulation was partially-growth-associated. 2) The electrical conductivity of the culture medium gradually descended during culture procedure, reached to the lowest point on the 21* day, and then slightly increased. 3) After 15 days of the cell culture, sucrose and phosphate of the medium almost all were consumed. Ammonium was rapidly adsorbed at the early stage and was consumed on the 12th day. Compared with ammonium, the absorption of nitrate was slow, it was not absorbed fastly until the 6th day and the absorption rate reached to the lowest point on the 15th day.%对茶条槭细胞培养动力学进行研究,在培养周期内不同的培养阶段测定茶条槭细胞生长和培养基中碳源、氮源、磷源的消耗,电导率的变化,以及细胞的鲜质量与干质量的变化,从而了解细胞生长、营养消耗与次生代谢产物积累的基本规律,为建立结构化动力学模型奠定基础.研究结果表明:1)茶条槭细胞悬浮培养周期约为15天,经过15天的悬浮培养,最大生物量和没食子酸含量分别达到了11.3 g·L-1和0.49%.细胞的最大比生长速率和没食子酸的最大比生成速率分别为0.541 d-1和0.682 d-1.没食子酸的比生成速率当细胞比生长速率在0.3~0.4d-1

  4. The acropetal effects of indole-3-acetic acid in isolated shoot segments of Acer pseudoplatanus L. I. Growth responses of buds

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    Jacek A. Adamczyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this investigation were growth reactions of two opposite lateral buds of Acer pseudoplatanus L. stem sections in response to application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and other synthetic growth regulators below the buds. No effect of IAA upon the initiation of bud growth was noted, however, elongation of new shoots was inhibited. This acropetal effect of auxin was enhanced by simultaneous treatment with triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA or benzyladenine (BA. TIBA alone caused even stronger retardation of shoot growth. Exactly the opposite effect was produced by gibberellic acid (GA3 applied even 30 cm below the buds. In this case TIBA could reverse the effect of GA3 treatment. The results concerning acropetal effects of auxin suggest that some type of signalling system functions independently of the direct action of the exogenous IAA.

  5. Studies on synthetic pathway of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides deduced from substrate specificities of the processing enzymes in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Akazawa, T; Takahashi, N

    1992-02-01

    We measured the activities of alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, alpha-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, beta-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-xylosyltransferase and glycoprotein 3-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase in the Golgi fraction of suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using fluorescence-labelled oligosaccharides as acceptor substrates for these transferase reactions. The structures of the pyridylaminated oligosaccharides produced by these reactions were analyzed by two-dimensional sugar mapping using high-performance liquid chromatography. We demonstrated that (formula; see text) was processed to produce by these in vitro reactions. On the basis of these results, we discuss a biosynthetic pathway for xylose containing N-linked oligosaccharides in plant glycoproteins.

  6. Purification and substrate specificity of beta-xylosidase from sycamore cell (Acer pseudoplatanus L.): application for structural analysis of xylose-containing N-linked oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, K; Hayashi, M; Ishihara, H; Nishimura, M; Onozaki, K; Takahashi, N

    1993-06-01

    A beta-xylosidase was purified 51-fold from culture medium of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells using p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside as a substrate. This enzyme can remove a xylose residue from asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, derivatized with 2-aminopyridine. A pentasaccharide, Xy1 beta 2Man beta 4GlcNAc beta 4(Fuc-alpha 3)GlcNAc was the favorite substrate in N-linked oligosaccharides, but a xylose residue in Xy1 beta 2(Man-alpha 3)Man beta sequence could not be removed by the enzyme. We also propose an efficient method for detection of xylose residue in N-linked oligosaccharides by a combination of the two-dimensional sugar mapping technique and the xylosidase digestion.

  7. The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Sánchez Goñi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of the vegetation and fire responses to rapid past climate changes comparable in velocity and magnitude to those expected in the 21st-century. The best documented examples of rapid climate change in the past are the warming events associated with the Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O cycles during the last glacial period, which were sufficiently large to have had a potential feedback through changes in albedo and greenhouse gas emissions on climate. Previous reconstructions of vegetation and fire changes during the D–O cycles used independently constructed age models, making it difficult to compare the changes between different sites and regions. Here, we present the ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses global database, which includes 93 pollen records from the last glacial period (73–15 ka with a temporal resolution better than 1000 years, 32 of which also provide charcoal records. A harmonized and consistent chronology based on radiometric dating (14C, 234U∕230Th, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL, 40Ar∕39Ar-dated tephra layers has been constructed for 86 of these records, although in some cases additional information was derived using common control points based on event stratigraphy. The ACER database compiles metadata including geospatial and dating information, pollen and charcoal counts, and pollen percentages of the characteristic biomes and is archived in Microsoft AccessTM at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.870867.

  8. 色木槭次生林种群结构动态分析%Analysis on Structure Dynamics of Population of the Secondary Acer mono Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷东生; 张凤海; 山永清; 侯培军; 丁永平; 葛文志; 沈海龙

    2011-01-01

    The static life table of Acer mono populations was compiled based on the population life table and theory of survival analysis using the age class structure represented by the size-class structure. The survival rate curve, the mortality rate curve, vanishing rate curve and survival function curve were determined, and population dynamics were analyzed by spectral analysis. The results show that the number of young individuals was larger than that of middle aged and old individuals. The population had two peak of mortality in size class Ⅲ and Ⅷ. The survival curve of the population appeared to be of the Deevey-Ⅱ type. The population was rise type. The tending management should be actualized to increase the timber utilization quotiety when DBH growth of Acer mono individual reached to 15cm and 40cm in natural conditions.%以种群生命表及生存分析理论为基础,将林木依胸径大小分级,以林木径级结构代表年龄结构,编制了色木槭种群的特定时间生命表,绘制了存活曲线、死亡率曲线、损失度曲线和生存函数曲线,分析种群数量特征。结果表明:色木槭种群幼年个体丰富,中老年个体较少,种群在第Ⅲ和第Ⅷ径级出现死亡高峰,种群存活曲线属于Deevey-Ⅱ型,色木槭种群1/1前表现为增长型种群。在自然条件下,当色木槭胸径达到15cm和40cm前时,应对其进行抚育管理以提高木材利用率。

  9. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.sinnett@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R., E-mail: tony.hutchings@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E., E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.u [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum. - Concentrations of Zn in two aphid species are dependant on species and exposure.

  10. The acropetal effects of indole-3-acetic acid in isolated shoot segments of Acer pseudoplatanus L. II. Possible regulation by a vectorial fieid of auxin waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek A. Adamczyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The acropetal effects of auxin on elongation of axillary buds and on modulation of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin to agar from Acer pseudoplatanus L. shoots were studied. When synthetic IAA was applied to cut surfaces of one of two branches the elongation growth of buds situated on the opposite branch was retarded, suggesting regulation independent of the direct action of the molecules of the applied IAA. Oscillations in basipetal transport of natural auxin along the stem segments were observed corroborating the results of other authors using different tree species. Apical application of synthetic IAA for 1 hour to the lateral branch caused a phase shift of the wave-like pattern of basipetal efflux of natural auxin, when the stem segment above the treated branch was sectioned. The same effect was observed evoked by the laterally growing branch which is interpreted as an effect of natural auxin produced by the actively growing shoot. These modulations could be propagated acropetally at a rate excluding direct action of auxin molecules at the sites of measurement. The results seem to corroborate the hypothesis suggesting that auxin is involved in acropetal regulation of shoot apex growth through its effect upon modulation of the vectorial field which arises when the auxin-waves translocate in cambium.

  11. Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharayil, Nishanth; Suseela, Vidya; Triebwasser, Daniella J; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    • Climate change could increase the frequency with which plants experience abiotic stresses, leading to changes in their metabolic pathways. These stresses may induce the production of compounds that are structurally and biologically different from constitutive compounds. • We studied how warming and altered precipitation affected the composition, structure, and biological reactivity of leaf litter tannins in Acer rubrum at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment, in Massachusetts, USA. • Warmer and drier climatic conditions led to higher concentrations of protective compounds, including flavonoids and cutin. The abundance and structure of leaf tannins also responded consistently to climatic treatments. Drought and warming in combination doubled the concentration of total tannins, which reached 30% of leaf-litter DW. This treatment also produced condensed tannins with lower polymerization and a greater proportion of procyanidin units, which in turn reduced sequestration of tannins by litter fiber. Furthermore, because of the structural flexibility of these tannins, litter from this treatment exhibited five times more enzyme (β-glucosidase) complexation capacity on a per-weight basis. Warmer and wetter conditions decreased the amount of foliar condensed tannins. • Our finding that warming and drought result in the production of highly reactive tannins is novel, and highly relevant to climate change research as these tannins, by immobilizing microbial enzymes, could slow litter decomposition and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in a warmer, drier world.

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum using combination of Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Fei, Shimin; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technique was firstly and successfully applied for extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum. The extraction kinetics were fitted and described, and the extraction mechanism was discussed. Through comparison, n-hexane was selected as the extraction solvent, the influence of solvent type on the responses was detailedly interpreted based on the influence of their properties on the occurrence and intensity of cavitation. Seven parameters potentially influencing the extraction yield of samara oil and content of nervonic acid, including ultrasound irradiation time, ultrasound irradiation power, ultrasound temperature, liquid-solid ratio, soaking time, particle size and stirring rate, were screened through Plackett-Burman design to determine the significant variables. Then, three parameters performed statistically significant, including liquid-solid ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and ultrasound irradiation power, were further optimized using Box-Behnken design to predict optimum extraction conditions. Satisfactory yield of samara oil (11.72±0.38%) and content of nervonic acid (5.28±0.18%) were achieved using the optimal conditions. 1% proportion of ethanol in extraction solvent, 120°C of drying temperature and 6.4% moisture were selected and applied for effective extraction. There were no distinct differences in the physicochemical properties of samara oil obtained by UCE and Soxhlet extraction, and the samara oil obtained by UCE exhibited better antioxidant activities. Therefore, UCE method has enormous potential for efficient extraction of edible oil with high quality from plant materials.

  13. Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System

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    Kwang Jin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Acer tegmentosum (3 kg was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EA, butyl alcohol (n-BuOH, and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24 g, five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1, avicularin (2, (+-catechin (3, (−-epicatechin (4, and 6′-O-galloyl salidroside (5. Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum.

  14. DNA methylation is a determinative element of photosynthesis gene expression in amyloplasts from liquid-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T

    1990-10-01

    Transcriptional regulation has been shown to operate as a selective control mechanism of expression of photosynthetic genes in the nonphotosynthetic plastids, amyloplasts, of a white-wild cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). To elaborate the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation at the molecular level, we have examined the template activity of the amyloplast DNA compared to the chloroplast DNA by using the in vitro run-off transcription assay system with extracts of the two plastid types. The results of these assays clearly indicate that most of the amyloplast DNA regions do not serve as a template for the in vitro transcription regardless of the plastid extracts; this is in contrast to the chloroplast DNA which serves as an active template. It is highly likely that the template activity of amyloplast DNA per se is the modulating element of transcriptional regulation. Parallel experiments determining the DNA base content by HPLC analysis have shown that a variety of methylated bases, especially 5-methylcytosine, are localized in the DNA regions containing suppressed genes of the amyloplast genome. In sharp contrast, methylated bases were undetectable in the expressed gene regions of amyloplast and whole chloroplast genomes. The overall findings strongly support the notion that DNA methylation is involved in the selective suppression of photosynthetic genes in the nonphotosynthetic plastids of cultured sycamore cells.

  15. Inositol Metabolism in Plants. III. Conversion of Myo-inositol-2-H to Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Loewus, F

    1966-11-01

    Prolonged growth of cell cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) on agar medium containing myo-inositol-2-(3)H resulted in incorporation of label predominately into uronosyl and pentosyl units of cell wall polysaccharides. Procedures normally used to distinguish between pectic substance and hemicellulose yielded carbohydrate-rich fractions with solubility characteristics ranging from pectic substance to hemicellulose yet the uronic acid and pentose composition of these fractions was decidedly pectic. Galacturonic acid was the only uronic acid present in each fraction. Subfractionation of alkali-soluble (hemicellulosic) polysaccharide by neutralization followed by ethanol precipitation gave 3 fractions, a water-insoluble, an ethanol-insoluble, and an ethanol-soluble fraction, each progressively poorer in galacturonic acid units and progressively richer in arabinose units; all relatively poor in xylose units.Apparently, processes involved in biosynthesis of primary cell wall continued to produce pectic substance during cell enlargement while processes leading to biosynthesis of typically secondary cell wall polysaccharide such as 4-0-methyl glucuronoxylan were not activated.

  16. Facilitated transport of Mn2+ in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and excised maize root tips. A comparative 31P n.m.r. study in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, C; Bligny, R; Douce, R; Tu, S I; Pfeffer, P E

    1988-06-01

    Movement of paramagnetic Mn2+ into sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has been indirectly examined by observing the line broadening exhibited in its 31P n.m.r. spectra. Mn2+ was observed to pass into the vacuole, while exhibiting a very minor accumulation in the cytoplasm. With time, gradual leakage of phosphate from the vacuole to the cytoplasm was observed along with an increase in glucose-6-phosphate. Anoxia did not appear to affect the relative distribution of Mn2+ in the cytoplasm and vacuole. Under hypoxic conditions restriction of almost all movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma as well as the tonoplast was observed. In contrast, maize root tips showed entry and complete complexation of nucleotide triphosphate by Mn2+ during hypoxia. The rate of passage of Mn2+ across the tonoplast in both sycamore and maize root cells is approximately the same. However, the rates of facilitated movement across the respective plasma membranes appear to differ. More rapid movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma in maize root tip cells allows a gradual build-up of metal ion in the cytoplasm prior to its diffusion across the tonoplast. Sycamore cells undergo a slower uptake of Mn2+ into their cytoplasms (comparable with the rate of diffusion through the tonoplast), so little or no observable accumulation of Mn2+ is observed in this compartment.

  17. Expression of photosynthetic genes is distinctly different between chloroplasts and amyloplasts in the liquid-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H; Akazawa, T

    1990-10-01

    A nonphotosynthetic, white-wild cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) contains amyloplasts as the only kind of plastid, whereas a photosynthetically competent green variant cell line contains only chloroplasts. Transcripts of both nuclear and plastid genes for photosynthetic components in the white cells were not detectable in contrast to those in the green cells. To investigate the limiting step (s) behind these diminished levels of transcripts, we have performed in vivo pulse-chase labeling of RNA in both cell types. These studies indicated that the rates of incorporation of [3H]uridine and nucleotide pool sizes were indistinguishable between the two cell lines. Transcripts of certain nuclear (rbcS, cab, psbO) and plastid (rbcL) genes in the white cell were not detectable. We infer from these data that transcriptional regulation entails an important role in controlling photosynthetic RNA levels. Related analyses exploiting plastid run-on transcription have provided supporting evidence that the transcription of the amyloplast genome in the white cell is greatly suppressed in contrast to that of the chloroplast genome in the green cell. The results support a model of selective suppression of photosynthesis genes in nonphotosynthetic higher plant cells, and indicate that gene expression in such a system is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level.

  18. Application of an efficient strategy with a phage lambda vector for constructing a physical map of the amyloplast genome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Kobayashi, H

    1990-01-01

    Amyloplasts were isolated from a heterotrophic culture cell line of a woody plant, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), and their DNA was purified. Conventional procedures for making a physical map were not easily applicable to the amyloplast DNA, since the yield of DNA was too low and the presence of repeated sequences interfered with the analysis. Therefore, the pieces of amyloplast DNA starting with a few micrograms of DNA were cloned in the lambda Fix vector, which is a derivative of lambda EMBL vectors improved for efficient cloning and gene walking. Cloned DNA fragments were randomly picked, mapped for restriction endonuclease sites by a refined procedure, and combined by overlapping their physical maps. The DNA library was also subjected to screening by gene walking using promoters recognized by T3 and T7 RNA polymerases in the vector to fill the gaps between sequences determined by overlapping the physical maps. In this way, we constructed the entire DNA library and the complete physical map of the amyloplast DNA. The sycamore amyloplast genome was composed of 141.7-kbp nucleotides with the same gene arrangement as that of tobacco chloroplasts.

  19. Comparison between the effects of fusicoccin, Tunicamycin, and Brefeldin A on programmed cell death of cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, M; Cerana, R; Crosti, P

    2004-10-01

    Programmed cell death occurs in plants during several developmental processes and during the expression of resistance to pathogen attack (i.e., the hypersensitive response). An unsolved question of plant programmed cell death is whether a unique signaling pathway or different, possibly convergent pathways exist. This problem was addressed in cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells by comparing the effects of fusicoccin, Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A, inducers of programmed cell death with well-defined molecular and cellular targets, on some of the parameters involved in the regulation of this process. In addition to cell death, the inducers are able to stimulate the production of H2O2, the leakage of cytochrome c from mitochondria, the accumulation of cytosolic 14-3-3 proteins, and changes at the endoplasmic reticulum level, such as accumulation of the molecular chaperone binding protein and modifications in the organelle architecture. Interestingly, no additive effect on any of these parameters is observed when fusicoccin is administered in combination with Tunicamycin or Brefeldin A. Thus, these inducers seem to utilize the same or largely coincident pathways to induce programmed cell death and involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum, in addition to that of mitochondria, appears to be a common step.

  20. Is the availability of substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle a limiting factor for uncoupled respiration in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journet, E P; Bligny, R; Douce, R

    1986-01-15

    Protoplasts obtained from sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cell suspensions were found to be highly intact and to retain a high rate of O2 consumption. If the protoplasts were taken up and expelled through a fine nylon mesh, all the protoplasts were ruptured, leaving the fragile amyloplasts largely intact. Distribution of enzymes of glycolysis in plastids and soluble phase of sycamore protoplasts indicated that the absolute maximum activity for each glycolytic enzyme under optimum conditions exceeded the estimates of the maximal rate at which sycamore cells oxidize triose phosphate. Passage of protoplasts through the fine nylon mesh produced a 3-5-fold decrease in O2 consumption. However, addition of saturating amounts of respiratory substrates and ADP restored an O2 consumption equal to that observed with uncoupled intact protoplasts. Taken together, these results demonstrated that neither the overall capacity of the glycolytic enzymes in sycamore cells nor the availability of respiratory substrates for the mitochondria is ultimately responsible for determining the rate of uncoupled respiration in sycamore cells.

  1. High Energy Charge as a Requirement for Axis Elongation in Response to Gibberellic Acid and Kinetin during Stratification of Acer saccharum Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, J A; Dumbroff, E B

    1974-01-01

    The growth potential of embryonic axes of Acer saccharum Marsh. increased during moist storage at 5 C but not at 20 C. During the period of increasing growth potential, the oxygen consumption of the axes remained constant. It was possible to distinguish three phases of the stratification-germination process at 5 C with respect to response of the axis to gibberellic acid and kinetin. From 0 to 10 days the growth regulators had no effect on elongation; from 10 to 60 days axis elongation was stimulated; and between day 60 and day 75, when germination had begun, the growth substances were inhibitory. The adenylate energy charge remained low (0.15) in axes of dry dormant seeds but increased to 0.78 following imbibition of water and 10 days of moist storage at 5 C. This phenomenon was not specifically related to low temperature stratification, since a rapid increase in the energy charge of the axes also occurred following imbibition and moist storage at 20 C. The excised axes would elongate in response to the growth substances only when a high energy charge (approximately 0.8) was maintained.

  2. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  3. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Danyagri

    Full Text Available Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1 and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1 [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M regimes, at high light (100% and low light (30% in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (g s, instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE, maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax, rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J, triose phosphate utilization (TPU, leaf respiration (R d, light compensation point (LCP and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx. A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  4. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  5. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  6. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Acer palmatum and comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes under salt stress in two contrasting genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Liping; Li, Qianzhong; Li, Shushun; Tang, Ling; Wen, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Maple (Acer palmatum) is an important species for landscape planting worldwide. Salt stress affects the normal growth of the Maple leaf directly, leading to loss of esthetic value. However, the limited availability of Maple genomic information has hindered research on the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses of the salt tolerance in two genotypes of Maple using RNA-seq. Approximately 146.4 million paired-end reads, representing 181,769 unigenes, were obtained. The N50 length of the unigenes was 738 bp, and their total length over 102.66 Mb. 14,090 simple sequence repeats and over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which represent useful resources for marker development. Importantly, 181,769 genes were detected in at least one library, and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes. Among these DEGs, 125 were upregulated and 178 were downregulated genes. Two MYB-related proteins and one LEA protein were detected among the first 10 most downregulated genes. Moreover, a methyltransferase-related gene was detected among the first 10 most upregulated genes. The three most significantly enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, arginine and proline metabolism, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis provided a rich genetic resource for gene discovery related to salt tolerance in Maple, and in closely related species. The data will serve as an important public information platform to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in salt tolerance in Maple.

  7. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  8. Natural Regeneration of Acer griseum, an Endemic Species in China%中国特有种血皮槭的天然更新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朋; 于雪丹; 张川红; 郑勇奇; 孙圣; 程蓓蓓; 朱从波

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the habitat, soil seed banks and natural regeneration of Acer griseum were investigated systematically. As a sub-climax species and an associated tree species, A. griseum scattered in the mountainous broad-leaved mixed forests, and the mountainous coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in addition to the mountaintop shrub forests. The species thrived mostly on semi-sunny slopes, semi-shade slopes, shade slopes and gullies. It grew in the mountain brown soil, yellow brown soil and mountain cinnamon soil. The thickness of soil layer, in which the species grew, was from the bare rock to about 30 cm soil range, some trees even grew in rock crevices. It naturally regenerated mainly by seeds, followed by some stump-sprouting and root sprouting. Most of the seeds in soil seed bank were stored in the litter layer. There were 172 seeds·m-2 in the litter, while only 42 seeds·m-2 between 0 to 10 cm soil layer in Yuanling, Hunan province. Few or no seeds were found in deeper soil layer than 10 cm. The amount of seeds was negatively correlated with the distance from the parent tree and the wind also could contribute to seed dispersal. All the above results indicated that reduction of the quantity of A. griseum wild resources might be due to bad habitat, low seed yield and high percentage of empty seeds, difficulty of seed germination, as well as the poor environmental conditions for natural regeneration of the seedlings.

  9. O2-triggered changes of membrane fatty acid composition have no effect on Arrhenius discontinuities of respiration in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligny, R; Rebeillé, F; Douce, R

    1985-08-01

    Sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) in suspension culture were grown at 25 degrees C in culture medium containing two oxygen concentrations: 250 microM O2 (standard conditions) and 10 microM O2 (O2-limiting conditions). The decrease of O2 concentration in the culture medium did not modify significantly the relative proportion of each phospholipid. In contrast, the molar proportion of fatty acids was dramatically changed in all lipid classes of the cell membranes; the average percentage of oleate increased from 3 to 45% whereas that of linoleate decreased from 49 to 22%. When normal culture conditions were restored (250 microM O2), oleate underwent a rapid desaturation process; the loss of oleic acid was associated with a stoichiometric appearance of linoleic acid at a rate of about 4 nmol of oleate desaturated/h/10(6) cells. Under these conditions, no change in the Arrhenius-type plots of the rate of sycamore cell respiration was observed; the values of the transition temperature and of the Arrhenius activation energy (Ea) associated with the cell respiration as well as with the respiration-associated enzymes remained unchanged. Thus it was concluded that the fact that a strong decrease in the fraction of unsaturated fatty acid residues present in the mitochondria had no effect on electron transport rates and Arrhenius plot discontinuities casts doubt on the significance of such changes in terms of chilling injury. Finally it is suggested that some of the Arrhenius discontinuities observed at the level of membrane enzyme could be the consequence of intrinsic thermotropic changes in protein arrangement independent of lipid fluidity.

  10. Association of H-Translocating ATPase in the Golgi Membrane System from Suspension-Cultured Cells of Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Akazawa, T

    1986-05-01

    The Golgi complex and the disrupted vesicular membranes were prepared from suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) using protoplasts as the starting material and employing linear sucrose density gradient centrifugation followed by osmolysis (Ali et al. [1985] Plant Cell Physiol 26: 1119-1133). The isolated Golgi fraction was found to be enriched with marker enzyme activities and depleted of the activity of a typical mitochondrial marker enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. Golgi complex, and vesicular membranes derived thereof were found to contain the specific ATPase (specific activity of about 0.5 to 0.7 micromoles per minute per milligram protein). Inhibitor studies suggested that the ATPase of Golgi was different from plasma membrane, tonoplast and mitochondrial ATPases as it was not inhibited by sodium vanadate, potassium nitrate, oligomycin and sodium azide. The sensitivity to N-ethylmaleimide further distinguished the Golgi ATPase from F(0) to F(1) ATPase of mitochondria. The internal acidification was measured by monitoring the difference in absorbance at 550 nanometers minus 600 nanometers using neutral red as a probe. The maximum rate detected with Golgi and disrupted membrane system was 0.49 and 0.61 optical density unit per minute per milligram protein, at pH 7.5, respectively, indicating that the proton pump activity was tightly associated with the Golgi membranes. In both cases, the acidification was inhibited 70 to 90% by various ionophores, indicating that the proton pump was electrogenic in nature. Both the Golgi ATPase activity and ATP-dependent acidification were profoundly inhibited by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which also indicate that the two activities are catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  11. Analysis of Polyphenols from the Leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography%反相-高效液相色谱分析茶条槭叶中多酚类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艳方; 李珺; 邹洪; 元华龙

    2011-01-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of polyphenols from the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim has been established. The analysis was performed on a Xterra-C18 column (250×4. 6 mm, 5 μm, Waters) using gradient elution with the mobile phase of methanol-acetic acid-water. The established method was used to determine polyphenols from the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim. Gallic acid,quercetin,quercetin-3-O-L-rhamnoside, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose acid,methyl gallate and catechin were simultaneously found in the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim and quantitatively analyzed. The method is reliable and simple and could be possibly applied in exploiting medical and healthy products from the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim.%本文建立了反相高效液相色谱法( RP-H PLC)测定茶条槭叶中多酚类化合物含量的方法.采用XTerra-C18色谱柱,选择流动相为甲醇-乙酸-水,检测波长分别为278nm(0~30 min)和360 nm(30~35 min),流速0.5 mL/min的色谱条件,对茶条槭叶进行定性、定量分析.结果表明,此方法精密度高,准确度好,能有效检测出茶条槭叶中含有的没食子酸甲酯、没食子酸、槲皮素、槲皮素鼠李糖、五没食子酰基葡萄糖酸及儿茶素,为茶条槭叶开发成茶叶、饮料以及医疗保健品提供依据.

  12. Effect of Different Processing Technology of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim on the Active Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity%加工工艺对苦茶槭有效成分和抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔成诚; 方成武; 张传标; 张明燕

    2016-01-01

    To study on the effects of different processing method of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim main active ingredient and antioxidant activity, used Acer Ginnala Maxim as raw material in different processing methods, HPLC method was used to measure main active ingredient content of gallic acid. DPPH method was used to determine the scavenging effect on free radicals. Result showed that Acer. Ginnala. Maxim processing method of Black tea, gallic acid content was ( 18. 49±1. 13) mg/g, higher than processing method of green tea of (12. 45±1. 92) mg/g and dried in shade of (14. 28±1. 13) mg/g. Antioxidant activity of the different processing methods of Acer. Ginnala. Maxim was in the following order:the method of green tea (0. 443 mg/mL) < the method of dried in shade (0. 726 mg/mL) < the method of black tea (1. 286 mg/mL) . From the angle of improve the content of Gallic acid and increased the antioxidant activity, the processing method of black tea was much better.%研究了不同加工工艺对苦茶槭主要活性成分和抗氧化活性的影响,以期筛选最适合苦茶槭加工方式。对所采集的苦茶槭鲜叶以不同加工方式进行加工处理,采取HPLC法对苦茶槭主要有效成分没食子酸含量进行检测。采用DPPH法评价不同加工方法苦茶槭自由基的抗氧化活动。结果显示,采用红茶加工法的苦茶槭没食子酸含量为(18.49依1.13) mg/g高于绿茶加工法(12.45依1.92) mg/g和自然阴干法(14.28依1.13) mg/g。不同加工方法的苦茶槭IC50依次为:绿茶工艺(0.443 mg/mL)<自然阴干(0.726 mg/mL)<红茶工艺(1.286 mg/mL)。从提高苦茶槭没食子酸含量,增加抗氧化活性角度建议采用红茶加工方法。

  13. 北京小龙门地区元宝枫的种群结构及点格局分析%Population Structure and Point Pattern of Acer truncatum Bunge in Xiaolongmen Reserve, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲慧; 毛伊幻

    2013-01-01

    The distribution pattern of plant populations is closely related to spatial scale.By traditional sampling method,only one-scale point pattern can be studied.By comparison,point pattern analysis method is based on spatial mapped points of individual distribution and can analyze patterns under all scales along a gradient.The results are more consistent to the reality,especially for population structure.By using point pattern analysis method,the distribution pattern of all age-classes of Acer truncatum in Xiaolongmen Reserve,Beijing and its relationship with that of other arbors were studied.The results show that the distribution of Acer truncatum Bunge in the sampling area is centralization distribution,and it varies from age class to age class.Other arbors have obvious (positive or negative) effects on the distribution of Acer truncatum.The relationship between Acer truncatum and JugIans mandshurica,Tilia cordata,Fraxinus americana L var juglandifolia Rehd is different.%植物群落的分布格局与空间尺度有着密切关系.在传统取样方法下,只能研究一种尺度下的格局,与之相比点格局分析法是以种群个体空间分布的坐标点图为基础,通过单一的分布情况分析各种尺度下的格局.该文通过点格局分析对北京小龙门地区元宝枫分布格局、各龄级的分布格局以及其与其他乔木的相关关系进行了研究.结果表明:元宝枫在样地内呈明显的集群分布,各龄级密度差异显著.幼龄级在小尺度下集群分布,大尺度下随机分布;随着龄级的增长,种群显著地趋于随机分布.核桃楸是该群落的优势种,且元宝枫和核桃楸、大叶白蜡、小叶椴之间在不同尺度下相关关系不同.

  14. Isolation and Identification of an Endophytic Fungus Producing Gallic Acid from Acer ginnala%一株产没食子酸的茶条槭内生真菌的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐凤慧; 詹亚光; 景天忠

    2009-01-01

    从采自黑龙江省植物园的茶条槭(Acer ginnala Maxim.)的种子和枝条中分离内生真菌,用形态学和分子生物学方法鉴定分离菌株,应用高效液相色谱法检测内生真菌中没食子酸含量.结果从分离得到的链格孢属(Altemaria)菌株中选出没食子酸含量为9.52 mg/g的高产菌株CP11.

  15. Extraction and Antioxidant Activities of Total Flavonoids From Acer elegantulum Fang.Leaves%秀丽槭叶总黄酮的提取及其抗氧化能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林立; 林乐静; 毛阳正; 祝志勇; 付涛

    2016-01-01

    为开发和利用秀丽槭叶中的黄酮资源,利用响应面分析法优化乙醇-超声法提取秀丽槭叶中总黄酮的工艺,并分析总黄酮清除DPPH自由基能力和总抗氧化能力.结果表明,在超声功率200 W条件下,秀丽槭叶总黄酮适宜的提取工艺条件为:提取温度55℃、乙醇浓度70%、液料比50∶1 (v/w)、提取时间48 min,该条件下提取到的秀丽槭叶总黄酮含量为58.664 mg·g-1,秀丽槭叶总黄酮清除DPPH自由基的EC5o为0.528 mg·L-1,清除率可达95.56%;秀丽槭叶总黄酮在相同条件下较L-抗坏血酸具有更强的总抗氧化力.本研究结果为今后秀丽槭叶黄酮资源的开发利用提供了一定的科学依据.%In order to develop and utilize resource of flavonoids in Acer elegantulum leaves,response surface analysis methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of total flavonoids from Acer elegantulum leaves,and the antioxidant activities of total flavonoids were also investigated through the measurement of DPPH scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity.The results under the experimental conditions showed that the optimal parameters for total flavonoids extraction process were determined as follows:extraction temperature 55℃,ethanol concentration 70%,liquid-solid 50∶1 and extraction time 48 min.The total flavonoids yield obtained under such conditions was 58.664 mg·g-1.EC50 for total flavonoids on scavenging DPPH was O.528 mg· L-1 and the scavenging rate against DPPH free radicals could reached to 95.56%.Total flavonoids in Acer elegantulum leaves maintained higher antioxidant capacity than L-ascorbic acid.In this regard,the optimum extraction conditions of total flavonoids in Acer elegantulum leaves were obtained,and the antioxidant activities of total flavonoids were measured as well,which would provide reliable scientific instruction on the exploitation of flavonoids resource in Acer elegantulum leaves.

  16. 元宝枫叶提取物的减肥作用研究%Study on the weight-reducing effect of Acer truncatum leave extract in alimentary obesity rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽芳; 曹丽歌; 田蜜; 陈振良

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the weight-reducing effect of Acer truncatum leave extract on alimentary obesity rats and its effect on fatty acid synthase ( FAS). Methods SPF-grade adult male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet and Acer truncatum leave extract (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg BW) was given by gavage once a day for 31 days. Body weight ( BW ) , adipose weight and food consumption were recorded, and the activity of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) was measured. Results Compared with the model-control group, body weight, adipose weight and the ratio of adipose weight to body weight were obviously lower in 30 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW groups ( P < 0. 01) . The activity of hepatic FAS in rats administrated with the extract was markedly lower than the control rats ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion There might have a function of Acer truncatum leave extract on reducing body weight.%目的 研究元宝枫叶提取物对营养性肥胖大鼠的减肥作用及机制.方法 利用营养饲料制备大鼠肥胖模型,分别给予不同组别大鼠元宝枫叶提取物10、30和100mg/kg BW.于实验结束测定体重、体脂、食物消耗量、脂/体比及肝脏脂肪酸合酶活性指标.实验持续31天.结果 与模型对照组比较,30mg/kg与100mg/kg组3周后体重和实验终体重均显著降低(P<0.01),能降低肥胖模型大鼠体脂重量和脂/体比(P<0.05),可抑制脂肪酸合酶活性(P<0.05).结论 元宝枫叶提取物具有减肥功能.

  17. Estudio post-mortem de un hormigón refractario colocado en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Aza, A. H.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A high alumina concrete with synthetic spinel (MgAl2O4 addition, conformed as a brick, has been tested in the slag line of a secondary steel ladle. A post-mortem study allowed to establish the elements diffusion profile inside the refractory as well as its microstructural evolution. This study was carried out by means of X-ray diffraction, reflected optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. From the analysis of the obtained results, making use of the Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2 quaternary system, it has been possible to establish the mechanism of corrosion, justifying, at the same time, the role that spinel and calcium hexaluminate (CaAl12O19 play. The spinel, that is the only stable solid phase in the slag - refractory interface, admits in its structure large amount of bivalent and trivalent elements (e.g. Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Cr3+.... Therefore, the slag becomes silica-rich and highly viscous, as CaAl12O19 is precipitated, decreasing the corrosion. The calcium hexaluminate grows from coarse and medium-sized grains of alumina to form a network of interlocked crystals that act as unions among the alumina grains. This microstructure together with that the CaAl12O19 also admits in solid solution large quantities of Fe2+ and Fe3+, provide a smaller, slower and more uniform wear of the refractory material.

    Se ha diseñado y preparado un hormigón de alta alúmina con espinela, el cual ha sido ensayado, en forma de piezas preconformadas, en la línea de escorias de una cuchara de acería secundaria. El estudio post-morten del material ha permitido establecer las reacciones químicas que tienen lugar durante el proceso de corrosión y determinar el mecanismo imperante durante este proceso haciendo uso del diagrama de equilibrio Al2O3-MgO-CaO-SiO2. Dicho estudio se ha llevado a cabo mediante difracción de rayos X, microscopía óptica de luz reflejada y microscopía electrónica de barrido con

  18. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-06-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3.

  19. Utilización de dispositivos FACTS en acerías para mejorar su comportamiento técnico económico; “Use of FACTS Devices in Steelworks to Improve their Technical and Economical Performance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Baltasar Calmo e Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acerías de forma general y Hornos de Arco Eléctrico en particular son cargas de gran impacto para lossistemas de potencia ya que introducen, con mucha frecuencia, perturbaciones en la red de distribuciónalrededor de la planta. Estas perturbaciones se originan por el hecho de que no se pueden compensarinstantáneamente las variaciones extremamente rápidas de la potencia reactiva en cada una de las fasesdel horno de arco. Las variaciones de la potencia reactiva, muy acentuadas en el inicio del proceso defusión originan fluctuaciones de voltaje que limitan el suministro de potencia activa al horno de arco y aotras cargas que puedan estar conectadas a esa barra. Steelworks in general and electric arc furnaces (EAF in particular, are compelling loads to Power Systemas they frequently introduce disturbances in the distribution network near the facility. These disturbancesappear because it is not possible to compensate instantaneously the extremely rapid variations of reactivepower in each phase of the EAF. Reactive power variations, particularly acute at the beginning of themelting process, cause voltage fluctuations that constrain active power supply to the EAF and to otherloads that could be connected at the same bus bar. This paper describes two different technologies likeStatic Var Compensator (SVC and SVC Light to solve these problems.

  20. Utilización del polvo de acería de horno de arco eléctrico. // Use of powder produced by electric arc furnaces at steel plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tápanes Robau

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El polvo de las Acerías de Horno de Arco Eléctrico se produce como consecuencia de la producción de Acero, durante ladepuración de los gases, y, en menor medida, en sus equipos de captación de aire. Estos polvos deben ser captados por lossistemas de depuración del taller. Con el presente trabajo pretendemos darle utilidad a un producto de desecho como es elpolvo, mejorar las condiciones ambientales en el taller, elevar la calidad del pavimento u hormigón asfáltico mediante lavariación de sus propiedades y disminuir el costo de la tonelada de acero mediante la comercialización de estos productosde desecho.Palabras claves: Polvos, aglutinantes, composición química, pruebas realizadas._______________________________________________________________________________SummaryThe powder generated by electric arc furnaces at steel plants is the result of processes such as the production of steel, thepurification of gases and, capturing air equipment .This article shows a method for recycling waste material – powder in this case- which also contributes to improve the steelplant environment, provides the possibility of improving asphalt paving and makes the production of steel cheaper throughthe commercialization of waste materials.Key words: Powder, binder, tests, chemical composition.

  1. The Structure of Plant Cell Walls: IV. A Structural Comparison of the Wall Hemicellulose of Cell Suspension Cultures of Sycamore (Acer PseudoPlatAnus) and of Red Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, B M; Albersheim, P

    1973-05-01

    The molecular structure and chemical properties of the hemicellulose present in the isolated cell walls of suspension cultures of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has recently been described by Bauer et al. (Plant Physiol. 51: 174-187). The hemicellulose of the sycamore primary cell wall is a xyloglucan. This polymer functions as an important cross-link in the structure of the cell wall; the xyloglucan is hydrogen-bonded to cellulose and covalently attached to the pectic polymers.The present paper describes the structure of a xyloglucan present in the walls and in the extracellular medium of suspension-cultured Red Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cells and compares the structure of the bean xyloglucan with the structure of the sycamore xyloglucan. Although some minor differences were found, the basic structure of the xyloglucans in the cell walls of these distantly related species is the same. The structure is based on a repeating heptasaccharide unit which consists of four residues of beta-1, 4-linked glucose and three residues of terminal xylose linked to the 6 position of three of the glucosyl residues.

  2. The Monte Carlo event generator AcerMC versions 2.0 to 3.8 with interfaces to PYTHIA 6.4, HERWIG 6.5 and ARIADNE 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersevan, Borut Paul; Richter-Waş, Elzbieta

    2013-03-01

    The AcerMC Monte Carlo generator is dedicated to the generation of Standard Model background processes which were recognised as critical for the searches at LHC, and generation of which was either unavailable or not straightforward so far. The program itself provides a library of the massive matrix elements (coded by MADGRAPH) and native phase space modules for generation of a set of selected processes. The hard process event can be completed by the initial and the final state radiation, hadronisation and decays through the existing interface with either PYTHIA, HERWIG or ARIADNE event generators and (optionally) TAUOLA and PHOTOS. Interfaces to all these packages are provided in the distribution version. The phase-space generation is based on the multi-channel self-optimising approach using the modified Kajantie-Byckling formalism for phase space construction and further smoothing of the phase space was obtained by using a modified ac-VEGAS algorithm. An additional improvement in the recent versions is the inclusion of the consistent prescription for matching the matrix element calculations with parton showering for a select list of processes. Catalogue identifier: ADQQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3853309 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 68045728 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 with popular extensions (g77, gfortran). Computer: All running Linux. Operating system: Linux. Classification: 11.2, 11.6. External routines: CERNLIB (http://cernlib.web.cern.ch/cernlib/), LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org/) Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADQQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 149(2003)142 Does

  3. Effect of Temperature, Subculture Cycle and Light on the Growth of Acer negundo ' Aureomarginatum' in Vitro%温度、光照及继代周期等对金叶复叶槭组培苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟月娥; 李艳敏; 赵秀山; 王利民; 王慧娟; 张和臣; 董晓宇

    2012-01-01

    为了完善金叶复叶槭组培快繁技术、实现工厂化规模化生产,以其组培苗为试验材料,通过设置不同的温度、光照、继代周期等,研究培养条件对其生长的影响.结果表明,温度、继代周期、光照条件对苗高影响较大,差异均达到显著水平;同时发现继代周期显著影响叶片数量、光照时间对根生长系数影响差异达到极显著水平.筛选出在30℃、4200 1x的光照强度下,16 h/d光照时间、继代周期35天为‘金叶复叶槭最佳培养条件.%This paper aimed to study the tissue culture and rapid propagation technology of Acer negundo 'Aureomarginatum' and provided basis for the implementation of scale production.The effects of different temperature, subculture cycle, illumination and other culture conditions on the growth of the Acer negundo 'Aureomarginatum' in vitro were investigated.The results showed that the differences by temperature, subculture cycle, light on the plantlet height reached the significant level, it was significantly affected on leaf number by subculture cycle, and on root growth coefficient by illumination time.The optimal culture conditions for Acer negundo 'Aureomarginatum' in vitro were at 30℃, 4200 lx light intensity, 16 h/d illumination time, and the subculture cycle was 35 days.

  4. A Comparison of Invasive Acer platanoides and Native A. saccharum First-Year Seedlings: Growth, Biomass Distribution and the Influence of Ecological Factors in a Forest Understory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Brisson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Invasive shade tolerant species can have profound and long-lasting detrimental effects even on previously undisturbed forests. In North American forests, the invasive Acer platanoides is capable of dominating the understory where it could displace the native Acer saccharum. To understand the relative importance of various ecological factors in a forest understory on their establishment, we transplanted A. platanoides and A. saccharum seedlings in an urban sugar maple forest understory and their growth and survival were compared over a growing season. Seedlings did not differ in height, but biomass growth and assimilation rates were twice as high for the invasive species. Ecological variables accounted for only 23–24% of variation in growth. Seedlings of A. platanoides appeared to capture light more efficiently, with over 150% greater foliage biomass and surface area. A. saccharum seedlings were more negatively affected by herbivory. The more robust A. platanoides seedlings presented characteristics that could allow them to better grow and survive in shaded understories than their native congeners.

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites.

  6. Effect of brefeldin A on the structure of the Golgi apparatus and on the synthesis and secretion of proteins and polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driouich, A; Zhang, G F; Staehelin, L A

    1993-04-01

    Brefeldin A (BFA), a specific inhibitor of Golgi-mediated secretion in animal cells, has been used to study the organization of the secretory pathway and the function of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells. To this end, we have employed a combination of electron microscopical, immunocytochemical, and biochemical techniques to investigate the effects of this drug on the architecture of the Golgi apparatus as well as on the secretion of proteins and complex cell wall polysaccharides in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) suspension-cultured cells. We have used 2.5 and 7.5 micrograms/mL of BFA, which is comparable to the 1 to 10 micrograms/mL used in experiments with animal cells. Electron micrographs of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted cells show that although BFA causes swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, unlike in animal cells, it does not induce the disassembly of sycamore maple Golgi stacks. Instead, BFA induces the formation of large clusters of Golgi stacks, an increase in the number of trans-like Golgi cisternae, and the accumulation in the cytoplasm of very dense vesicles that appear to be derived from trans Golgi cisternae. These vesicles contain large amounts of xyloglucan (XG), the major hemicellulosic cell wall polysaccharide, as shown by immunocytochemical labeling with anti-XG antibodies. All of these structural changes disappear within 120 min after removal of the drug. In vivo labeling experiments using [3H]leucine demonstrate that protein secretion into the culture medium, but not protein synthesis, is inhibited by approximately 80% in the presence of BFA. In contrast, the incorporation of [3H]fucose into N-linked glycoproteins, which occurs in trans-Golgi cisternae, appears to be affected to a greater extent than the incorporation of [3H]xylose, which has been localized to medial Golgi cisternae. BFA also affects secretion of complex polysaccharides as evidenced by the approximate 50% drop in incorporation of [3H]xylose and

  7. 茶条槭叶没食子酸的提取工艺优化及其稳定性研究%Optimization of Extraction Process for Extracting Gallic Acid from Leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim and Stability of Its Gallic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱亮; 于华忠; 刘建兰; 高梦; 郑红岩

    2012-01-01

    The extraction process for extracting gallic arid from leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim was explored. On the basis of four single factor experiments (extracting temperature, ratio of material to liquid, extracting concentration and extracting time), the orthogonal experiment was used to optimization of extracting yield of gallic acid by three factors; meanwhile, the influences of different temperatures, pH values and metal iron concentrations on stability of extracted gallic acid. The results indicated that when ratio of material to liquid was 1:60 and concentration of hydrochloric acid was 4 mol/ L, the leaves of Acer ginnala Maxim were boiled with boiling water for 4 h, the yield of gallic acid reached 210.314 mg/g; the gallic acid has good stability to heat and strong acid (pH<3), but it is easy to react with alkali; Mti**, Mg2*, Ca2* and low concentration of Cu2* had little influence on stability of gallic acid, but Fe5* had obvious influence on stability of gallic acid, so it should avoid the occurrence of Fe2* during extraction, processing and storage.%探索了从茶条槭叶中提取没食子酸的工艺,在提取温度、料液比、提取浓度和提取时间4个单因素试验基础上,运用正交试验法研究了3个因袭对没食子酸提取量的优化;同时考察了不同温度、pH值、金属离子对提取的没食子酸稳定性的影响.结果表明:茶条槭叶提取没食子酸的最优工艺为料液比1:60、盐酸浓度4mol/L、沸水浴提取4h,提取量为210.314mg/g;没食子酸对热和强酸(pH值<3)具有较好的稳定性,容易和碱发生反应;Mn2+、Mg2+、Ca2+和低浓度Cu2+对没食子酸的稳定性影响不显著,Fe2+对没食子酸的稳定性有明显影响,在提取加工和贮存过程中应避免Fe2+的存在.

  8. Sex Bias in ASAT? ACER Research Monograph No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond J.

    The Australian Scholastic Test (ASAT) was first used as a moderating device in the Australian Capitol Territory in 1977. Differences have been observed in the average performance of males and females on the test. The study reported in this monograph investigated the nature and origin of the score differences recorded for ASAT The research focused…

  9. ACER: An Analytic Framework for Students' Use of Mathematics in Upper-Division Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R; Rehn, Daniel A; Pollock, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Many students in upper-division physics courses struggle with the mathematically sophisticated tools and techniques that are required for advanced physics content. We have developed an analytical framework to assist instructors and researchers in characterizing students' difficulties with specific mathematical tools when solving the long and complex problems that are characteristic of upper-division. In this paper, we present this framework, including its motivation and development. We also describe an application of the framework to investigations of student difficulties with direct integration in electricity and magnetism (i.e., Coulomb's Law) and approximation methods in classical mechanics (i.e., Taylor series). These investigations provide examples of the types of difficulties encountered by advanced physics students, as well as the utility of the framework for both researchers and instructors.

  10. ACER: A Framework on the Use of Mathematics in Upper-division Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Marcos D; Pepper, Rachel E; Pollock, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    At the University of Colorado Boulder, as part of our broader efforts to transform middle- and upper-division physics courses, we research students' difficulties with particular concepts, methods, and tools in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. Unsurprisingly, a number of difficulties are related to students' use of mathematical tools (e.g., approximation methods). Previous work has documented a number of challenges that students must overcome to use mathematical tools fluently in introductory physics (e.g., mapping meaning onto mathematical symbols). We have developed a theoretical framework to facilitate connecting students' difficulties to challenges with specific mathematical and physical concepts. In this paper, we motivate the need for this framework and demonstrate its utility for both researchers and course instructors by applying it to frame results from interview data on students' use of Taylor approximations.

  11. ACER: A framework on the use of mathematics in upper-division physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Marcos D.; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pepper, Rachel E.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    At the University of Colorado Boulder, as part of our broader efforts to transform middle- and upper-division physics courses, we research students' difficulties with particular concepts, methods, and tools in classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. Unsurprisingly, a number of difficulties are related to students' use of mathematical tools (e.g., approximation methods). Previous work has documented a number of challenges that students must overcome to use mathematical tools fluently in introductory physics (e.g., mapping meaning onto mathematical symbols). We have developed a theoretical framework to facilitate connecting students' difficulties to challenges with specific mathematical and physical concepts. In this paper, we motivate the need for this framework and demonstrate its utility for both researchers and course instructors by applying it to frame results from interview data on students' use of Taylor approximations.

  12. Distribution and Abundance of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Natural Acer Stands in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Williams; Hai-Poong Lee; Kwon Kim

    2004-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Asian longhorned beetle) was found attacking street trees in New York City and Chicago in the 1990s, after its accidental introduction from East Asia, and is currently the subject of a major eradication campaign by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The borer has been a destructive outbreak pest in poplar plantations in China...

  13. 预装Vista的迅驰4——Acer Trave/Mate 4720

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    志云

    2007-01-01

    随着Intel在5月9日发布新一代移动平台迅驰4——santa Rosa.各笔记本电脑厂商也纷纷配合推出了基于迅驰4代的笔记本新品,不过在随后的一个月中,消费者发现厂商更多是在造势.市场上在销售的迅驰4代新品并不多.且价格都较贵。看来厂商正忙着把以前的产品出货.自然不愿Santa Rosa来冲击市场。

  14. Competition for nitrogen sources between European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J; Waldhecker, P; Brüggemann, N; Rennenberg, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the short-term consequences of direct competition between beech and sycamore maple on root N uptake and N composition, mycorrhizal seedlings of both tree species were incubated for 4 days (i.e. beech only, sycamore maple only or both together) in an artificial nutrient solution with low N availability. On the fourth day, N uptake experiments were conducted to study the effects of competition on inorganic and organic N uptake. For this purpose, multiple N sources were applied with a single label. Furthermore, fine roots were sampled and analysed for total amino acids, soluble protein, total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium content. Our results clearly show that both tree species were able to use inorganic and organic N sources. Uptake of inorganic and organic N by beech roots was negatively affected in the presence of the competing tree species. In contrast, the presence of beech stimulated inorganic N uptake by sycamore maple roots. Both the negative effect of sycamore maple on N uptake of beech and the positive effect of beech on N uptake of sycamore maple led to an increase in root soluble protein in beech, despite an overall decrease in total N concentration. Thus, beech compensated for the negative effects of the tree competitor on N uptake by incorporating less N into structural N components, but otherwise exhibited the same strategy as the competitor, namely, enhancing soluble protein levels in roots when grown under competition. It is speculated that enhanced enzyme activities of so far unknown nature are required in beech as a defence response to inter-specific competition.

  15. Fermi笔记本正式登场 Acer Aspire 5745G测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    九月初,Nvidia在台湾发布了代号Fermi的款笔记本平台独显芯片,引发了外界强势关注。进入11月,市面上终于迎来一款最新采用Fermi独立显示的笔记本,也为Nvidia GeForce M系列写下了新的一页。

  16. Leaf Shape Responds to Temperature but Not CO2 in Acer rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate recon...

  17. Drying hard maple (Acer saccharum L.) lumber in a small dehumidification kiln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal. Bennett

    2013-01-01

    Portable sawmill owners quickly recognize the advantage to kiln drying lumber they produce. Having the ability to provide properly kiln-dried lumber opens new market opportunities and can increase profit margins. However, the construction and operation of a dry kiln must be economical and simple. A small dehumidification dry kiln constructed and tested in Princeton, WV...

  18. Xylan synthetase activity in differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees (Acer pseudoplatanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H

    1981-01-01

    Particulate enzymic preparations obtained from homogenates of differentiated xylem cells isolated from sycamore trees, catalyzed the formation of a radioactive xylan in the presence of UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose as substrate. The synthesized xylan was not dialyzable through Visking cellophane tubing. Successive extraction with cold water, hot water and 5% NaOH dissolved respectively 15, 5 and 80% of the radioactive polymer. Complete acid hydrolysis of the water-insoluble polysaccharide synthesized from UDP-D-[U-(14)C]xylose released all the radioactivity as xylose. β-1,4-Xylodextrins, degree of polymerization 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, were obtained by partial acid hydrolysis (fuming HCl or 0.1 M HCl) of radioactive xylan. The polymer was hydrolysed to xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose by Driselase which contains 1,4-β xylanase activities. Methylation and then hydrolysis of the xylan released two methylated sugars which were identified as di-O-methyl[(14)C]xylose and tri-O-methyl-[(14)C]xylose, suggesting a 1→4-linked polymer. The linkage was confirmed by periodate oxidation studies. The apparent Km value of the synthetase for UDP-D-xylose was 0.4 mM. Xylan synthetase activity was not potentiated in the presence of a detergent. The enzymic activity was stimulated by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions, although EDTA in the range of concentrations between 0.01 and 1 mM did not affect the reaction rate. It appears that the xylan synthetase system associated with membranes obtained from differentiated xylem cells of sycamore trees may serve for catalyzing the in vivo synthesis of the xylan main chain during the biogenesis of the plant cell wall.

  19. Competition for nitrogen between Fagus sylvatica and Acer pseudoplatanus seedlings depends on soil nitrogen availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan eLi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Competition for nitrogen (N, particularly in resource-limited habitats, might be avoided by different N acquisition strategies of plants. In our study, we investigated whether slow-growing European beech and fast-growing sycamore maple seedlings avoid competition for growth-limiting N by different N uptake patterns and the potential alteration by soil N availability in a microcosm experiment. We quantified growth and biomass indices, 15N uptake capacity and N pools in the fine roots. Overall, growth indices, N acquisition and N pools in the fine roots were influenced by species-specific competition depending on soil N availability. With interspecific competition, growth of sycamore maple reduced regardless of soil N supply, whereas beech only showed reduced growth when N was limited. Both species responded to interspecific competition by alteration of N pools in the fine roots; however, sycamore maple showed a stronger response compared to beech for almost all N pools in roots, except for structural N at low soil N availability. Beech generally preferred organic N acquisition while sycamore maple took up more inorganic N. Furthermore, with interspecific competition, beech had an enhanced organic N uptake capacity, while in sycamore maple inorganic N uptake capacity was impaired by the presence of beech. Although sycamore maple could tolerate the suboptimal conditions at the cost of reduced growth, our study indicates its reduced competitive ability for N compared to beech.

  20. Occurrence of poly-winged fruits on cultivated sycamore maples - Acer pseudoplatanus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vladan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of polycarpous fruits on six out of 100 sycamore maples, i e. with 3, 4 and 8 fruits on one carpophore is described. Eight-carpous fruits have not been recorded to date in the region of the Serbia and Montenegro, and wider. The cause of the development of polycarpous fruits has been hypothesized.

  1. The effect of light on chlorophyll loss in senescing leaves of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunders, M J; Brown, S B

    1983-08-01

    Breakdown of chlorophylls in attached senescing sycamore leaves held in darkness was significantly less over a 14-d period than that occurring in leaves exposed to natural light. Chlorophyll a declined more rapidly than chlorophyll b in both situations, the stability of the latter being particularly increased in darkness. The differences between dark-maintained leaves and those exposed to light with respect to soluble protein, cytoplasmic RNA, and free amino-nitrogen were much less marked. The data indicate that chlorophyll loss during senescence is, at least in part, the result of a direct photochemical degradation of the pigment.

  2. S1415CD, Trial Assessing CSF Prescribing Effectiveness and Risk (TrACER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Febrile Neutropenia; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage 0 Colorectal Cancer; Stage 0 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer

  3. Morphological characters of the flowers and the structure of the nectaries of Acer platanoides L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of the nectaries and of other elements of the flower was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The anatomy of the nectaries was determined using light microscopy (LM. The inflorescences of A. platanoides comprise flowers included in two categories: functionally male and female. Nectaries of similar structure are found in both types of these flowers. The nectary gland located on the surface of the receptacle belongs to interstaminal nectaries. It has the form of a fleshy ring situated between the petals and the pistil. The bases of the staminal filaments are located in the depressions of the nectary. The outer diameter of the nectary reaches ca. 5 mm, while the thickness of this gland's tissues is 400-700 μm. In the epidermis of the nectary gland, there are numerous, evenly distributed stomata through which nectar release occurs. The stomata function asynchronously. In some stomata, we could observe nectar drops flowing out and a layer of this secretion around the stomata. The secretory parenchyma of the nectary is composed of several layers of thick-walled cells, whereas the ends of the vascular bundles with xylem and phloem elements are situated in the subglandular parenchyma. Chloroplasts are found both in the epidermal cells and in the glandular parenchyma cells and photosynthesis can take place in them due to the nectary's good exposure to light. The presence of starch grains was found in the chloroplasts; they can be energy material for nectar production.

  4. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Beth A.; Snyder, Peter K.; Steiner, Allison L.; Twine, Tracy E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5-6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs.

  5. Relationship between Tree Value, Diameter, and Age in High-Quality Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) on the Menominee Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; John Dwyer; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2017-01-01

    Guidelines for managing sugar maple-dominated forests by the single-tree selection method are well established and widely adopted. The forests of the Menominee Tribe in Wisconsin provide an opportunity to validate current guidelines by testing tree value and size/age relationships in forests that have substantially older and larger high-quality trees than can be found...

  6. Location, Location, Location: Implications of Geographic Situation on Australian Student Performance in PISA 2000. ACER Research Monograph Number 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John; Underwood, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of this report is to examine the effect that geographical location may have on the performance of students from schools from all parts of Australia who participated in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2000). Approximately 5,477 students from 231…

  7. Evaluación de lombricompuestos como sustrato de crecimiento de Acer Negundo l. en Río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Ayelen Cosio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de buscar una alternativa de uso a la deposición final de residuosbiodegradables (RB se procesaron las corrientes más significativas de RB para Río Turbio mediante el compostaje y vermicompostaje de los mismos; con el objetivo dedeterminar la factibilidad de uso de estos lombricompuestos como sustrato de crecimiento de Acernegundo L. Para esto se realizó un ensayo en invernadero con un diseño completamente aleatorizado donde se evaluaron los siguientes sustratos de crecimiento: 100 % lombricompuesto de conejo, 100 % lombricompuesto de RSUB, 50% lombricompuesto de conejo y 50% de turba, 50% lombricompuesto RSUB y 50% turba y 100% turba. Para estimar la factibilidad del uso de los lombricompuestos, en elmes de abril se tomaron datos sobre alturay diámetro de cuello de los plantines y número de plantas logradas por tratamiento. Se registraron diferencias significativas en las alturas de plantines para cada tratamiento. Los plantines de mayor tamaño se produjeron en las bandejas de los sustratos formados por 100 % turba, 100% lombricompuesto deconejo, 50% lombricompuesto de conejo y 50% turba, seguidos por 50%lombricompuesto RSUB y 50% turba, siendo los de menor tamaño los obtenidos mediante 100%lombricompuesto de RSUB. La calidad de los plantines obtenidos a partir de sustratos de crecimiento constituidos por lombricompuesto de conejo y turba son comparables, no así los obtenidos a partir de sustratos con lombricompuestos de RSUB. Sin embargo ypese aque se obtuvo un menor rendimiento con el sustrato de RSUB, su uso resultó factible para los fines perseguidos, teniendo en cuenta además, que su utilización presenta ventajas ambientales para Río Turbio.

  8. Responses of secondary chemicals in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B, springtime warming and nitrogen additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, E.P.S.; Hutchinson, T.C. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Environmental Studies

    2006-10-15

    Elevated UV-B radiation due to climatic change and ozone depletion may represent a significant springtime environmental stressor to germinating seedlings in temperate forest regions. This study aimed to determine the effects of UV-B, nitrogen (N) fertilization and climate warming on the concentrations of base cations and secondary metabolites in the foliage of sugar maple seedlings growing in acid or alkaline soils. The influence of measured flavonoids and phenolics on herbivore activity was examined, as well as the relationship between foliar concentrations of calcium (Ca); manganese (Mn); and N and the production of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Experimental plots were established in mature hardwood forests in alkaline and acid soil locations in Bobcaygeon and Haliburton, Ontario. Pentagonal open-top chambers were used to lengthen the growing season and simulate an earlier spring. Ammonium nitrate was applied at a rate comparable with an additional deposition of 5 g N per m per year. Fertilizer was applied on 3 separate occasions. Ambient UV-B radiation was screened out with Mylar D polyester film. Sites, treatments and time of sampling had complex effects on foliar elemental chemistry, production of secondary compounds and herbivory. Foliar concentrations of individual phenols were higher in seedlings in the UV-B exclusion treatments. At both sites, removal of ambient UV-B led to increases in flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, and reduced herbivore activity. At Haliburton, ammonium nitrate fertilization led to further increases in foliar Mn. Nitrogen additions led to decreases in the concentrations of some flavonoids at both sites. It was concluded that the composition of the forest soil governs the response of seedlings when they are exposed to abiotic stressors. 63 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Phosphorylation of an envelope-associated Hsp70 homolog in amyloplasts isolated from cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, S K; Viale, A M

    1998-09-01

    The presence of Hsp70 and Hsp60 molecular chaperones in amyloplasts isolated from cultured sycamore cells was analyzed by immunoblotting. Hsp70 homologs were located in both amyloplast envelope and stromal fractions, but no Hsp60 homologs were detected in any of the different suborganellar fractions. Incubation of whole amyloplasts or their envelope fraction with Mg2+ gamma-32P-ATP resulted in a rapid phosphorylation of the envelope-associated Hsp70 homolog, which constitutes a major target of phosphorylation in these plastids.

  10. [Oxygen and temperature effects on the fatty acid composition in sycamore cells (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeille, F; Bligny, R; Douce, R

    1980-10-01

    Temperature and oxygen effects on the degree of unsaturation of membrane fatty acids have been investigated with sycamore cells in suspension culture. Sycamore cells were incubated with [14C]acetate at temperature varying from 15 to 25 degrees C and at O2 concentration from 12.5 to 305 muM. It was found that: (i) no significant difference was observed in the distribution of radioactivity between oleate and linoleate with different temperatures; (ii) in marked contrast, the aeration conditions during growth of plant cell cultures affected the fatty acid pattern of the total lipids: by maintaining the oxygen concentration below 60 muM, the molar proportion of oleate increased dramatically whereas that of the linoleate decreased. Under these conditions, the aeration of the culture medium (250 muM) induced a rapid transformation of oleate to linoleate. These results cast further doubt on the importance of the temperature on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in sycamore cells, but confirmed evidence that the formation of unsurated fatty acids by plant cells was indeed controlled by the oxygen concentration in solution.

  11. Proteome analysis of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. seeds dormancy breaking and germination: influence of abscisic and gibberellic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawłowski Tomasz A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed dormancy is controlled by the physiological or structural properties of a seed and the external conditions. It is induced as part of the genetic program of seed development and maturation. Seeds with deep physiological embryo dormancy can be stimulated to germinate by a variety of treatments including cold stratification. Hormonal imbalance between germination inhibitors (e.g. abscisic acid and growth promoters (e.g. gibberellins is the main cause of seed dormancy breaking. Differences in the status of hormones would affect expression of genes required for germination. Proteomics offers the opportunity to examine simultaneous changes and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during seed dormancy breaking and germination. Analysis of the functions of the identified proteins and the related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in seed dormancy breaking, would expand our knowledge about this process. Results A proteomic approach was used to analyse the mechanism of dormancy breaking in Norway maple seeds caused by cold stratification, and the participation of the abscisic (ABA and gibberellic (GA acids. Forty-four proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these, eight spots were identified as water-responsive, 18 spots were ABA- and nine GA-responsive and nine spots were regulated by both hormones. The classification of proteins showed that most of the proteins associated with dormancy breaking in water were involved in protein destination. Most of the ABA- and GA-responsive proteins were involved in protein destination and energy metabolism. Conclusion In this study, ABA was found to mostly down-regulate proteins whereas GA up-regulated proteins abundance. Most of the changes were observed at the end of stratification in the germinated seeds. This is the most active period of dormancy breaking when seeds pass from the quiescent state to germination. Seed dormancy breaking involves proteins of various processes but the proteasome proteins, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, glycine-rich RNA binding protein, ABI3-interacting protein 1, EF-2 and adenosylhomocysteinase are of particular importance. The effect of exogenously applied hormones was not a determining factor for total inhibition (ABA or stimulation (GA of Norway maple seed dormancy breaking and germination but proteomic data has proven these hormones play a role.

  12. Selectivity mechanism of Anoplophora glabripennis on four different species of maples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a wood-boring beetle that is native to China. For a long time, it caused great losses in the economy and ecology of northwest China. Attractants are often used to control insects. The volatiles emitted from the host plant play an important role for insects in finding their target. To explore the mechanism of selec-tivity to different host plants, the response of Anoplophora glabripennis to four different host plants was investigated, which included Acer negundo L., Acer mono Maxim., Acer truncatum Bunge. and Acer platanoides L., and the com-pounds in the profiles of volatiles were identified from these species. The olfactory responses ofAnoplophora glabripennis to the odors of different plants showed preference for certain host plants: Acer negundo, Acer mono and Acer truncatum. The attraction ofAcer negundo and Acer mono was signifi-cantly different (pAcer mono Maxim.>Acer truncatum Bunge.>Acer platanoides L.. 1-penten-3-ol, ocimene and trans-Germanylacetone were repellent to Anoplophora glabripennis. 1-penten-3-ol and trans-gerranylacetone were identified in Acer platanoides, and Ocimene was the most attractive to Anoplophora glabripennis among these species. The extent of feeding damage caused by Anoplophora glabripennis differed among four species. The sequences was Acer negundo > Acer mono > Acer truncatum > Acer platanoides. The epidermal hairs of the four host plants revealed that the extent of damage was related to the physical characteristics of the host plants.

  13. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor, which can impede seedling survival.

  14. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Momen

    Full Text Available Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca and nitrogen (N by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max, apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe, and light compensation point (LCP. To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the forest floor, which can impede seedling survival.

  15. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wesley-Smith, J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than -180(sub0)C...

  16. Solution-state NMR analysis of hydroxymethylated resorcinol cured in the presence of crude milled-wood lignin from Acer saccharum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2017-01-01

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives can reinforce stress fractures that appear from wood surface preparation. Researchers have found that applying the resorcinol-formaldehyde prepolymer, hydroxymethylated resorcinol is thought to plasticize lignin components and stabilize stress fractures through reactions with lignin subunits and hemicelluloses in wood. In this study, a...

  17. 金沙槭化学成分的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from Acer paxii Franch.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金颖; 姚贺; 孙博航

    2016-01-01

    目的 对金沙槭的化学成分进行系统研究.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱、ODS柱色谱、HPLC等手段对金沙槭的乙醇提取物进行分离纯化,并通过化合物理化性质与波谱特征鉴定其结构.结果 分离鉴定13个化合物,分别为:槲皮素(quercetin,1)、槲皮素3-O-α-L-阿拉伯糖苷(quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinoside,2)、槲皮素3-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside,3)、槲皮素3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(quercetin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,4)、山奈酚(kaempferol,5)、山柰酚3-O-α-L-鼠李糖苷(Kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnoside,6)、山奈酚3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,7)、山奈酚3-O-β-D-半乳糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside,8)、山奈酚3-O-α-L-阿拉伯糖苷(kaempferol 3-O-α-L-arabinoside,9)、杨梅酮(myricetin,10)、儿茶素(catechins,11)、金线吊乌龟二酮碱A(cepharadione A,12)、巴马汀(palmatine,13).结论 化合物9、12、13为首次从槭属中分离得到.化合物1-13均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  18. Disease symptoms and their frequency of occurrence in sycamores (Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Rymanów Forest Unit stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kowalski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the years 2003 - 2005 in the Rymanów Forest Unit in 13 stands aged between 40 to 100 years, which had 10% - 60% of the sycamore in their species composition. They grew on a mountain forest site (12 stands and mountain riparian forest (1 stand. In each of them 100 trees were examined, growing next to each other in the central part of the stands. The disease symptoms, on trunks and in the crown area of each tree, and their intensity were determined according to the predefined symptomatic - developmental code. More than 80 fragments of wood and bark were collected from trunks of living and dead trees with local cankers and bark peeling off exposing wood. From the samples, 798 isolations were made on 2% malt - agar medium. The examined sycamores in the Rymanów Forest Unit showed a large variation in the disease symptoms and their occurrence frequency. Among 1300 analyzed trees, only 13.7% did not show external, macroscopic disease symptoms. There was a relatively large share of dead trees (15.0%, which in individual stands ranged 4.0 - 32.0%. The most frequent symptoms in crowns were as follows: top dying (6.3% trees, entire branch dying (16.2% or only their tops (9.6%, crown thinning (19.4%, leaf atrophy (10.8% and leaf discoloration (11.6%. On sycamores trunks, the following symptoms were found: plate-like and strip-like necrosis of bark that was breaking, falling off and exposing wood (8.6% trees, local bark cankers (14.7%, among which healed ones dominated (10.3%, bark cracks (14.3% and tree cancer symptoms (3.8%. Bark necrosis and wood exposure formed 1.5 times more frequently on the northern and western side than on the southern and eastern side, bark cracks appeared most frequently on the southern trunk side. On the cross sections of sycamore trunks, the following symptoms were found predominantly: T-shaped discolorations which appeared in the place of local healed cankers, dead wood regions in the places of local unhealed cankers and widespread bark cankers, sometimes taking the form of a sector reaching the part near the pith, and greyish - green or greenish - brown wood discolorations in the form of numerous stains, especially in the trunk periphery part. On the trunks of 184 (14.2% sycamores, perithecia of Nectria coccinea were present. They formed in the area of cankers on bark and exposed wood alike. Fruiting bodies of Nectria cinnabarina, Eutypa acharii, Melanomma pulvis-pyrius, conidiomata of Cytospora ambiens, Aposphaeria cf. pulviscula and conidiomata of Stegonsporium pyriforme occurred sporadically. From wood, the following were isolated predominantly: Basidiomycetes sp. 1, Chalara sp. 1, Cadophora fastigiata, Nectria cinnabarina and Cytospora ambiens. Chalara sp.1, with its morphological features, best matched the anamorph of Ceratocystis coerulescens sensu lato.

  19. Aportaciones al conocimiento de las comunidades de Pistacia Terenbinthus L. y de Acer Monspessulanum L. en el Sur de la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Pavón Núñez, M.; Hidalgo Triana, N.; Pérez Latorre, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Se aportan nuevos datos fitosociológicos sobre los terebintales-cornicabrales béticos, con la propuesta de una nueva asociación (Phillyreo latifoliae-Pistacietum terebinthi ass. nova) que representa a las formaciones de microfanerófitos mediterráneos perennifolios integrados en Quercetalia ilicis pero dominados por algunas especies caducifolias como Pistacia terebinthus. Se define también una nueva subasociación de los quejigares bético-torcalenses (Vinco difformis-Quercetum fagineae aceretos...

  20. First surveys on genetic variability and structure of field maple (Acer campestre L. in natural and managed populations in the landscape of central and southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ducci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Four Tuscan populations (central Italy and three Italian populations from southern Italy (Campania were sampled to compare their genetic variability and genetic structure. In each geographical area one of the sampled populations is originated naturally in forest and used as a local reference. The remaining populations were originated artificially. Indeed, field maple was traditionally used in Italy to supply fresh fodder to animals in dry summer period as tree twigs or to train up grape trees in the fields edges. This tradition initiated  at the time of Etruscans and continued throughout the Roman partitioning of agriculture landscape. Biochemical markers were used to explore variability in the examined populations (5 enzyme systems by 11 loci. Results showed that the main amount of variation is due to the individual component as for most of the scattered hardwoods in Europe and that differentiation among populations for these neutral  traits is relatively low. On the other hand, the natural populations in both the geographical areas showed a very high level of panmittic equilibrium, whilst the artificial populations were really distant from this condition showing a high probability of “founder effect”. This could be determined by the former system of self-supplying reproductive material carried out by farmers, based on the wild offspring collection growing around few mother trees. Discussion is focused also on how handling the opportunity given by many hundreds kilometers of lines  in the agriculture landscape as a way of managing diversity for this species. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  1. THE SCREENING ACTIVITY PARTS OF ACER TRUNCATUM BUNGE.AND OTHER PLANTS OF THE SAME GENUS BY THE BRINE SHRIMP LETAITY BIOASSAY%采用BSLB(Brine Shrimp Letality Bioassay)法对元宝枫(Acer truncatum Bunge.)及同属植物活性部位的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏希颖; 吕居娴; 李映丽; 贺浪冲

    2004-01-01

    本文通过BSLB法对元宝枫及同属植物不同部位的水提物进行了活性试验,得知:元宝枫的幼技、种皮的水提物具一定的生物致死活性;同属植物青榨槭叶和种子,秦岭槭、杈叶槭果翅的水提物也具一定的生物致死活性.本实验为元宝枫及同属植物进行进一步肿瘤细胞的体外培养试验及动物模型试验提供了科学依据.%By means of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay the authors study the watering abstracts activity of the A. truncatum Bunge. and the other plants of the same genus. The results indicate that the tender bark and seed skin of A. truncatum Bunge have the bioactivity. The leaves and seeds of A. dervidii Fr, the seed skin of A. robustum pax. have the same activity. The test offers some scientific basis for the further researches of anticancer experiments and animal model test outside the body of cell.

  2. Environmental Assessment: Land Acquisition at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Quercus alba), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), while understory species include dogwood (Cornus sp.), red mulberry ( Morus rubra), spicebush (Lindera sp...Salix nigra ), box elder (Acer negundo), broadleaf arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia), broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia), spikerush (Eleocharis sp

  3. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of SWMU 74 Groundwater Extraction and Convenience System Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    occidentalis - (Liquidambar styraciflua, Acer rubrum) / (Carpinus caroliniana) / Onoclea sensibilis Forest Salix nigra - Acer (rubrum, saccharinum) / Alnus ...Vegetation Eleocharis microcarpa - Juncus repens - Rhynchospora corniculata - (Mecardonia acuminata - Proserpinaca spp) Herbaceous Vegetation Panicum

  4. Existing Fish and Wildlife Resources Related to the Southern New Jersey Water Resources Study, Burlington, Camden and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey. Phase I Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    York. 1632 pp. 194. APPENDIX TABLE A-I Trees Reported to Occ~ur Within the Study Area Common Name Scientific Name Ash, black Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Ash...Birch, river Betula nigra L. Box-elder Acer neguico L. Butternut Juglans cinerea L. Cedar, Atlan~tic white- Chamaecvparis thvoides (L.,) B.S.P...L. Maple, Norway Acer platanoides L. Maple, silver Acer saccharinum L. Maple, sugar Acer saccharum Marsh. Mulberry, red Morus rubra L. Mulberry, white

  5. 7 CFR 301.92-2 - Restricted, regulated, and associated articles; lists of proven hosts and associated plant taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section and that are marked with an asterisk (*) are not restricted articles. (2) Forest stock located or... Bigleaf maple Acer pseudoplatanus Planetree maple *Adiantum aleuticum Western maidenhair fern *Adiantum... Vine maple Acer davidii Striped bark maple Acer laevigatum Evergreen maple Arbutus unedo Strawberry...

  6. Anatomisch onderzoek naar het ontstaan en de opbouw van bastknobbels in straatbomen: Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij Fraxinus excelsior 'Atlas' en 'Westhofs Glorie', Gelditsia triacanthos 'Inermis' en Acer saccharinum 'Pyramidale'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, van A.J.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In opdracht van de gemeente Alphen aan den Rijn is een onderzoek opgezet naar de ontwikkeling en opbouw van bastknobbels in een aantal boomsoorten. Deze bastknobbels zijn de laatste jaren in aantal sterk toegenomen en komen op verschillende boomsoorten voor, zowel dicht bij het maaiveld, midden op

  7. Use of waveform lidar and hyperspectral sensors to assess selected spatial and structural patterns associated with recent and repeat disturbance and the abundance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in a temperate mixed hardwood and conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.E.; Ducey, M.J.; Fast, A.; Martin, M.E.; Lepine, L.; Smith, M.-L.; Lee, T.D.; Dubayah, R.O.; Hofton, M.A.; Hyde, P.; Peterson, B.E.; Blair, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Waveform lidar imagery was acquired on September 26, 1999 over the Bartlett Experimental Forest (BEF) in New Hampshire (USA) using NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). This flight occurred 20 months after an ice storm damaged millions of hectares of forestland in northeastern North America. Lidar measurements of the amplitude and intensity of ground energy returns appeared to readily detect areas of moderate to severe ice storm damage associated with the worst damage. Southern through eastern aspects on side slopes were particularly susceptible to higher levels of damage, in large part overlapping tracts of forest that had suffered the highest levels of wind damage from the 1938 hurricane and containing the highest levels of sugar maple basal area and biomass. The levels of sugar maple abundance were determined through analysis of the 1997 Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high resolution spectral imagery and inventory of USFS Northern Research Station field plots. We found a relationship between field measurements of stem volume losses and the LVIS metric of mean canopy height (r2 = 0.66; root mean square errors = 5.7 m3/ha, p < 0.0001) in areas that had been subjected to moderate-to-severe ice storm damage, accurately documenting the short-term outcome of a single disturbance event. ?? 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  8. Aprovechamiento de escorias blancas (LFS) y negras (EAFS) de acería eléctrica en la estabilización de suelos y en capas de firmes de caminos rurales

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega López, Vanesa

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo que recoge la presente Tesis Doctoral estudia la idoneidad de un aprovechamiento integral de las escorias blancas de horno de cuchara (LFS) y de las escorias negras de horno eléctrico de arco (EAFS) en la estabilización de suelos arcillosos de mala calidad y en la formación de las capas del firme de caminos rurales. Para conseguir las propiedades resistentes adecuadas en terrenos naturales arcillosos sobre los que se construyen obras civiles, es preciso mezclarlos con materiale...

  9. Influence of Heat Treatment on Color and Decay Resistance of Acer Mono Wood%热处理对色木耐腐性能和颜色的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄茹; 马振香; 杨洪杰; 王建; 刘彦龙

    2014-01-01

    为提高色木的耐腐性能,对色木进行热处理改性,探究处理温度、处理时间和干燥基准对色木的耐腐性能和颜色的影响.结果表明:随着处理温度升高,试样的耐腐性能和色差均增加,明度降低.采用本试验的热处理工艺,改性色木的耐腐性能达GB/T 13942.1-1992中的Ⅱ级,且颜色与红木类珍贵木材相似.

  10. A stakeholder-informed randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness study of an order prescribing intervention to improve colony stimulating factor use for cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy: the TrACER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Aasthaa; Sullivan, Sean D; Hershman, Dawn L; Lyman, Gary H; Barlow, William E; McCune, Jeannine S; Ramsey, Scott D

    2017-07-01

    Colony stimulating factors (CSF) are widely prescribed to avoid febrile neutropenia (FN) among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but studies show their use is often not consistent with practice guidelines. In addition, there is limited high quality evidence assessing benefits and harms of primary prophylactic-CSF (PP-CSF) in the setting of chemotherapy that poses an intermediate risk of FN. To address these issues, with funding from the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) and the National Cancer Institute's Community Oncology Research Program, SWOG is sponsoring a prospective, cluster randomized controlled pragmatic trial of an automated order entry protocol for PP-CSF among patients with breast, lung and colorectal cancer receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy, with a nested randomized controlled trial of PP-CSF for patients receiving intermediate risk chemotherapy. Primary outcomes include adherence to practice guidelines, overall rates of FN and rates of FN among persons receiving intermediate risk chemotherapy. The study, the first pragmatic trial in the National Cancer Institute's cancer cooperative clinical trials network, will provide critical evidence to inform physician and patient decision-making around PP-CSF use and practice policies regarding automated orders in cancer components.

  11. Observation on Variation Process of the Fall-color Leaf of Different Cultivars of Acer rubrum%美国红枫不同品种秋色叶变化过程的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕章; 赵振军; 王斌成; 陈红艳; 税玉成; 何玉枝

    2013-01-01

    以美国红枫改良品种系列中3个品种“秋红枫”(Autumn Flaze)、“十月光辉”(OctoberGlory)和“夕阳红”(Red Sunset)的容器苗为试材,采用同一视野定时拍照的方法,研究了秋季叶色变化过程.结果表明:“秋红枫”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月28日,共34 d,其中最佳观叶期为6d,秋叶变色期为27 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-橙红色-红色.“十月光辉”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月22日,共28 d,其中最佳观叶期为7d,秋叶变色期为21 d,落叶期为27 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色.“夕阳红”秋叶观赏期为10月26日至11月26日,共32 d,其中最佳观叶期10 d,秋叶变色期为22 d,落叶期23 d,叶片颜色变化过程是:绿色-黄绿色-黄色-橙红色.综上所述,“夕阳红”的观赏效果最好,其次是“十月光辉”和“秋红枫”.该研究结果为上述3个美国红枫品种的园林应用提供了实践依据.

  12. 元宝枫生长旺季树干液流动态及影响因素%Fluctuation of Acer truncatum sap flow in rapid growth season and relevant variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞辉; 马履一; 奚如春; 徐军亮

    2006-01-01

    利用热扩散式边材液流探针和多种气象、土壤因子传感器组成的全自动数据采集系统和美国产Licor-6400光合测定系统,于夏秋季节对北京西山地区低山成林元宝枫单株边材液流动态和叶片蒸腾作用进行了系统观测.元宝枫树干边材液流变化受天气的影响,环境胁迫或环境的改善都能改变边材液流的波动特征.在正常情况下,边材液流的日变化呈单峰曲线:日出后树干液流迅速上升,峰值在中午前后出现,然后下降,在次日早晨前达到坡谷.最热月7月液流启动和进入坡谷的时间比其他各月早1~4 h.6月树干上位液流速率大于中位和下位,其他各月树干下位液流速率大于上位和中位,这种差距在7月达2~3倍.多元回归分析表明,在整个生长旺季,元宝枫边材液流变化深受气温、太阳辐射、空气相对湿度、土壤温度和风速等环境因子的影响,但在不同的观测时段和观测部位其影响的主导因子不完全相同,只有空气温度在任何情况下都是影响液流的主导因子;元宝枫边材液流的变异规律较好地说明了其耐旱的生态策略.

  13. Necessity of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene for cardiac functions and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster assessed by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fang-Tsu; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Su, Ming-Tsan; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies have established the necessity of an angiotensin-converting enzyme-related (ACER) gene for heart morphogenesis of Drosophila. Nevertheless, the physiology of ACER has yet to be comprehensively understood. Herein, we employed RNA interference to down-regulate the expression of ACER in Drosophila's heart and swept source optical coherence tomography to assess whether ACER is required for cardiac functions in living adult flies. Several contractile parameters of Drosophila heart, including the heart rate (HR), end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), percent fractional shortening (%FS), and stress-induced cardiac performance, are shown, which are age dependent. These age-dependent cardiac functions declined significantly when ACER was down-regulated. Moreover, the lifespans of ACER knock-down flies were significantly shorter than those of wild-type control flies. Thus, we posit that ACER, the Drosophila ortholog of mammalian angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is essential for both heart physiology and longevity of animals. Since mammalian ACE2 controls many cardiovascular physiological features and is implicated in cardiomyopathies, our findings that ACER plays conserved roles in genetically tractable animals will pave the way for uncovering the genetic pathway that controls the renin-angiotensin system.

  14. Jackson Mills and Mine Falls Dams, Nashua, New Hampshire. Reconnaissance Report, Hydroelectric Feasibility. Volume 1, Jackson Mills Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    triacanthos Honey Locust Acer saccharinum Silver maple Pinus nigra Austrian pire Crataegus spp. Hawthorns osa spp.’ Wild roses Ulmus americana American elm...nightshade Acer platano ides Norway map’e Comus stoloniera Red-Osier Dogwood Morus mibra Red mulberry Lonicera tatarica Tartarian Honeysuckle Prunus sp

  15. Confined Disposal Facility at Pointe Mouillee for Detroit and Rouge Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-03-01

    21. Common Merganser (Mergus merganser) 22. Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) 23. Common Scoter (Oidemia nigra ) 24. White-winged Scoter (Melanitta...Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) 5. Common Tern (Sterna hirundo hirundo) 6. Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) 7. Black Tern (Chlidonias nigra ...Hibiscus) Trees Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) none Box Elder (Acer negundo) Apple (Malus) Peach (Prunus persica) Mulberry ( Morus ) Bronze Beech

  16. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Carya illinoensis ...Sambucus canadensis ə Ilex decidua ᝺ Cornus drummondii ə Quercus alba ə Overstory 40% Celtis occidentalis ញ Acer saccharinum 10 Carya illinoensis ...seedling) ə Carex sp. ə Saururus cernuus ə Understory 40% Ulmus americana 25 Quercus palustrus ə Carya illinoensis ə Acer saccharinum 10 flex

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to the Functional Assessment of Forested Wetlands in Alluvial Valleys of East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    grandiflora), red maple (Acer rubrum), ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), baldcypress...Kley and Hine 1998). The shrubs observed included apple haw ( Crataegus opaca), persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), snowbell, deciduous holly, and swamp...Ulmus alata), cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), river birch, box-elder (Acer negundo), hawthorn ( Crataegus spp.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) can be

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    or shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Quercus laurifolia Acer rubrum Celtis laevigata Quercus...but may dominate in degraded systems Carya aquatica Acer rubrum Carpinus caroliniana Fraxinus pennsylvanica Diospyros virginiana Crataegus spp...Celtis laevigata Cretaegus spp Nyssa sylvatica Fraxinus pennsylvanica Diospyros americana Quercus pagoda Liquidambar styraciflua Ilex opaca

  19. Phase 1 Cultural Resources Inventory of Public Access Lands in the Atchafalaya Basin, Vicinity of the Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, Pointe Coupee, St. Martin and Iberville Parishes, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-16

    Quercus virginiana, Q. alba, Q. nigra, Q. lyrata), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), hackberry (Celtie laevigata ), sweetgum and blackgum 51...aquatica), boxelder (Acer negur’ o), rough-leaf dogwood (Cornus drummondili), mayhaw ( Crataegus opaca), and waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera) (Gibson 1978...Celtis laevigata ), and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Other forest species include the box-elder (Acer negundo), honey-locust (Gleditsia triacanthos

  20. Effects of Permanently Raised Water Tables on Forest Overstory Vegetation in the Vicinity of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Maple Acer rubrum Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Eackberry C. occidentalis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana White ash Fraxinus americana Shingle oak Quercus...Populus deltoides Somewhat Tolerantt Box elder Acer negundo Silver maple A. saccharinum Hazel alder Alnus rugosa River birch Betula nigra Hawthorn Crataegus

  1. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  2. Alkaline ceramidase 1 is essential for mammalian skin homeostasis and regulating whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakath-Ali, Kifayathullah; Vancollie, Valerie E; Lelliott, Christopher J; Speak, Anneliese O; Lafont, David; Protheroe, Hayley J; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Galli, Antonella; Green, Angela; Gleeson, Diane; Ryder, Ed; Glover, Leanne; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Karp, Natasha A; Arends, Mark J; Brenn, Thomas; Spiegel, Sarah; Adams, David J; Watt, Fiona M; van der Weyden, Louise

    2016-07-01

    The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin that acts as a barrier to protect the body from the external environment and to control water and heat loss. This barrier function is established through the multistage differentiation of keratinocytes and the presence of bioactive sphingolipids such as ceramides, the levels of which are tightly regulated by a balance of ceramide synthase and ceramidase activities. Here we reveal the essential role of alkaline ceramidase 1 (Acer1) in the skin. Acer1-deficient (Acer1(-/-) ) mice showed elevated levels of ceramide in the skin, aberrant hair shaft cuticle formation and cyclic alopecia. We demonstrate that Acer1 is specifically expressed in differentiated interfollicular epidermis, infundibulum and sebaceous glands and consequently Acer1(-/-) mice have significant alterations in infundibulum and sebaceous gland architecture. Acer1(-/-) skin also shows perturbed hair follicle stem cell compartments. These alterations result in Acer1(-/-) mice showing increased transepidermal water loss and a hypermetabolism phenotype with associated reduction of fat content with age. We conclude that Acer1 is indispensable for mammalian skin homeostasis and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed hardwoo

  4. Alkaline ceramidase 3 deficiency aggravates colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice by hyperactivating the innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Xu, R; Snider, A J; Schrandt, J; Li, Y; Bialkowska, A B; Li, M; Zhou, J; Hannun, Y A; Obeid, L M; Yang, V W; Mao, C

    2016-03-03

    Increasing studies suggest that ceramides differing in acyl chain length and/or degree of unsaturation have distinct roles in mediating biological responses. However, still much remains unclear about regulation and role of distinct ceramide species in the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that alkaline ceramidase 3 (Acer3) mediates the immune response by regulating the levels of C18:1-ceramide in cells of the innate immune system and that Acer3 deficiency aggravates colitis in a murine model by augmenting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myeloid and colonic epithelial cells (CECs). According to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, ACER3 is downregulated in immune cells in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a potent inducer of the innate immune response. Consistent with these data, we demonstrated that LPS downregulated both Acer3 mRNA levels and its enzymatic activity while elevating C(18:1)-ceramide, a substrate of Acer3, in murine immune cells or CECs. Knocking out Acer3 enhanced the elevation of C(18:1)-ceramide and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells and CECs in response to LPS challenge. Similar to Acer3 knockout, treatment with C(18:1)-ceramide, but not C18:0-ceramide, potentiated LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immune cells. In the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, Acer3 deficiency augmented colitis-associated elevation of colonic C(18:1)-ceramide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acer3 deficiency aggravated diarrhea, rectal bleeding, weight loss and mortality. Pathological analyses revealed that Acer3 deficiency augmented colonic shortening, immune cell infiltration, colonic epithelial damage and systemic inflammation. Acer3 deficiency also aggravated colonic dysplasia in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Taken together, these results suggest that Acer3 has an important anti-inflammatory role by suppressing cellular or tissue C(18

  5. Guía de implementación de un sistema integrado de gestión (Enterprise Resource Planning) soportado con un plan de aseguramiento de calidad en la empresa Acerías Nacionales del Ecuador ANDEC S.A., empresa del grupo HOLDINGDINE S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Moya, Verónica Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    166 hojas : ilustraciones, 29 x 21 cm + CD-ROM 5218 En el presente trabajo se detalló una guía de implementación de un Sistema Integrado de Gestión (Enterprise Resource Planning), el mismo que fue soportado con un plan de aseguramiento de calidad, desarrollado en la empresa ACERÍAS NACIONALES DEL ECUADOR S.A. "ANDEC S.A.", ubicada en Guayaquil, Ecuador. Se desarrolló el marco teórico en el cual se fundamentó esta guía de implementación, se mencionaron algunas definiciones de procesos, enf...

  6. Environmental monitoring of soil conditioner effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... We evaluated photosynthetic reactions in Acer campestre L. in a multi-factorial field experiment .... autochthony, dynamics of growth, type of root system, size of leaf ...... chlorination and heat shocks on growth, pigments and.

  7. Widespread sugar maple decline and regeneration failure in the Adirondacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry C. Jenkins; Elizabeth Moffett; Daphne Ross

    1999-01-01

    Over large areas of the Adirondacks, hardwood stands whose canopies are dominated by or contain abundant mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) have almost no sugar maple saplings or seedlings in the understory.

  8. Litter Breakdown and Microbial Succession on Two Submerged Leaf Species in a Small Forested Stream

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Molli M; Liles, Mark R; Feminella, Jack W

    2015-01-01

    Microbial succession during leaf breakdown was investigated in a small forested stream in west-central Georgia, USA, using multiple culture-independent techniques. Red maple (Acer rubrum) and water oak (Quercus nigra...

  9. Long-Term Simulated Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition Alters Leaf and Fine Root Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has been suggested to increase forest carbon sequestration across much of the Northern Hemisphere; slower organic matter decomposition could contribute to this increase. At four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated northern hardwood forests, we p...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of New Arnold Village Sewage Treatment Plant Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    caroliniana) / Onoclea sensibilis Forest Salix nigra - Acer (rubrum, saccharinum) / Alnus serrulata - Cephalanthus occidentalis Forest WOODLAND Quercus...Rhynchospora corniculata - (Mecardonia acuminata - Proserpinaca spp.) Herbaceous Vegetation Panicum hemitomon - Dulichium arundinaceum Herbaceous Vegetation

  11. Verticillium-verwelkingsziekte in bomen: detectie, voorspelling van aantasting en beheersing van de ziekte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Resultaten van promotie-onderzoek, waarbij in twee veldproeven de relatie werd vastgesteld tussen verwelkingsziekte in Noorse esdoorn (Acer platanoides) en trompetboom (Catalpa bignonioides) en besmettingsgraad van de bodem. Tevens werd de effectiviteit van biologische grondontsmetting onderzocht al

  12. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  13. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  14. Response of maple sapwood to injury and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.C. Shortle; K.T. Smith; K.R. Dudzik; Sharon Parker

    1995-01-01

    In sapwood challenge experiments in Acer rubrum, columns of discolouration initiated by wounding and inoculation with pioneer fungi (Cephalosporium sp., Phialophora sp.) were similar in size to untreated wounds. Inoculation with decay fungi (Pleurotus ostreatus, Trametes versicolor) produced...

  15. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of four genes encoding ethylene receptors associated with pineapple (Ananas comosus L. flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b. The 5′ flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2 were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1. The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET, whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP and flower primordia (FP appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Four Genes Encoding Ethylene Receptors Associated with Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Wu, Qing-Song; Huang, Xia; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Na; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Exogenous ethylene, or ethephon, has been widely used to induce pineapple flowering, but the molecular mechanism behind ethephon induction is still unclear. In this study, we cloned four genes encoding ethylene receptors (designated AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b). The 5' flanking sequences of these four genes were also cloned by self-formed adaptor PCR and SiteFinding-PCR, and a group of putative cis-acting elements was identified. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b belonged to the plant ERS1s and ETR2/EIN4-like groups. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AcETR2a and AcETR2b (subfamily 2) were more sensitive to ethylene treatment compared with AcERS1a and AcERS1b (subfamily 1). The relative expression of AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b was significantly increased during the earlier period of pineapple inflorescence formation, especially at 1-9 days after ethylene treatment (DAET), whereas AcERS1a expression changed less than these three genes. In situ hybridization results showed that bract primordia (BP) and flower primordia (FP) appeared at 9 and 21 DAET, respectively, and flowers were formed at 37 DAET. AcERS1a, AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b were mainly expressed in the shoot apex at 1-4 DAET; thereafter, with the appearance of BP and FP, higher expression of these genes was found in these new structures. Finally, at 37 DAET, the expression of these genes was mainly focused in the flower but was also low in other structures. These findings indicate that these four ethylene receptor genes, especially AcERS1b, AcETR2a, and AcETR2b, play important roles during pineapple flowering induced by exogenous ethephon.

  18. A Cultural Resources Literature Search of the Bayou Du Chien Drainage Project Area in Fulton, Graves, and Hickman Counties, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-10

    tulipfera sweetgum Liquididambar styraciflua cucumber tree Magnolia acuminata mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa syTvatica hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana...tuliptree -•i:Todendron tulipfera mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa spp. white oak Qiecus alba southern red oak Quercus falTcata blackjack oak Quercus...Acer negundo forests valleys red maple Acer rubrum silver maple Aer saccarinum river birch B-i-f1a nigra pecan Carya pecan smooth hackberry Celtis

  19. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Acer saccharinum), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), deciduous holly (ilex decidua), sugarberry (Celtis leavigata), ash (Fraxinus -p.), American elm (Ulmus...ivy (Rhus radicans) 13.5 American elm (Ulmus americana) 11.0 Ash (Fraxinus spp.) 10.5 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 9.5 Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) 7.3...Acer saccharinum) 60 69 Pin oak (Ouercus palustris) 31 36 Willow (Salix spp.) 12 27 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 11 17 Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) 7

  20. Use of Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination-revised to evaluate the patients’ state in general medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Nikolayevich Ivanets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of cognitive impairments is of great importance in mental disorders detectable in general medical practice. Objective: to study whether Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination — Revised (ACE-R may be used in these patients. Patients and methods. The study was conducted in two steps at somatic hospitals and city polyclinics. It enrolled 130patients (36 men and 94 women with anxiety-depression spectrum disorders (ADSD, mild cognitive disorders (MCD and a concurrence of these conditions. The authors used the following psychometric scales: the hospital anxiety and depression scale; the mini-mental state examination; the frontal assessment battery; ACE-R; ten words learning test. The psychometric characteristics of ACE-R and the possibilities of its use were estimated to detect MCD. The differences in the spectrum of cognitive impairments were analyzed in patients with different types of ADSD. Results. ACE-R is shown to be an effective neuropsychological tool for the primary diagnosis, detection, and evaluation of MCD in the general medical network. The results of ACE-R use indicate that the spectrum of cognitive impairments has substantial differences in patients with different types of non-psychotic disorders.

  1. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Kevin J; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Siegert, Nathan W; Bohne, Michael J

    2013-12-31

    Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs), two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007) and A. platanoides (2010) were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18%) or A. saccharum (14% and 9%).

  2. Colonization of Three Maple Species by Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, in Two Mixed-Hardwood Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Dodds

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky, is an invasive insect that has successfully established multiple times in North America. To investigate host colonization and reproductive success (exit holes/eggs, two ALB infested forest stands were sampled in central Massachusetts, USA. Infested Acer platanoides L., Acer rubrum L., and Acer saccharum Marsh. were felled, bucked into 1 m sections and dissected to determine indications of ALB infestations, such as presence of life stages or signs of damage on trees. ALB damage was also aged on a subset of trees to determine the earliest attacks on the three Acer species. In one stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher on the native A. rubrum and A. saccharum than the exotic A. platanoides. In the second stand, ALB oviposition was significantly higher and cumulative reproductive success was higher on A. rubrum than A. platanoides or A. saccharum. An A. saccharum had the earliest signs of attack that occurred in 2006. Acer rubrum (2007 and A. platanoides (2010 were colonized shortly thereafter. Overall, ALB was more successful in A. rubrum, where adults emerged from 53% and 64% of trees in each stand, compared to A. platanoides (11% and 18% or A. saccharum (14% and 9%.

  3. Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test for brief cognitive assessment of adolescents suffering from migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, Igor; Pavlovski, Vera; Savkovic, Zorica; Vucinic, Dragana; Filipovic, Branislav; Jancic, Jasna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination test (ACE-R) in the evaluation of cognitive status in migraineurs interictally. A total of 44 adolescent patients and 44 healthy controls, matched by age and gender, have undergone ACE-R testing. Migraineurs were additionally questioned about migraine aura features and presence of higher cortical dysfunctions (HCD) during an aura. According to the questionnaire results, patients were subsequently divided into HCD and Non-HCD group. ACE-R scores of migraine patients were significantly lower than in healthy controls (93.68 ± 3.64 vs 96.91 ± 2.49; t = 4.852, p aura. Also, our study has revealed that the ACE-R test is an easily administered test for brief assessment of cognitive status in migraineurs. Future perspectives could be further evaluation of ACE-R test in larger sample size and the impact of migraine with aura on cognitive function in adolescents.

  4. ACER多款笔记本大降价 超强攻势垄断低价市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    刚刚一并推出四款万元NAPA的国际品牌ACER,凭借其超强的价格攻势几乎垄断了整个万元NAPA市场,可谓风头正劲。刚刚我们又得到最新消息,ACER再次将旗下三款产品大幅降价,除造就ACER AS3634NWLC、ACER AS3633NWLC两款4999新贵外,更将当前最具性价比优势的双核NAPA新品ACER AS5542NWXCi降至8499元.

  5. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  6. Plant species first recognised as naturalised or naturalising for New South Wales in 2004 and 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.; Barker, Clive H.

    2013-01-01

    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 62 taxa of naturalised or naturalising plantsm newly recorded for the state of New South Wales during the period 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2005 and 1 species treated in the 2002 revised Flora of New South Wales Volume 2 but overlooked in an earlier paper of this series. Of these taxa, 17 are new records for Australia (prefaced with a †). The 62 taxa are: Acer palmatum, †Acer saccharinum, Achillea filipendulina, Acokanthera oblon...

  7. Environmental Impact Study of the Elm Fork Region of the Trinity River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-04-14

    Acer nequndo), Red Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and the Willow (Salix M.); common herbaceous plants along this zone are: Lpia sp. and sedges of the...family Cyperaceae . A slightly less mesic zone is developed in scattered sites comprising 89 Euphorbia bicolor, Fleabane (Erigeron sp.), Tumblegrass

  8. Distinction between injury to tree leaves by ozone and mesophyll-feeding leafhoppers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibben, C.R.

    1969-06-01

    The phytotoxic effects of ozone and mesophyll-feeding leafhoppers were contrasted microscopically and histologically on leaves of Acer saccharum Marsh., Quercus rubra L., and Cornus florida L. Injuries induced by the two agents were readily distinguished by the differences in location, configuration, color, and size of the external symptoms, and by the characteristics of affected palisade parenchyma cells.

  9. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  10. The Trinity River Greenway: A Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    or Dwarf Sumac (Acer negundo) (Juglans nigra ) (Rhus copallina) Wooly Pipevine Red Cedar Smooth Sumac (Aristolochia tomentosa) (Juniperus virainiana...Aromatic Sumac (2umlia lanuginosa) (Melia azederach) (Rhus trilobata) Pecan Red Mulberry Dwer (Carva Recan) ( Morus rubra) Dewbs rry il Southern

  11. Final Environmental Assessment of the 801 Housing Program at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    river birch (Betula nigra L.) and tall bellflower (Campanula americana L.), in addition to the other tree and herb species. A population of the state...Fork Post Oak Creek, is occupied by willows (Salix spp.), cottonwoods, and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) -- poison ivy, white mulberrry ( Morus

  12. Archeological Survey Along Sals Creek Ditch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-18

    Cypress (Taxodiun distichum 7 50 Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) T I Blackhaw (F’burnuinsp.) T Black Walnut (!uglans nigra ) 2 Box Elder (Acer negundo) 2 Cherry...1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 I Plum (Punus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegussp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry ( Morus nbra) T Sassafras (Sassafras

  13. Status and Trend of Cottonwood Forests Along the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    Celtis occidentalis), box elder (Acer negundo), red and white mulberry ( Morus rubra and M. alba, respectively), pecan (Carya illinoinensis), American...or willow dominate the shrub layer of younger stands (Figure 22a,b). Willows (Salix exigua, S. nigra ) were particularly an important component of

  14. Long-term effects of forest liming on soil, soil leachate, and foliage chemistry in northern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Stephen B. Horsley; Thomas J. Hall; Bryan R. Swistock; David R. DeWalle

    2015-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) decline disease, decreased growth, and regeneration failure have been related to a low supply of Ca and Mg. There is increased interest in augmenting cation availability via liming, but there is little information on the amounts of lime required and the longevity of the lime treatment. A single application of 22.4...

  15. Linking environmental gradients, species composition, and vegetation indicators of sugar maple health in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Scott W. Bailey; Todd E. Ristau; Robert P. Long; Richard A. Hallett

    2008-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) decline has occurred throughout its range over the past 50 years, although decline symptoms are minimal where nutritional thresholds of Ca, Mg, and Mn are met. Here, we show that availability of these elements also controls vascular plant species composition in northern hardwood stands and we identify indicator...

  16. Impacts of Flooding Regime Modification on Wildlife Habitats of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Lower Mississippi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    styraciflua), shellbark hickory ( Carya laciniosa), and shagbark hickory (C. ovata) dominating in the control while American hornbeam and silver maple (Acer...Trees and Shrubs in the Lower Mississippi Valley (After Whitlow and Harris 1979) Common Name Scientific Name Very Tolerant* Water hickory Carya ...aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Swamp privet Forestiera acuminata Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Water locust Gleditsia

  17. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    oak Quercus alba Willow oak Quercus phellos Osage orange Maclura pomifera Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Loblolly pine Pinus...Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua Pignut hickory Carya glabra Shagbark hickory Ca,’ya ovata Holly h1ex opaca Black locust Acer rubrum Black oak Quercus

  18. Aquilla Lake, Brazos River Basin, Texas, Pre-Impoundment Environmental Study: Supplement to Design Memorandum Number 9, Master Plan (in Response to: 40CFR 1505.3),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), and box elder (Acer negundo). Cedar elm dominated the understory, while pecan, sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), and...post oak present. Cedar elm dominated the understory. Honey mesquite, sugarberry, hercules-club (Zanthoxylum clava-herculis), and hawthorn ( Crataegus ...None None 1-5 Ulmus crassifolia ’Ulmus crassifolia Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Celtis laevigata Celtis laevigata Forestiera pubescens 1-6 Ulmus

  19. Use of damage surveys and field inventories to evaluate oak and sugar maple health in the northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S Morin; Christopher W. Woodall; Jim Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Oak species (Quercus spp.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) are substantial components of the forest ecosystems in the 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, both damage surveys and forest inventories have documented declines of sugar maple and oak health. In order to more fully assess the status of oak and sugar maple health, we examined...

  20. Sugar maple seedling anatomy and element localization at forest sites with differing nutrient levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn J. McQuattie; Robert P. Long; Thomas J. Hall

    1999-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings often have poor survival on acidic unglaciated portions of the Allegheny Plateau. Greater survival is found after lime treatment of unglaciated sites or on glaciated areas of the Plateau. The difference in survival rate may depend in part on the acidity or chemical composition of the soil.

  1. Differential impacts of calcium and aluminum treatments on sugar maple and American beech growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen; Timothy J. Fahey

    2015-01-01

    Acid deposition induced losses of calcium (Ca) from northeastern forests have had negative effects on forest health for decades, including the mobilization of potentially phytotoxic aluminum (Al) from soils. To evaluate the impact of changes in Ca and Al availability on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and American beech (Fagus...

  2. Comparison of oak and sugar maple distribution and regeneration in central Illinois upland oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Frey; Scott J. Meiners

    2014-01-01

    Changes in disturbance frequencies, habitat fragmentation, and other biotic pressures are allowing sugar maple (Acer saccharum) to displace oak (Quercus spp.) in the upland forest understory. The displacement of oaks by sugar maples represents a major management concern throughout the region. We collected seedling microhabitat data...

  3. 77 FR 27386 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Federal Actions On July 30, 2007, we received a petition from Forest Guardians (now WildEarth Guardians....), Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), chokecherry (Padus virginiana), and alder (Alnus incana) trees... Ranger District of the Roosevelt National Forest and managed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). There...

  4. 78 FR 56192 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Arabis georgiana (Georgia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... (white ash), Acer barbatum (southern sugar maple), and Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud) with a rich... areas will decline as the forest canopy closes. Allison (1999, p. 4) attributed the decline of a... eastern deciduous forest and creates boundaries or edges where disturbed patches of vegetation are...

  5. Dependence of leaf structural indices in two forest maple species from within-crown irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Belyavskaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main leaf structural parameters of two genus Acer L. representatives ( A. platanoides and A. tataricum have been characterized. The responses of structural indices to within-crown light level have been studied. Inter-species differences have been revealed in irradiance adaptation at the cellular level.

  6. Building improved models of sugar maple mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Patrick L. Zimmerman

    2012-01-01

    The decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the northern United States is causing concern, and several studies have identified soil properties that are linked to the observation of dead/dying trees. Unfortunately, the sample of trees supporting these studies is purposive in nature; soil properties are assessed only on those plots where dead...

  7. Tree species effects on calcium cycling: The role of calcium uptake in deep soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Smits, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Soil acidity and calcium (Ca) availability in the surface soil differ substantially beneath sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) trees in a mixed forest in northwestern Connecticut. We determined the effect of pumping of Ca from deep soil (rooting zone below 20-cm

  8. Long-term impact of liming on growth and vigor of northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Long; Stephen B. Horsley; Thomas J. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is a keystone species in the northern hardwood forest, and decline episodes have negatively affected the growth and health of sugar maple in portions of its range over the past 50+ years. Crown health, growth, survival, and flower and seed production of sugar maple were negatively affected by a widespread decline...

  9. Health of eastern North American sugar maple forests and factors affecting decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long; Scott W. Bailey; Richard A. Hallett; Philip M. Wargo

    2002-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a keystone species in the forests of the northeastern and Midwestern United States and eastern Canada. Its sustained health is an important issue in both managed and unmanaged forests. While sugar maple generally is healthy throughout its range, decline disease of sugar maple has occurred sporadically during the past...

  10. 7 CFR 319.37-7 - Postentry quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Oceania. Acer spp. (maple) All except Canada, Europe, and Japan. Actinidia spp. (Chinese gooseberry, kiwi... grow the article or increase therefrom, if an article of Humulus spp. (hops), a meristem culture of the... culture is established. After the 6-month observation, the meristem culture-generated plant must remain in...

  11. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  12. Cold-season patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple and ice-damaged trees of two age classes following drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Wong; K. L. Baggett; A. H. Rye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of summer drought on the composition and profiles of cold-season reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees (50-100 years old or ~200 years old) in which the crowns were nondamaged or damaged by the 1998 ice storm. The overall cold season reserve...

  13. Decay, defects and condition of street trees in four Upstate New York cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Luley; David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    Throughout most of New York State, maple species are the most common street tree. It is not unusual for Norway (Acer platanoides), silver (A. saccharinum), sugar (A. saccharum), red (A. rubrum), and other maples species to comprise over 50% of the street tree population in communities...

  14. Influence of topographic aspect, precipitation and drought on radial growth of four major tree species in an Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta Fekedulegn; Ray R., Jr. Hicks; J.J. Colbert

    2003-01-01

    This study used dated and measured tree-ring data to examine relationships between radial growth, topographic aspect, and precipitation for four hardwood species, yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), northern red oak ( L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and red maple (Acer rubum...

  15. Hvilke planter er hjemmehørende i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik, Buchwald,; Wind, Peter; Bruun, Hans Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Der har i de senere år været debat om, hvorvidt konkrete plantearter - fx Ær (Acer pseudoplatanus) og Gyvel (Cytisus scoparius) - er hjemmehørende arter i Danmark eller indførte fremmede (Buchwald 2008, 20110: Friis 2010: Møller 2011; Bruun2011). En medvirkende årsag til diskussionerne er, at der...

  16. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  17. The Evolution of USDA Forest Service Experimental Forest Research on Northern Conifers in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Nicole S. Rogers

    2017-01-01

    The degraded stand pictured in this 1955 USDA Forest Service photograph from Maine was dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea), red maple (Acer rubrum), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Stands such as these were typical of second-growth, lowland...

  18. Oocyst output and transmission rates during successive infections with Eimeria acervulina in experimental broiler flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The infection dynamics of Eimeria species determine the clinical manifestation of the disease coccidiosis in poultry flocks, and a better understanding of the dynamics may contribute to improvement of control measures. Our aim was to study the course of infection and the transmission of Eimeria acer

  19. Regenerating the Academic Workforce: The Careers, Intentions and Motivations of Higher Degree Research Students in Australia. Findings of the National Research Student Survey (NRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Bexley, Emmaline; Richardson, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report is the culmination of a project carried out for the Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in collaboration with the Centre for the Study of Higher Education (CSHE). The main findings of this report are based on the outcomes…

  20. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Colonial Waterbird Habitats and Nesting Populations in North Carolina Estuaries: 1983 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Verbena braziliensis 1 -- -- Part henocissus quinquefolia 1 3 4 Ptilimniwn capillacewn -- 6 -- Spartina cynosuroides -- 4 - Sonchus oleraceus -- 4...ty Zis castanea -- 2 -- Verbena spp. I- -- Calium hispiduiwn -- I -- Rubus flagilaris -- 1 2 Phytolacca canericana 1 4 Sonchus as per -- I -- Acer

  1. Efficacy of stem injection treatments on striped maple in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    2008-01-01

    Hack-and-squirt injection treatments were applied to individual striped maple (Acer pennsylvanicum L.) stems and to the largest stem in sprout clumps in a 25-year-old clearcut in central West Virginia to evaluate seasonal efficacy of imazapyr as Arsenal (28.7%) and glyphosate as Glypro Plus (41.0%) in water carriers. Complete control of injected...

  2. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  3. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2 GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem, Including Santiago Creek. Volume 3. Lower Santa Ana River. (Prado Dam to Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Water Company Gas Four Corners Pipe Company Telephone Pacific Telephone Company Television Cable Vision of Orange Water City of Santa Ana Electricity City...Elderberry Sambucus mexicana XII-2 Table XII-i. (Continued) Common Names Scientific Names TREES (Continued): Big Leaf Maple Acer Macrophyllum California

  4. Oocyst output and transmission rates during successive infections with Eimeria acervulina in experimental broiler flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Bouma, A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The infection dynamics of Eimeria species determine the clinical manifestation of the disease coccidiosis in poultry flocks, and a better understanding of the dynamics may contribute to improvement of control measures. Our aim was to study the course of infection and the transmission of Eimeria acer

  5. Stem girdling manipulates leaf sugar concentrations and anthocyanin expression in sugar maples trees during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.F. Murakami; P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the effects of sugar accumulation on red color development of foliage during autumn, we compared carbohydrate concentration, anthocyanin expression and xylem pressure potential of foliage on girdled versus non-girdled (control) branches of 12 mature, open-grown sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees. Half of the study trees...

  6. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  7. Hypoglycin A Concentrations in Maple Tree Species in the Netherlands and the Occurrence of Atypical Myopathy in Horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C.M.; Leeuwen, van R.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Mol, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypical myopathy (AM) in horses is caused by the plant toxin hypoglycin A, which in Europe typically is found in the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). Owners are concerned about whether their horses are in danger if they graze near maple trees. Hypothesis/Objectives: To meas

  8. Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    primarily oaks (Quercus spp.), maples (Acer spp.), cabbage palm (Sabal palmetto), and southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora). The forest ...Occupational Health and Safety Administration OWS oil water separator PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Pb lead pCi/L picocuries per liter...the proposed natural infrastructure actions are to comply with Federal, state, and local regulations to limit downstream water quality degradation by

  9. Life Satisfaction of Young Australians: Relationships between Further Education, Training and Employment and General and Career Satisfaction. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth Research Report 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Kylie; McMillan, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Prepared by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) under an agreement with the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), this report has three broad aims: (1) To describe the relationship between life satisfaction and participation in a range of post-school education, training and labour market…

  10. Liquidus Temperature of SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass-Forming Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Brett M.; Morgan, James M.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the important role of strontium aluminosilicate glasses in various technologies, there is no available phase diagram for this ternary system in the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database. Establishing the liquidus surface (liquidus temperature Tliq and primary devitrification phase...

  11. Boomkwekerij op veen : bedrijfseconomische resultaten biologische boomkwekerij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, B.; Schuring, W.; Leijden, van J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    Resultaten van een onderzoek op PPO-locatie Boskoop naar de bedrijfseconomische mogelijkheden van biologische boomteelt. Zes gewassen uit de gewasgroep siergewassen (Acer, Buxus, Magnolia, Mahonia, Prunus en Syringa) werden in twee jaar opgekweekt van plantgoed naar leverbaar materiaal. In tabellen

  12. The influence of chemical characteristics of precipitation on tree health in Banjica Forest (Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most represented tree species in the Banjica Forest are Acer negundo, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanus, Populus nigra, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Fraxinus ornus and Robinia pseudoacacia. According to the ICP Forests combined assessment (degree of defoliation and decolorization, endangered species are Populus nigra (64.3% of heavily damaged trees, Quercus robur (45.5%, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (37.0% and Acer negundo (26.6%, while the situation is much better for Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus ornus. For Robinia pseudoacacia, 83% of trees are without decolorization, however, defoliation is established. In the period from April to October 2009, the average pH of rainwater was 5.46, and 5.18 in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- in the period from April to October 2009 amounted to an average of 24.21 mg/l, and 28.87 mg/l in the period from November 2009 to March 2010. The concentration of SO42- and pH values is a possible explanation for the condition of the trees. [Acknowledgments. The results are a part of the project III47007 funded by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia.

  13. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  14. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  15. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY, New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp. trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England.

  16. Screening of cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease: diagnostic validity of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Sobreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective The aim of the present study is to examine the accuracy of the Brazilian versions of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R to screen for mild cognitive impairment (PDMCI and dementia (PDD in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD.Method Both scales were administered to a final convenience sample of 79 patients with PD. Patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist and a neuropsychologist using UPDRS, Hoehn and Yahr and Schwab and England scales, global deterioration scale, a psychiatric structured interview, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and other cognitive tests.Results There were 32 patients with PDMCI and 17 patients with PDD. The MoCA and the ACE-R were able to discriminate patients with PDD from the others.Conclusion Both scales showed to be useful to screen for dementia but not for mild cognitive impairment in patients with PD.

  17. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and lime (Tilia cordata). We studied the chemical characteristics...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...

  18. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  19. Combined heat and power from cereals. Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Energiegetreide Arzberg (Sachsen); Modellversuch im Rahmen des Foerderkonzepts 'Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'. Machbarkeitsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkens, B. (Energiekontor GbR, Bremerhaven (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    Growing energy acereals can occur in much more favourable ecological conditions than growing acereals for food in mixed cultures, as for cost reasons, plant protection and the use of fertilizers is considerably reduced. For the combustion plant, weighing up economic and ecological points of view, pre-furnace combustion and under feed combustion can be considered. For both plants, the limits of the TA Air can be complied with or one can fall below them with reasonable costs. The parameters of the heating powerstation site, such as the duration of annual full load use, the size of the plant and therefore the efficiency of the turbines and the specific plant costs and also availability over existing heat networks have an uneven greater effect on economy than the transport distance. In favourable site conditions, straw heating stations can be operated economically as base load stations. (orig./EF)

  20. Impacts of Different Mobile User Interfaces on Students’ Satisfaction for Learning Dijkstra’s Shortest Path Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Seraj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental study of learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on mobile devices. The aim of the study is to investigate and compare the impacts of two different mobile screen user interfaces on students’ satisfaction for learning the technical subject. A mobile learning prototype was developed for learning Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm on Apple iPhone 4 operated on iPhone operating system (iOS, and Acer Inconia Tab operated on an Android operating system. Thirty students, who are either currently studying or had previously studied Computer Networks, were recruited for the usability trial. At the end of each single session, students’ satisfaction interacting with the two mobile devices was measured using QUIS questionnaire. Although there is no significant difference in students’ satisfaction between the two different mobile screen interfaces, the subjective findings indicate that Acer Inconia Tab gained higher scores as compared to Apple iPhone 4.

  1. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Kevin J Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to...

  2. Trophic priorities of millipedes (Diplopoda in process of rehabilitation of the territories disturbed by mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The food selectivity of millipedes (Diplopoda was studied in different variants of mine spoils and chernozem fillings applied as topsoil. It was found that the ordinary chernozem fillings determines the formation of food priorities increasingly in comparison with the mine spoil. There are shown statistically significant differences between millipeds food priorities depending on the proposed feed: litter leaves of trees (Acer platanoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juniperus virginiana used in forest revegetation of mining lands.

  3. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    walnut 11[jugans nigra and sweetguu. Blact- hickory was less frequent. Two- t~iirds of the wdy down the siop, eastern redbud gj~jis c~ndaiL winged elm...b. Continued. Connon name Scientific name *Blac’k oak Quercus velutina Lamn. Black walnut Juglans nixra L. Black willow Salix nigra March. Blackjack...Acer rubrum L. Red mulberry Morus rubra, L. Red-berried moonseed Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. Redbud Cercis canadensis L. Redroot Ceanothus herbaceus

  4. Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the Tibbee Creek Site (22Lo600) Lowndes County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    white oak (Quercus alba), swamp chestnut oak ( . prinus), willow oak (Q. 2.i]lo), water oak (Q. nigra ), elms (Ulmus sp.), beech (Fagus grandifolia...contain- ing numerous species of oaks and i,.ckories as well as walnut (Juglans nigra ), elm, maple, sweetgum, boxelder (Acer negundo) and cypress. Dense...virginiana), paw paw (Asimina triloba), red mulberry ( Morus rubra), crab apple (Malus angustifolia), huckleberry (Vaccinium vacillans), blackberry (Rubus sp

  5. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  6. Archaeological Investigations of the Little Cypress Bayou Site (3CT50) Crittenden County, Arkansas. Volume 2 - Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Swanton 1946). Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ): Pecan shell was recovered from 32 features; the features also yielded the remains of other nut foods. 111-10...Scientific Common Acer sp. Maple Arundinaria gigantea Cane Asteraceae Composite Family Carya sp. Hickory Celtis sp. Hackberry or Sugarberry...presented below. 111-9 Hickory ( Carya sp.): Table 111-4 presents a summary of all nut remains recovered from various features and proveniences. It will be

  7. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    to 5 Y2 years without losing viability. Hawthorn Dry, sandy, stony ridges to MT I July - Nov. Unknown. Crataegus spp. moist river bottoms and in...MT T to VT Sept. - Oct. Store in sealed Celtis laevigata fronts of new alluvium but not container at 411F (5°C) in deep swamps. for up to 5 ½ years...maple Acer barbatum Flowering dogwood Cornus florida Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Hawthorn Crataegus spp

  8. Cultural Resources Survey of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Dredged Material Disposal Areas, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-15

    Celtis laevigata ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styaciflua), pecan (Carya illinoiensis), magnolia (Magnolia app.), and various pines (Bahr et al. 1983:82... laevigata ), and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Other forest species include the box-elder (Acer negundo), honey-locust (Gleditsia triacanthos...American elm (Ulmus americana) and the Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii). The most common shrub species were palmetto (Sabal minor) and green haw ( Crataegus

  9. Allellopathic Impacts of Leaf Litters Decomposition from Intercrop Tree Species on Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxi Zhang; Zengwen Liu; Nan Tian; Kehao Chen; Nhu Trung Luc

    2015-01-01

    Foliar litters from 5 commonly planted intercorpped trees were collected and decayed within soil of local farm. These soil samples containing different amount of decomposed litters were then used as culture medium for a germination and seedlings growth testing of soybean. The allelopathic effects of intercropped trees on soybean were assessed. The results indicated that Eucommia ulmoides, Paulownia fortunei and Acer truncatum litters showed promotional effects at relative low concentration (7...

  10. The role of bigleaf maple in soil chemistry and nutrient dynamics in coastal temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Tanya D.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh) in a forest dominated by Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziessi (Mirb.) Franco] and western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (RAF.) Sarg.] was studied in a paired-plot design through an examination of the annual contribution of bigleaf maple litterfall to nutrient flux, its rate of decay, and its properties within the forest floor and mineral soil. Compared to conifer plots, bigleaf maple plots had litterfall significantly higher in all elements...

  11. Spatial and temporal variation of forest floor, throughfall, and stemflow properties associated with Bigleaf Maple in a mixed conifer forest of coastal British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Khaled Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh) is a large deciduous tree that is abundant in western North America. This study addressed whether the predicted increase in abundance of bigleaf maple because of climate change could influence forest hydrology and site fertility due to species-specific effects on incident rainfall distribution and nutrient cycling. The study examined the spatial and temporal variation of forest floor, throughfall, and stemflow properties associated with bigleaf maple in...

  12. Spatial coexistence of American beech and sugar maple regeneration in post-harvest northern hardwood forests

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew S.; Wagner, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; & Context Fine scale regeneration patterns of coexistent spe-cies are influenced by regeneration mechanisms and microsite requirements. Spatial patterns may be either disjunct or over-lapping, which will determine competitive effects and microsite dominance, and future forest composition. & Aims Using American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) as an example, three hypotheses were tested: (1) random beech spatial patterns, (2) clu...

  13. Fire History of Appalachian Forests of the Lower St-Lawrence Region (Southern Quebec)

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Payette; Vanessa Pilon; Pierre-Luc Couillard; Jason Laflamme

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forests are among the main forest types of eastern North America. Sugar maple stands growing on Appalachian soils of the Lower St-Lawrence region are located at the northeastern limit of the northern hardwood forest zone. Given the biogeographical position of these forests at the edge of the boreal biome, we aimed to reconstruct the fire history and document the occurrence of temperate and boreal trees in sugar maple sites during the Holocene based on soil macroch...

  14. Environmental Assessment for Alternate Water Supply System, Joint Base Langley-Eustis, Newport News, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    maple Acer rubrum eastern redcedar Juniperus viginianus Other oak species Quercus spp. The primary objective of Fort Eustis’s forest management program...consists of 2,450 linear feet of buried 12-inch water main extending through a forested area on both JBLE-FE and adjacent private land. The 12-inch main...hardwood forest . The portion that is on private land is located near the boundary between two industrial facilities. Approximately half of the portion

  15. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  16. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  17. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Imported Woods and their Degradation by Termites

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, Rashmi R.; Sundararaj, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical properties of 20 species of imported wood on degradation of the wood by termites under field conditions was studied. The wood species studied were: Sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) (from two countries), Camphor, Dryobalanops aromatic C.F.Gaertner (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae), Beech, Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart (Fagales: Fagaceae), F. sylvatica L. (from two countries), Oak, Quercus robur L., Ash, Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (L...

  18. Industrial mineral powder production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent annual output of major industrial mineral powders in the mainland of China has been more than 100 million t, accompanied by active development of such supporting technology as comminution, classification, separation/purification, and surface modification. In particular, the present paper reviews technologies for preparing ultra-fine particles involving dry and wet processing, modification and composition, calcination of kaolin clay, and processing of spherical/acerous industrial minerals.

  19. Research of Recurrent Dynamic Neural Networks for Adaptive Control of Complex Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    conference this activity was moved to the second quarter. The following equipment was bought: 1.Notebook Lenovo IBM 3000 G550-4Aplus Вlack (59...022219) 4801.10 UAH. 2. Notebook Lenovo IBM 3000 G550-4L-1 Вlack (59-023919) 3960.35 UAH. 3. Projector AcerX1230K(EY.J9805.001

  20. Planetary Pledge Pyramid, Facebook Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Create an Advert X Alt skal væk NU Macbook Air solgt til 370,- kr. Acer Ferrari ONE 200 solgt til 374,- kr. på Ziinga.dk. - Klik her – Like Unlike You like this. X Mindstep | Useful Training® Interesseret i NLP og i at forbedre din bundlinie markant? Nyt NLP Business Practitioner hold i Århus, 19...

  1. Is climate an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the Eastern United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Gregory J; Abrams, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological phenomena combine to direct vegetation trends over time, with climate and disturbance playing prominent roles. To help decipher their relative importance during Euro-American times, we employed a unique approach whereby tree species/genera were partitioned into temperature, shade tolerance, and pyrogenicity classes and applied to comparative tree-census data. Our megadata analysis of 190 datasets determined the relative impacts of climate vs. altered disturbance regimes for various biomes across the eastern United States. As the Euro-American period (ca. 1500 to today) spans two major climatic periods, from Little Ice Age to the Anthropocene, vegetation changes consistent with warming were expected. In most cases, however, European disturbance overrode regional climate, but in a manner that varied across the Tension Zone Line. To the north, intensive and expansive early European disturbance resulted in the ubiquitous loss of conifers and large increases of Acer, Populus, and Quercus in northern hardwoods, whereas to the south, these disturbances perpetuated the dominance of Quercus in central hardwoods. Acer increases and associated mesophication in Quercus-Pinus systems were delayed until mid 20th century fire suppression. This led to significant warm to cool shifts in temperature class where cool-adapted Acer saccharum increased and temperature neutral changes where warm-adapted Acer rubrum increased. In both cases, these shifts were attributed to fire suppression rather than climate change. Because mesophication is ongoing, eastern US forests formed during the catastrophic disturbance era followed by fire suppression will remain in climate disequilibrium into the foreseeable future. Overall, the results of our study suggest that altered disturbance regimes rather than climate had the greatest influence on vegetation composition and dynamics in the eastern United States over multiple centuries. Land-use change often trumped or negated the impacts

  2. Cultural Resources Survey of Six Revetment and Levee Items Above New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-20

    in the sugar parishes. Often of Creole , Cajun, or German descent, these farmers cultivated subsistence crops such as corn and potatoes. Most of the...Acer rubrum Var . drnummondii). The principal animals were amphibians and aquatic life including water snakes and alligators. Waterfowl were abundant here...Technological changes are evident such as microliths, baked clay balls , unique projectile points, steatite bowls and fiber tempered pottery

  3. High Annular Resolution Stellar Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-31

    2. Note that or no aperture integra- proportionality have been omitted from Eq., 7. and h tion i.e.. D -; = 1) the -7,6 po6 oer Law is obe_ ed: it...the aoer~ure. . - is t-. tcc . _1sr ,ran tme acer:ure. The at-ttzci:ucs. nrugout --he analysis. two important assumptions wili se -7 t .hen

  4. Recommendations for Interdisciplinary Study of Tipping Points in Natural and Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Teresa E.; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Stafford, Susan G.; Bubier, Jill L.; Crittenden, John C.; Cutter, Susan L.; Kay, Alan C.; Libecap, Gary D.; Moore, John C.; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Shepherd, J. Marshall; Travis, Joseph

    2010-04-01

    In September 2009, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Advisory Committee for Environmental Research and Education (AC-ERE) released “Transitions and Tipping Points in Complex Environmental Systems,” a report that advocates sweeping change in the way environmental research and education are sponsored and conducted. The conviction of the committee that physical and life scientists, engineers, educators, and social scientists must work collaboratively to understand the dynamics of complex environmental systems should resonate with AGU's membership. A major theme of the AC-ERE report is that scientists need to understand environmental systems that, partly owing to human activity, may be approaching thresholds for irreversible change. This theme echoes sentiments expressed in the geosciences community, such as by Rockström et al. [2009], who estimate the magnitudes of thresholds for irreversible changes in nine key Earth subsystems and focus on how human activities have driven systems closer—or even past—some thresholds. The AC-ERE report argues that understanding natural systems will require integrated research among geoscientists, social scientists, ecologists, and others.

  5. First Record of Eutypella parasitica on Maples in Urban Area in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Ivić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Eutypella parasitica, a plant pathogenic fungus attacking maples (Acer spp. was detected for the first time in Croatia in 2007. From 2007 to 2014, it was found only in forests, on several trees in Hum na Sutli, near Slovenian border. In 2015, the presence of Eutypella parasitica was monitored for the first time in urban areas. Materials and Methods: Within the official survey programme, 23 visual surveys were conducted and 24 samples were collected and analysed for the presence of fungi. E. parasitica was found in Bundek Park in Zagreb. Typical symptoms of Eutypella canker were detected on two field maples (Acer campestre and two boxelder maples (Acer negundo. Twelve isolates were collected from symptomatic trees. Conclusions: Eleven out of twelve isolates from four trees were confirmed as E. parasitica by species-specific polymerase chain reaction. This is the first report of E. parasitica in Zagreb, the first record of E. parasitica in Croatia outside forests, as well as a record of a new host species in Croatia, boxelder maple (A. negundo. Introduction pathway of E. parasitica in Zagreb remains unknown.

  6. Chamber and field evaluations of air pollution tolerances of urban trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnosky, D.F.

    1981-04-01

    Results are presented for a study of the relative air pollution tolerances of 32 urban-tree cultivars as determined by both chamber fumigations and field exposures. Tolerances to ozone and sulfur dioxide, alone and in combination, were determined using short-term, acute doses administered while the plants were inside a plastic fumigation chamber located inside the Cary Arboretum greenhouses. In a follow-up study still underway, representatives of the same cultivars were outplanted at four locations in the greater New York City area. To date, only oxidant-type injury has been observed on trees in the field plots. Cultivars tolerant to all chamber and field exposures were Acer platanoides Cleveland, Crimson King, Emerald Queen, Jade Glen, and Summershade; Acer rubrum Autumn Flame and Red Sunset; Acer saccharum Green Mountain and Temple's Upright; Fagus sylvatica Rotundifolia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica Summit; and Ginkgo biloba Fastigate and Sentry. Cultivars sensitive to ozone as determined by the chamber and field tests and that may serve as bioindicators of the presence of ozone were Gleditsia triacanthos inermis imperial and Platanus acerifolia Bloodgood.

  7. Trade patterns of the tree nursery industry in Europe and changes following findings of citrus longhorn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis Forster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Eschen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade in plants for planting is a major pathway for the introduction and further spread of alien plants, pests and diseases. Information about the structure of plant trade networks is not generally available, but it is valuable for better assessing the potential risks associated with the trade in live plants and the development of prevention and mitigation measures and policy. The discovery of two larvae of Anoplophora chinensis (citrus longhorn beetle – CLB in 2009, at a nursery importing Acer palmatum from China in one of the major Dutch tree nursery areas, has resulted in the creation of a detailed dataset on the intra-European Union trade in its potential hosts. This study describes European imports of the primary host of A. chinensis, Acer spp., into the Netherlands (1998-2012 and the effects of the finding in a tree nursery area. In addition, shipments of Acer spp. from 138 producers in the nursery area in 2009 were analysed in a one-off analysis of intra-EU trade. The volume of Acer spp. imports from Asia was stable early during the studied period, and declined to 5% of the initial imports after a period of interceptions, illustrating the effect of regulations. The number of notifications of A. chinensis infestations in imported consignments of Acer spp. increased sharply in the years up to 2007, then declined as imports also reduced. Although plants were shipped to destinations throughout Europe, each producer shipped plants only to few destinations in few countries. Most of the plants were shipped to nurseries in EU countries. These patterns could make it easier to target these high risk destinations for control measures. The lack of transaction records makes it difficult to trace the destination of plants. More systematic electronic record keeping by traders and growers and the data being collated in a database that can be made available to regulatory authorities, together with further studies of plant trade data using network

  8. 基于ITS与 trn L-F序列探讨槭树科的系统发育%Phylogeny of Aceraceae Based on ITS and trn L-F Data Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田欣; 郭振华; 李德铢

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear encoded internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the plastid encoded trn L-F region were sequenced for 41 species of the Aceraceae,representing both genera Acer and Dipteronia,to reconstruct phylogeny of this family,especially within Acer.The analyses were performed in separate and combined sequence data sets,with the Sapindaceae and Hippocastanaceae being selected as outgroups.It was indicated that the Aceraceae was monophyletic and D.sinensis was basal to the rest of the family but the two genera of it might be not monophyletic because Dipteronia dyerana was nested within Acer.The result inferred from the combined data showed greater resolution within Acer than that from the two separate data sets.The monophyly of most sections in Xu's system (1996) were supported with high bootstrap values,and some relationships between (or among) sections were also inferred,such as sect.Palmata and sect.Microcarpa ; sect.Platanoidea ,sect.Lithocarpa and sect.Macrophylla ; sect.Integrifolia ,sect.Trifoliata and sect.Pentaphylla ; and sect.Acer ,sect.Goniocarpa and sect.Saccharina (sensu Ogata).However,the sectional status and circumscriptions of some of the above-mentioned sections should be further adjusted.It seemed that the Xu's delimitations of sect.Rubra and sect.Saccharodendran should be revaluated.%报道了槭树科41种(其中槭属39种)植物的 trn L-F和ITS序列(其中部分种的ITS序列为重新测定),以期通过分子手段对槭树科内部尤其是复杂的槭属的系统发育关系进行重建.以无患子科和七叶树科为外类群,基于对57个种单独的ITS序列(包括从GenBank下载的16种的序列)、41种 trn L-F序列及41种两者序列的联合数据,分别采用最大简约法(Maximum Parsimony Method)和邻接法(Neighbor-Joining Method)对槭树科的系统发育进行了分析.结果显示,整个槭树科为一单系类群;金钱槭位于槭树科的基部;但由于云南金钱槭( Dipteronia dyerana )聚在了槭属

  9. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZIYEH RAFEIE JAHED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rafeie Jahed R, Hosseini SM, Kooch Y. 2014. The effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region, Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 206-214. In the present work, we studied the effect of natural and planted forest stands on soil fertility in the Hyrcanian region of northern Iran. Natural forest stands (including Acer velutinum Bioss., Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall, Parrotia persica (DC. C.A.Mey, Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey., Carpinus betulus L, Mixed planted stand (including Acer velutinum, Ulmus carpinifolia G. Suckow Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey, Carpinus betulus L., Tilia begonifolia Scop. Subsp. caucasia (Rupr. Loria; maple (Acer velutinum Bioss plantation, pine (Pinus taeda L. plantation and also clear-cut region (control were considered in this research. Soil samples were collected at two different depths, i.e., 0-15 and 15-30 cm, and characterized with respect to organic carbon (C, total nitrogen (N, available nutrient elements (P, K, Ca and Mg; pH and soil texture. The results showed that the highest amount of total N was found in mixed plantation. The highest amount of available P was detected in maple plantation and pine plantation had the highest available K and organic C than other treatments. The highest and the lowest available Ca and Mg were found in natural forest and control area, respectively. In addition, it was observed that nutrients accumulate in upper layers of the soil. Hardwood stands have been more successful than the conifers stands, so this should be considered in the sustainable management of forests.

  10. Clinical outcomes in the surgical treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard; Everingham, Emma; Mahant, Neil; Jacobson, Erica; Owler, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is a syndrome of gait disturbance, dementia and urinary incontinence. Outcomes after ventriculoperitoneal shunting for INPH are variable due to a lack of reliable, quantitative outcome data and inconsistent methods of selecting shunt candidates. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess objective and quantitative clinical outcomes of ventriculoperitoneal shunting for INPH. From 2008 to 2013, consecutive patients diagnosed with INPH based on clinical and radiological criteria were included in this single-centre study. All patients received programmable-valve ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12months post-operatively. Outcomes included gait time and scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III), the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Thresholds for improvements were set a priori as ⩾20% decrease in gait time, ⩾10point decrease in UPDRS-III score, ⩾5point increase in ACE-R score and ⩾2point increase in MMSE score at last follow-up. The proportion of patients improving varied between measures, being gait time (60%), UPDRS-III (69%), MMSE (63%), and ACE-R (56%). Overall, improvement in at least one outcome measure was observed in 85% of patients and 38% improved in gait time, UPDRS-III score and cognitive scores. Only 15% of patients experienced no improvement on any measure. This study demonstrates that the majority of INPH patients can sustain improvements in multiple symptoms up to 12months after shunting.

  11. Sexismo y androcentrismo en la escuela técnica : Experiencia de mujeres jóvenes en torno a la sexualidad y la condición juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane, Viviana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo retomamos el uso que le ha dado a la categoría experiencia la teoría feminista para indagar en la subjetividad, las sexualidades y los cuerpos. De este modo experiencia alude, tal como sugiere Teresa De Lauretis, al “proceso por el cual se construye la subjetividad de todos los seres sociales” (1992:253). Entendemos que no es posible sostener una separación tajante entre sujeto y objeto, y que el estudio centrado en las experiencias puede brindarnos información sustantiva acer...

  12. Content of certain mineral components in the thallus of lichens and the bark of roadside trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Kuziel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The total N, P, Mg, Ca, K and Na contents were investigated in the thalli of several lichen species occurring on various trees, and in the bark and bark extracts from these trees. pH of the bark extracts was also determined. Wide differences were found in the content of the elements in point in the thalli of various lichen species on Acer platanoides and on the thalli of the same species on other trees. No relation was detected between the chemical composition of the bark and that of the lichen thalli occurring on it.

  13. ANALISIS EKUITAS MEREK LAPTOP PADA MAHASISWA INSTITUT PERTANIAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujang Sumarwan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The brand has role in bridging between consumer’s expectations and company’s promises. Prestigious brand can be said that it has strong brand equity. This research had objective to analyze brand equity of laptop product among students of Bogor Agricultural University. Meanwhile, this research had detail purposes are: (1 to analyze usage behavior of laptop product, (2 to analyze brand equity elements (brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and brand loyalty among students of Bogor Agricultural University, and (3 to find out the correlation between top of mind and laptop brand that used by students of Bogor Agricultural University. This research used cross sectional study design with total sample were 200 students. The determination of total samples in each faculty used proportional sampling. The process to select sample was executed by convenience sampling that was selection of  the samples based on availability to fill up the questionnaire and interview that appropriated with the quota in each faculty. The brand of laptop that most used and possessed is Acer. The most possessed of laptop by sample during 10 months until 18 months. The most way of buying laptop was bought by parents in new product. On the brand awareness elements of brand product, Acer generally get the better spot then followed by Toshiba, HP Compaq, and Axioo. The testing of brand association with using Cochran test showedthat the smallest association was obtained to Acer brand. It caused the other brand, such as Toshiba, HP Compaq, and Axioo hadall associations that adhere to consumers. The perceived quality that was tested by Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, referred that index satisfaction of samples about Acer, Toshiba, and Axioo brand had satisfied level. Meanwhile, the samples that used HP Compaq had very satisfied level. The Importance Performance Analysis (IPA showed that only Toshiba brand that was the most excellent in which none atribute which

  14. 4 种新烟碱类内吸性杀虫剂对光肩星天牛毒力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤乐

    2007-01-01

    @@ 光肩星天牛(Anoplophora glabripennis)不仅严重为害中国西北地区杨树等树木,而且它也威胁美国城市树木、森林及木材等相关工业.该虫为害的主要树种有槭树(Acer spp.)、桦树(Betula spp.)、杨树(Populus spp.)、榆树(Ulmus spp.)、柳树(Salix spp.)等,在中国还发现沙枣(Elaeagnus angustifolia)也是成虫的适宜寄主.

  15. Varied reasoning schema in students' written solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Weliweriya, Nandana; Sayre, Eleanor C; Zollman, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematization project investigates students' use of mathematical tools across the undergraduate physics curriculum. As a part of this project, we look at intermediate mechanics students' written homework solutions to understand how they use those tools in approaching traditional mechanics problems. We use a modified version of the ACER framework to analyze students' solutions and to identify patterns of mathematical skills used on traditional problems. We apply techniques borrowed from network analysis and the Resources Framework to build a "fingerprint" of students' mathematical tool use. In this paper, we present preliminary findings on patterns that we identified in students' problem solving.

  16. Obtención de un acero de calidad S355J2 partiendo de un acero microaleado

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El acero ha sido, y sigue siendo, un material clave en el desarrollo de nuestra civilización. Es por ello, que la consecución de nuevas calidades es clave en los entornos industriales de este sector. Este proyecto se encamina a la consecución de una calidad de acero determinada, el tipo y grado S 355 J2 +AR, dentro de un entorno industrial concreto formado por una acería eléctrica seguida de un tren de laminación de perfiles estructurales. Esta calidad concreta plantea ventajas en cuanto a...

  17. SYNTHESIS AND FLOCCULABILITY OF SODIUM ALGINATE GRAFTED WITH ACRYLAMIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiqiang Xu; Xiongli Xu; Zhiji Ding; Meihua Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Graft copolymers of sodium alginate (SA) with acrylamide (AM) were synthesized using aceric ion initiated solution polymerization technique. The acrylamide conversions were studied by changing reaction conditions, such as temperature, molecular weight of sodium alginate and reaction time. The flocculation performance of the graft copolymer(SAG) was investigated in kaolin suspension and also in dyeing waste water. It was found that SAG is more efficient in flocculation behavior as compared to polyacrylamide and SA in kaolin suspension, and in removal capacities for CODCr and colority in dyeing wastewater.

  18. The gall mites Vasates quadripedes and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Acari: Eriophyidae) new to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Soika, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records from Denmark of the gall mite species Vasates quadripedes Shimer, 1869 and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Nalepa, 1893). V quadripedes is native to North America and forms pouch galls on leaves of some American species of maple. In Europe, it has been found on planted silver...... maple, Acer saccharinum L., only. The species has spread across Europe in recent years. C. psilaspis forms bud galls of species of Taxus in Europe only the native Taxus baccata L. The species is native to Europe and has been introduced to North America....

  19. Myxomycetes of the nature reserve near Wałbrzych (SW Poland. II. Dependence on the substrate and seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results confirm domination of the occurrence of slime moulds on decaying wood of Fagus (33 taxa, as well as on Tilia (31. The list of species found on wood of Acer pseudoplatanus was extended up to 18. In such a specific microhabitat as litter 33 taxa were found, and among them abundant occurrence of Diachea leucopodia and Diderma testaceum was conspicuous. Dependence of the occurrence of myxomycetes on climatic conditions is manifeted by various periods of "fructification" of particular species. August and September were the most favourable months (49 taxa each while July was the worst one (30 taxa. Slime moulds inhabiting litter had their maximum from June to August.

  20. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales), especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de e...

  1. EST Table: FS868688 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS868688 E_FL_fner_37J17_R_0 10/09/28 98 %/295 aa ref|NP_001036859.1| ecdysteroid-i...nducible angiotensin-converting enzyme-related gene product [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAA97657.1| BmAcer [Bombyx mori] dbj|BAH23568...263 aa AGAP009754-PA Protein|3R:42366470:42368566:1|gene:ANCE4 10/09/10 58 %/265 aa gnl|Amel|GB11983-PA 10/0

  2. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  3. Transculturalidade entre fronteiras no continente norte-americano: The tortilla curtain, de T. C. Boyle, e Volkswagen Blues, de Jacques Poulin

    OpenAIRE

    Montarroyos Santos Umbelino, Cristiane

    2011-01-01

    Partindo do pressuposto de que a literatura pode ser constituída por metaficções historiográficas, este trabalho analisa comparativamente os romances The Tortilla Curtain (1995), do escritor estadunidense T. C. Boyle, e Volkswagen Blues (1984), do escritor quebequense Jacques Poulin, com o objetivo de delinear os recursos linguísticos e literários que tais autores utilizam para representar as fronteiras entre o Canadá, os Estados Unidos e o México. Para tanto, argumentamos acer...

  4. 运行《现代战争2》提示显存不足.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Acer Aspire5740DG笔记本配置为Intel酷睿i5—430M处理器、4GB内存、AMD Mobility RadeonHD5650独立显卡(1GB容量显存),可在运行《现代战争2》游戏时却提示显存不足并无法启动3D模式,这是怎么回事呢?

  5. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchin, Renée M.; Broadhead, Alice A.; Bostic, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    .5-1.3 kPa on transpiration and stomatal conductance (gs ) of tree seedlings in the temperate forest understory (Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA). We observed peaked responses of transpiration to VPD in all seedlings, and the optimum VPD for transpiration (Dopt ) shifted proportionally with increasing...... chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata...

  6. Comparative analysis of methods for modelling the short-term probability distribution of extreme wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    2016-01-01

    We have tested the performance of statistical extrapolation methods in predicting the extreme response of a multi-megawatt wind turbine generator. We have applied the peaks-over-threshold, block maxima and average conditional exceedance rates (ACER) methods for peaks extraction, combined with four...... levels, based on the assumption that the response tail is asymptotically Gumbel distributed. Example analyses were carried out, aimed at comparing the different methods, analysing the statistical uncertainties and identifying the factors, which are critical to the accuracy and reliability...

  7. Planetary Pledge Pyramid, Facebook Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Create an Advert X Alt skal væk NU Macbook Air solgt til 370,- kr. Acer Ferrari ONE 200 solgt til 374,- kr. på Ziinga.dk. - Klik her – Like Unlike You like this. X Mindstep | Useful Training® Interesseret i NLP og i at forbedre din bundlinie markant? Nyt NLP Business Practitioner hold i Århus, 19......, and proposing, discussing and voting on which plan you think will rescue us from climate chaos at the UN Climate summit in Copenhagen in December 2009!...

  8. Intraspecific sequence variation of chloroplast DNA among the component species of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Aoki, Kyoko; Seo, Akihiro; Murakami, Noriaki

    2006-09-01

    To select appropriate plant materials for a phylogeography of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan, we surveyed intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation in 34 species found in these forests. A relatively large number of intraspecific cpDNA variations were detected in ten species: Carpinus japonica (nucleotide diversity pi=0.00083), C. laxiflora (pi=0.00221), Magnolia obovata (pi=0.00134), Lindera triloba (pi=0.00255), L. obtusiloba (pi=0.00289), Pourthiaea villosa var. leavis (pi=0.00263), Acer japonicum (pi=0.00170), A. micranthum (pi=0.00237), Euonymus oxyphyllus (pi=0.00322) and Styrax obassia (pi=0.00100).

  9. Host-Pathogen Interactions : XXIV. Fragments Isolated from Suspension-Cultured Sycamore Cell Walls Inhibit the Ability of the Cells to Incorporate [C]Leucine into Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, N; Fry, S C; Darvill, A G; Albersheim, P

    1983-07-01

    A bioassay to measure the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into acid-precipitable polymers of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells is described. Using this assay, cell wall fragments solubilized from sycamore cell walls by partial acid hydrolysis are shown to contain components that inhibit the incorporation of [(14)C]leucine into the acid-precipitable polymers. This inhibition was not attributable to a suppression of [(14)C]leucine uptake. The effectiveness of the wall fragments in inhibiting [(14)C]leucine incorporation was substantially relieved by plasmolysis of the cells. Fragments released from starch and citrus pectin are shown not to possess such inhibitory activities.

  10. Survival of Suspension-cultured Sycamore Cells Cooled to the Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Y; Sakai, A

    1974-11-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) which were immersed in liquid nitrogen after prefreezing to the temperatures from -30 to -50 C in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide and glucose as cryoprotective additive could proliferate vigorously when rewarmed rapidly in water at 40 C. For maintaining high viability of the cells after immersion in liquid nitrogen, it seems to be essential to use the cells at the later lag phase or the early cell division phase. This study provides a possibility for long term preservation in liquid nitrogen of plant-cultured lines.

  11. Emergency Survey and Excavation in Southwestern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    1917), iron or manganese was added to clear glass. If exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet light, the glass would turn purple. One bottle base had writing...recovered from those sites impacted by borrow activ- ities. Only at Virden 3 #3 is there a possibility that data were lost. It should be stressed that...SP. 4 8 JLIGLANS 2 ACER 1 GRAMI NEAE 5 13 CHENO-A4 24 10 COMPOSITE, HIGH SPINE 1 2 EPHEDRA 1 PORTULACA 1 RANUNCULACEAE I LEGUMINOSEAE 1 PROSOPIS

  12. Notebook Positioning by Perceptual Map and Laddering Method

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    Mehdi Zaribaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this applied paper is to determine positioning of laptops by perceptual map and laddering method. Data collection method was survey using questionnaire. First by using the views of computer experts of selected brands, including Sony, Acer, Asus, Dell and Msi, 5 among 20 attributes, which were considered more important, were selected through application of factor analysis technique. Then, after classification of these features by laddering technique, they were analyzed by using another questionnaire to determine the position of each brand in the perceptual map. We try to show factors and laptop brands position with regard two factors of price and quality in the resulted perceptual map.

  13. mudo brasileño

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    Juan Pablo Silva-Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un recorrido histórico y crítico acer- ca del cine mudo brasileño y ver las relaciones significantes y significativas que éste mantiene con la modernidad y la cultura brasileña a través de un conjunto de representaciones y discursos que el cine hace circular masiva- mente. Sostengo que con el cine mudo se da inicio a un imaginario social que contribuye a sustentar la matriz civilizadora de la modernidad: indus- trialización, urbanización, tecnología, racionalización.

  14. Contrasting the morphology, anatomy and fungal colonization of new pioneer and fibrous roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadworny, Marcin; Eissenstat, David M

    2011-04-01

    Not all roots born as first-order branches are the same and this has important consequences for overall function. We hypothesized that, compared with fibrous roots, pioneer roots are built to live longer at the expense of absorptive capacity. We tested this hypothesis by investigating pioneer and fibrous roots in their first 14 d of life in the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species: Acer negundo, Acer saccharum, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera and Populus tremuloides. Root observations were made with root-access boxes that allowed roots to be sampled at known ages in field-grown trees. Compared to fibrous roots, pioneer roots had larger diameter, lower specific root length, greater average length and a lack of mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization. Pioneer roots < 14 d old had more layers of hypodermis with a lower percentage of putative passage cells and more protoxylem groups than similar age fibrous roots. Our results suggest that pioneer roots are constructed for defense against biotic and abiotic challenges, exploration of soil distal to the stem, high fibrous root branching and secondary development with high axial hydraulic conductivity at the expense of mycorrhizal colonization and high absorptive capacity for water and nutrients.

  15. Winter browse selection by white-tailed deer and implications for bottomland forest restoration in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogger, Benjamin J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Thomsen, Meredith; Adams, Carrie Reinhardt

    2014-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) forage selectively, modifying upland forest species composition and in some cases shifting ecosystems to alternative stable states. Few studies, however, have investigated plant selection by deer in bottomland forests. Herbaceous invasive species are common in wetlands and their expansion could be promoted if deer avoid them and preferentially feed on native woody species. We surveyed plant species composition and winter deer browsing in 14 floodplain forest restoration sites along the Upper Mississippi River and tributaries. Tree seedling density declined rapidly with increasing cover of invasive Phalaris arundinacea, averaging less than 1 per m2 in all sites in which the grass was present. Deer browsed ∼46% of available tree seedling stems (branches) at mainland restorations, compared to ∼3% at island sites. Across all tree species, the number of browsed stems increased linearly with the number available and responded unimodally to tree height. Maximum browsing rates were observed on trees with high stem abundances (>10 per plant) and of heights between 50 and 150 cm. Deer preferred Ulmus americana and Acer saccharinum, and avoided Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer negundo, and Quercus spp. at mainland sites, and did not browse Phalaris arundinacea if present. Depending on plant growth responses to herbivory and the competitive effects of unbrowsed species, our results suggest that selective foraging could promote the expansion of invasive species and/or alter tree species composition in bottomland forest restorations. Islands may, however, serve as refuges from browsing on a regional scale.

  16. Cognitive function in schizophrenia and its association with socio-demographics factors

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    Bharti T Talreja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.

  17. A laccase-like activity is correlated with lignin biosynthesis in Zinnia elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lan; Dean, J.F.D.; Eriksson, K.E.L. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))

    1993-05-01

    The authors have previously shown that a laccase (p-diphenol:O[sub 2] oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.1) purified from suspension cultures of Acer pseudoplatanus polymerizes monolignols to form water-insoluble, lignin-like polymers (Sterjiades et al. Plant Physiol. 99:1162). Using chromogenic substrates suitable for staining Acer laccase, we have followed the development of a laccase-like activity in lignifying tissues of Zinnia elegans. We have also used a variety of compounds to examine these same tissues for peroxidase activity, as well as hydrogen peroxide generation. Although peroxidase activity was detected throughout Zinnia stem tissues, evidence will be presented to suggest that the laccase-like activity is more specifically correlated with lignification of vascular tissues during normal development than is peroxidase activity. We are working to characterize the enzyme extracted from Zinnia tissues to determine whether it is indeed a true laccase or some other phenoloxidase. In addition, we are attempting to examine the developmental sequence of Zinnia laccase expression using gene probes and specific antibodies developed against the laccase purified form A. pseudoplatanus.

  18. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Cserháti, Csaba; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP-OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree.

  19. Improved method for predicting the peak signal-to-noise ratio quality of decoded images in fractal image coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Bi, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    To predict the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) quality of decoded images in fractal image coding more efficiently and accurately, an improved method is proposed. After some derivations and analyses, we find that the linear correlation coefficients between coded range blocks and their respective best-matched domain blocks can determine the dynamic range of their collage errors, which can also provide the minimum and the maximum of the accumulated collage error (ACE) of uncoded range blocks. Moreover, the dynamic range of the actual percentage of accumulated collage error (APACE), APACEmin to APACEmax, can be determined as well. When APACEmin reaches a large value, such as 90%, APACEmin to APACEmax will be limited in a small range and APACE can be computed approximately. Furthermore, with ACE and the approximate APACE, the ACE of all range blocks and the average collage error (ACER) can be obtained. Finally, with the logarithmic relationship between ACER and the PSNR quality of decoded images, the PSNR quality of decoded images can be predicted directly. Experiments show that compared with the previous similar method, the proposed method can predict the PSNR quality of decoded images more accurately and needs less computation time simultaneously.

  20. The importance of mercury in leaves, bark and wood of eight tree species across four northeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, R. D.; Yang, Y.; Driscoll, C. T.; Montesdeoca, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposition affects forests even in remote areas, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known, in part because concentrations of Hg in wood are often below the analytical detection limit by ICP-OES. We analyzed Hg in wood, bark, and foliage of 8 tree species across four sites (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME) in the northeastern USA, using thermal decomposition, catalytic conversion, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (USEPA Method 7473). The hardwood species, namely American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), had lower Hg concentrations (averaging 7.7 ng g-1 in bark and 16.3 ng g-1 in foliage) than the conifers, namely red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and white pine (Pinus strobus L.) (averaging 22.5 ng g-1 in bark and 28.6 ng g-1 in foliage) (p forest vegetation.

  1. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schelfhout

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus, beech (Fagus sylvatica, ash (Fraxinus excelsior, Norway spruce (Picea abies, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and lime (Tilia cordata. We studied the chemical characteristics of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer and Tilia, which is related to calcium-rich litter and low soil acidification. Epigeic earthworms were indifferent to calcium content in leaf litter and were shown to be mainly related to soil moisture content and litter C:P ratios. Almost no earthworms were found in Picea stands, likely because of the combined effects of recalcitrant litter, low pH and low soil moisture content.

  2. Potential tree species for use in urban areas in temperate and oceanic climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the potential of trees for integration in urban development by evaluating the damage caused by trees in relation to various tree characteristics. Tree damage to permeable pavement systems and other urban structures such as impermeable pavements, kerbs, roads, retaining walls, footpaths, walls and buildings were assessed to identify the most suitable trees for the urban environment. One hundred square sites of 100 m × 100 m were randomly selected in Greater Manchester for this representative example case study to demonstrate the assessment methodology. Among tree species in this study, Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple occurred most frequently (17%; others were Tilia spp. L. (Lime; 16%, Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash; 12%, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore; 10% and Prunus avium L. (wild cherry; 8%. The study concludes that 44% of the damage was to impermeable pavements and 22% to permeable pavements. Other damage to structures included kerbs (19%, retaining walls (5%, footpaths (4%, roads (3% and walls (3%. Concerning the severity of damage, 66% were moderate, 21% light and 19% severe. Aesculus hippocastanum L. (horse chestnut caused the greatest damage (59% expressed in percentage as a ratio of the tree number related to damage over the corresponding tree number that was found close to structures.

  3. La reconversión industrial de la siderúrgica integrada en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carolina Barreto Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La reconversión industrial en Colombia tiene su origen como iniciativa política, buscando modernizar y preparar su aparato productivo, ante la entrada de competidores atraídos por el cambio de modelo económico. Los autores pretenden explicar los principales cambios y transformaciones surgidas en el proceso de reconversión industrial del país, particularmente el caso de Acerías Paz del Río, mediante la implementación de un método hermenéutico y la técnica de análisis documental. Como resultado de la revisión se puede establecer que los procesos de reconversión están relacionados con las formas de gestión organizacional y la disposición de la estructura de capital de la empresa. Para la empresa Acerías el proceso de reconversión resultaría importante para apalancar su perdurabilidad, no obstante las dificultades a las cuales tuvo que hacer frente la gestión de la compañía.

  4. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, as a Component of Heterotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin as a determinant of heterotrophic consortia is considered. The robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae, connected with the determinants by fabric links. The robin also belongs to the concentr of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and it is also the main determinant in species composition of the insects inhabiting bird nests. As a result of the taxonomic analysis of invertebrates in the robin nests, it has been found out that the most numerous class was Insecta (9 orders and 27 families, with the dominance of Coleoptera (30.7 %. The nidicolous fauna of the robin (38 species was dominated by zoophages along with parasites and hematophages such as Hippoboscidae (46.4 %. The percentage of phytophages and saprophages among the invertebrate nest inhabitants was somewhat less (21 % each, then followed necrophages (12 %. Zoophages and parasites also dominated according to the number of objects in the nests (42 %; n = 150, the less was the portion of phytophages (34 %, saprophages (18 %, and necrophages (6 %. The highest number of species and objects of zoophages was recorded for climax and mature biocenoses (oak forests in NNP “HL” and pine cenoses in NNP “H””.

  5. Memory Impairment at Initial Clinical Presentation in Posterior Cortical Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Husain, Masud; Thompson, Sian; Kipps, Christopher; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-04-23

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is characterized by core visuospatial and visuoperceptual deficits, and predominant atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. The most common underlying pathology is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Existing diagnostic criteria suggest that episodic memory is relatively preserved. The aim of this study was to examine memory performance at initial clinical presentation in PCA, compared to early-onset AD patients (EOAD). 15 PCA patients and 32 EOAD patients, and 34 healthy controls were entered into the study. Patients were tested on the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), consisting of subscales in memory and visuospatial skills. PCA and EOAD patients were significantly impaired compared to controls on the ACE total score (p skills (p skills compared to EOAD patients (p presentation. The findings suggest that memory impairment must be considered in assessment and management of PCA. Further study into memory in PCA is warranted, since the ACE-R is a brief screening tool and is likely to underestimate the presence of memory impairment.

  6. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  7. Extended "Timed Up and Go" assessment as a clinical indicator of cognitive state in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tess; Jefferson, Alexa; Byrnes, Michelle; Walters, Sue; Ghosh, Soumya; Mastaglia, Frank L; Power, Brian; Anderton, Ryan S

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate a modified extended Timed Up and Go (extended-TUG) assessment against a panel of validated clinical assessments, as an indicator of Parkinson's disease (PD) severity and cognitive impairment. Eighty-seven participants with idiopathic PD were sequentially recruited from a Movement Disorders Clinic. An extended-TUG assessment was employed which required participants to stand from a seated position, walk in a straight line for 7m, turn 180° and then return to the start, in a seated position. The extended-TUG assessment duration was correlated to a panel of clinical assessments, including the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Quality of Life (PDQ-39), Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease (SCOPA-Cog), revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Index (ACE-R) and Barratt's Impulsivity Scale 11 (BIS-11). Extended-TUG time was significantly correlated to MDS-UPDRS III score and to SCOPA-Cog, ACE-R (ptimes. Extended-TUG performance appears to be a useful indicator of cognition as well as motor function and quality of life in PD, and warrants further evaluation as a first line assessment tool to monitor disease severity and response to treatment. Poor extended-TUG performance may identify patients without overt cognitive impairment form whom cognitive assessment is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing Diagnostic Accuracy of Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Weighted Comparison Approach

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    A.J. Larner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There are many cognitive screening instruments available to clinicians when assessing patients' cognitive function, but the best way to compare the diagnostic utility of these tests is uncertain. One method is to undertake a weighted comparison which takes into account the difference in sensitivity and specificity of two tests, the relative clinical misclassification costs of true- and false-positive diagnosis, and also disease prevalence. Methods: Data were examined from four pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies from one clinic which compared the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory (TYM test, and the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, respectively. Results: Weighted comparison calculations suggested a net benefit for ACE-R, MoCA, and MMP compared to MMSE, but a net loss for TYM test compared to MMSE. Conclusion: Routine incorporation of weighted comparison or other similar net benefit measures into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration to better inform clinicians of the relative value of cognitive screening instruments.

  9. Seasonal variation in N uptake strategies in the understorey of a beech-dominated N-limited forest ecosystem depends on N source and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy

    2016-05-01

    In forest ecosystems, species use different strategies to increase their competitive ability for nitrogen (N) acquisition. The acquisition of N by trees is regulated by tree internal and environmental factors including mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the N uptake strategies of three co-occurring tree species [European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.)] in the understorey of a beech-dominated, N-limited forest on calcareous soil over two consecutive seasons. For this purpose, we studied (15)N uptake capacity as well as the allocation to N pools in the fine roots. Our results show that European beech had a higher capacity for both inorganic and organic N acquisition throughout the whole growing season compared with sycamore maple and Norway maple. The higher capacity of N acquisition in beech indicates a better adaption of beech to the understorey conditions of beech forests compared with the seedlings of other tree competitors under N-limited conditions. Despite these differences, all three species preferred organic over inorganic N sources throughout the growing season and showed similar seasonal patterns of N acquisition with an increased N uptake capacity in summer. However, this pattern varied with N source and year indicating that other environmental factors not assessed in this study further influenced N acquisition by the seedlings of the three tree species.

  10. A validated method for quantifying hypoglycin A in whole blood by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Moreau, Cécile; Boyer, Baptiste; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Habyarimana, Jean; Gault, Gilbert; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-26

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is the toxic principle in ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig), a nutritious and readily available fruit which is a staple of the Jamaican working-class and rural population. The aril of the unripe fruit has high concentrations of HGA, the cause of Jamaican vomiting sickness, which is very often fatal. HGA is also present in the samara of several species of maple (Acer spp.) which are suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy in Europe, often fatal for horses. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying HGA in blood that would be sensitive enough to provide toxicological evidence of ackee or maple poisoning. Analysis was carried out using solid-phase extraction (HILIC cartridges), dansyl derivatization and UHPLC-HRMS/MS detection. The method was validated in whole blood with a detection limit of 0.35 μg/L (range: 0.8-500 μg/L). This is the first method applicable in forensic toxicology for quantifying HGA in whole blood. HGA was quantified in two serum samples from horses suffering from atypical myopathy. The concentrations were 446.9 and 87.8 μg/L. HGA was also quantified in dried arils of unripe ackee fruit (Suriname) and seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (France). The concentrations were 7.2 and 0.74 mg/g respectively.

  11. Quantitative relationships between vegetation and several pollen taxa in surface soil from North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to the vegetation investigation and pollen analysis of surface samples sampled along a precipitation gradient of the Northeast China Transect (NECT), several pollen taxa, including Pinus, Betula, Quercus, Tilia, Acer, Ulmus, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, were chosen to make the regression and correlation analyses. The results indicated that there exists a close relationship between vegetation and pollen taxa in surface samples. The regression parameters for ten taxa in the forests in the eastern part of NECT were different from those in the steppes in the western part. Pinus, Betula, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae, which have large slope and y-intercept terms, were over-representative taxa. Acer, Gramineae and Cyperaceae, which have small slope and y-intercept terms, were under-representative taxa. Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus whose slope terms have negative correlation with y-intercept terms were equi-representative taxa. The pollen taxa with large slope or large y-intercept terms have small variability coefficients, implying that the slope and y-intercept terms for these pollen taxa are of high accuracy in the estimation of plant abundance from pollen frequencies.

  12. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  13. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot ‘Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial’ (PODCAST) Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Polly; Blackburn, Daniel J.; Ankolekar, Sandeep; Krishnan, Kailash; Ballard, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Mant, Jonathan; Passmore, Peter; Pocock, Stuart; Reckless, John; Sprigg, Nikola; Stewart, Rob; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Ford, Gary A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial. Methods In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP) 125–170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP <125 mmHg) or guideline (target SBP <140 mmHg) BP lowering. The subset of patients with ischaemic stroke and total cholesterol 3.0–8.0 mmol/l were also assigned randomly to intensive (target LDL-cholesterol <1.3 mmol/l) or guideline (target LDL-c <3.0 mmol/l) lipid lowering. The primary outcome was the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). Results We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8) years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1–48). Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference –10·6/–5·5 mmHg; p<0·01), as was total/LDL-cholesterol with intensive lipid lowering compared to guideline (difference –0·54/–0·44 mmol/l; p<0·01). The ACE-R score during treatment did not differ for either treatment comparison; mean difference for BP lowering -3.6 (95% CI -9.7 to 2.4), and lipid lowering 4.4 (95% CI -2.1 to 10.9). However, intensive lipid lowering therapy was significantly associated with improved scores for ACE-R at 6 months, trail making A, modified Rankin Scale and Euro-Qol Visual Analogue Scale. There was no difference in rates of dementia or serious adverse events for either comparison. Conclusion In patients with recent stroke and normal cognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted. Trial Registration

  14. Intensive versus Guideline Blood Pressure and Lipid Lowering in Patients with Previous Stroke: Main Results from the Pilot 'Prevention of Decline in Cognition after Stroke Trial' (PODCAST) Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Philip M; Scutt, Polly; Blackburn, Daniel J; Ankolekar, Sandeep; Krishnan, Kailash; Ballard, Clive; Burns, Alistair; Mant, Jonathan; Passmore, Peter; Pocock, Stuart; Reckless, John; Sprigg, Nikola; Stewart, Rob; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Ford, Gary A

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed the effect of intensive blood pressure (BP) and/or lipid lowering on cognitive outcomes in patients with recent stroke in a pilot trial. In a multicentre, partial-factorial trial, patients with recent stroke, absence of dementia, and systolic BP (SBP) 125-170 mmHg were assigned randomly to at least 6 months of intensive (target SBP <125 mmHg) or guideline (target SBP <140 mmHg) BP lowering. The subset of patients with ischaemic stroke and total cholesterol 3.0-8.0 mmol/l were also assigned randomly to intensive (target LDL-cholesterol <1.3 mmol/l) or guideline (target LDL-c <3.0 mmol/l) lipid lowering. The primary outcome was the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). We enrolled 83 patients, mean age 74.0 (6.8) years, and median 4.5 months after stroke. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 1-48). Mean BP was significantly reduced with intensive compared to guideline treatment (difference -10·6/-5·5 mmHg; p<0·01), as was total/LDL-cholesterol with intensive lipid lowering compared to guideline (difference -0·54/-0·44 mmol/l; p<0·01). The ACE-R score during treatment did not differ for either treatment comparison; mean difference for BP lowering -3.6 (95% CI -9.7 to 2.4), and lipid lowering 4.4 (95% CI -2.1 to 10.9). However, intensive lipid lowering therapy was significantly associated with improved scores for ACE-R at 6 months, trail making A, modified Rankin Scale and Euro-Qol Visual Analogue Scale. There was no difference in rates of dementia or serious adverse events for either comparison. In patients with recent stroke and normal cognition, intensive BP and lipid lowering were feasible and safe, but did not alter cognition over two years. The association between intensive lipid lowering and improved scores for some secondary outcomes suggests further trials are warranted. ISRCTN ISRCTN85562386.

  15. Linking charring temperature and wood source to the structure and degradation rates of pyrogenic organic matter in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, P.; Dastmalchi, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Le Moine, J.; Filley, T. R.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R.; Bird, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fire is a major controller of forest C cycling by releasing CO2 to the atmosphere and by contributing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) to soils. Recent studies have shown that much of fire-derived PyOM may turn over in soils at century time scales. Two likely controllers of the chemical structure of PyOM and its resulting decay rate are pyrolysis temperature and the source biomass. However, we know little of how these two factors determine the chemical structure and bioreactivity of the resulting PyOM. To gain further insight into controls on the structure and fate of PyOM, we examined two species of dual-labeled (13C/15N), wood-based PyOM (Pinus banksiana and Acer rubrum) made with 5 pyrolysis temperatures (0, 200, 300, 450, 600 °C) using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, isotopic and elemental composition (C, H, O, and N), and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, we are investigating the fate of a subset of these PyOM materials applied to forest soils in a long-term field study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI, USA. We will present data of the loss of PyOM C as CO2 and DOC during the first year in situ. We found complementary lines of evidence for a facile removal of cellulose and hemicellulose and a progressive alteration of nitrogenous moieties across the charring gradient for wood-derived PyOM of both tree species as temperature was increased from 0 to 600 °C. Our NMR results show a significant species by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM chemical structure with considerably less condensation for Acer- than Pinus-derived PyOM at 300 °C. In the first year after addition to soil, Acer-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C mineralized faster than Pinus-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C. Increasing pyrolysis temperatures for Pinus-derived PyOM also resulted in slower CO2 mineralization rates during the first year of field decay. These results relate pyrolysis temperature to the resulting Py

  16. ANALYSIS POSITIONING OF NOTEBOOK PRODUCED BY HEWLETT PACKARD (HP IN BALI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Ariyani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays notebook is not a luxurious thing any more, but has been one of  the things that should be obligatorily owned by high school student, university student, and practitioners. The competition among the notebooks has been getting tight. The reason is that they have been produced with almost similar attributes, qualities, and design but different prices. This study aims at (1 identifying the similarity between the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp and those produced by its competitors such as, IBM, Sony, Acer and Toshiba, (2 identifying the consumers perception of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp and of those produced by its competitors, (3 identifying what is the superiority of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp compared with the superiority of those produced by its competitors, and (4 identifying what strategy is relevant in strengthening the positioning of the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp. The samples were determined by purposive sampling, and the respondents employed totaled 100 spreading over Denpasar City. To achieve maximum result, Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS was applied as the instrument of analysis to identify the similarity among the notebooks and Correspondence Analysis (CA was employed as the instrument of analysis to identify the superiority of each variable of every notebook. The result of the study show that the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp is perceived to resemble those produced by IBM, Sony, and Toshiba. This means that the notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp competes against those produced by IBM, Sony, and Toshiba, and that it does not compete against that produced by Acer. The notebook produced by Hewlett Packard (hp is superior in the variables of product varieties, post sales, distribution channels, and promotion. The notebook produced by IBM superior in the variable product quality, while that produced by Sony is superior in the variable of product  design

  17. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load.

  18. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæbø, A; Popek, R; Nawrot, B; Hanslin, H M; Gawronska, H; Gawronski, S W

    2012-06-15

    Particulate matter (PM) accumulation on leaves of 22 trees and 25 shrubs was examined in test fields in Norway and Poland. Leaf PM in different particle size fractions (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(0.2)) differed among the species, by 10- to 15-folds at both test sites. Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris, Taxus media and Taxus baccata, Stephanandra incisa and Betula pendula were efficient species in capturing PM. Less efficient species were Acer platanoides, Prunus avium and Tilia cordata. Differences among species within the same genus were also observed. Important traits for PM accumulation were leaf properties such as hair and wax cover. The ranking presented in terms of capturing PM can be used to select species for air pollution removal in urban areas. Efficient plant species and planting designs that can shield vulnerable areas in urban settings from polluting traffic etc. can be used to decrease human exposure to anthropogenic pollutants.

  19. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on herbaceous ground flora and epiphytic foliose lichen species in southern Ontario hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Andrew M; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-01-01

    In this study 70 sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated plots in Ontario, Canada were sampled in the spring of 2009 and 2010 and herbaceous plant and epiphytic foliose lichen species data were compared against modeled N and S deposition data, climate parameters and measured soil and plant/lichen S and N concentration. Herbaceous plant species richness was positively correlated with temperature and indices of diversity (Shannon Weiner and Simpson's Index) were positively correlated with soil pH but not N or S deposition or standardized foliar N scores. Herbaceous community composition was strongly controlled by traditional factors, but there was a small and significant influence of atmospheric S and N deposition. Epiphytic lichen species richness exhibited a strong negative relationship with standardized foliar N score and only one lichen species (Phaeophyscia rubropulchra) was observed at sites with a standardized foliar N score of 0.76.

  20. Towards a theoretical basis for students' alternative frameworks in science and for science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian L.; Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.

    1993-12-01

    As there is nothing as practical as a good theory, there is a continuing need in the field of science education enquiry to look for theories which help to interpret the findings about students' alternative frameworks and to inform the design of teaching strategies which relate to a research focus on ‘how the student learns’. The developmental model of cognitive functioning based on the SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collis, 1982) as updated in 1991 (Biggs & Collis, 1991; Collis & Biggs, 1991) is being applied in this way. Questionnaire data from two large studies of science learning of Australian students (conducted by ACER and NBEET) are being re-analysed in terms of the current theory. This paper illustrates the theory and describes a plan of further research.

  1. Maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in Rhododendron and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, D S; Milburn, J A; Hipkins, M F

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.

  2. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) to Volatile Components of Host-Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hui; Li Jiquan; Jin Youju

    2003-01-01

    Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of adult A. glabripennis (Motsch.) to volatiles from ashleaf maple(Acer negundo L.) were investigated to identify semiochemicals involved in host location. Measurable electroantennogram (EAG)responses were elicited to all compounds tested, the most effective antennal stimulants were trans-2-hexen-1-al,decyl aldehyde andtrans-2-hexen-1-ol.These profiles were similar between males and females. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, above three com-pounds with certain concentration, trans-2-hexen-1-al (1%), trans-2-hexen-1-ol (1%) and decyl aldehyde (10%), were significantlyattractive to the adults in laboratory. The results show that either EAG or olfactory responding to a particular volatile compound aremarkedly influenced by the concentration.

  3. La salud. Una perspectiva bioética

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás y Garrido, Gloria María

    2001-01-01

    La manifestación más patente de la debilidad congénita de la naturaleza humana es la enfermedad, el dolor y el sufrimiento. El fisioterapia, con una preparación profesional íntegra, se capacita para curar técnicamente y para ayudar humanamente a sus pacientes. El concepto de salud, desde una perspectiva bioética, enseña a dar sentido al sin-sentido del dolor, y muestra cómo la lícita claidad de vida a la que aspiramos no se reduce a lo material; si fuera así la vida se empequeñacería y perver...

  4. ¿Qué nos puede aportar el psicoanálisis en la comprensión de las relaciones en la escuela?

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo se propone como resultado de la práctica educativa de la autora en ambientes escolares y universitarios. La necesidad de una formación sólida en teoría pedagógica a los estudiantes que inician su formación en Educación es importante, pero también lo es brindarles herramientas para enfrentar las demandas que los ideales educativos culturales imponen tanto a los educadores y educadoras como a los niños, niñas y adolescentes. La propuesta aquí esbozada es una reflexión teórica acer...

  5. Estudio de las propiedades viscoelásticas en aceros amorfos

    OpenAIRE

    Cozar Rabaza, Raul

    2010-01-01

    aquest projecte s'han estudiat acers amorfs de composició Fe(65-x)Cr(x)Mo(14)C(15)B(6), (x=0,2,4,6), produïts per solidificació ràpida amb roda freda. Les mostres s'han caracteritzat emprant microscòpia electrònica (SEM), difracció de raigs X (XRD) i calorimetria (DSC). S'ha determinat que la temperatura de cristal·lització augmenta amb el contingut de Cr de les mostres, tot i que la composició amb un 4% de Cr és la que presenta una diferència més gran entre les temperatures de transició vitr...

  6. Detection of Inulin, a Prebiotic Polysaccharide, in Maple Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiadong; Ma, Hang; Seeram, Navindra P; Rowley, David C

    2016-09-28

    Maple syrup is a widely consumed plant-derived natural sweetener produced by concentrating xylem sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During thermal evaporation of water, natural phytochemical components are concentrated in maple syrup. The polymeric components from maple syrup were isolated by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography and structurally characterized by glycosyl composition analysis, glycosyl linkage analysis, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Among the maple syrup polysaccharides, one neutral polysaccharide was characterized as inulin with a broad molecular weight distribution, representing the first isolation of this prebiotic carbohydrate from a xylem sap. In addition, two acidic polysaccharides with structural similarity were identified as arabinogalactans derived from rhamnogalacturonan type I pectic polysaccharides.

  7. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  8. Interculturalidad y ciencias de la educación en lengua de señas chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina-Alejandra-de-Lourdes Becerra-Sepúlveda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los paradigmas de intervención orales para la cultura sorda afectan la percepción sobre la lengua de señas Chilena . Esto provoca debates emanados de una subvaloración, dadas sus particularidades visuales: iconicidad e isomorfismo, subvaloración nacida de una incomprensión en la lectura de investigaciones internacionales (por escasez de estudios nacionales, especialmente acerca del lenguaje corporeizado. Esto se contradice con nuevas investigaciones en psicolingüística cognitiva acer-ca de embodied cognition . El abordaje de la LSCh a partir de nuevas teorías atraviesa la interculturalidad y educación a fin de proponerse la metáfora de “la cultura en el cuerpo” como modalidad de estudio contemporáneo.

  9. European energy law. Basic texts. 3. ed.; Basistexte zum Europaeischen Energierecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Juergen F.; Bremme, Christopher; Heitling, Tim (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The third, revised edition retains the well-established text structure. It contains excerpts from the EU treaties, i.e. the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It also presents the fundamentals of the Council Regulation for the Management of the Internal Market, the electricity and gas regulations, the regulation on cross-border exchanges of electricity and access to gas transmission networks, and the regulation establishing the ACER agency, the key element of European energy regulation. Further, there are the European regulations on security of electricity and gas supply and on energy efficiency. Important interpretative notes by the European Commission are contained in the book as well; they are presented here only in English as in the original. Finally, the book contains the legislation on European cartel law and European public procurement law. (orig./RHM)

  10. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Hashem Gaber Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions, while solely carbon dots (C-dots were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum, under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  11. Facile synthesis of water-soluble carbon nano-onions under alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gaber Hashem Gaber; Laíño, Rosana Badía; Calzón, Josefa Angela García; García, Marta Elena Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Carbonization of tomatoes at 240 °C using 30% (w/v) NaOH as catalyst produced carbon onions (C-onions), while solely carbon dots (C-dots) were obtained at the same temperature in the absence of the catalyst. Other natural materials, such as carrots and tree leaves (acer saccharum), under the same temperature and alkaline conditions did not produce carbon onions. XRD, FTIR, HRTEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence analyses were performed to characterize the as-synthesized carbon nanomaterials. Preliminary tests demonstrate a capability of the versatile materials for chemical sensing of metal ions. The high content of lycopene in tomatoes may explain the formation of C-onions in alkaline media and a possible formation mechanism for such structures was outlined.

  12. New contribution in the study of the Pontian flora from Batoti (Mehedinti county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Diaconu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In Early Pontian deposits from Batoţi (Mehedinţi county has been described a macroflora formed, until now, of 35 taxa, many other being in course of determination. By this paper the floristic epitome is filled with other 10 taxa: Pinus sp. binae, Magnolia sp. aff. M. acuminata Linné, Sassafras subtriloba (Konno Tanai et Onoe, Ostrya sp. aff. O. virginiana (Miller C. Koch, Castanea gigas (Goepp. Iljinsk., Quercus cf. meuhlenbergii Engelmann, Juglans acuminata Al. Braun, Acer tricuspidatum Bronn, A. cf. campestre L. and Berchemia multinervis (Al. Br. Heer. The stage of knowledge of the Pontian flora from Batoţi contains 45 taxa. Trough the listed taxa the degree of confidence of the paleoecologycal and paleophytocenotical rendering grows.

  13. Dendroflora of the historical park in Rzepiszew (Łódź province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kałczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The historical, manor park in Rzepiszew was established in the 19th century in the English landscape style. The park and manor have a long and rich history and deserve to be protected. The inventory of dendroflora showed that within the park boundaries grow more thana thousand of arborescent plants deriving from 35 species and 17 families. They are mostly common, native woody plant species, associated with deciduous forests (Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, Acer pseudoplatanus. The most valuable are the magnificent trees. Among all the trees inventoried, 123 splendid trees were found, among which 8 are monuments of nature legally protected and 33 trees with circumferences that exceed minimal values to be protected. Valuable and well-preserved elements of the park are Aesculus hippocastanum and Carpinus betulus alleys. Currently, the park in Rzepiszew is subjected to a gradual naturalization and loses its primary, spatial arrangement, therefore this object requires reassessment.

  14. Lignin-Furfural Based Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Dongre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignin recovered from the hot-water extract of sugar maple (Acer saccharum is used in this study to synthesize adhesive blends to replace phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin. Untreated lignin is characterized by lignin content and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis. The molecular weight distribution of the lignin and the blends are characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The effect of pH (0.3, 0.65 and 1, ex situ furfural, and curing conditions on the tensile properties of adhesive reinforced glass fibers is determined and compared to the reinforcement level of commercially available PF resin. The adhesive blend prepared at pH = 0.65 with no added furfural exhibits the highest tensile properties and meets 90% of the PF tensile strength.

  15. Biomonitoring for metal contamination near two Superfund sites in Woburn, Massachusetts, using phytochelatins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, James E.; Hemond, Harold F

    2004-09-01

    Characterizing the spatial extent of groundwater metal contamination traditionally requires installing sampling wells, an expensive and time-consuming process in urban areas. Moreover, extrapolating biotic effects from metal concentrations alone is problematic, making ecological risk assessment difficult. Our study is the first to examine the use of phytochelatin measurements in tree leaves for delimiting biological metal stress in shallow, metal-contaminated groundwater systems. Three tree species (Rhamnus frangula, Acer platanoides, and Betula populifolia) growing above the shallow groundwater aquifer of the Aberjona River watershed in Woburn, Massachusetts, display a pattern of phytochelatin production consistent with known sources of metal contamination and groundwater flow direction near the Industri-Plex Superfund site. Results also suggest the existence of a second area of contaminated groundwater and elevated metal stress near the Wells G and H Superfund site downstream, in agreement with a recent EPA ecological risk assessment. Possible contamination pathways at this site are discussed.

  16. What is the $Wb\\bar{b}, Zb\\bar{b}$ or $t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}$ irreducible background to the light Higgs boson searches at LHC?

    CERN Document Server

    Kersevan, Borut P; Kersevan, Borut Paul

    2002-01-01

    The W b anti-b, Z b anti-b and t anti-t b anti-b production at LHC are irreducible backgrounds for possible observability of the Standard Model (SM) and Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) light Higgs boson respectively in the associated WH, ZH and t anti-t H production followed by the H -> b anti-b decay. We present a comparison of the background estimates as obtained with (a) complete massive matrix element implemented in AcerMC Monte Carlo generator and (b) PYTHIA implementation of the inclusive W, Z, and t anti-t production, followed by the parton showering mechanism. Both approaches lead to a production of the final state of interest, but differ in the approximations used. We concentrate on the comparison of these approaches for the background to the light Higgs boson searches at LHC.

  17. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha anew harmful species for entomofauna of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early autumn 2006, a Nonarctic species of cicadas Metcalfa pruinosa (Say (Auchenorrhyncha: Flatidae was identified in Belgrade (Košutnjak. In Europe, this species was identified for the first time in Italy in 1979. In Slovenia, it was identified in 1990 in west Istria, and in 2001 in the neighbourhood of Ljubljana. In the park forest Košutnjak (Belgrade mass occurrence of M. pruinosa was recorded in the area of about 5 ha. The larvae developed on woody species in the genera: Acer, Aesculus, Gleditchia Robinia, Ailanthus, Populus, Platanus, Prunus, Pyrus, Ulmus, Tilia, Cornus Fraxinus, Quercus and Thuja, što is konstatovano based on damages of larvae while numerous adults were found on trees and branches of the same plants.

  18. Importance of Patent Document Drafting as Shown in Langke v. Huaqi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ On 16 September 2002,the Shenzhen Langke Science and Technology Co., Ltd.(Langke) sued the Beijing Huaqi Information Digital Code Science and Technology(affiliated to the Taiwan Acer Group), the Shenzhen Fuguanghui Electronics Co.,Ltd. and the agencies concerned in the Shenzhen Municipal Intermediate People's Court on the grounds of infringement of its Invention Patent 99117225.6 (hereinafter referred to as the Langke's patent). This lawsuit was taken by the media as one of the ten major IP cases in 2002.On 25 September 2002, the Patent Reexamination Board(PRB) of the State Intellectual Property Office accepted the request filed by Huaqi for invalidation of Langke's patent.On 1 June 2004, the Shenzhen Intermediate People's Court made the first-instance ruling before PRB, establishing that the defendants'infringement was constituted.

  19. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen dioxide and other environmental drivers on tar spot of sycamore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Laura; Ashmore, Mike; Sparks, Tim; Bell, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Elevated sulphur dioxide (SO2) concentrations were the major cause of the absence of symptoms of tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum) of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), in urban areas in the 1970s. The subsequent large decline in SO2 concentrations has not always been accompanied by increased tar spot symptoms, for reasons that have remained unresolved. We used a large citizen science survey, providing over 1000 records across England, to test two competing hypotheses proposed in earlier studies. We were able to demonstrate the validity of both hypotheses; tar spot symptoms were reduced where there were fewer fallen leaves as a source of inoculum, and elevated nitrogen dioxide concentrations reduced tar spot symptoms above a threshold concentration of about 20 μg m(-3). Symptom severity was also lower at sites with higher temperature and lower rainfall. Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science to resolve competing hypotheses about the impacts of air pollution and other environmental drivers.

  20. Increase of xylan synthetase activity during xylem differentiation of the vascular cambium of sycamore and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, G; Northcote, D H

    1981-01-01

    The activity of a β-(1-4)-xylan synthetase, a membrane-bound enzymic system, was measured in particulate enzymic preparations (1,000 g and 1,000-100,000 g pellets) obtained from homogenates of cambial cells, differentiating xylem cells and differentiated xylem cells isolated from actively growing trees of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatamus) and poplar (Populus robusta). The specific activity (nmol of xylan formed min(-1) mg(-1) of protein) as well as the activity calculated on a per cell basis (nmol of xylan formed min(-1) cell(-1)) of this enzymic system, markedly increased as cells differentiate from the vascular cambium to xylem. This increase is closely correlated with the enhanced deposition of xylan occurring during the formation of secondary thickening. The possible control of xylan synthesis during the biogenesis of plant cell wall is discussed.

  1. External beam analysis of living sycamore xylem infected by pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, G. W.; Pearce, R. B.

    1995-09-01

    Interactions between the living xylem (sapwood) of sycamore ( Acer pseudoplatanus) and wood inhabiting fungi have been investigated using a number of techniques including conventional histochemical and biochemical methods, non-invasive NMR imaging and external beam micro PIXE analysis using a 200 μm diameter beam of 3 MeV protons from the new external beam facility on the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe. The site of the fungal lesion on a living tree was exposed by a fresh cut immediately prior to analysis and both longitudinal and radial profiles through the infected regions were obtained in a point-by-point fashion. Profiles of several inorganic elements were obtained which correlated well with the observed discoloration due to the infection. The new external beamline at Oxford is described and results are presented. These are discussed in relation to the investigation of anti-microbial defence mechanisms in living trees.

  2. Modulation of DNA methylation and gene expression in cultured sycamore cells treated by hypomethylating base analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngernprasirtsiri, J; Akazawa, T

    1990-12-12

    The selective suppression of photosynthetic genes in both the nuclear and plastid genomes of the nonphotosynthetic white wild-type cell line of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) has been found to be inversely related to the presence of a variety of methylated bases, especially 5-methylcytosine (5-MeCyt) and N6-methyladenine (N6-MeAde), localized in regions of the plastid genome containing silent genes. We used hypomethylating base analogs to manipulate the level of cytosine and adenine methylation in the white cells of sycamore, and examined the effects of changes in methylation on gene expression. Treatment with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaCyd) and N6-benzyladenine (N6-BzlAde) decreased cytosine and adenine methylation. This was accompanied by restoration of transcriptional activity in photosynthetic genes which are usually suppressed. Both 5-MeCyt and N6-MeAde suppressed nuclear gene expression, but only 5-MeCyt suppressed plastid gene expression.

  3. Wood Species Identification, A Challenge of Scientific Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood species identification is an important step in the scientific approach of conservation of the wooden cultural heritage. The paper refers to the microscopic identification of the wooden species for two artisanal objects, investigated for conservation purposes. A previous macroscopic analysis of these objects, after thorough cleaning of the surfaces offered some basic information on the possible wood species involved, but due to the degradation of the support this was not conclusive for some elements of these objects, so that relevant samples were taken out, prepared and investigated. The identified wooden species were: poplar (Populus spp, sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus, fir and beech (Fagus sylvatica. This identification was based on the microscopic keys of wood identification, reference microscopic slides of the respective wood species and microscopic measurements followed by data processing employing the ImageJ software.

  4. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  5. Application of ant colony algorithm in plant leaves classification based on infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tiantai; Hong, Bo; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes to use ant colony algorithm in the analysis of spectral data of plant leaves to achieve the best classification of different plants within a short time. Intelligent classification is realized according to different components of featured information included in near infrared spectrum data of plants. The near infrared diffusive emission spectrum curves of the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora and Acer saccharum Marsh are acquired, which have 75 leaves respectively, and are divided into two groups. Then, the acquired data are processed using ant colony algorithm and the same kind of leaves can be classified as a class by ant colony clustering algorithm. Finally, the two groups of data are classified into two classes. Experiment results show that the algorithm can distinguish different species up to the percentage of 100%. The classification of plant leaves has important application value in agricultural development, research of species invasion, floriculture etc.

  6. New and remarkable records of microfungi from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Christiaans, B; Dündar, A E

    2003-01-01

    During a botanical excursion of the University of Essen in the year 2002 to North-, Central- and South-Anatolia we have collected representatives of about 100 genera of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for Turkey: Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis, Pseudocercospora ligustri on Ligustrum ovalifolium, Passalora smilacis on Smilax aspera, Uromyces limonii on Limonium spec., Puccinia jasmini on Jasminim spec., Sawadea bicornis on Acer negundo, Puccinia sii-falcariae on Falcaria vulgaris, Phomia hedericola on Hedera helix, Camorosporium pistaciae on Pistacia terebinthus, Erysiphe bahrii on Silene spec., Ramularia heraclei on Apium graveolens. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca parva, collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha.

  7. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826 (6 populations and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845 (7 populations (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0 and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  8. Karyotypes, B-chromosomes and meiotic abnormalities in 13 populations of Alebra albostriella and A. wahlbergi (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae) from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Golub, Natalia V; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2013-11-26

    In this work 13 populations of the leafhopper species Alebra albostriella (Fallén, 1826) (6 populations) and A. wahlbergi (Boheman, 1845) (7 populations) (Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Greece were studied cytogenetically. We examined chromosomal complements and meiosis in 41 males of A. albostriella sampled from Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus cerris and in 21 males of A. wahlbergi sampled from C. sativa, Acer opalus and Ulmus sp. The species were shown to share 2n = 22 + X(0) and male meiosis of the chiasmate preductional type typical for Auchenorrhyncha. In all populations of A. albostriella and in all but two populations of A. wahlbergi B chromosomes and/or different meiotic abnormalities including the end-to-end non-homologous chromosomal associations, translocation chains, univalents, anaphasic laggards besides aberrant sperms were encountered. This study represents the first chromosomal record for the genus Alebra and one of the few population-cytogenetic studies in the Auchenorrhyncha.

  9. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  10. 种子萌发过程中响应脱落酸与赤霉素的蛋白质组变化研究进展%Research Advances on Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Responsive Proteomics during Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静静; 戴绍军

    2012-01-01

    蛋白质组学技术平台为探究激素功能应答蛋白质提供了有效手段。目前通过蛋白质组学方法已经鉴定出水稻(Oryzasativa)、欧洲山毛榉(Fagus sylvatica)、挪威槭(Acer platanoides)等多个物种种子萌发过程中ABA-和GA-应答蛋白质。综述了种子萌发过程中响应脱落酸和赤霉素的蛋白质组变化相关研究的进展,包括与转录、蛋白质降解、活性氧清除、能量代谢等相关的蛋白质,以及其他代谢相关的蛋白质.以期为揭示种子萌发过程中的激素应答调控机制提供参考。%Proteomies technology platform provides an effective method for exploring hormone-responsive proteins.Recently,many ABA-and GA-responsive proteins upon seed germination have been identified in rice (Oryza s ativa), European been (Fagus sylvatica), Norway maple (Acer platanoides )and other species.Research advances on abscisic acid-and gibberellin-responsive proteomics during seed germination were reviewed, including proteomics related with transcription,protein degradation and degradation, energy metabolism, and other related proteomics, so as to provide references for reveal regulation mechanism of hormones response during seed germination.

  11. Leaf litter decomposition in temperate deciduous forest stands with a decreasing fraction of beech (Fagus sylvatica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mascha; Viedenz, Karin; Polle, Andrea; Thomas, Frank M

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesised that the decomposition rates of leaf litter will increase along a gradient of decreasing fraction of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and increasing tree species diversity in the generally beech-dominated Central European temperate deciduous forests due to an increase in litter quality. We studied the decomposition of leaf litter including its lignin fraction in monospecific (pure beech) stands and in stands with up to five tree genera (Acer spp., Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia spp.) using a litterbag approach. Litter and lignin decomposition was more rapid in stand-representative litter from multispecific stands than in litter from pure beech stands. Except for beech litter, the decomposition rates of species-specific tree litter did not differ significantly among the stand types, but were most rapid in Fraxinus excelsior and slowest in beech in an interspecific comparison. Pairwise comparisons of the decomposition of beech litter with litter of the other tree species (except for Acer platanoides) revealed a "home field advantage" of up to 20% (more rapid litter decomposition in stands with a high fraction of its own species than in stands with a different tree species composition). Decomposition of stand-representative litter mixtures displayed additive characteristics, not significantly more rapid than predicted by the decomposition of litter from the individual tree species. Leaf litter decomposition rates were positively correlated with the initial N and Ca concentrations of the litter, and negatively with the initial C:N, C:P and lignin:N ratios. The results support our hypothesis that the overall decomposition rates are mainly influenced by the chemical composition of the individual litter species. Thus, the fraction of individual tree species in the species composition seems to be more important for the litter decomposition rates than tree species diversity itself.

  12. Elemental concentrations in deposited dust on leaves along an urbanization gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Baranyai, Edina [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Agilent Atomic Spectroscopy Partner Laboratory, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Braun, Mihály [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Herteleni Laboratory of Environmental Studies, 4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/C (Hungary); Cserháti, Csaba [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 2 (Hungary); Fábián, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tóthmérész, Béla [HAS-UD Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Group, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2014-08-15

    Environmental health is an essential component of the quality of life in modern societies. Monitoring of environmental quality and the assessment of environmental risks are often species based on the elemental concentration of deposited dust. Our result suggested that stomata size and distribution were the most important factors influencing the accumulation of air contaminants in leaves. We found that the leaves' surfaces of Acer negundo and Celtis occidentalis were covered by a large number of trichomes, and these species have proven to be suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution difficult; these can be overcome using bioindicator species. Leaves of Padus serotina, Acer campestre, A. negundo, Quercus robur and C. occidentalis were used to assess the amount of deposited dust and the concentration of contaminants in deposited dust in and around the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Samples were collected from an urban, suburban and rural area along an urbanization gradient. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sr and Zn were determined in deposited dust using ICP–OES. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to explore the morphological structure and dust absorbing capacity of leaves. We found significant differences in dust deposition among species, and dust deposition correlated with trichomes' density. Principal component analysis (PCA) also showed a total separation of tree. - Highlights: • Dust is used as indicators of the accumulation of inorganic pollutants. • Scanning EM was used to explore the morphological structure of leaves. • Amount of dust deposited of leaves correlated with trichomes' density. • A. negundo, C. occidentalis and Q. robur are suitable to indicate air contaminants. • A. negundo and C. occidentalis are suitable to decrease the amount of dust in air.

  13. Do David and Goliath Play the Same Game? Explanation of the Abundance of Rare and Frequent Invasive Alien Plants in Urban Woodlands in Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędrzycki, Piotr; Kołaczkowska, Ewa; Ciurzycki, Wojciech; Marciszewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Alien Plants occur in numbers differing by orders of magnitude at subsequent invasion stages. Effective sampling and quantifying niches of rare invasive plants are quite problematic. The aim of this paper is an estimation of the influence of invasive plants frequency on the explanation of their local abundance. We attempted to achieve it through: (1) assessment of occurrence of self-regenerating invasive plants in urban woodlands, (2) comparison of Random Forest modelling results for frequent and rare species. We hypothesized that the abundance of frequent species would be explained better than that of rare ones and that both rare and frequent species share a common hierarchy of the most important determinants. We found 15 taxa in almost two thirds of 1040 plots with a total number of 1068 occurrences. There were recorded 6 taxa of high frequency–Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer negundo, Robinia pseudoacacia, Impatiens parviflora and Solidago spp.–and 9 taxa of low frequency: Acer saccharinum, Amelanchier spicata, Cornus spp., Fraxinus spp., Parthenocissus spp., Syringa vulgaris, Echinocystis lobata, Helianthus tuberosus, Reynoutria spp. Random Forest’s models’ quality grows with the number of occurrences of frequent taxa but not of the rare ones. Both frequent and rare taxa share a similar hierarchy of predictors’ importance: Land use > Tree stand > Seed source and, for frequent taxa, Forest properties as well. We conclude that there is an ‘explanation jump’ at higher species frequencies, but rare species are surprisingly similar to frequent ones in their determinant’s hierarchy, with differences conforming with their respective stages of invasion. PMID:27992516

  14. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  15. Diversity of Riparian Plants among and within Species Shapes River Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L Jackrel

    Full Text Available Organismal diversity among and within species may affect ecosystem function with effects transmitting across ecosystem boundaries. Whether recipient communities adjust their composition, in turn, to maximize their function in response to changes in donor composition at these two scales of diversity is unknown. We use small stream communities that rely on riparian subsidies as a model system. We used leaf pack experiments to ask how variation in plants growing beside streams in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State, USA affects stream communities via leaf subsidies. Leaves from red alder (Alnus rubra, vine maple (Acer cinereus, bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla were assembled in leaf packs to contrast low versus high diversity, and deployed in streams to compare local versus non-local leaf sources at the among and within species scales. Leaves from individuals within species decomposed at varying rates; most notably thin leaves decomposed rapidly. Among deciduous species, vine maple decomposed most rapidly, harbored the least algal abundance, and supported the greatest diversity of aquatic invertebrates, while bigleaf maple was at the opposite extreme for these three metrics. Recipient communities decomposed leaves from local species rapidly: leaves from early successional plants decomposed rapidly in stream reaches surrounded by early successional forest and leaves from later successional plants decomposed rapidly adjacent to later successional forest. The species diversity of leaves inconsistently affected decomposition, algal abundance and invertebrate metrics. Intraspecific diversity of leaf packs also did not affect decomposition or invertebrate diversity. However, locally sourced alder leaves decomposed more rapidly and harbored greater levels of algae than leaves sourced from conspecifics growing in other areas on the Olympic Peninsula, but did not harbor greater aquatic invertebrate diversity. In

  16. Norway maple displays greater seasonal growth and phenotypic plasticity to light than native sugar maple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Alain; Fontaine, Bastien; Berninger, Frank; Dubois, Karine; Lechowicz, Martin J; Messier, Christian; Posada, Juan M; Valladares, Fernando; Brisson, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Norway maple (Acer platanoides L), which is among the most invasive tree species in forests of eastern North America, is associated with reduced regeneration of the related native species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and other native flora. To identify traits conferring an advantage to Norway maple, we grew both species through an entire growing season under simulated light regimes mimicking a closed forest understorey vs. a canopy disturbance (gap). Dynamic shade-houses providing a succession of high-intensity direct-light events between longer periods of low, diffuse light were used to simulate the light regimes. We assessed seedling height growth three times in the season, as well as stem diameter, maximum photosynthetic capacity, biomass allocation above- and below-ground, seasonal phenology and phenotypic plasticity. Given the north European provenance of Norway maple, we also investigated the possibility that its growth in North America might be increased by delayed fall senescence. We found that Norway maple had significantly greater photosynthetic capacity in both light regimes and grew larger in stem diameter than sugar maple. The differences in below- and above-ground biomass, stem diameter, height and maximum photosynthesis were especially important in the simulated gap where Norway maple continued extension growth during the late fall. In the gap regime sugar maple had a significantly higher root : shoot ratio that could confer an advantage in the deepest shade of closed understorey and under water stress or browsing pressure. Norway maple is especially invasive following canopy disturbance where the opposite (low root : shoot ratio) could confer a competitive advantage. Considering the effects of global change in extending the potential growing season, we anticipate that the invasiveness of Norway maple will increase in the future.

  17. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (

  18. Permeabilidad del arbolado urbano a la radiación solar: Estudio de dos especies representativas en entornos urbanos de baja densidad del Área Metropolitana de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Edith Arboit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es generar conocimientos que permitan determinar la influencia del arbolado urbano, público o privado, sobre el potencial solar de los entornos urbano- edilicios de baja densidad del Área Metropolitana de Mendoza (AMM. El estudio de la permeabilidad del arbolado urbano ha sido desarrollado para situaciones típicas del área de Capital, Mendoza, representada por especies como: Plátano 21,80%, Morera 32,7%, Fresno europeo 20,95% y Paraíso 2,72% (Cantón, 1994-2000. Sin embargo para determinar la permeabilidad arbórea de entornos urbanos de baja densidad del AMM, en una primera etapa fue necesario realizar una recolección muestral que permitió identificar la presencia de ejemplares no evaluados como Acer 9,95% y Paraíso sombrilla 8,37%. En una segunda etapa, se elaboró un plan de mediciones para un ciclo anual, sobre un conjunto de 8 ejemplares por especie seleccionada. Los resultados obtenidos indican una reducción de la energía solar disponible, del 52,88% al 75,93% en la estación de invierno y del 85,96% al 98,38 % en verano para Acer y Paraíso Sombrilla respectivamente. El estudio ha permitido avanzar en la determinación del potencial solar en ambientes urbanos considerando la permeabilidad de dos especies arbóreas representativas del AMM.

  19. Apraxia and motor dysfunction in corticobasal syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Burrell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS is characterized by multifaceted motor system dysfunction and cognitive disturbance; distinctive clinical features include limb apraxia and visuospatial dysfunction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to study motor system dysfunction in CBS, but the relationship of TMS parameters to clinical features has not been studied. The present study explored several hypotheses; firstly, that limb apraxia may be partly due to visuospatial impairment in CBS. Secondly, that motor system dysfunction can be demonstrated in CBS, using threshold-tracking TMS, and is linked to limb apraxia. Finally, that atrophy of the primary motor cortex, studied using voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM, is associated with motor system dysfunction and limb apraxia in CBS. METHODS: Imitation of meaningful and meaningless hand gestures was graded to assess limb apraxia, while cognitive performance was assessed using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R, with particular emphasis placed on the visuospatial subtask. Patients underwent TMS, to assess cortical function, and VBM. RESULTS: In total, 17 patients with CBS (7 male, 10 female; mean age 64.4+/- 6.6 years were studied and compared to 17 matched control subjects. Of the CBS patients, 23.5% had a relatively inexcitable motor cortex, with evidence of cortical dysfunction in the remaining 76.5% patients. Reduced resting motor threshold, and visuospatial performance, correlated with limb apraxia. Patients with a resting motor threshold <50% performed significantly worse on the visuospatial sub-task of the ACE-R than other CBS patients. Cortical function correlated with atrophy of the primary and pre-motor cortices, and the thalamus, while apraxia correlated with atrophy of the pre-motor and parietal cortices. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical dysfunction appears to underlie the core clinical features of CBS, and is associated with atrophy of the primary motor and

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Pharmacotherapy for Hematemesis-Melena Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy de Queljoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute variceal haemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that can be life threatening. It is a pharmacist’s duty to ensure therapeutic and pharmaceutical care which is not only safe and effective for the patient but also is cost-effective in order to attain improvement of the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, pharmacoeconomic evaluation especially cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA, which compares costs and consequences of drug therapy, is needed. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic cost-effectiveness of hematemesis-melena treatment in hepatic cirrhotic patients. METHODS: A total of 42 patients receiving vitamin K and vitamin K-transamin were studied retrospectively from patients’ medical records in 2 years and analyzed with cost-effectiveness grid and average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER based on Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP Score. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness grid was dominant for vitamin K in patients with CTP Score A. ACER analysis showed a lower score for vitamin K in all patients included CTP Score classification. There was no significant difference in duration of cessation of bleeding treatment in patients with vitamin K compared with vitamin K-transamin in patients with CTP Score A and B, while significant difference was found in patients with CTP Score C. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K appeared to be more cost effective as compared with vitamin K-transamin in all patients. The use of vitamin K had greater benefit than the combination with transamin in all patients and CTP Score classification, and thus should be considered as a primary therapy. Therefore, transamin addition as an alternative therapy for hepatic cirrhosis patients with hematemesis-melena should be considered. KEYWORDS: CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis, child-turcotte-pugh score, hepatic cirrhosis, hematemesismelena, vitamin K, transamin.

  1. 进境种苗中朱顶红短体线虫的鉴定%Identification of Pratylenchus hippeastri from imported seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建锋; 王宁; 何洁; 陈吴健

    2014-01-01

    2013年,浙江和宁波口岸入境的日本鸡爪槭(Acer palmatum)和以色列孤挺花种球(Hippeastrum vittatum)中分离到一种短体线虫,通过形态学特征以及基于核糖体 rRNA-ITS 区及28S rRNA-D2/D3区序列的系统发育分析,证实其为朱顶红短体线虫(Pratylenchus hippeastri Inserra, Troccoli,Gozel,Bernard,Dunn & Duncan,2007)。该线虫的主要形态鉴别特征为:虫体细长;头前端平;唇环2个;口针基部球椭圆形;受精囊小,矩形,内无精子;尾圆锥形,末端钝尖,有时腹面有凹陷,或呈光滑的半球形。该线虫至今仅报道发生于美国,这是国际上首次在日本和以色列种苗中截获。%Pratylenchus hippeastri was detected from Japan Acer palmatum plant and Israel Hippeastrum vittatum bulbs. It is characterised by slender body, flat and smooth face, head with two lip annuli, ellipsoidal stylet knobs, small rectangular empty spermatheca with large round cavity, and conoid tail with bluntly pointed terminus, usually showing a ventral constriction, or subhemispherical and smooth. It is identified by morphological and DNA sequence analysis of the ITS region and 28S rRNA-D2/D3 gene. This species has only been reported in USA, and this is the first report of its distribution in Japan and Israel.

  2. Hippocampal transcriptional and neurogenic changes evoked by combination yohimbine and imipramine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Basma Fatima Anwar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Marathe, Swananda V; Rajendran, Rajeev; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2015-08-03

    Adjunct α2-adrenoceptor antagonism is a potential strategy to accelerate the behavioral effects of antidepressants. Co-administration of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine hastens the behavioral and neurogenic effects of the antidepressant imipramine. We examined the transcriptional targets of short duration (7days), combination treatment of yohimbine and imipramine (Y+I) within the adult rat hippocampus. Using microarray and qPCR analysis we observed functional enrichment of genes involved in intracellular signaling cascades, plasma membrane, cellular metal ion homeostasis, multicellular stress responses and neuropeptide signaling pathways in the Y+I transcriptome. We noted reduced expression of the α2A-adrenoceptor (Adra2a), serotonin 5HT2C receptor (Htr2c) and the somatostatin receptor 1 (Sstr1), which modulate antidepressant action. Further, we noted a regulation of signaling pathway genes like inositol monophosphatase 2 (Impa2), iodothyronine deiodinase 3 (Dio3), regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (Rgs4), alkaline ceramidase 2 (Acer2), doublecortin-like kinase 2 (Dclk2), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (Nfkbia) and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1), several of which are implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Comparative analysis revealed an overlap in the hippocampal regulation of Acer2, Nfkbia, Sgk1 and Impa2 between Y+I treatment, the fast-acting electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) paradigm, and the slow-onset chronic (21days) imipramine treatment. Further, Y+I treatment enhanced the quiescent neural progenitor pool in the hippocampal neurogenic niche similar to ECS, and distinct from chronic imipramine treatment. Taken together, our results provide insight into the molecular and cellular targets of short duration Y+I treatment, and identify potential leads for the development of rapid-action antidepressants.

  3. Predicting and understanding forest dynamics using a simple tractable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Drew W; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Strigul, Nikolay; Pacala, Stephen W

    2008-11-04

    The perfect-plasticity approximation (PPA) is an analytically tractable model of forest dynamics, defined in terms of parameters for individual trees, including allometry, growth, and mortality. We estimated these parameters for the eight most common species on each of four soil types in the US Lake states (Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota) by using short-term (Acer rubrum and Acer saccharum) soil. On hydromesic and hydric soils, the literature reports that the current dominant species in old stands (Thuja occidentalis) is now failing to regenerate. Consistent with this, the PPA predicted that, on these soils, stands are now succeeding to dominance by other late-successional species (e.g., Fraxinus nigra, A. rubrum).

  4. Effects of grazing on natural regeneration of tree and herb species of Kheyroud forest in northern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Javanmiri Pour; Mohmmad Reza Marvie Mohadjer; Vahid Etemad; Mahmoud Zobeiri

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of grazing on natural regeneration,quantity,and diversity of woody species and dominant herb species in Kheyroud forest in northern Iran.We sampled vegetation in 5m2 plots in custom units,which are demarcated resource areas traditionally used by local livestock producers.The authors quantified number of species,height of seedlings,and diameter of seedlings.Height classes were 0-30 cm,30-130 cm,and >130 cm,and diameter classes were 0-2.5 cm,2.5-5 cm and 5-7.5 cm.The density of seedlings declined with distance from corral until reaching the custom unit boundary.Most seedlings had diameters of 0-2.5 cm and heights of 0-30 cm.Predominant species,Carpinus betulus and Acer capadocicum,were in plots near the centers of custom units,Fagus orientalis,Acer velutinum,Quercus castanifolia species were dominant in plots near the custom unit boundary.Plant species such as Oplismenus undulatifolius,Euphorbia amygdaloides,Rubus fruticos and Pteridium aquilinum were dominant in plots nearer to forest corral.Healthy seedlings were more numerous in plots nearest the corral,while defective and deformed seedlings were more abundant away from the corral.We conclude that grazing had negative effects on the quantity and quality of vegetative regeneration.Continuation of overgrazing will not only endanger the sustainability of forest ecosystems,but also will increase the challenge of sustainable forest management.

  5. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse PhD.; Beier, Colin M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification – and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits – have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100 years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production – although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred – may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern

  6. Sapling herbivory, invertebrate herbivores and predators across a natural tree diversity gradient in Germany's largest connected deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Stephanie; Scherber, Christoph; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Tscharntke, Teja

    2009-05-01

    Tree species-rich forests are hypothesised to be less susceptible to insect herbivores, but so far herbivory-diversity relationships have rarely been tested for tree saplings, and no such study has been published for deciduous forests in Central Europe. We expected that diverse tree communities reduce the probability of detection of host plants and increase abundance of predators, thereby reducing herbivory. We examined levels of herbivory suffered by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and maple saplings (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L.) across a tree species diversity gradient within Germany's largest remaining deciduous forest area, and investigated whether simple beech or mixed stands were less prone to damage caused by herbivorous insects. Leaf area loss and the frequency of galls and mines were recorded for 1,040 saplings (>13,000 leaves) in June and August 2006. In addition, relative abundance of predators was assessed to test for potential top-down control. Leaf area loss was generally higher in the two species of maple compared to beech saplings, while only beech showed a decline in damage caused by leaf-chewing herbivores across the tree diversity gradient. No significant patterns were found for galls and mines. Relative abundance of predators on beech showed a seasonal response and increased on species-rich plots in June, suggesting higher biological control. We conclude that, in temperate deciduous forests, herbivory-tree diversity relationships are significant, but are tree species-dependent with bottom-up and top-down control as possible mechanisms. In contrast to maple, beech profits from growing in a neighbourhood of higher tree richness, which implies that species identity effects may be of greater importance than tree diversity effects per se. Hence, herbivory on beech appeared to be mediated bottom-up by resource concentration in the sampled forest stands, as well as regulated top-down through biocontrol by natural enemies.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of abiraterone and sipuleucel-T in asymptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cynthia L; Hay, Joel W

    2014-10-01

    Of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 0% to 20% experience disease progression to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Recently, 4 novel therapies have been introduced for the treatment of mCRPC; of these, abiraterone and sipuleucel-T have been studied in the asymptomatic, pre-docetaxel population. Both have shown clinical benefits compared with placebo. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone acetate and sipuleucel-T compared with prednisone in asymptomatic, pre-docetaxel mCRPC from a US societal perspective. A Markov model was constructed to simulate stable disease, progressed disease, and death. Survival and event rates were derived from published clinical trial data. Costs were derived from the literature and government reimbursement schedules. Outcomes were measured as average cost-effectiveness ratios (ACERs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and net monetary benefits (NMBs). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model. The base-case ACER was $114K/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) for abiraterone, $85K/QALY for sipuleucel-T, and $31K/QALY for prednisone. The base-case ICER was $389K/QALY for abiraterone and $547K/QALY for sipuleucel-T. Prednisone dominates both abiraterone and sipuleucel-T in terms of NMB at willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds of $400K or less. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to overall survival and utility inputs. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed abiraterone to be cost-effective 50% or more of the time at a WTP of greater than $400K, whereas sipuleucel-T was cost-effective 50% or more of the time at a WTP of greater than $270K. Neither abiraterone nor sipuleucel-T was found to be cost-effective compared with prednisone in the treatment of asymptomatic, pre-docetaxel mCRPC.

  8. Evaluation of morphological and chemical aspects of different wood species by spectroscopy and thermal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Lisa, Gabriela; Sakata, Yusaku

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find the most convenient procedure to make an easy differentiation between various kinds of wood. The wood samples used were: fir (Acer alba), poplar (Populus tremula), lime (Tillia cordata), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), walnut (Juglans regia), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur). The methods of investigation used were FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. By FT-IR spectroscopy, was observed that the ratio values of lignin/carbohydrate IR bands for wood decreases with increasing the average wood density, showing a decrease in lignin content. Also, the calculated values of lignin percentage from the FT-IR spectra are in very good correlation with the values from literature. Following the deconvolution process of the X-ray diffraction patterns, it was found that the degree of crystallinity, the apparent lateral crystallite size, the proportion of crystallite interior chains and cellulose fraction tend to increase with increasing of the wood density. Thermal analysis is able to give information about degradation temperatures for the principal components of different wood samples. The shape of DTG curves depends on the wood species that cause the enlargement of the peaks or the maxima of the decomposition step varies at larger or smaller temperatures ranges. The temperatures and weight loss percentage are particular for each kind of wood. This study showed that analytical methods used have the potential to be important sources of information for a quick evaluation of the chemical composition of wood samples.

  9. Simulating soil organic carbon stock as affected by land cover change and climate change, Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Azam; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Massah Bavani, Ali Reza; Jafari, Mostafa; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future. The following land covers were considered: Quercus castaneifolia (QC), Acer velutinum (AV), Alnus subcordata (AS), Cupressus sempervirens (CS) plantations and a natural forest (NF). For assessment of future climate change projections the Fifth Assessment IPCC report was used. These projections were generated with nine Global Climate Models (GCMs), for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) leading to very low and high greenhouse gases concentration levels (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 respectively), and for four 20year-periods up to 2099 (2030s, 2050s, 2070s and 2090s). Simulated values of SOC correlated well with measured data (R(2)=0.64 to 0.91) indicating a good efficiency of the RothC model. Our results showed an overall decrease in SOC stocks by 2099 under all land covers and climate change scenarios, but the extent of the decrease varied with the climate models, the emissions scenarios, time periods and land covers. Acer velutinum plantation was the most sensitive land cover to future climate change (range of decrease 8.34-21.83tCha(-1)). Results suggest that modeling techniques can be effectively applied for evaluating SOC stocks, allowing the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui; Swift, D Edwin

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively.

  11. Exposed tree root analysis as a dendrogeomorphic approach to estimating bank retreat at the South River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Stephanie; O'Neal, Michael; Pizzuto, James; Hupp, Cliff

    2014-10-01

    We use a biometric approach based on anatomical changes in the wood of exposed tree roots to quantify riverbank erosion along South River, Virginia, a site where commonly applied techniques for determining bank erosion rates are either not appropriate because of the required spatial scale of analysis (i.e., erosion pins, traditional surveys, LiDAR analysis) or have failed to detect obvious erosion (i.e., photogrammetric techniques). We sampled 73 exposed roots from 22 study reaches and identified the year of exposure macroscopically (2 to 20 times magnification) and microscopically (20 to 100 times magnification), comparing the estimated erosion rates between levels of magnification and to those obtained with photogrammetric techniques. We found no statistical differences between the results of macroscopic and microscopic analyses (t-test, α = 0.01) but encountered difficulty in identifying the year of root exhumation in some samples. When comparing exposed root analysis to photogrammetric techniques, the results indicate that the exposed root approach is a feasible and effective method for estimating annual- to decadal-scale bank erosion. In addition to producing erosion rates statistically indistinguishable from photogrammetric techniques at sites with erosion rates large enough for detection using historical aerial photographs (regression analysis and t-test, α = 0.01), exposed root analysis was able to estimate erosion rates at sites where photogrammetric techniques failed. We also identify deciduous species well suited for this approach (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) and others that prove more problematic (e.g., Acer negundo, Celtis occidentalis, Acer saccharinum). This study is significant because it describes a robust tool that provides insights into annual- to decadal-scale erosion where other commonly applied techniques may not be appropriate or easily applied.

  12. Structured self monitoring of blood glucose in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes; A cost consequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghili Rokhsareh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG is considered as a key factor in management of people with diabetes which is a growing and cost demanding health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive patient management using structured SMBG on metabolic control as well as its cost consequence analysis. Methods Sixty subjects were recruited in an observational study for a period of 6 months. They were provided with the ACCU-CHEK 360° View tool to fill in the values of the 7-point blood glucose profiles in three consecutive days during the study on a monthly basis. Changes in metabolic control were assessed by HbA1c and lipid profile measurement at the beginning and at the end of the study. In addition, cost consequence analysis was done considering different level of health care professionals with or without insurance coverage. The Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ACER as well as Cost saving analysis were calculated and compared. Results The analysis showed significant reduction in HbA1c during the 6-month period in all subjects (P = 0.000. Furthermore, a positive effect was observed on lipid profile. The cost of endocrinologist’s visit in private sector was estimated to be 265.76 USD while this figure was149.15 USD for general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Total complications and mortality cost saving was 154.8 USD. The lowest ACER was calculated for intervention with general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Conclusion Structured SMBG results in significant improvement of glycemic status. Moreover, it is more cost saving in public sector with insurance coverage. It seems that general practitioner visits with insurance coverage is the most affordable option for people with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Comparison of budburst dynamics between species on altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davi, H.; Gillmann, M.; Ibanez, T.

    2009-04-01

    Phenology of plants is a key ecosystem parameter controlling carbon and water fluxes and also acting on the dynamics of communities. This parameter is highly sensitive to the climate and consequently is often used as a proxy of global change. In this paper, we attempt to analyse the dynamics of budburst every week for seven species (Fagus sylvatica L., Acer opalus Mill , Sorbus aria L., Quercus pubescens Willd. Abies alba Mill., Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus nigra Arnold) in two altitudinal gradients, one in a northern slope and one in a southern slope in the Ventoux mountain. The originality of this work is to assess not only the budburst date but to more precisely analyse the dynamics of budburst and its variation with altitude according to the species. Two important results are highlighted. First, the dynamics of budburst changes according to the species. Three distinct patterns can be drawn, a rapid sigmoid increase for the deciduous species, a short sigmoid increase for the pines and an intermediate curve for silver fir. These dynamics can be slowing down for coniferous when frost arises during the budburst. The second topic is the link between budburst and temperature by analysing respectively the year, the altitudinal and the aspect (north and south) effects. In 2007, budburst occurs earlier for Fagus, Acer, and Abies, it does not change for pines and is delayed for Sorbus. Date of beech budburst is the same between north and south in spite of higher temperature in south. The altitude effect on budburst varies greatly according to species and the year with a weak effect on Fagus and a stronger effect for the others species showing a threshold at 1200 m. By analysing the mean of temperatures at each altitude, we conclude that temperature effect acts differently between years or between altitudes. To conclude, we highlighted the complex effect of temperatures on budburst varying between species and situations.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram K Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS. Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA B agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods : This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in 60 participants with uncomplicated AWS. Clinical efficacy was measured by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar scores. Lorazepam was used as supplement medication if withdrawal symptoms could not be controlled effectively by the study drugs alone. Both direct and indirect medical costs were considered and the CEA was analyzed in both patient′s perspective and third-party perspective. Results : The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER in patient′s perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 5,308.61 and Rs. 2,951.95 per symptom-free day, respectively. The ACER in third-party perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 895.01 and Rs. 476.29 per symptom-free day, respectively. Participants on chlordiazepoxide had more number of symptom-free days when compared with the baclofen group on analysis by Mann-Whitney test (U = 253.50, P = 0.03. Conclusion : Both study drugs provided relief of withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide was more cost-effective than baclofen. Baclofen was relatively less effective and more expensive than chlordiazepoxide.

  15. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 金光泽

    2012-01-01

    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  16. Spatial Pattern for Fraxinus mandshurica Population in Second Growth Forest of Maoershan Mountains%帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳种群格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文娟; 王庆成; 许丽娟

    2013-01-01

    采用点格局分析法研究帽儿山地区天然次生林中水曲柳( Fraxinus mandshurica)不同龄级的种群空间分布格局及水曲柳与五角槭( Acer mono)、春榆( Ulmus propinqua)和白桦(Betula platyphylla )种群的空间关联性。结果表明:水曲柳龄级I林木个体在1~50 m尺度上呈现聚集分布;龄级II与龄级III的聚集程度较龄级I缓和;水曲柳龄级III与龄级I、龄级II林木个体在所有尺度上都表现为显著负相关或有负相关趋势。林分内主要树种种群有不同的空间格局分布,其中水曲柳在小尺度(10~22 m)上表现聚集分布,在大尺度则呈随机分布;五角槭、春榆和白桦在各个尺度下均呈聚集分布。种间关联性分析表明:水曲柳与五角槭、白桦和春榆在空间关联上都呈现正相关或有正相关趋势。水曲柳种群与群落内其它优势树种形成的斑块在群落中镶嵌分布,具有较高的群落稳定性;但水曲柳幼树在大树聚集的斑块不易存活,影响了水曲柳种群发展。%We analyzed spatial pattern distributions for different age classes of Fraxinus mandshurica and spatial associations be-tween Fraxinus mandshurica and other dominant species ( Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla) for second growth forest in Maoershan Mountains .Individuals in age class I of Fraxinus mandshurica show clumped distribution at scales from 1 m to 50 m.Individuals of age class II and age class III show weaker clumped distribution than those of age class I.Age class III shows negative correlation with age class I at most scales, and it also exhibits negative association with age class II.Fraxinus mandshurica population shows clumped distribution at small-scale (10-22 m) and random dis-tribution at large-scale (23-50 m).The spatial pattern distributions of Acer mono, Ulmus propinqua and Betula platyphylla show clumped distribution.With the association analysis, they have

  17. Development of a ligno-cellulosic polymeric and reinforced sheet molding compound (SMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan Harris

    The overall objective of this dissertation was to study the surface energy and acid-base characteristics of natural fibers, glass, a wood extract, and a sheet molding compound prepreg to facilitate the fabrication of totally synthetic and partially renewable sheet molding compounds (SMCs). The water absorption and micro-mechanical performance of the totally synthetic and partially renewable SMC composites were compared through accelerated aging experiments. Reinforcing glass sized for polyester, bast kenaf fibers, hot water extract from Acer rubrum, and a dicyclopentadiene modified polyester prepreg were analyzed by inverse gas chromatography to evaluate and help predict how the various components may interact in a crosslinked composite SMC. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) was used to determine how the components in the SMC changed as a function of hygrothermal aging by analyzing the glass transitions of the individual components in the SMC. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results indicated that the polyester prepreg material had an experimental dispersive surface energy value of 47 mJ/m2 that compared well with a rule of mixture analysis of the components in the SMC giving a value of 50 mJ/m2 both at 30°C. IGC results also indicated that the kenaf-prepreg material has a higher acid base interaction then the glass-prepreg material. The IGC results indicated that surface sizing of the kenaf fibers with styrene-maleic anhydride might improve the cohesiveness of the final kenaf based SMC. IGC results also indicated that hot water extract from Acer rubrum had a dispersive energy close to polystyrene and should be miscible in the prepreg material. Hygrothermal aging was done by soaking SMC samples at 70°C for 3, 168, and 1032 hour time intervals. Standard SMC fabricated with glass reinforcement had water uptakes of less than 5 weight percent after 1032 hours. SMC fabricated with kenaf had water uptakes at 1032 hours approaching 20 weight percent indicating

  18. 色素指标对园林彩叶植物叶色表达的影响%Effects of Pigment Indicators on the Color Expression of Leaves of the Colored-leaf Garden Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐存莲

    2014-01-01

    Objective] In this study, the relationship between the pigments and the color expression of leaves of colored-leaf plants was discussed. [Method] The colors of leaf blades of 6 kinds of plants were analyzed with the Royal Horticultural Soci-ety Colour Chart. The chlorophyl content, carotenoids content and anthocyanin con-tent in leaf blades were determined. In addition, the color types of leaf blades, kinds of pigments, pigment contents and pigment distributions of 6 kinds of plants were compared. [Result] The chlorophyl contents ranked as Populus canadensis Moench (green leaves) > Populus deltoids cv. Zhonghuahongye (purple green leaves) > Populus euramericana cv. Quanhong (red leaves); Acer palmatum Thunb. (green leaves) > Acer palmatum cv. Atropurpureum (purple red leaves) > Acer pal-matum Thunb. cv. Atropurpureum (red leaves). The ranking of anthocyanin contents was just opposite. The chlorophyl content was negatively related to the anthocyanin content. The leaf color of plants is determined by various pigments. The more the chlorophyl is, the greener the leaf is. The more the anthocyanin is, the redder the leaf is. In the colored-leaf plants, the chlorophyl content represents about 80% of the content of pigments, the carotenoids content represents about 17%, and the an-thocyanin represents about 3%. There is a difference in the chlorophyl content be-tween colored-leaf plants and green plants. However, the relatively low chlorophyl content wil not hamper the normal life activities of colored-leaf plants. [Conclusion] We hoped to provide reference and basis for the production and landscaping of col-ored-leaf plants.%[目的]为了探索彩叶植物的叶色表达与色素的关系。[方法]对6种植物叶片用‘英国皇家园艺协会比色卡’进行比色,并分别测定了6种植物叶片中的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素和花青素含量,比较了6种植物叶片叶色类型、色素种类、含量以及分布状况。[结果]叶绿素含量的

  19. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

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    Kerry D. Woods

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009, combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study. Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis.CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated; snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer

  20. Does Tree Architectural Complexity Influence the Accuracy of Wood Volume Estimates of Single Young Trees by Terrestrial Laser Scanning?

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    Carsten Hess

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of the wood volume or biomass of individual trees have gained considerable importance in recent years. The accuracy of wood volume estimation by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS point cloud data may differ between individual trees due to species-specific differences in tree architecture. We selected three common and ecologically important central European deciduous tree species, which differ considerably in tree architectural complexity in early ontogenetic stages: Acer pseudoplatanus (simple, Sorbus aucuparia (intermediate and Betula pendula (complex. We scanned six single young trees for each species (18 trees in total under optimal scan conditions (single tree stand, leafless state, four scanning positions, high resolution. TLS-based volume estimates were derived for the total tree as well as for the two compartments; trunk and branches, using a voxel-based bounding box method. These estimates were compared with highly accurate xyolmetric (water displacement volume measurements. Coefficients of determination between xylometric measurements and bounding box estimates were very high for total trees (R2adj = 0.99, trunks (R2adj = 0.99, and high for branches (R2adj = 0.78. The accuracy of estimations for total tree and trunk volume was highly similar among the three tree species. In contrast, significant differences were found for branch volume estimates: the accuracy was very high for Sorbus aucuparia, intermediate for Betula pendula, and low for Acer pseudoplatanus. A stepwise multiple regression showed that the accuracy of branch volume estimates was negatively related to the number of the first-order branches within diameter sizes of D ≤ 5 mm and crown surface area (R2adj = 0.61. We conclude that the accuracy in total tree and trunk volume estimates was not affected by the studied types of tree architectural complexity. The impact of the structural variability of branches and occlusion by branches was, thus, not as high as

  1. Evaluating the ecological impacts of salvage logging: can natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote coexistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Alejandro A; Peterson, Chris J; Stanovick, John S; Carson, Walter P

    2016-06-01

    Salvage logging following windthrow is common throughout forests worldwide even though the practice is often considered inimical to forest recovery. Because salvaging removes trees, crushes seedlings, and compacts soils, many warn this practice may delay succession, suppress diversity, and alter composition. Here, over 8 yr following windthrow, we experimentally evaluate how salvaging affects tree succession across 11 gaps in Eastern deciduous forests of Pennsylvania, wherein each gap was divided into salvaged and control (unsalvaged) halves. Our gaps vary in size and windthrow severity, and we explicitly account for this variation as well as variation in soil disturbance (i.e., scarification) resulting from salvaging so that our results would be generalizable. Salvage logging had modest and ephemeral impacts on tree succession. Seedling richness and density declined similarly over time in both salvaged and unsalvaged areas as individuals grew into saplings. The primary impact of salvaging on succession occurred where salvaging scarified soils. Here, salvaging caused 41 to 82% declines in sapling abundance, richness, and diversity, but these differences largely disappeared within 5 yr. Additionally, we documented interactions between windthrow severity and scarification. Specifically, low-severity windthrow and scarification combined reinforced dominance by shade-tolerant and browse-tolerant species (Acer pensylvanicum, Fagus grandifolia). In contrast, high windthrow severity and scarification together reduced the density of a fast-growing pioneer tree (Prunus pensylvanica) and non-tree vegetation cover by 75% and 26%, respectively. This reduction enhanced the recruitment of two mid-successional tree species, Acer rubrum and Prunus serotina, by 2 and 3-fold, respectively. Thus, our findings demonstrate that salvaging creates novel microsites and mitigates competing vegetation, thereby enhancing establishment of important hardwoods and promoting tree species

  2. Tree phyllosphere bacterial communities: exploring the magnitude of intra- and inter-individual variation among host species

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    Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The diversity and composition of the microbial community of tree leaves (the phyllosphere varies among trees and host species and along spatial, temporal, and environmental gradients. Phyllosphere community variation within the canopy of an individual tree exists but the importance of this variation relative to among-tree and among-species variation is poorly understood. Sampling techniques employed for phyllosphere studies include picking leaves from one canopy location to mixing randomly selected leaves from throughout the canopy. In this context, our goal was to characterize the relative importance of intra-individual variation in phyllosphere communities across multiple species, and compare this variation to inter-individual and interspecific variation of phyllosphere epiphytic bacterial communities in a natural temperate forest in Quebec, Canada. Methods We targeted five dominant temperate forest tree species including angiosperms and gymnosperms: Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca. For one randomly selected tree of each species, we sampled microbial communities at six distinct canopy locations: bottom-canopy (1–2 m height, the four cardinal points of mid-canopy (2–4 m height, and the top-canopy (4–6 m height. We also collected bottom-canopy leaves from five additional trees from each species. Results Based on an analysis of bacterial community structure measured via Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S gene, we demonstrate that 65% of the intra-individual variation in leaf bacterial community structure could be attributed to the effect of inter-individual and inter-specific differences while the effect of canopy location was not significant. In comparison, host species identity explains 47% of inter-individual and inter-specific variation in leaf bacterial community structure followed by individual identity (32% and canopy location (6%. Discussion Our results suggest that

  3. Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

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    Popiela Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa, i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi

  4. CHANGES IN THE ACTIVE FLOODPLAIN VEGETATION OF THE SZIGETKÖZ

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    S. BARABAS

    2011-01-01

    , a 30 m wide belt of white willow (Salix alba has developed. Above this, a zone of water-demanding tall forb community has established which tolerates temporary inundation. Further away up to the original shoreline, a strip of vegetation composed of box elder (Acer negundo has appeared. Unlike the white willow belt, this zone developed slowly. At first, knee-high box elder saplings vegetated in the dry grassland, but once their roots has reached permanently wet soil layers, their growth has greatly accelerated. In the former riverbed, the mass appearance of invasive plants (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Solidago gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Fallopia x bohemica raises serious concerns for nature protection.

  5. CHANGES IN THE ACTIVE FLOODPLAIN VEGETATION OF THE SZIGETKÖZ

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    I. HAHN

    2011-04-01

    , a 30 m wide belt of white willow (Salix alba has developed. Above this, a zone of water-demanding tall forb community has established which tolerates temporary inundation. Further away up to the original shoreline, a strip of vegetation composed of box elder (Acer negundo has appeared. Unlike the white willow belt, this zone developed slowly. At first, knee-high box elder saplings vegetated in the dry grassland, but once their roots has reached permanently wet soil layers, their growth has greatly accelerated. In the former riverbed, the mass appearance of invasive plants (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Solidago gigantea, Aster lanceolatus, Fallopia x bohemica raises serious concerns for nature protection.

  6. Experiencias en el empleo de refractarios en la siderurgia No integral

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    Laraudogoitia, J. J.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available SIDENOR INDUSTRIAL S.L. is a steelmaking company producing special steel long products, devoted to a high extent for automotive applications. Production facilities at Sidenor Basauri plant include electric arc furnace, secondary metallurgy station (two ladle furnaces sharing a vacuum tank degasser and continuous casting process followed by direct rolling. The refractory consumption at Basauri plant facilities is concentrated in the steelmaking shop with 97% out of total consumption. Regarding the steelmaking shop, refractory consumption has the following distribution: 50% continuous casting, 35% ladle and 15% electric arc furnace and rest of applications. The refractory material suitability is defined in SIDENOR from three points of view: - Quality level aimed for final products - Total cost, taking into account purchase price, installation cost, running cost and energetic consumption associated to its use - Emissions environmental impact due to drying and preheating of refractory products The characterisation of the refractory material performance is done in three different levels: - Steady state working conditions (wearing, spalling, thermal insulation, air tightness… - Theoretical study and measurements from thermal and environmental point of view - Sudden and none predicted failures.

    SIDENOR INDUSTRIAL S.L. es una empresa siderúrgica fabricante de productos largos de acero especial, dirigidos en un alto porcentaje al mercado de automoción. En las instalaciones que SIDENOR posee en Basauri, el proceso de fabricación se desarrolla vía horno eléctrico de arco, metalurgia secundaria (horno cuchara y estación de vacío en tanque y colada continua, seguido de un proceso de laminación directa sin acondicionado previo. Para las instalaciones consideradas el empleo de material refractario se concentra fundamentalmente en la acería, con un 97% del refractario total. Considerando el consumo de acería, el 50% corresponde a colada

  7. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , Sapindaceae (Acer), Ulmaceae (Cedrelospermum, Ulmus, Zelkova), and Zingiberales (Spirematospermum). In addition, more than two thousand plant macrofossils were collected in the course of repeated field trips, including remains of Pinaceae, Berberidiaceae (Mahonia), Betulaceae (Alnus, Carpinus), Buxaceae (Buxus), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus), Lauraceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae (Myrica), Rosaceae, Salicaceae (Populus, Salix), Sapindaceae (Acer), Smilacaceae (Smilax), Typhaceae (Typha), Ulmaceae (Zelkova). A combined analysis integrating these rich and diverse plant macro- and microfossil records will lead to a better understanding and refined reconstruction of the vegetation in the Yatağan basin during the middle to late Miocene.

  8. Retrieval deficiency in brain activity of working memory in amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients: A brain event-related potentials study

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    Binyin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory

  9. Transformation of Carbon and Nitrogen by Earthworms in the Decomposition Processes of Broad-leaved Litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Weihua; YIN Xiuqin

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are the important constituents in the decayed food web and the main ecological conditioners in the process of decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The transformation of organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in the broad-leaved litters ingested by earthworms was researched by means of a laboratory experiment. Experimental samples were collected from broad-leaved Korea Pine mixed forest in Liangshui National Natural Reserve (47°10'50"N, 128°53'20"E) in the northeastern Xiao Hinggan Mountains of Northeast China. The contents of organic C and total N in earthworms, leaf litters and earthworm faeces were analyzed. Results show that the organic C content was in the following order: leaf litters>faeces>earthworms, while total N content was contrary to that of the organic C. The organic C contents in the different leaf litters were in the following order: Tilia amurensis>Betula costata>Acer mono, whereas the total N contents in the different leaf litters were: Betula costata>Tilia amurensis>Acer mono. The contents of organic C and total N in the faeces from the different leaf litters were almost consistent with the contents of the leaf litters. After the leaf litters were ingested by earthworms, the organic C, which was transformed to increase earthworms' weights, accounted for 3.90%-13.31% of the total ingestion by earthworms, while that in the earthworm faeces accounted for 6.14%-13.70%. The transformed organic C through the other metabolism (e.g., respiration) of earthworms accounted for 75.04%-89.92%. The ingested organic C by earthworms was mostly used for metabolic activities. The N ingested by earthworms was less than organic C. It is estimated that 37.08% of total N was transformed to increase the earthworm's weight, 19.97% into earthworm faeces and 47.86% for the consumption of the earthworm's activities. The earthworms not only increased the content of organic C and total N in the soil, but also decreased the values of C/N in

  10. The Robin, Erithacus Rubecula (Passeriformes, Turdidae, As a Component of Autotrophic Consortia of Forest Cenoses, Northeast Ukraine

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    Chaplygina A. B.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the robin, Erithacus rubecula Linnaeus, 1758 as a consort of autotrophic consortia is considered. It has been found that representatives of 9 higher taxa of animals (Mammalia, Aves, Gastropoda, Insecta, Arachnida, Acarina, Malacostraca, Diplopoda, Clitellata have trophic and topical links with the robin. At the same time, the robin is a consort of determinants of autotrophic consortia, which core is represented mostly by dominating species of deciduous trees (Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753 (24.6 %, Tilia cordata Miller, 1768 (17.5 %, Acer platanoides Linnaeus, 1753 (22.8 %, Acer campestre Linnaeus, 1753, and also by sedges (Carex sp. and grasses (Poaceae. The robin also belongs to the concentre of the second and higher orders as a component of forest biogeocenoses and forms a complex trophic system. In the diet of its nestlings, there have been found 717 objects from 32 invertebrate taxa, belonging to the phylums Arthropoda (99.2 %, 31 species and Annelida (0.8 %, 1 species. The phylum Arthropoda was represented by the most numerous class Insecta (76.9 %, in which 10 orders (Lepidoptera (46.8 % dominates and 20 families were recorded, and also by the classes Arachnida (15.0 %, Malacostraca (5.3 % and Diplopoda (1.9 %. The invertebrate species composition was dominated by representatives of a trophic group of zoophages (14 species; 43.8 %; the portion of phytophages (7 species; 21.9 %, saprophages (18.7 %, and necrophages (15.6 % was the less. The highest number of food items was represented by phytophages (N = 717; 51 %, followed by zoophages (34 %, saprophages (12 %, and necrophages (3 %. The difference among study areas according to the number of food items and the number of species in the robin nestling diet is shown. In NNP “HF”, the highest number of food items was represented by phytophages - 47 % (N = 443, whereas zoophages were the most species-rich group (43.3 %, 13 species. In NNP “H”, phytophages also prevailed in

  11. Effect of the cognitive rehabilitation in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identified brain atrophy

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    Petr Nilius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main objective of this study was to analyse the development of cognitive functions and effect of cognitive rehabilitation on patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, as a result of brain atrophy. Design: A quantitative non-randomized intervention study on a control sample of patients. Methods: The effect was observed in a group of patients ranging 59-91 years of age (N = 36. Only patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild cognitive disorder diagnosed by tomography (CT that had undergone 22 sessions, were involved in the clinical sample (n = 21. The control sample (n = 15 consisted of patients without any neurological diagnosis and who did not undergo cognitive sessions. Results: The effect of cognitive rehabilitation was measured by Addenbrooke's cognitive test, revised in 2010 (ACE-R; affective changes were measured by Beck´s scale of depression BDI-2 and by a scale used to detect anxiety and depression: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Subjective change and improvement were observed using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI psychiatric scale. Changes in the functional state of patients were measured by means of the activities of daily living scale (ADL, including the instrumental version (IADL. The effect was examined in the form of entry and output tests, which were verified by statistical analysis, a significant level being p > 0.05. Conclusions: Significant differences in verbal tests and ACE-R were observed in the clinical sample of patients. Some significant changes were observed in the field of affective symptoms, according to the HADS and BDI-2. The clinical sample showed a significant improvement in subjective clinical state (CGI. The ADL and IADL questionnaires seem to have been inadequate for purpose due to their low sensitivity. The effect of cognitive rehabilitation in patients diagnosed with mild cognitive disorder can be seen and verified in comparison with the control sample

  12. Retrieval Deficiency in Brain Activity of Working Memory in Amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Brain Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2016-01-01

    In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), working memory (WM) deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in WM is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled 46 subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample (DMS) task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP) recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2, and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test) and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory retrieval. The findings in the

  13. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate

  14. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

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    Jörg Kunz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  15. Variation of Soil Nutrition in a Fagus engleriana Seem.-Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon Oerst. Community Over a Small Scale in the Shennongjia Area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil nutrition is a key factor influencing species composition in a community, but it has clearly scaledependent heterogeneity. In the present study, geostatistics methods and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to detect: (i) the variation range of soil spatial heterogeneity; (ii) the influence of topographic factors on the distribution of soil nutrition; and (iii) the relationships between soil chemical properties and species in the community. In all, 23 soil variables were measured, including total N and organic C, Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, NH4-N, Ni, NO3-N, Pb, pH, P, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Semi-variograms of these variables were calculated and mapped. All indices showed autocorrelations, with ranges between 29 and 200 m. When the sample method was larger than these distances, spatial autocorrelations were avoided. The distribution patterns of Ca, Cr, Ga, K, Mg, organic C, P, Pb, and pH, and total N were related to the microtopography and the distribution of these compounds was clumped in water catchments area. The CCA method was used to investigate the relationship between plant species and soil properties in this community. Fagus engleriana Seem., Lindera obtusiloba BI. Mus., and Acer griseum (Franch.) Pax were correlated with organic C, available N, and P.

  16. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

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    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  17. Effects of Repeated Growing Season Prescribed Fire on the Structure and Composition of Pine–Hardwood Forests in the Southeastern Piedmont, USA

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    Matthew J. Reilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of repeated growing season prescribed fire on the structure and composition of mixed pine–hardwood forests in the southeastern Piedmont region, Georgia, USA. Plots were burned two to four times over an eight-year period with low intensity surface fires during one of four six-week long periods from early April to mid-September. Density of saplings (0.25–11.6 cm diameter at breast height was significantly reduced after one or two fires during the first four-year period. Sapling density declined with additional burning over the next four years, but density of mesic hardwoods including sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua and red maple (Acer rubrum remained relatively high (~865 stems ha−1. Repeated burning had little effect on density or basal area of trees (≥11.7 cm dbh and changes in overstory structure were limited to small increases in the quadratic mean diameter of all trees and pines. We found little evidence to suggest differential effects on structure or composition due to timing of burn within the growing season. Although repeated growing season burning alters midstory structure and composition, burning alone is unlikely to result in immediate shifts in overstory composition or structure in mixed pine–hardwood forests of the southeastern Piedmont region.

  18. Evaluation of urban environment pollution based on the accumulation of macro- and trace elements in epiphytic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzych, Agnieszka; Astel, Aleksander; Zduńczyk, Anna; Surowiec, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, nickel, copper, manganese, iron and lead accumulation properties of three epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.) were compared. An assessment of pollution of the municipal environment in Słupsk (Poland) according to macro- and trace elements was also done. Lichen samples were taken in Autumn 2013 from Betula pendula, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, A. pseudoplatanus and Populus sp. trees. Sampling stations comprised of house development areas, green urban parks, vicinity of streets with heavy traffic and industrial enterprises. It was found that lichens represent diverse accumulation properties to pollutants according to the species. X. parietina indicated the highest bioaccumulation in relation to N, K, Mg, Zn and Fe, the thalli of H. physodes accumulated the largest amounts of Ni and Pb, while P. sulcata P and Cu. Manganese was accumulated in similar quantities by all species. Evidences acquired by the use of factor analysis proved that pollution in Słupsk municipal environment is a serious issue with three major sources domination: street dust, marine factor and residual oil combustion. The high-risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging algorithm. It was seen that the highest pollution occurs in the town centre, while the smallest happened on its outskirts and in urban parks.

  19. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D; Carbone, Mariah S; Keenan, Trevor F; Czimczik, Claudia I; Hollinger, David Y; Murakami, Paula; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars in a subset of trees using the radiocarbon ((14) C) bomb spike. With these data, we then tested different carbon (C) allocation schemes in a process-based model of forest C cycling. We found that the nonstructural carbohydrates are both highly dynamic and about a decade old. Seasonal dynamics in starch (two to four times higher in the growing season, lower in the dormant season) mirrored those of sugars. Radiocarbon-based estimates indicated that the mean age of the starch and sugars in red maple (Acer rubrum) was 7-14 yr. A two-pool (fast and slow cycling reserves) model structure gave reasonable estimates of the size and mean residence time of the total NSC pool, and greatly improved model predictions of interannual variability in woody biomass increment, compared with zero- or one-pool structures used in the majority of existing models. This highlights the importance of nonstructural carbohydrates in the context of forest ecosystem carbon cycling.

  20. Seasonal Effect on Tree Species Classification in an Urban Environment Using Hyperspectral Data, LiDAR, and an Object- Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Matthew; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-05-06

    The objective of the current study was to analyze the seasonal effect on differentiating tree species in an urban environment using multi-temporal hyperspectral data, Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data, and a tree species database collected from the field. Two Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral images were collected, covering the Summer and Fall seasons. In order to make both datasets spatially and spectrally compatible, several preprocessing steps, including band reduction and a spatial degradation, were performed. An object-oriented classification was performed on both images using training data collected randomly from the tree species database. The seven dominant tree species (Gleditsia triacanthos, Acer saccharum, Tilia Americana, Quercus palustris, Pinus strobus and Picea glauca) were used in the classification. The results from this analysis did not show any major difference in overall accuracy between the two seasons. Overall accuracy was approximately 57% for the Summer dataset and 56% for the Fall dataset. However, the Fall dataset provided more consistent results for all tree species while the Summer dataset had a few higher individual class accuracies. Further, adding LiDAR into the classification improved the results by 19% for both fall and summer. This is mainly due to the removal of shadow effect and the addition of elevation data to separate low and high vegetation.

  1. Graph Transformation and Designing Parallel Sparse Matrix Algorithms beyond Data Dependence Analysis

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    H.X. Lin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms are often parallelized based on data dependence analysis manually or by means of parallel compilers. Some vector/matrix computations such as the matrix-vector products with simple data dependence structures (data parallelism can be easily parallelized. For problems with more complicated data dependence structures, parallelization is less straightforward. The data dependence graph is a powerful means for designing and analyzing parallel algorithms. However, for sparse matrix computations, parallelization based on solely exploiting the existing parallelism in an algorithm does not always give satisfactory results. For example, the conventional Gaussian elimination algorithm for the solution of a tri-diagonal system is inherently sequential, so algorithms specially for parallel computation has to be designed. After briefly reviewing different parallelization approaches, a powerful graph formalism for designing parallel algorithms is introduced. This formalism will be discussed using a tri-diagonal system as an example. Its application to general matrix computations is also discussed. Its power in designing parallel algorithms beyond the ability of data dependence analysis is shown by means of a new algorithm called ACER (Alternating Cyclic Elimination and Reduction algorithm.

  2. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

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    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  3. How environmental conditions affect canopy leaf-level photosynthesis in four deciduous tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassow, S.L.; Bazzaz, F.A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

    1998-12-01

    Species composition of temperate forests vary with successional age and seems likely to change in response to significant global climate change. Because photosynthesis rates in co-occurring tree species can differ in their sensitivity to environmental conditions, these changes in species composition are likely to alter the carbon dynamics of temperate forests. To help improve their understanding of such atmosphere-biosphere interactions, the authors explored changes in leaf-level photosynthesis in a 60--70 yr old temperate mixed-deciduous forest in Petersham, Massachusetts (USA). Diurnally and seasonally varying environmental conditions differentially influenced in situ leaf-level photosynthesis rates in the canopies of four mature temperate deciduous tree species: red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum), white birch (Betula papyrifera), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The authors measured in situ photosynthesis at two heights within the canopies through a diurnal time course on 7 d over two growing seasons. They simultaneously measured a suite of environmental conditions surrounding the leaf at the time of each measurement. The authors used path analysis to examine the influence of environmental factors on in situ photosynthesis in the tree canopies.

  4. Airborne pollen grains in Bursa, Turkey, 1999-2000,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicakci, Adem; Tatlidil, Sevcan; Sapan, Nihat; Malyer, Hulusi; Canitez, Yakup

    2003-01-01

    In this study, pollen grains were sampled by using a Lanzoni trap (Lanzoni VPPS 2000) in atmosphere of Bursa in 1999 and 2000. During two years. a total of 13,991 pollen grains/m3 which belonged to 59 taxa and unidentified pollen grains were recorded. A total of 7.768 pollen grains were identified in 1999 and a total of 6.223 in 2000. From these taxa, 36 belong to arboreal and 23 taxa to non-arboreal plants. Total pollen grains consist of 78.61% arboreal. 20.37% non-arboreal plants and 1.03% unidentified pollen grains. In the region investigated, Pinus sp., Olea sp., Platanus sp., Gramineae, Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Quercus sp., Acer sp.. Morus sp. Xanthium sp., Castanea sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Corvlus sp., Artemisia sp., Urtica sp.and Fraxinus sp. were responsible for the greatest amounts of pollen. During the study period the pollen concentration reached its highest level in April.

  5. Fine roots are the dominant source of recalcitrant plant litter in sugar maple-dominated northern hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengxue; Talhelm, Alan F; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of forest litter dynamics examine the biochemical characteristics and decomposition of leaf litter, but fine roots are also a large source of litter in forests. We quantified the concentrations of eight biochemical fractions and nitrogen (N) in leaf litter and fine roots at four sugar maple (Acer saccharum)-dominated hardwood forests in the north-central United States. We combined these results with litter production data to estimate ecosystem biochemical fluxes to soil. We also compared how leaf litter and fine root biochemistry responded to long-term simulated N deposition. Compared with leaf litter, fine roots contained 2.9-fold higher acid-insoluble fraction (AIF) and 2.3-fold more condensed tannins; both are relatively difficult to decompose. Comparatively, leaf litter had greater quantities of more labile components: nonstructural carbohydrates, cellulose and soluble phenolics. At an ecosystem scale, fine roots contributed over two-thirds of the fluxes of AIF and condensed tannins to soil. Fine root biochemistry was also less responsive than leaf litter to long-term simulated N deposition. Fine roots were the dominant source of difficult-to-decompose plant carbon fractions entering the soil at our four study sites. Based on our synthesis of the literature, this pattern appears to be widespread in boreal and temperate forests.

  6. Agricultural, domestic and handicraft folk uses of plants in the Tyrrhenian sector of Basilicata (Italy

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    Guarrera Paolo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy, as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1% and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%; most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses. Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red are previously unpublished.

  7. Effect Size (Cohen's d of Cognitive Screening Instruments Examined in Pragmatic Diagnostic Accuracy Studies

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    Andrew J. Larner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many cognitive screening instruments (CSI are available to clinicians to assess cognitive function. The optimal method comparing the diagnostic utility of such tests is uncertain. The effect size (Cohen's d, calculated as the difference of the means of two groups divided by the weighted pooled standard deviations of these groups, may permit such comparisons. Methods: Datasets from five pragmatic diagnostic accuracy studies, which examined the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, the Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP, the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, the Test Your Memory test (TYM, and the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, were analysed to calculate the effect size (Cohen's d for the diagnosis of dementia versus no dementia and for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia (subjective memory impairment. Results: The effect sizes for dementia versus no dementia diagnosis were large for all six CSI examined (range 1.59-1.87. For the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment versus no dementia, the effect sizes ranged from medium to large (range 0.48-1.45, with MoCA having the largest effect size. Conclusion: The calculation of the effect size (Cohen's d in diagnostic accuracy studies is straightforward. The routine incorporation of effect size calculations into diagnostic accuracy studies merits consideration in order to facilitate the comparison of the relative value of CSI.

  8. Mechanism Underlying the Spatial Pattern Formation of Dominant Tree Species in a Natural Secondary Forest.

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    Guodong Jia

    Full Text Available Studying the spatial pattern of plant species may provide significant insights into processes and mechanisms that maintain stand stability. To better understand the dynamics of naturally regenerated secondary forests, univariate and bivariate Ripley's L(r functions were employed to evaluate intra-/interspecific relationships of four dominant tree species (Populus davidiana, Betula platyphylla, Larix gmelinii and Acer mono and to distinguish the underlying mechanism of spatial distribution. The results showed that the distribution of soil, water and nutrients was not fragmented but presented clear gradients. An overall aggregated distribution existed at most distances. No correlation was found between the spatial pattern of soil conditions and that of trees. Both positive and negative intra- and interspecific relationships were found between different DBH classes at various distances. Large trees did not show systematic inhibition of the saplings. By contrast, the inhibition intensified as the height differences increased between the compared pairs. Except for Larix, universal inhibition of saplings by upper layer trees occurred among other species, and this reflected the vertical competition for light. Therefore, we believe that competition for light rather than soil nutrients underlies the mechanism driving the formation of stand spatial pattern in the rocky mountainous areas examined.

  9. Large ontogenetic declines in intra-crown leaf area index in two temperate deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, C A; Caspersen, J P; Thomas, S C

    2008-03-01

    The widespread occurrence of age-related changes in leaf morphology and allocation suggests that the leaf area index of individual trees (intra-crown LAI) may decline late in ontogeny. We used direct, within-canopy measurements to quantify the LAI of canopy trees with exposed crowns of two temperate deciduous species. Intra-crown LAI declined from approximately 7 to 4 in Acer saccharum, and from approximately 9.5 to 6.5 in Betula alleghaniensis, as tree size increased (from 15 to 72 cm diameter at breast height [dbh]). For A. saccharum, age (which varied from 30 to 160 years) was a significantly better predictor of LAI decline than dbh. We also modeled the effect of ontogenetic declines in LAI on understory light availability and found that light transmission increases significantly as canopy trees grow and mature. Our results thus suggest that gradual declines in LAI with tree age may play an important and overlooked role in contributing to the heterogeneity of sub-canopy light regimes in mature forests.

  10. Espejo cultural africano: imágenes de los reinos del Congo y Angola en la Costa Caribe del reino de Nueva Granada

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    Andrea Guerrero Mosquera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación pretendió a nalizar los escritos sobre África realizados durante el siglo XVII, con el fin de adentrarse a los imaginarios que se plasmaron acerca de las culturas de los reinos del Congo y Angola . Para el caso particula r de esta investigación , se usaron los textos de los capuchinos Giovanni António Cavazzi y Anto nio de Teruel . Estos textos son discursos escritos desde una perspectiva de lo observado y bajo el amparo de un discurso histórico - antropológico del africano, una imagen eurocentrista y católica que permeó tanto en Europa como en la s Indias. Con estos textos se intentó un acer camiento a los Black Atlantic Studies con lo que se logró a partir de las imágenes que se interpretar on , realizar una confrontación con la herencia cultural que se manifestaba en los escritos de la época y establecer los imaginar ios que llegaron desde África al reino de Nueva Granada .

  11. New approach to the reclamation of the old flotation tailings in Bor

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    Dožić Stevan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The old flotation tailings of the Bor copper mine have not been reclaimed for several decades, although it is a serious threat to the environment, especially to some parts of the town. To date, there have been no efficacious attempts of solving the problem by indirect rehabilitation, only several cases of direct reclamation. This paper presents some results of the experiment established on a part of the tailings in the vicinity of the town, where various variants of meliorated and sterile substrates were applied in the biological reclamation with several tree and grass species. The analysis shows that, in the rehabilitation of sterile substrate of the copper mine, it is possible to grow several woody species. The best results were achieved by the species that were planted in the fertile soil layer on the sterile copper mine substrate, and on the mixture of soil and waste. Among the woody species, Robinia pseudoaccacia, Fraxinus excelsior and Acer pseudoplatanus showed the best survival percent, growth, and physiological vitality and the poorest were spruce and common oak.

  12. Comparison of Leaf Breakdown for Native and Non-native Riparian Species in Streams Draining Urban, Agricultural, and Forested Land Cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, M. D.; Benfield, E. F.

    2005-05-01

    Organic matter breakdown rates in streams vary among riparian tree species and are dependent on a variety of in-stream biological, chemical, and physical factors. These factors and the composition and distribution of riparian vegetation are changed by anthropogenic modification of the landscape. This may result in altered energy flow through stream ecosystems that is reflected in changes in organic matter input and breakdown. The goal of this study was to compare leaf breakdown rates between a native (box elder, Acer negundo) and non-native (weeping willow, Salix babylonica) species among three land cover categories: urban, agricultural, and forested. We conducted this study over 14 weeks in 13 streams near Roanoke, Virginia. Box elder occurs naturally along disturbed riparian corridors in this region, while weeping willow has been actively planted for its aesthetic value. Our results indicate weeping willow breakdown rates were faster than box elder across all land cover categories. Breakdown rates for both species were slowest in the urban streams, intermediate in agricultural streams, and fastest in forested streams.

  13. Vegetation survey of Four Mile Creek wetlands. [Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1990-11-01

    A survey of forested wetlands along upper Four Mile Creek was conducted. The region from Road 3 to the creek headwaters was sampled to evaluate the composition of woody and herbaceons plant communities. All sites were found to fall into either the Nyssa sylvatica (Black Gum) -- Persea borbonia (Red Bay) or Nyssa sylvatica -- Acer rubrum (Red Maple) types. These community types are generally species-rich and diverse. Previous studies (Greenwood et al., 1990; Mackey, 1988) demonstrated contaminant stress in areas downslope from the F- and H-Area seepage basins. In the present study there were some indications of contaminant stress. In the wetland near H-Area, shrub basal area, ground cover stratum species richness, and diversity were low. In the area surrounding the F-Area tree kill zone, ground cover stratum cover and shrub basal area were low and ground cover stratum species richness was low. The moderately stressed site at F-Area also showed reduced overstory richness and diversity and reduced ground cover stratum richness. These results could, however, be due to the very high basal area of overstory trees in both stressed F-Area sites that would reduce light availability to understory plants. No threatened or endangered plant species were found in the areas sampled. 40 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri

    2013-05-01

    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  15. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  16. A Systems Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the Aubrey Reservoir Project on Elm Fork of the Trinity River in North Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    viridis 5 3 1 Morus rubra 13 1 Ulmus americana 2 2 Maclura pomifera 2 Cercis canadensis 6 Acer negundo 1 1 Carya illinoensis 1 Ulmus alata 9 Ulmus rubra... Carya illinoensis 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 Ulmus alata 0.4 0.4 13.6 0 0.0 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.3 0.4 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 q .4 228 Y I Table 17. The species of trees found...viridis 0.3 1.0 13.6 7.2 0.8 1.1 Cercis canadensis 0.1 0.3 9.1 4.4 0.5 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.1 0.3 4.6 3.2 0.4 0.4 Carya illinoensis 0.2 4.6 7.5 0.9 0.2 229

  17. Possibilities of cultivating ornamental trees and shrubs under conditions of air pollution with oxides of sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialobok, S.; Bartkowiak, S.; Rachwal, L.

    1974-01-01

    The field work conducted has shown that high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ in the air can be withstood by the following trees and shrubs. Trees: Acer campestris, A. platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Aesculus hippocastanum, Morus alba, Platanus acerifolia, Pinus strobur, P. nigra, Populus Berolinensis, P. candicans, P. Hybr. 27, P. Marilandica, P. simonii, P. Serotina, Quercus robus, Robinia pseudoacacia. Shrubs: Caragana arborescens, Crataegus oxyacantha, C. monogyna, Cerasus mehaleb, Forsythia/most of the species and varieties/, Ligustrum vulgare, Philadelphus coronaria, Ptelea trifoliata, Sambucus nigra, Salix caprea, Sorbaria sorbifolia, Sorbus aucuparia, Taxus baccata. For the selection of trees and shrubs in the laboratory, high concentrations of SO/sub 2/ were used (60-150 ppm for a period of 10 minutes). Experiments were conducted on cut shrubs kept in the gas chambers. In order to estimate the degree of their injury, they were transferred to a shaded greenhouse. A concentration of 65 ppm of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by the following Forsythias: Forsythia intermedia Primulina, F. Densiflora, F. Spectabilis, F. giraldina, F. suspensa, F. koreana, F. ovata, F. japonica and Hippophae rhamnoides. A concentration of 130 ppm could be withstood only by F. intermedia Vitelina. A similarly high concentration of SO/sub 2/ could be withstood by shoots and leaves of Ailanthus girladii Duclouxii and by Platanus acerifolia. From among the lilacs Syringa pekinensis and S. amurensis proved resistant to high concentrations of SO/sub 2/.

  18. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

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    Shu Yi eShen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons. The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp.. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia and Sanguibacter spp.. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests investigations of the studies ofendophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly.

  19. Impact of host tree on forest tent caterpillar performance and offspring overwintering mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, M; Mauffette, Y; Rochefort, S; Han, E; Bauce, E

    2010-04-01

    One of the most damaging insect pests in deciduous forests of North America is the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner. It can feed on a variety of plants, but trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) is its preferred host and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) serves as a secondary one in the northern part of its distribution. Because host plant characteristics influence insect performance and survival, we evaluated the impact of trembling aspen and sugar maple foliage on M. disstria performance. Host effects on insect cold hardiness and overwintering survival of offspring were also studied. Forest tent caterpillar reared on aspen leaves had a shorter development time, higher pupal weights and fecundity, and superior egg parameters (length and weight) compared with those reared on sugar maple leaves. Larvae from the two food treatments had low glucose levels during diapause, whereas glycerol content of insects reared on maple was significantly higher during diapause than larvae fed on aspen. Lower glycerol content may explain the higher overwinter mortality of pharate larvae from aspen-reared parents even though their supercooling points were as low as -36 degrees C. This study shows the influence of host plant on insect life history and the need to consider overwintering success and offspring performance in studies to understand and predict population growth and cycling.

  20. Impacts of leaves, roots, and earthworms on soil organic matter composition and distribution in sycamore maple stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, N.; Mueller, K. E.; Mueller, C. W.; Oleksyn, J.; Hale, C.; Freeman, K. H.; Eissenstat, D.

    2009-12-01

    The relative contributions of leaf and root material to soil organic matter (SOM) are poorly understood despite the importance of constraining SOM sources to conceptual and numeric models of SOM dynamics. Selective ingestion and bioturbation of litter and soil by earthworms can alter the fate and spatial distribution of OM in soils, including stabilization pathways of leaf and root litter. However, studies on the contributions of leaves, roots, and earthworms to SOM dynamics are rare. In 3 stands of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) with minimal O horizon development and high earthworm activity, we sampled surface litter (> 2 mm) from the Oi horizon, fine roots (cutin was low relative to plant litter, confirming the often-observed selective preservation of aliphatic over aromatic biomolecules. The ratio of lignin to cutin/suberin acids in earthworm casts was also low; based on the minimal extent of decomposition in casts evident by lignin acid to aldehyde ratios, we attribute this to selective ingestion by L. terrestris of leaf litter rich in aliphatic biomolecules at the expense of woody debris and petioles rich in lignin, rather than selective preservation.

  1. Studies on the tempo of bubble formation in recently cavitated vessels: a model to predict the pressure of air bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T

    2015-06-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84 K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Studies on the Tempo of Bubble Formation in Recently Cavitated Vessels: A Model to Predict the Pressure of Air Bubbles1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Pan, Ruihua; Tyree, Melvin T.

    2015-01-01

    A cavitation event in a vessel replaces water with a mixture of water vapor and air. A quantitative theory is presented to argue that the tempo of filling of vessels with air has two phases: a fast process that extracts air from stem tissue adjacent to the cavitated vessels (less than 10 s) and a slow phase that extracts air from the atmosphere outside the stem (more than 10 h). A model was designed to estimate how water tension (T) near recently cavitated vessels causes bubbles in embolized vessels to expand or contract as T increases or decreases, respectively. The model also predicts that the hydraulic conductivity of a stem will increase as bubbles collapse. The pressure of air bubbles trapped in vessels of a stem can be predicted from the model based on fitting curves of hydraulic conductivity versus T. The model was validated using data from six stem segments each of Acer mono and the clonal hybrid Populus 84K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). The model was fitted to results with root mean square error less than 3%. The model provided new insight into the study of embolism formation in stem tissue and helped quantify the bubble pressure immediately after the fast process referred to above. PMID:25907963

  3. Breeding bird assemblages associated with stages of forest succession in large river floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; McColl, L.E.; Suarez, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain forests rival all other habitat types in bird density and diversity. However, major successional changes are predicted for floodplain forests along the Mississippi River in the coming decades; young forests may replace the existing mature silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) forests in some areas. We wanted to assess how the breeding bird community might respond to these changes. We studied stands of young forests along the middle Mississippi River, comparing the breeding bird assemblages among three stages of forest succession: shrub/scrub, young cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall) and willow (Salix nigra Marshall) forests, and mature silver maple dominated forests. We recorded a total of 54 bird species; the most frequently observed species were the indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Bird species richness differed among the habitat types, with mature forests supporting the largest number of species and the most species of management concern. The shrub/scrub and mature forest bird assemblages were distinct and shared few species, but the young forests had no identifiable bird species assemblage, sharing species found in both of the other habitat types. The bird assemblages we observed in young forests may become more prevalent as aging floodplain forests are replaced with younger stages of forest succession. Under this scenario, we would expect a temporary local decrease in bird species richness and habitat for species of management concern.

  4. Establishment Success of Coexisting Native and Exotic Trees Under an Experimental Gradient of Irradiance and Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Noelia; Castro-Díez, Pilar; Fierro-Brunnenmeister, Natalia

    2011-10-01

    The exotic trees Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo and Elaeagnus angustifolia coexist with the native trees Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor in river banks of central Spain. Similarly, the exotic trees Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster in Northwest Spain. We aimed to identify the environmental conditions that favour or hamper the establishment success of these species. In spring 2008, seeds of the studied species were sown under an experimental gradient of light (100, 65, 35, 7% of full sunlight) combined with three levels of soil moisture (mean soil water potential = -0.97, -1.52 and -1.77 MPa.). During the first growing season we monitored seed emergence and seedling survival. We found that the effect of light on the establishment success was stronger than the effect of soil moisture. Both exotic and native species of central Spain showed a good performance under high light, A. negundo being the most shade tolerant . Water shortage diminished E. angustifolia and A. altissima success. Among NW Spain species, A. dealbata and P. pinaster were found to be potential competitors for colonizing high-irradiance scenarios, while Q. pyrenaica and E. globulus were more successful under moderate shade. High soil moisture favoured E. globulus but not A. dealbata establishment. These results contribute to understand some of the factors controlling for spatial segregation between coexisting native and exotic tree species, and can help to take decisions orientated to the control and management of these exotic species.

  5. Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, W J

    1983-02-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arbor-escens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonicera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus, andP. sylvestris) being considered for mixed plantings withJugions nigra (black walnut). All species were sensitive to juglone, but seed germination and radicle elongation were less affected than shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation. Seed germination and radicle elongation were affected by juglone in 6 and 11 species, respectively, mainly by the higher concentrations (10(-3) M and 10(-4) M). Shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation of all species were affected by juglone; many species were sensitive to concentrations as low as 10(-6) M. Seedlings of all species were severely wilted and eventually killed by 10(-3) M juglone, and most were chlorotic and severely retarded by 10(-4) M juglone. Seedlings inhibited by 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M juglone did not showany visible signs of injury. Based on the effects on seedling shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation, the five species found to be most sensitive to juglone were:Lonicera maackii, Lespedeza cuneata, Trifolium incarnatum, Alnus glutinosa, and Elaeagnus umbellata.

  6. Relative Preference and Localized Food Affect Predator Space Use and Consumption of Incidental Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Tyler E; Schauber, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds (Prunus dulcis; highly profitable) and maple seeds (Acer saccharum; less profitable). We estimated mouse population densities with trapping webs, quantified mouse consumption rates of these incidental prey items, and measured local mouse activity with track plates. We predicted that 1) mouse activity would be elevated near full feeders, but depressed at intermediate distances from the feeder, 2) consumption of both incidental prey would be high near feeders providing less-preferred food and, 3) consumption of incidental prey would be contingent on predator preference for prey relative to feeders providing more-preferred food. Mouse densities increased significantly from pre- to post-experiment. Mean mouse activity was unexpectedly greatest in control treatments, particularly preferred food (sunflower seeds) created localized refuges for incidental prey at intermediate distances (15 to 25m) from the feeder. Feeders with less-preferred food (corn) generated localized high risk for highly preferred almonds food on risk experienced by incidental prey, which can be positive or negative depending on both spatial proximity and relative preference.

  7. A heat wave during leaf expansion severely reduces productivity and modifies seasonal growth patterns in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangler, Dominik Florian; Hamann, Andreas; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Spiecker, Heinrich

    2016-10-13

    A useful approach to monitor tree response to climate change and environmental extremes is the recording of long-term time series of stem radial variations obtained with precision dendrometers. Here, we study the impact of environmental stress on seasonal growth dynamics and productivity of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the Great Lakes, St Lawrence forest region of Ontario. Specifically, we research the effects of a spring heat wave in 2010, and a summer drought in 2012 that occurred during the 2005-14 study period. We evaluated both growth phenology (onset, cessation, duration of radial growth, time of maximum daily growth rate) and productivity (monthly and seasonal average growth rates, maximum daily growth rate, tree-ring width) and tested for differences and interactions among species and years. Productivity of sugar maple was drastically compromised by a 3-day spring heat wave in 2010 as indicated by low growth rates, very early growth cessation and a lagged growth onset in the following year. Sugar maple also responded more sensitively than yellow birch to a prolonged drought period in July 2012, but final tree-ring width was not significantly reduced due to positive responses to above-average temperatures in the preceding spring. We conclude that sugar maple, a species that currently dominates northern hardwood forests, is vulnerable to heat wave disturbances during leaf expansion, which might occur more frequently under anticipated climate change.

  8. KRAFT PULPING CHARACTERISTICS OF THREE MOROCCAN EUCALYPTI. PART 2. COMPARISON OF THE GUAIACYL FRACTION OF THE NATIVE LIGNINS BY A NOVEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka F. Alves,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In Part 1 of this series it was observed that one of the eucalypti (EGC 39 was more reactive than the other two in kraft and soda-AQ (SAQ cooking. However, the lignin in EGC 39 contained equal or less syringyl (S units than the other two eucalypti. In the present research an attempt was made to compare the guaiacyl (G fraction of the three lignins. The approach was to use SAQ treatment to cleave β-O-4 bonds in dimeric units containing uncondensed guaiacyl A-rings (those rearranging to quinone methides. The coniferyl alcohol, vinylguaiacol and isoeugenol generated from β-O-4 cleavage are then trapped as dimers by ethylguaiacol that is included in the SAQ liquor. Research with sugar maple (Acer saccharum showed that the estimate of these structures (uncondensed G-β-O-4 by this approach was in close agreement with traditional but more tedious methods such as permanganate oxidation and 31P NMR. It was also shown that the lignin in the EGC 39 hybrid contained a higher concentration of uncondensed G-β-O-4 structures than the other two eucalypti lignins.

  9. Conspecific Leaf Litter-Mediated Effect of Conspecific Adult Neighborhood on Early-Stage Seedling Survival in A Subtropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heming; Shen, Guochun; Ma, Zunping; Yang, Qingsong; Xia, Jianyang; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xihua

    2016-11-01

    Conspecific adults have strong negative effect on the survival of nearby early-stage seedlings and thus can promote species coexistence by providing space for the regeneration of heterospecifics. The leaf litter fall from the conspecific adults, and it could mediate this conspecific negative adult effect. However, field evidence for such effect of conspecific leaf litter remains absent. In this study, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of conspecific leaf litter on the early-stage seedling survival of four dominant species (Machilus leptophylla, Litsea elongate, Acer pubinerve and Distylium myricoides) in early-stage seedlings in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in eastern China. Our results consistently showed that the conspecific leaf litter of three species negatively affected the seedling survival. Meanwhile, the traditional conspecific adult neighborhood indices failed to detect this negative conspecific adult effect. Our study revealed that the accumulation of conspecific leaf litter around adults can largely reduce the survival rate of nearby seedlings. Ignoring it could result in underestimation of the importance of negative density dependence and negative species interactions in the natural forest communities.

  10. Effects of acidity on tree pollen germination and tube growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, J.S.; Van Rye, D.M.; Lassoie, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that pollen germination and tube growth are adversely affected by air pollutants. Pollutants may inhibit the function of pollen by reducing the number of pollen grains which germinate, by reducing the maximum length to which the pollen tubes grow, or by interfering with the formation of the generative cell. The paper reports on studies that are attempting to determine the effects acid rain may have on these crucial stages in the life histories of northeastern tree species. The first stage of this work assessed the effects of acidity in the growth medium on in vitro pollen germination for four deciduous forest species common to central New York State, Betula lutea (yellow birch), B. lenta (black birch), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), and Cornus florida (flowering dogwood). Measurements were taken at the end of the growth period to determine the percentage of grains which had germinated, and to estimate the average tube length. To determine the effects of pollen on the growth medium, the pH of the germination drop was measured at the end of the growth period.

  11. THE COPĂCEL HILL FOREST, BETWEEN BĂLA AND ERCEA, A FUTURE RESERVE OF MUREŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OROIAN SILVIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest lies in the region known as the “Transylvanian Plain”, on the Copăcel hill, between Băla and Ercea. The specific landscape of this region is characterized by medium altitude hills, with wide and soft slopes. In this forest, the presence of the Delphinium simonkaianum Pawł. var. psilocarpum (Simk. Pawł species, a threatened endemic taxon, was reported in 1953. In 2011, this globally threatened taxon was identified, after 58 years, on the upper side of the Copăcel slope, in a mixed oak and hornbeam forest. These oak and hornbeam mixtures are the result of impacts exerted on oak forests. The identified association, Melampyro bihariensis-Carpinetum (Borza 1941 Soó 1964 em. Coldea 1975, has three distinct layers: the arborescent layer dominated by Carpinus betulus and Quercus petraea, along with Quercus robur, Prunus avium, Acer campestre, Ulmus glabra, etc., with good canopy cover (0.8-0.9; the shrub layer, represented by species such as: Crataegus monogyna, Corylus avellana, Cornus mas, Ligustrum vulgare, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, etc., is relatively poor in individuals, which are present particularly in forest clearings or at the edge of the forest. Grass synusia is well developed, sometimes forming an almost continuous cover (Asarum europaeum, Convallaria majalis, Dactylis glomerata ssp. aschersoniana, Galium odoratum, Melampyrum bihariense, Stellaria holostea, Aconitum anthora, Aconitum moldavicum, Lilium martagon, Arum orientale.

  12. Recognition of Time-Equivalent Leaf-Based Signals of Atmospheric CO2 and El Niño Variability in Florida Wetland Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Dilcher, D. L.; Visscher, H.; Kuerschner, W. M.

    2001-12-01

    Trees are equipped with a plastic phenotype, capable of sustained adjustment of numbers of leaf stomata to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. With high temporal resolution and accuracy, stomatal frequency data demonstrate that Holocene climate evolution has been influenced by century-scale CO2 fluctuations. Apart from adapting to changes in atmospheric CO2, leaf-epidermal properties are known to be sensitive to environmental factors such as water availability. In long-lived hygrophilous plants, epidermal tissue expansion is likely to be significantly influenced by changes in water availability. Concurrent analysis of the leaf morphology in CO2 sensitive trees (Myrica, Quercus, Acer) and a water-stress sensitive fern species (Osmunda regalis) from leaf assemblages preserved in peat deposits in Florida (USA), reveal distinct temporal changes in epidermal properties over the past 130 years. Stomatal frequency changes in the deciduous trees reflects the human induced CO2 increase. Epidermal-cell density changes in fern leaves, could well be interpreted in terms of El Niño / La Niña related precipitation trends. By quantifying the leaf morphological adaptation to known environmental conditions during historical times, a new paleobotanical proxy for past precipitation changes is introduced. Hence, in ENSO-sensitive regions, analysis of buried leaf assemblages offers the unique possibility of a direct recognition of time-equivalent leaf-based signals of paleo-atmospheric CO2 and El Niño variability.

  13. Reading the Leaves' Palm: Leaf Traits and Herbivory along the Microclimatic Gradient of Forest Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegel, Stephanie; Entling, Martin H; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Microclimate in different positions on a host plant has strong direct effects on herbivores. But little is known about indirect effects due to changes of leaf traits. We hypothesized that herbivory increases from upper canopy to lower canopy and understory due to a combination of direct and indirect pathways. Furthermore, we hypothesized that herbivory in the understory differs between tree species in accordance with their leaf traits. We investigated herbivory by leaf chewing insects along the vertical gradient of mixed deciduous forest stands on the broad-leaved tree species Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech) with study sites located along a 140 km long transect. Additionally, we studied juvenile Acer pseudoplatanus L. (sycamore maple) and Carpinus betulus L. (hornbeam) individuals within the understory as a reference of leaf traits in the same microclimate. Lowest levels of herbivory were observed in upper canopies, where temperatures were highest. Temperature was the best predictor for insect herbivory across forest layers in our study. However, the direction was opposite to the generally known positive relationship. Herbivory also varied between the three tree species with lowest levels for F. sylvatica. Leaf carbon content was highest for F. sylvatica and probably indicates higher amounts of phenolic defense compounds. We conclude that the effect of temperature must have been indirect, whereby the expected higher herbivory was suppressed due to unfavorable leaf traits (lower nitrogen content, higher toughness and carbon content) of upper canopy leaves compared to the understory.

  14. The effect of microbial inocula on the growth of black locust, Siberian elm and silver maple seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of forest plants depend mostly on the soil microbial activity since no mineral or organic fertilizers are applied. Microbial processes can be activated and conditions for plants development improved with the introduction of selected microorganisms in the soil. With the aim of obtaining quality planting material in a shorter period of time, the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum and Streptomyces sp. on the early growth of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila and silver-leaf maple (Acer dasycarpum were investigated in this study. Microorganisms were applied individually and in a mixture (1:1. Plant height was measured on the 90th, 120th and 180th day after planting. Plant diameter, as well as the number of actinomycetes and azotobacters was measured at the end of the vegetation period (180 days after planting. Applied microorganisms had a positive effect on the seedling height in all three plant species, with the best effect found in the black locust. Effectiveness of applied microorganisms on seedling diameter was the highest in the silver-leaf maple. The largest number of azotobacters was found in the rhizosphere of black locust. Number of microorganisms from both groups was increased in the inoculated variants. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002

  15. MOSSES AS BIOINDICATORS OF AIR POLLUTION ALONG AN URBAN–AGRICULTURAL TRANSECT IN THE CREDIT RIVER WATERSHED, SOUTHERN ONTARIO, CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cowden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The activities associated with urbanization, such as vehicular traffic and industrial processes, lead to elevated emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Measuring the spatial extent of these pollutants is pivotal to identifying areas of concern and assessing mitigation measures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative deposition of heavy metals and nitrogen using moss species along an urban–agricultural transition in the Credit River Watershed, southern Ontario. Thirteen species of moss were collected from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum dominated forest stands across the study area, with only one moss species (Atrichum altercristatum commonly occurring. Heavy metal concentrations were variable between species; the Coefficient of Variation (CV for the majority of metals (Al, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, As, Sb and Pb was greater than ~50% across species. Nonetheless, metals exhibited similar trends, with the highest concentrations for Fe, followed by Al > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > V > As > Cd > Sb > Hg across species. Heavy metal concentrations in Atrichum altercristatum exhibited lower variability between sites, with CV < 33% for most metals (Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Hg. Further, many metal concentrations were strongly correlated (e.g., Al, V, Cr, Fe, and As; r ≤ 0.90 suggesting common emission sources, such as wind blown dust from agricultural activities or vehicular traffic, both predominant throughout the watershed.

  16. Large-scale synchrony of gap dynamics and the distribution of understory tree species in maple-beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Dominique; Beaudet, Marilou; Messier, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale synchronous variations in community dynamics are well documented for a vast array of organisms, but are considerably less understood for forest trees. Because of temporal variations in canopy gap dynamics, forest communities-even old-growth ones-are never at equilibrium at the stand scale. This paucity of equilibrium may also be true at the regional scale. Our objectives were to determine (1) if nonequilibrium dynamics caused by temporal variations in the formation of canopy gaps are regionally synchronized, and (2) if spatiotemporal variations in canopy gap formation affect the relative abundance of tree species in the understory. We examined these questions by analyzing variations in the suppression and release history of Acer saccharum Marsh. and Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. from 481 growth series of understory saplings taken from 34 mature stands. We observed that (1) the proportion of stems in release as a function of time exhibited a U-shaped pattern over the last 35 years, with the lowest levels occurring during 1975-1985, and that (2) the response to this in terms of species composition was that A. saccharum became more abundant at sites that had the highest proportion of stems in release during 1975-1985. We concluded that the understory dynamics, typically thought of as a stand-scale process, may be regionally synchronized.

  17. Morphological and molecular identification of phytophthora species from maple trees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the study performed with aims to determine the presence and diversity of Phytophthora species on maple trees in Serbia. Due to high aggressiveness and their multicyclic nature, presence of these pathogens is posing significant threat to forestry and biodiversity. In total, 29 samples of water, soil and tissues were taken from 10 different localities, and six different maple hosts were tested. After the isolation tests, 17 samples from five different maple hosts were positive for the presence of Phytophthora spp., and 31 isolates were obtained. After the detailed morphological and physiological classification, four distinct groups of isolates were separated. DNA was extracted from selected representative isolates and molecular identification with sequencing of ITS region was performed. Used ITS4 and ITS6 primers successfully amplified the genomic DNA of chosen isolates and morphological identification of obtained isolates was confirmed after the sequencing. Four different Phytophthora species were detected, including P. cactorum, P. gonapodyides, P. plurivora and P. lacustris. The most common isolated species was homothallic, and with very variable and semipapillate sporangia, P. plurivora with 22 obtained isolates. This is the first report of P. plurivora and P. gonapodyides on A. campestre, P. plurivora and P. lacustris on Acer heldreichii and first report of P. lacustris on A. pseudoplatanus and A. tataricum in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 37008

  18. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick St-Denis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and without protection from bird and mammal predation. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis did not emerge in all treatments, paper birch (Betula papyrifera and tamarack (Larix laricina had a seedling emergence rate lower than 1%, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum had a low overall emergence rate of 6%. Seedling emergence reached 57% for northern red oak (Quercus rubra and 34% for red pine (Pinus resinosa, but survival of oak after one year was much higher (92% than pine seedlings (16%. Overall, protection from birds and mammals and elimination of the herbaceous vegetation cover had no detectable effects on seedling emergence, survival and height. Nonetheless, red oak seedlings growing in the presence of vegetation had a smaller diameter and shoot biomass and a larger specific leaf area. We conclude that only large seeded species, such as oak, should be used for forest restoration of abandoned fields by direct seeding in our region.

  19. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-10-01

    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  20. Selected beetle assemblages captured in pitfall traps baited with deer dung or meat in balsam fir and sugar maple forests of central Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousseau, Pierre-Marc; Cloutier, Conrad; Hébert, Christian

    2010-08-01

    Vertebrate dung and carrion are rich and strongly attractive resources for numerous beetles that are often closely linked to them. The presence and abundance of beetles exploiting such resources are influenced by various ecological factors including climate and forest cover vegetation. We studied selected assemblages of coprophilous and necrophagous beetles in Quebec along a 115-km north-south transect in three balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) forest sites and in a fourth forest site dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall), close to the southern fir site. Beetle abundance was estimated using a sampling design comprising replicated pitfall traps baited with red deer meat or dung in each site. A total of 8,511 beetles were caught and identified to family level, 95.7% of which belonged to families with known coprophilous or necrophagous behavior. Meat-baited pitfall traps caught nearly 15 times as many beetles as dung-baited traps. All Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, and Silphidae were identified to species to examine specific diversity variation among sites. For the beetles caught in the meat-baited traps (majority of captures), decreases in abundance and species richness were observed from south to north along the fir forest transect, with evidence of decreasing specific diversity as measured by the Shannon index of diversity. Strong differences in species assemblages were also observed between the southern maple and fir forest sites. The Silphidae and Histeridae were more abundant in the maple forest, whereas the Hydrophilidae and Ptilidae were more abundant in the fir forest.