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Sample records for acenaphthene

  1. Physico-mechanical properties of naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system by different modes of solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.L.; Gupta, S.; Tandon, S.; Kant, R.

    2008-01-01

    Anisotropic crystal growth kinetics from compositional melts encompassing the entire naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system, evidentially, evinces the dislocation mechanism. Rheological properties of eutectic phase melts at different temperatures explore the occurrence of molecular interactions emanating molecular clusters, rich in one phase or the other, in the eutectic melt. Microscopic studies confirm the crystalline faceted-faceted structure of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system. Implicit in the present work is the concept of strength-growth relationship that follows an identical form of the Weibull probability distribution curve. The curve exhibits two cut-off points corresponding to a lower strength limit in the slow and fast growth regions, and an upper strength limit in the moderate growth region. Relational essence between microstructural parameters essentially structuring morphology and excess thermodynamic functions implicitly governing molten state of the naphthalene-acenaphthene eutectic system is extracted

  2. Isolation and Identification of Carcinogen Acenaphthene-Degrading Endemic Bacteria from Crude Oil Contaminated Soils around Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: PAHs are non-polar organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene multi-rings. Among these compounds, acenaphthene is a multi-ring hydrocarbon that occurs abundantly in nature. Use of microorganisms to clean the contaminations of soil can be cheap and effective. The most important acenaphthene-degrading bacteria are pseudomonas, micrococcus, and Bacillus. The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria which degrade acenaphthene in soils around Abadan Refinery and to investigate the relation between the levels of environmental pollution with acenaphthene. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from three areas around Abadan Refinery. The number of the bacteria was counted on the nutrient agar culture with and without acenaphthene. Isolation of the bacteria was done by culturing the samples on acenaphthene broth with a mineral-salt medium, and on an acenaphthene agar medium. Then, the bacteria were identified via biochemical diagnostic tests. Results: The logarithm average of the bacteria was 4.786 ± 0.073 at a medium with acenaphthene, which was 6.671 ± 0.073 less than that of the control medium. The maximum number of degrading bacteria was 7.089 ± 0.089 at Station C, and the minimum number of the degrading bacteria was 4.485 ± 0.089 at Station B. In this study, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus Luteus, Corynebacterium sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas sp bacteria were isolated and identified in terms of frequency, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the soil around Abadan Refinery contained a great number of acenaphthene degrading bacteria, especially Bacillus and Micrococcus.

  3. Destruction of acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene by a dc gliding arc plasma reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Tu, Xin; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Yu; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2010-08-15

    In this study, four kinds of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) i.e. acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene are used as targets for investigation of PAHs treatment process assisted by dc gliding arc discharge. The effects of carrier gas and external resistance on the PAHs decomposition process are discussed. The results indicate that the destruction rate can be achieved to the highest with the carrier gas of oxygen and the external resistance of 50 kOmega independent of type of PAHs. Furthermore, experimental results suggest that destruction energy efficiency of gliding arc plasma would be improved by treating higher concentration pollutants. Based on the analysis of experimental results, possible destruction mechanisms in different gas discharge are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Destruction of acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene by a dc gliding arc plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Liang; Tu Xin; Li Xiaodong; Wang Yu; Chi Yong; Yan Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    In this study, four kinds of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) i.e. acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene are used as targets for investigation of PAHs treatment process assisted by dc gliding arc discharge. The effects of carrier gas and external resistance on the PAHs decomposition process are discussed. The results indicate that the destruction rate can be achieved to the highest with the carrier gas of oxygen and the external resistance of 50 kΩ independent of type of PAHs. Furthermore, experimental results suggest that destruction energy efficiency of gliding arc plasma would be improved by treating higher concentration pollutants. Based on the analysis of experimental results, possible destruction mechanisms in different gas discharge are discussed.

  5. Structural models of faceted-faceted eutectic system vanillin-acenaphthene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Thermodynamic model for the eutectic system vanillin-acenaphthene has been developed by analysing the excess functions computed from its experimentally determined solidus-liquidus equilibrium data. Spontaneous nucleation model has been explored from the maximum limit of undercooling of the system and verified by the experimental evidences of dislocation mechanism governing the anisotropic velocity of crystallisation determined at different undercoolings. Viscosity measurements of eutectic and non-eutectic melts at different temperatures revealed the essence of peculiar structural changes and specific energy interactions in the eutectic melt in the temperature range near its melting temperature. The rheological activation energy, E vis for eutectic and non-eutectic melts is found to be a function of temperature. Crystalline faceted structure of the system has been furnished with morphological evidences obtained from microscopic studies at different growth rates, whereas whisker reinforced structural model has been accomplished with mechanical properties computed for both isotropic and anisotropic modes of growth. Of greater interest is the special reference of moderate anisotropic growth, since experimental confirmation was obtained for the theoretical shape of parabolic variation in the mechanical properties of eutectic composite material with growth velocity. Direct evidence of three- to four-fold increase in strength properties of the eutectic material at its moderate anisotropic growth velocity (3.11x10 -7 m 3 s -1 ) in comparison with its isotropic growth in an ice bath (∼273 K), confirms a complete composite microstructure with whiskers in equilibrium with the matrix, embedded parallel to the growth direction

  6. X-ray, Hirshfeld surface analysis, spectroscopic and DFT studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Fluoranthene and acenaphthene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmiszek-Lindert Wioleta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray structure, theoretical calculation, Hirshfeld surfaces analysis, IR and Raman spectra of fluoranthene and acenaphthene were reported. Acenaphthene crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system and space group P21ma, with crystal parameters a = 7.2053 (9 Å, b = 13.9800 (15 Å, c = 8.2638 (8 Å, Z = 4 and V = 832.41 (16 Å3. In turn, the grown crystals of fluoranthene are in monoclinic system with space group P21/n. The unit cell parameters are a = 18.3490 (2 Å, b = 6.2273 (5 Å, c = 19.8610 (2 Å, β = 109.787 (13°, Z = 8 and unit cell volume is 2135.50 (4 Å3. Theoretical calculations of the title compounds isolated molecule have been carried out using DFT at the B3LYP level. The intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure, for both the title PAHs, were analyzed using Hirshfeld surfaces computational method.

  7. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 37 °C, 38 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37 °C, 37 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems.

  8. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene) in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegbeleye, Oluwadara Oluwaseun; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Jackson, Vanessa

    This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 37°C, 38°C, 40°C and 45°C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37°C, 37°C, 30°C and 35°C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. H2 EJECTION FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: INFRARED MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION STUDY OF PROTONATED ACENAPHTHENE AND 9,10-DIHYDROPHENANTHRENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin T.; Oomens, Jos; Steill, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of protonated acenaphthene ([ACN+H] + ) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene ([DHP+H] + ) have been recorded using an infrared free electron laser after the compounds were protonated by electrospray ionization and trapped in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. In both compounds, the loss of two mass units is predominant. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) of the infrared spectra of all possible protonated isomers of each species showed that the observed IRMPD spectra are best fit to the isomer with the largest proton affinity and lowest relative electronic energy. Potential energy surfaces of the most stable isomers of [ACN+H] + and [DHP+H] + have been calculated for H and H 2 loss. The lowest energy barriers are for loss of H 2 , with predicted energies 4.28 and 4.15 eV, respectively. After H 2 ejection, the adjacent aliphatic hydrogens migrate to the bare ejection site and stabilize the remaining fragment. Single H loss may occur from [ACN+H] + but the energy required is higher. No single H loss is predicted from [DHP+H] + , only H migration around the carbon skeleton. The vibrational bands in the parent closed-shell protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are compared to bands observed from the interstellar medium.

  10. The BIAN ligand 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene: An electron sponge or a „normal“ alpha-diimine ligand?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löw, I.; Bubrin, M.; Paretzki, A.; Fiedler, Jan; Záliš, Stanislav; Kaim, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 2 (2017), s. 540-548 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14129 Grant - others:COST(XE) CM1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : BIAN diimine ligand * Carbonylmetal complexes * Electron transfer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  11. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,

  12. A laboratory analog for the carrier of the 3 micron emission of the protoplanetary nebula IRAS 05341+0852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, L W; Wdowiak, T J; Arnoult, K M

    1997-09-10

    A mixture of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acenaphthylene and acenaphthene, when subjected to the energetic environment of a hydrogen plasma, is transformed into a material that exhibits an infrared absorption profile in the 3 micron region that is an excellent match of the protoplanetary nebula IRAS 05341+0852 emission profile in the same wavelength region. Acenaphthylene and acenaphthene were chosen as precursors in the experiment because these molecules have a structure that can be described as a keystone in a process in which carbon atoms in a stellar wind condense into PAH species. The spectral match between experiment and observations appears to validate that scenario.

  13. 40 CFR 464.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... are: Spray towers and chambers, venturi scrubbers (fixed and variable), wet caps, packed bed scrubbers...) Dust Collection Scrubber (§ 464.35(c) and § 464.36(b)): 1. acenaphthene 23. chloroform... (dichloromethane) 66. bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 77. acenaphthylene 84. pyrene (4) Melting Furnace Scrubber...

  14. Toxicity of xenobiotics during sulfate, iron, and nitrate reduction in primary sewage sludge suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The effect and persistence of six organic xenobiotics was tested under sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions in primary sewage sludge suspensions. The xenobiotics tested were acenaphthene, phenanthrene, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate...

  15. Temperature and pressure effects on solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.W.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Solubilities of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured with a procedure based on a direct on-line combination of a saturation cell to a flame ionization detector. Acenaphthene, anthrance and chrysene were selected as the test solutes. A method was

  16. Risk assessment of Xenobiotics in stormwater discharged to Harrestrup Å, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Baun, Anders; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2007-01-01

    in the City of Copenhagen, is one of these recipients, where biotest using algae showed measurable toxicity in eight samples taken in 2003. Twenty-five different XOCs were quantified in the same samples. The present study aimed at identifying the most relevant XOCs out of these 25 to be selected for further...... option to be implemented in order to improve the water quality. These are five pesticides (diuron, glyphosate, isoproturon, MCPA, terbutylazine), 4 PAHs (acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrene), 3 others (LAS, nonylphenol and dinitro-o-cresol)....

  17. Platinum complexes of 5,6-Dihydroacenaphtho[5,6-cd]-1,2-dichalcogenoles

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Callum G. M.; Schofield, Catherine M.; Randall, Rebecca A. M.; Wakefield, Lucy; Knight, Fergus R.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Woollins, J. Derek

    2013-01-01

    Six bis(phosphane) platinum complexes bearing dichalcogen acenaphthene ligands have been prepared by metathesis from cis-[PtCl2(PR3)(2)] (R-3 = Ph-3, Ph2Me, PhMe2) and the dilithium salts of the parent 5,6-dihydroacenaphtho[5,6-cd]-1,2-dichalcogenoles (AcenapE(2), L1 E = S, L2 E = Se). For their synthesis, the appropriate disulfide or diselenide species was treated with super hydride [LiBEt3H] to afford the dilithium salt by in situ reduction of the AcenapE(2) E-E bond. Further reaction, by m...

  18. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAS em cachaça, rum, uísque e álcool combustível Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS in cachaça, rum, whiskey and alcohol fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Galinaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 57 samples of distillates (cachaça, rum, whiskey, and alcohol fuel has been determined by HPLC-Fluorescence detection. The quantitative analytical profile of PAHs treated by Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA provided a good classification of the studied spirits based on their PAHs content. Additionally, the classification of the sugar cane derivatives according to the harvest practice was obtained treating the analytical data by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, using naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benz[b]fluoranthene, and benz[g,h,i]perylene, as a chemical descriptors.

  19. Effect of aromatic compounds on radiation resistance of polymers studied by optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1987-10-01

    To clarify the effects of condensed bromoacenaphthylene (con-BACN) as a newly developed flame retardant on the radiation resistance of ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer (EPDM), optical emission behavior of aromatic compounds, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene as model compound of con-BACN was studied. The energy absorbed in polymer matrix is transferred to the aromatic molecules very fast within 1 ns, and introduces excited states of aromatic compound. The fluorescence from naphthalene units of the additives with peak at 337 and 350 nm (named AT emission band) was observed in EPDM containing acenaphthene or acenaphthylene. When aromatic peroxide was used as a crosslinking agent, another emission band (Xn band) was observed at 400 nm. It was found that these emission bands play a role in trapping sites in which a part of radiation energy release in the form of fluorescence. The energy level of the excited state was correlated to the radiation stability measured with coloration and oxidation reaction of the polymer. Furthermore, acenaphthylene having a reactive vinyl bond forms excimer emission band Ex whose level is lower than those of AT and Xn bands, and therefore, enhances radiation stability of matrix polymer by giving effective routes for energy release. (author)

  20. Removing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water using granular activated carbon: kinetic and equilibrium adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeshwarasinghe, Dinushika; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2018-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a group of highly persistent, toxic and widespread environmental micropollutants that are increasingly found in water. A study was conducted in removing five PAHs, specifically naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenanthrene, from water by adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). The pseudo-first-order (PFO) model satisfactorily described the kinetics of adsorption of the PAHs. The Weber and Morris diffusion model's fit to the data showed that there were faster and slower rates of intra-particle diffusion probably into the mesopores and micropores of the GAC, respectively. These rates were negatively related to the molar volumes of the PAHs. Batch equilibrium adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, of which the Freundlich model exhibited the best fit. The adsorption affinities were related to the hydrophobicity of the PAHs as determined by the log K ow values. Free energies of adsorption calculated from the Dubinin-Radushkevich model and the satisfactory kinetic data fitting to the PFO model suggested physical adsorption of the PAHs. Adsorption of naphthalene, acenaphthylene and acenaphthene in fixed-bed columns containing a mixture of GAC (0.5 g) + sand (24.5 g) was satisfactorily simulated by the Thomas model.

  1. Evidence for in situ degradation of mono-and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in alluvial sediments based on microcosm experiments with 13C-labeled contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morasch, B.; Hoehener, P.; Hunkeler, D.

    2007-01-01

    A microcosm study was conducted to investigate the degradation of mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons under in situ-like conditions using alluvial sediments from the site of a former cokery. Benzene, naphthalene, or acenaphthene were added to the sediments as 13 C-labeled substrates. Based on the evolution of 13 C-CO 2 determined by gas chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) it was possible to prove mineralization of the compound of interest in the presence of other unknown organic substances of the sediment material. This new approach was suitable to give evidence for the intrinsic biodegradation of benzene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene under oxic and also under anoxic conditions, due to the high sensitivity and reproducibility of 13 C/ 12 C stable isotope analysis. This semi-quantitative method can be used to screen for biodegradation of any slowly degrading, strongly sorbing compound in long-term experiments. - A method based on 13 C-labeled substrates was developed to determine the intrinsic biodegradation potential of aromatic pollutants under oxic and under anoxic conditions

  2. [Selectivity tuning in multi-binary eluents for reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, M; Zou, H; Liang, X; Lu, P

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the retention equation and the relationship between retention parameters and the parameters of molecular structure deduced from statistical thermodynamics in RPLC have been used to explain the difference of selectivity towards a particular species of compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methanol/water, acetonitrile/water and isopropanol/acetonitrile have been provided in advance, then the retention behaviors of sixteen PAHs under three binary solvent systems have been investigated. It is found that each pair of binary solvents of methanol/water, acetonitrile/water and isopropanol/acetonitrile has its own unique selectivity. The best selectivity obtained for acenaphthene and fluorene is methanol/water system for fluoranthene and pyrene is acetonitrile/water, and for benzo[g,h,i]perylene and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene is isopropanol/acetonitrile. So a three-stepwise gradient elution of multi-binary mobile phase can be chosen for separation of 16 PAHs.

  3. Adsorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS from Aqueous Solutions on Different Sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smol Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the possibility and effectiveness of PAHs removal from a model aqueous solution, during the sorption on the selected sorbents. Six PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene listed by EPA for the analysis in the environmental samples were determined. Model aqueous solution was prepared with RESTEK 610 mix PAHs standard. After the sorption process, decrease in the concentration of individual hydrocarbons was observed. The removal percentage was dependent on the type of sorbent (quartz sand, mineral sorbent, activated carbon. The highest efficiency (98.1% was observed for activated carbon.. The results shows that the sorption processes can be used in aqueous solutions treatment procedures.

  4. The genus Artemisia L. in the northern region of Saudi Arabia: essential oil variability and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetat, Arbi; Al-Ghamdi, Faraj A; Osman, Ahmed K

    2017-03-01

    Four species of the genus Artemisia L. (Artemisia monosperma, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia judaica and Artemisia sieberi) growing in the northern region of Saudi Arabia were investigated with respect to their volatile oil contents. The yield of oil varied between 0.30 and 0.41%, % (w/w). A. monosperma showed the highest number of compounds with 30 components representing 93.78% of oil composition. However, A. judaica showed the lowest number of compounds with only 16 components representing 87.47% of essential oil. A. scoparia and A. sieberi are both composed of 17 components, representing 97.14 and 94.2% of total oil composition. A. sieberi and A. judaica were dominated by spathulenol (30.42 and 28.41%, respectively). For A. monosperma, butanoic acid (17.87%) was a major component. However, A. scoparia was a chemotype of acenaphthene. (83.23%). Essential oil of studied species showed high antibacterial activities against common human pathogens.

  5. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  6. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  8. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L{sup -1} were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies. (orig.)

  9. Radiation luminescence of polymers - emission behaviour of aromatic compounds incorporated in synthetic rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Hagiwara, Miyuki

    1986-01-01

    For a deep understanding of a radiation protection mechanism of some aromatic compounds on synthetic polymers, their optical emission behavior under electron irradiation was studied. The fluorescence light was led out of an irradiation room through a wave guide and detected by a photomultiplier so that less noisy spectrum was obtained. Acenaphthene or acenaphthylene was added to the synthetic rubbers such as ethylene propylene diene terpolymer, styrene butadiene rubber and cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The intensities of optical emission induced by electron beams changed from polymer to polymer, while those by ultraviolet lights were independent of the kind of polymers. The dependence of emission intensity on polymers under electron irradiation was estimated to show the fact that the radiation excited energy transfers occur from the polymer matrix to the additives and that an efficiency of the energy transfer is dependent on kinds of polymers. (author)

  10. Critical point measurement of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical properties of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured. • These hydrocarbons decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. - Abstract: The critical temperatures and the critical pressures of five polycyclic aromatic compounds, namely, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene have been measured. All the compounds studied decompose at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating technique applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from (0.06 to 0.85) ms. The short residence times provide little degradation of the substances in the course of the experiments. The experimental critical parameters of the polycyclic aromatic compounds have been compared with those estimated by five predictive methods. The acentric factors of polycyclic aromatic compounds studied have been calculated

  11. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2,5 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Murillo, Jorge; Chaves Villalobos, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was validated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM2,5 particles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, Benzo (a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo (b)fluoranthene, Benzo (k)fluoranthene, Benzo (a)pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h)anthracene, Benzo (g, h, i)perylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CD)pyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit have been between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l. An equipment DIONEX, ICS 3000 model is used, that has two in series detectors: one ultraviolet model VWD-1, and fluorescence detector, model RF-2000, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds analyzed, the recovery factor has found not significantly different from each other and the repeatability and reproducibility has been to be suitable for an analytical method, especially for the lighter PAHs. (author) [es

  12. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  13. Occurrence and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements and typical organic pollutants in contaminated rural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Dai, Shixiang; Meng, Ke; Wang, Yuting; Ren, Wenjie; Zhao, Ling; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying

    2018-07-15

    The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits. The health risk assessment model used to calculate human exposure indicates that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from selected pollutants were generally acceptable or close to acceptable. Different types of pollution sources and soil physicochemical properties substantially affected the soil residual concentrations of and risks from these pollutants. PTEs in soils collected from agricultural lands around industrial and residential areas and organic pollutants (PAEs and PAHs) in soils collected from agricultural areas around livestock breeding were higher than those from other types of pollution sources and merit long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and quantification of phencyclidine pyrolysis products formed during smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, L P; Scimeca, J A; Thomas, B F; Martin, B R

    1986-01-01

    As a result of frequent phencyclidine (PCP) abuse, pyrolysis studies were conducted to further investigate its fate during smoking. Marijuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with 3H-PCP X HCI and burned under conditions simulating smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters as well as acidic and basic traps. Approximately 90% of the starting material could be accounted for in the first glass wool trap and cigarette holder. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of these glass wool traps revealed the presence of 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (47% of the starting material) greater than PCP (40%) greater than piperidine (15%) greater than N-acetylpiperidine (9%). It was not possible to fully account for the remainder of the piperidine moiety. It has been reported that at high temperatures PCP is converted to numerous polynuclear aromatic compounds which include styrene, alpha-methylstyrene, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, cyclohexylbenzene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These compounds were not formed from PCP under smoking conditions.

  15. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in southwestern catchments of the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lin; Zeng, Siyu; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Tianzhu; Chen, Jining

    2013-10-01

    A probability risk assessment was undertaken to study the individual and combined ecological risks induced by six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both in surface water and sediment from southwestern catchments of the Bohai Sea, China. The actual measured PAH concentrations in water and sediment were compared with toxicity effect data (the 10th percentile of predicted no effect concentration) to calculate the risk quotients (RQs) for an individual PAH. The equilibrium partitioning method was applied to estimate toxicity data in sediment. A method based on the equivalent concentration concept was proposed and applied to assess the combined ecological risk of multiple PAHs. Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap technique were utilized to calculate the distribution of RQs and associated uncertainties. The ecological safety level was defined by RQ ≤ 1. Results indicated that both in water and sediment, fluoranthene and pyrene posed the highest risks, whereas acenaphthene and fluorene posed negligible risks. Naphthalene and phenanthrene did not pose risks to the ecological community in surface water but had relatively higher risks in sediment. The median RQs of combined risk in surface water and sediment were 0.934 and 2.42, and the probabilities of RQ > 1 were up to 0.473 and 0.599, respectively, which were much higher than the individual compound acting alone. The risk level in sediment was quite higher than in surface water probably owing to the non-equilibrium distribution between two phases, which suggested that local authorities should focus more on sediment quality management.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioaccessibility in seafood: Culinary practices effects on dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Fogaça, Fabíola Helena; Soares, Cristina; Oliveira, Marta; Alves, Ricardo N; Maulvault, Ana L; Barbosa, Vera L; Anacleto, Patrícia; Magalhães, João Avelar; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Morais, Simone; Marques, António

    2018-07-01

    This work aimed to determine the effect of culinary practices on the contamination level and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seafood. The selected farmed seafood species (marine shrimp, clams and seaweed) were commercially available in Portugal. The mean concentrations of PAHs varied between 0.23 and 51.8 µg kg -1 , with the lowest value being observed in raw shrimp and the highest in dried seaweed. The number of compounds detected in seaweed and clams (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) were higher than in shrimp (fluorene and pyrene). Among the PAHs measured, fluorene was the predominant one. There was a significant interaction effect between species and culinary treatment (p < 0.05), thus boiled and dried seaweed samples presented the lowest and the highest levels of fluorene (0.13 and 1.8 µg kg -1 ), respectively. The daily intake of PAHs decreased with bioaccessibility, varying from 22% for benzo(k)fluoranthene (in raw clam) to 84% for phenanthrene (in steamed clam). According to the potency equivalent concentrations, screening values and bioaccessibility of PAHs, the consumption of marine shrimp, clam and seaweed is considered as safe for consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and quantification of organic pollutants in the air of the city of Astana using solid phase microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Orazbayeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC-MS was used for determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, and for identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in ambient air of the city of Astana, Kazakhstan. The screening of the samples showed the presence of mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, phenols, and benzaldehydes. The concentrations of naphthalene were 5-7 times higher than the permissible value, it was detected in all studied air samples. Average concentration of naphthalene was 18.4 μg/m3, acenaphthylene – 0.54 μg/m3, acenaphthene – 1.63 μg/m3, fluorene – 0.79 μg/m3, anthracene – 3.27 μg/m3, phenanthrene – 0.22 μg/m3, fluorantene – 0.74 μg/m3, pyrene – 0.73 μg/m3. Average concentrations of BTEX in the studied samples were 31.1, 84.9, 10.8 and 11.6 μg/m3, respectively. Based on the statistical analysis of the concentrations of BTEX and PAH, the main source of city air pollution with them was assumed to be vehicle emissions.

  18. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research and development of coal energy. Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil; 1991 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu bunseikiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research of coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil. Alkalis and alkali earth metals present during coal liquefied oil hydrogenation treatment deteriorate the activity remarkably as an effect of metal deposition from an Mo-based catalyst on the activity deterioration. Discussions were given on hydrogenating decomposition paths for bi-cyclic compounds by using reaction of model substances. Preliminary discussions were given jointly under the Japanese and Canadian technical cooperation on enhancing the quality of co-treated oil in the coal liquefaction, and on catalysts used therein. A 1-t/d PSU circulating solvent was studied to support the NEDO's bituminous coal liquefaction program. Analyses were carried out on acenaphthenes, biphenyls, phenanthrenes, and anthracenes in the oil liquefied from Wandoan coal. Discussions were given on CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the effects of catalyst concentrations and particle sizes in the coal liquefying reaction. In order to elucidate different non-covalently bonded high-order structures of coal polymer assemblies, chemical treatment was applied to coals under a relatively mild condition (room temperature to 150 degrees C). Chemical structures as a result of the non-covalent bond in the coals were investigated from change due to the treatment in the pyridine extraction characteristics. (NEDO)

  19. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to a portable mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Taylor, Stephen; Cooks, R Graham

    2015-02-01

    Desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) is implemented on a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the direct detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl substituted benzenes. The presence of these compounds in the environment poses a significant threat to the health of both humans and wildlife because of their carcinogenic, toxic, and mutagenic properties. As such, instant detection outside of the laboratory is of particular importance to allow in-situ measurement at the source. Using a rapid, high throughput, miniature, handheld mass spectrometer, several alkyl substituted benzenes and PAHs (i.e., 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, pentamethylbenzene, hexamethylbenzene, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, acenaphthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, 9-ethylfluorene, and 1-benzyl-3-methyl-naphthalene) were identified and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) from ambient surfaces, in the open air. This method can provide almost instantaneous information while minimizing sample preparation, which is advantageous in terms of both cost and simplicity of analysis. This MS-based technique is applicable to a wide range of environmental organic molecules.

  20. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part A-Monocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-08-01

    Present study focused on the screening of bacterial consortium for biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (MAH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Target compounds in the present study were naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene (PAHs), and benzene (MAH). Microbial consortia enriched with the above target compounds were used in screening experiments. Naphthalene-enriched consortium was found to be the most efficient consortium, based on its substrate degradation rate and its ability to degrade other aromatic pollutants with significantly high efficiency. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order benzene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > phenanthrene. Chryseobacterium and Rhodobacter were discerned as the predominant species in naphthalene-enriched culture. They are closely associated to the type strain Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae and Rhodobacter maris, respectively. Single substrate biodegradation studies with naphthalene (PAH) and benzene (MAH) were carried out using naphthalene-enriched microbial consortium (NAPH). Phenol and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the predominant intermediates during benzene and naphthalene degradation, respectively. Biodegradation of toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenol, and indole by NAPH was also investigated. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for benzene, whereas multiple substrate biodegradation model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for naphthalene.

  1. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water samples by solid-phase nanoextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Campiglia, Andres D

    2008-11-01

    A novel alternative is presented for the extraction and preconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from water samples. The new approachwhich we have named solid-phase nanoextraction (SPNE)takes advantage of the strong affinity that exists between PAH and gold nanoparticles. Carefully optimization of experimental parameters has led to a high-performance liquid chromatography method with excellent analytical figures of merit. Its most striking feature correlates to the small volume of water sample (500 microL) for complete PAH analyses. The limits of detection ranged from 0.9 (anthracene) to 58 ng.L (-1) (fluorene). The relative standard deviations at medium calibration concentrations vary from 3.2 (acenaphthene) to 9.1% (naphthalene). The analytical recoveries from tap water samples of the six regulated PAH varied from 83.3 +/- 2.4 (benzo[ k]fluoranthene) to 95.7 +/- 4.1% (benzo[ g,h,i]perylene). The entire extraction procedure consumes less than 100 microL of organic solvents per sample, which makes it environmentally friendly. The small volume of extracting solution makes SPNE a relatively inexpensive extraction approach.

  2. Characterization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikilili, Phumza V.; Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biodegradation of recalcitrant toxic organics under radioactive conditions. → Biodegradation of PAHs of varying size and complexity in mixed waste streams. → Validation of radiation-tolerance and performance of the isolated organisms. - Abstract: PAH degrading Pseudomonad and Alcaligenes species were isolated from landfill soil and mine drainage in South Africa. The isolated organisms were mildly radiation tolerant and were able to degrade PAHs in simulated nuclear wastewater. The radiation in the simulated wastewater, at 0.677 Bq/μL, was compatible to measured values in wastewater from a local radioisotope manufacturing facility, and was enough to inhibit metabolic activity of known PAH degraders from soil such as Pseudomonas putida GMP-1. The organic constituents in the original radioactive waste stream consisted of the full range of PAHs except fluoranthene. Among the observed PAHs in the nuclear wastewater from the radioisotope manufacturing facility, acenaphthene and chrysene predominated-measured at 25.1 and 14.2 mg/L, respectively. Up to sixteen U.S.EPA priority PAHs were detected at levels higher than allowable limits in drinking water. The biodegradation of the PAHs was limited by the solubility of the compounds. This contributed to the observed faster degradation rates in low molecular weight (LMW) compounds than in high molecular weight compounds.

  3. Effects of fulvic acid concentration and origin on photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solution: Importance of active oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xinghui; Li Gongchen; Yang Zhifeng; Chen Yumin; Huang, Gordon H.

    2009-01-01

    With an Xe arc lamp house as simulated sunlight, the influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration and origins on photodegradation of acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene in aqueous solution have been studied. Similar effects of FAs, collected from five places around China, on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) photodegradation have been observed. Active oxygen was of significance in PAH photodegradation with the presence of FAs. For systems with 1.25 mg L -1 FAs, the contributions of ·OH to PAH photodegradation rates were from 33% to 69%. FAs had two opposite effects, i.e., stimulating the generation of active oxygen and advancing PAH photodegradation; competing with PAHs for energy and photons and restraining PAH photodegradation. Generally, photodegradation rates of the 5 PAHs decreased with the increase of FAs concentration; except fluoranthene and pyrene were advanced in solutions with low FA concentration. The influences of FA concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin. - Influences of fulvic acid (FA) concentration on PAH photodegradation were more significant than FA origin, and active oxygen played an important role in PAH photodegradation

  4. Effect of non-aqueous phase liquid on biodegradation of PAHs in spilled oil on tidal flat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, T.; Miyagishi, A.; Mukai, T.; Takimoto, K.; Okada, M.

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spilled oil stranded on tidal flats were studied using model reactors to clarify the effects of NAPL on the biodegradation of PAHs in stranded oil on tidal flat with special emphasis on the relationship between dissolution rates of PAHs into water and viscosity of NAPL. Biodegradation of PAHs in NAPL was limited by the dissolution rates of PAHs into water. Biodegradation rate of chrysene was smaller than that for acenaphthene and phenanthrene due to the smaller dissolution rates. Dissolution rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil due to high viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, biodegradation rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil. Biodegradation rates of PAHs in NAPL with slow decrease rate like fuel oil C were slower than those in NAPL with rapid decrease like crude oil. The smaller decrease rate of fuel oil C than crude oil was due to higher viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, not only the dissolution rate of PAHs but also the decrease rates of NAPL were important factors for the biodegradation of PAHs. (author)

  5. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Shaoliang; Feng, Qiyan; Hou, Huping; Chen, Fu

    2016-09-02

    This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09-3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  6. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Residues in Serum Samples of Autopsied Individuals from Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramandla Ramesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.

  7. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research and development of coal energy. Studies on coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil; 1991 nendo sekitan ekikayo shokubai oyobi ekikayu bunseikiho no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1991 on research of coal liquefying catalysts and a method for analyzing liquefied oil. Alkalis and alkali earth metals present during coal liquefied oil hydrogenation treatment deteriorate the activity remarkably as an effect of metal deposition from an Mo-based catalyst on the activity deterioration. Discussions were given on hydrogenating decomposition paths for bi-cyclic compounds by using reaction of model substances. Preliminary discussions were given jointly under the Japanese and Canadian technical cooperation on enhancing the quality of co-treated oil in the coal liquefaction, and on catalysts used therein. A 1-t/d PSU circulating solvent was studied to support the NEDO's bituminous coal liquefaction program. Analyses were carried out on acenaphthenes, biphenyls, phenanthrenes, and anthracenes in the oil liquefied from Wandoan coal. Discussions were given on CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the effects of catalyst concentrations and particle sizes in the coal liquefying reaction. In order to elucidate different non-covalently bonded high-order structures of coal polymer assemblies, chemical treatment was applied to coals under a relatively mild condition (room temperature to 150 degrees C). Chemical structures as a result of the non-covalent bond in the coals were investigated from change due to the treatment in the pyridine extraction characteristics. (NEDO)

  8. Oxidation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Steven P; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, James F

    2010-04-01

    The reactivity of permanganate towards polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well known but little kinetic information is available. This study investigated the oxidation kinetics of a selected group of coal tar creosote compounds and alkylbenzenes in water using permanganate, and the correlation between compound reactivity and physical/chemical properties. The oxidation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, carbazole isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene and methylbenzene closely followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation of pyrene was initially very rapid and did not follow pseudo first-order kinetics at early times. Fluoranthene was only partially oxidized and the oxidation of anthracene was too fast to be captured. Biphenyl, dibenzofuran, benzene and tert-butylbenzene were non-reactive under the study conditions. The oxidation rate was shown to increase with increasing number of polycyclic rings because less energy is required to overcome the aromatic character of a polycyclic ring than is required for benzene. Thus the rate of oxidation increased in the series naphthalenepermanganate. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  10. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09–3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites.

  11. Identification and quantification of phencyclidine pyrolysis products formed during smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, L.P.; Scimeca, J.A.; Thomas, B.F.; Martin, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    As a result of frequent phencyclidine (PCP) abuse, pyrolysis studies were conducted to further investigate its fate during smoking. Marijuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with 3 H-PCP HCl and burned under conditions simulating smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters as well as acidic and basic traps. Approximately 90% of the starting material could be accounted for in the first glass wool trap and cigarette holder. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of these glass wool traps revealed the presence of 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (47% of the starting material) > PCP (40%) > piperidine (15%) > N-acetylpiperidine (9%). It was not possible to fully account for the remainder of the piperidine moiety. It has been reported that at high temperatures PCP is converted to numerous polynuclear aromatic compounds which include styrene, α-methylstyrene, naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, cyclohexylbenzene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These compounds were not formed from PCP under smoking conditions

  12. Remediation of Wheat-Straw-Biochar on Petroleum-Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Wen-ying

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochar was made from wheat straw at 300 ℃ for 3, 6, 8 hours respectively. The productivity, pH, ash content and C, H, N content of these biochar were compared. The surface morphology of the 300 ℃-6 h biochar was characterized, and it was used to remediate the petroleum-polluted soil of Dagang oil field. Results showed that, as the extension of pyrolisis time, the productivity of biochar decreased, pH increased, ash content increased, H/C decreased. But productivity, pH, ash content and H/C changed significantly from 3 h to 6 h, unsignificantly from 6 h to 8 h. C content showed a downward trend after the first rise. After remediation of biochar for 14 and 28 days, the TPH degradation rate were 45.48% and 46.88% respectively, higher than control group. After 14 days remediation, content of naphthalene, acenaphthene, Benzo [a] anthracene, chrysene, Benzo [b] fluoranthene, Benzo [k] fluoranthene, Benzo [a] pyrene, Indene and [1,2,3-CD] pyrene were decreased to various degrees, with the Benzo [a] pyrene content decreased by 98.18%, and the degradation rate of other PAH higher than control group. After 28 days remediation however, content of these PAH showed a rising trend. It suggested that pyrolisis time had influence on biochar’ s characteristics, and 300 ℃-6 h biochar could be used to remediate petroleum-polluted soil.

  13. Colonization on root surface by a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium and its application for reducing plant phenanthrene contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liu

    Full Text Available A phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium, Pn2, was isolated from Alopecurus aequalis Sobol grown in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Based on morphology, physiological characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence, it was identified as Massilia sp. Strain Pn2 could degrade more than 95% of the phenanthrene (150 mg · L(-1 in a minimal salts medium (MSM within 48 hours at an initial pH of 7.0 and a temperature of 30 °C. Pn2 could grow well on the MSM plates with a series of other PAHs, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, and degrade them to different degrees. Pn2 could also colonize the root surface of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam, invade its internal root tissues and translocate into the plant shoot. When treated with the endophyte Pn2 under hydroponic growth conditions with 2 mg · L(-1 of phenanthrene in the Hoagland solution, the phenanthrene concentrations in ryegrass roots and shoots were reduced by 54% and 57%, respectively, compared with the endophyte-free treatment. Strain Pn2 could be a novel and useful bacterial resource for eliminating plant PAH contamination in polluted environments by degrading the PAHs inside plants. Furthermore, we provide new perspectives on the control of the plant uptake of PAHs via endophytic bacteria.

  14. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of a series of pure PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhi-juan [Ocean College, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Wang, Jie [College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Ye, Shu-ming [College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Jiang, Chun-yue, E-mail: zjjcy@zjut.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Chen, Hang [College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the EEM of a series of pure PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) with three different concentrations (10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}, and 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}) were investigated in a pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 60 MPa at room temperature. According to the EEM, 2 (naphthalene) to 12 (anthracene) fluorescence peaks were observed and the variation of EEM under high pressure were revealed by analyzing the fluorescence peaks positions and intensities with the increased hydrostatic pressure. It is found that fluorescence peak shifts were not detected in the compression, however, both the enhancement of intensity (e.g. naphthalene, 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, peak of 225/330 nm, relative fluorescence intensity increased by 0.594) and reduction of intensity (e.g. fluorene, 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, peak of 275/309 nm, relative fluorescence intensity decreased by 0.0966) were observed. Otherwise, the pressure effects were magnified when the concentration was increased (e.g. the relative fluorescence intensity of anthracene (peak of 380/425 nm) increased by 0.0165 (10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}) and decreased by 0.479 (10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}) when the pressure was elevated from 0.1 MPa to 60 MPa).

  15. Fast pyrolysis of creosote treated wood ties in a fluidized bed reactor and analytical characterization of product fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su-Hwa; Koo, Won-Mo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    A fraction of creosote treated wood ties was pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char-separation system at different temperatures. Analyses of each pyrolysis product, especially the oil, were carried out using a variety of analytical tools. The maximum oil yield was obtained at 458 °C with a value of 69.3 wt%. Oils obtained were easily separated into two phases, a creosote-derived fraction (CDF) and a wood-derived fraction (WDF). Major compounds of the WDF were acetic acid, furfural and levoglucosan, while the CDF was mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. HPLC analysis showed that the concentration of PAHs of the CDF obtained at 458 °C constituted about 22.5 wt% of the oil. - Highlights: • Creosote treated wood ties was stably pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor. • Pyrolysis oil contained extremely low metal content due to the char removal system. • Bio-oil components was quantitatively analyzed by relative response factor. • Creosote-derived pyrolysis oil fraction was composed of PHAs and has a high caloric value (39 MJ/kg)

  16. Four-dimensional data coupled to alternating weighted residue constraint quadrilinear decomposition model applied to environmental analysis: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Shutao; Cui, Yaoyao; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Lingfei; Yang, Zhe

    2018-03-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combining with Alternating Weighted Residue Constraint Quadrilinear Decomposition (AWRCQLD). The experimental subjects were acenaphthene (ANA) and naphthalene (NAP). Firstly, in order to solve the redundant information of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral data, the wavelet transform was used to compress data in preprocessing. Then, the four-dimensional data was constructed by using the excitation-emission fluorescence spectra of different concentration PAHs. The sample data was obtained from three solvents that are methanol, ethanol and Ultra-pure water. The four-dimensional spectral data was analyzed by AWRCQLD, then the recovery rate of PAHs was obtained from the three solvents and compared respectively. On one hand, the results showed that PAHs can be measured more accurately by the high-order data, and the recovery rate was higher. On the other hand, the results presented that AWRCQLD can better reflect the superiority of four-dimensional algorithm than the second-order calibration and other third-order calibration algorithms. The recovery rate of ANA was 96.5% 103.3% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.04 μgL- 1. The recovery rate of NAP was 96.7% 115.7% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.06 μgL- 1.

  17. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of a series of pure PAHs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhi-juan; Wang, Jie; Ye, Shu-ming; Jiang, Chun-yue; Chen, Hang

    2017-01-01

    The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the EEM of a series of pure PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, and anthracene) with three different concentrations (10 -6 mol L -1 , 10 -5 mol L -1 , and 10 -4 mol L -1 ) were investigated in a pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 60 MPa at room temperature. According to the EEM, 2 (naphthalene) to 12 (anthracene) fluorescence peaks were observed and the variation of EEM under high pressure were revealed by analyzing the fluorescence peaks positions and intensities with the increased hydrostatic pressure. It is found that fluorescence peak shifts were not detected in the compression, however, both the enhancement of intensity (e.g. naphthalene, 10 -6 mol L -1 , peak of 225/330 nm, relative fluorescence intensity increased by 0.594) and reduction of intensity (e.g. fluorene, 10 -6 mol L -1 , peak of 275/309 nm, relative fluorescence intensity decreased by 0.0966) were observed. Otherwise, the pressure effects were magnified when the concentration was increased (e.g. the relative fluorescence intensity of anthracene (peak of 380/425 nm) increased by 0.0165 (10 -6 mol L -1 ) and decreased by 0.479 (10 -6 mol L -1 ) when the pressure was elevated from 0.1 MPa to 60 MPa).

  18. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil: part II, fluxes from coal tar contaminated soils residing below the soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soil, placed below a 5 cm deep layer of uncontaminated soil, were measured in the laboratory over a period of 53 days. The contaminated soil originated from a former gasworks site and contained concentrations of 11 selected aromatic hydrocarbons between 50 to 840 μg/cm 3 . Where the microbial activity was inhibited, the fluxes stabilized on a semi-steady-state level for the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene after a period of 10-20 days. Fluxes of acenaphthene and fluorene were only measurable in an experiment that utilized a cover soil with a low organic content. The fluxes were predicted by a numerical model assuming that the compounds acted independently of each other and that local equilibrium between the air, water, and sorbed phases existed. The model overestimated the fluxes for all the detected aromatic hydrocarbons by a factor of 1.3 to 12. When the cover soil was adapted to degrade naphthalene, the fluxes of naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene approached the detection limit after 5 to 8 days. Thereafter the fluxes of these two compounds were less than predicted by the model employing half-life values of 0.5 and 1 day for naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene respectively. 10 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Atmospheric Distribution of PAHs and Quinones in the Gas and PM1 Phases in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, Mexico: Sources and Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ojeda-Castillo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and quinones in the gas phase and as submicron particles raise concerns due to their potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. The majority of existing studies have investigated the formation of quinones, but it is also important to consider both the primary and secondary sources to estimate their contributions. The objectives of this study were to characterize PAHs and quinones in the gas and particulate matter (PM1 phases in order to identify phase distributions, sources, and cancer risk at two urban monitoring sites in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (GMA in Mexico. The simultaneous gas and PM1 phases samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography–mass spectrometer. The lifetime lung cancer risk (LCR due to PAH exposure was calculated to be 1.7 × 10−3, higher than the recommended risk value of 10−6, indicating a potential health hazard. Correlations between parent PAHs, criteria pollutants, and meteorological parameters suggest that primary sources are the main contributors to the Σ8 Quinones concentrations in PM1, while the secondary formation of 5,12-naphthacenequinone and 9,10-anthraquinone may contribute less to the observed concentration of quinones. Additionally, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in PM1, suggest photochemical degradation into unidentified species. Further research is needed to determine how these compounds are formed.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and Oxygenated PAH (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-06

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.

  2. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.

  3. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the North Pacific to the Arctic: Field measurements and fugacity model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hongwei; Chen, Mian; Liu, Mengyang; Chen, Meng; Duan, Mengshan; Huang, Peng; Hong, Jiajun; Lin, Yan; Cheng, Shayen; Wang, Xuran; Huang, Mengxue; Cai, Minggang

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have accumulated ubiquitously inArctic environments, where re-volatilization of certain organic pollutants as a result of climate change has been observed. To investigate the fate of semivolatile organic compounds in the Arctic, dissolved PAHs in the surface seawaters from the temperate Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean, as well as a water column in the Arctic Ocean, were collected during the 4th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in summer 2010. The total concentrations of seven dissolved PAHs in surface water ranged from 1.0 to 5.1 ng L -1 , decreasing with increasing latitude. The vertical profile of PAHs in the Arctic Ocean was generally characteristic of surface enrichment and depth depletion, which emphasized the role of vertical water stratification and particle settling processes. A level III fugacity model was developed in the Bering Sea under steady state assumption. Model results quantitatively simulated the transfer processes and fate of PAHs in the air and water compartments, and highlighted a summer air-to-sea flux of PAHs in the Bering Sea, which meant that the ocean served as a sink for PAHs, at least in summer. Acenaphthylene and acenaphthene reached equilibrium in air-water diffusive exchange, and any perturbation, such as a rise in temperature, might lead to disequilibrium and remobilize these compounds from their Arctic reservoirs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs concentrations in urban and natural forest soils in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bourotte

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in tropical soils and Brazil are scarce. A study was performed to examine the PAHs composition, concentrations and sources in red-yellow Oxisols of remnant Atlantic Forest of the São Paulo State. Sampling areas were located in an urban site (PEFI and in a natural one (CUNHA.The granulometric composition, pH, organic matter content and mineralogical composition were determined in samples of superficial soils. The sum of PAHs (ΣHPAs was 4.5 times higher in the urban area than in the natural one. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene have been detected in the soils of both areas and presented similar concentrations. Acenaphthene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds. Pyrene was twice more abundant in the soils of natural area (15 µg.kg-1 than of the urban area and fluoranthene was the dominant compound (203 µg.kg-1 in urban area (6.8 times higher than in the natural area. Some compounds of higher molecular weight, which are tracers of vehicular emissions showed significant concentrations in urban soils. Pyrene represented 79% of ΣPAHs whereas it has not been detected in natural soils. The results showed that forest soils in urban area are characterized by the accumulation of high molecular weight compounds of industrial and vehicular origin.Estudos sobre a poluição por Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (HPAs são escassos em solos tropicais e no Brasil. Um estudo foi realizado para examinar a composição, as concentrações e fontes de HPAs encontrados em Latossolos vermelho-amarelo (Oxissolos, remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no Estado de São Paulo. As áreas de estudos localizaram-se em um sítio urbano (PEFI e um natural (CUNHA. A composição granulométrica, pH, teor de matéria orgânica e composição mineralógica foram determinados em amostras de solo superficial. A soma dos HPAs analisados (ΣHPAs foi 4,5 vezes mais

  5. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarian, Artaches A.; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A.; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C.; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L"−"1 levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min"−"1, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L"−"1 for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  6. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: echochen327@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao, Rongzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xue, Jun [National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between

  7. Occurrence of organic pollutants in recovered soil fines from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y C; Townsend, T G

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize recovered soil fines from construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling facilities for trace organic pollutants. Over a period of 18 months, five sampling trips were made to 14 C&D waste recycling facilities in Florida. Screened soil fines were collected from older stockpiles and newly generated piles at the sites. The samples were analyzed for the total concentration (mg/kg) of a series of volatile organic compound (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (semi-VOCs). The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) test was also performed to evaluate the leachability of the trace organic chemicals. During the total analysis only a few volatile organic compounds were commonly found in the samples (trichlorofluoromethane, toluene, 4-isopropyltoluene, trimethylbenzene, xylenes, and methylene chloride). A total of nine VOCs were detected in the leaching test. Toluene showed the highest leachability among the compounds (61.3-92.0%), while trichlorofluoromethane, the most commonly detected compound from both the total and leaching tests, resulted in the lowest leachability (1.4-39.9%). For the semi-VOC analysis, three base-neutral semi-VOC compounds (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate) and several PAHs (acenaphthene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and phenanthrene) were commonly detected in C&D fines samples. These compounds also leached during the SPLP leaching test (0.1-25%). No acid extractable compounds, pesticides, or PCBs were detected. The results of this study were further investigated to assess risk from land applied recovered soil fines by comparing total and leaching concentrations of recovered soil fines samples to risk-based standards. The results of this indicate that the organic chemicals in recovered soil fines from C&D debris recycling facilities were not of a major concern in terms of human risk and leaching risk to groundwater under reuse and contact scenarios.

  8. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon Q, Jorge; Garcia L, Hector; Bustos L, Martha; Bravo A, Humberto; Sosa E, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were determined in particulate matter with a <10 mm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in three industrial municipalities of the metropolitan zone of Bogota City (MZBC). The 12 samples of greatest concentration of PM10 collected between 2001 and 2002 at the stations of atmospheric monitoring of Cundinamarca secretary of health (SSC), in the municipalities of Soacha, Sibate and Cajica, were analyzed. The results were correlated with emissions in the area, by means of emission factors and environmental agencies information. The particulate matter results for the analyzed period show concentrations that exceed the air quality standard of the US environmental protection agency EPA on several occasions at the Soacha municipality, whereas the air quality in the Sibate and Cajica municipalities did not show that to be the case. Despite the reduced number of samples and sampling sites, we believe that the reported profiles can be considered a valid estimation of the average air quality of the MZBC. The identified PAH species were: phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (Baa), chrysene(chr), benzo(ghi)perylene(BgP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(Ind). It was not possible to quantify naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthy-lene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), nor fluorene(Flu), being light and volatile hydrocarbons with greater presence in the gaseous phase of the air. The correlation of PAH with source emissions shows mobile sources to be the main origin. The intervals of concentration of both individual PAH and the total species were similar to the ones usually found in other industrial zones of the world. PAHs correlations allowed pinpointing common emission sources between Soacha and Sibate municipalities

  9. Catalyst activity or stability: the dilemma in Pd-catalyzed polyketone synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Francesco; Zangrando, Ennio; Carfagna, Carla; Müller, Christian; Vogt, Dieter; Hagar, Mohamed; Ragaini, Fabio; Milani, Barbara

    2013-10-28

    A series of Pd-complexes containing nonsymmetrical bis(aryl-imino)acenaphthene (Ar-BIAN) ligands, characterized by substituents on the meta positions of the aryl rings, have been synthesized, characterized and applied in CO/vinyl arene copolymerization reactions. Crystal structures of two neutral Pd-complexes have been solved allowing comparison of the bonding properties of the ligand. Kinetic and mechanistic investigations on these complexes have been performed. The kinetic investigations indicate that in general ligands with electron-withdrawing substituents give more active, but less stable, catalytic systems, although steric effects also play a role. The good performance observed with nonsymmetrical ligands is at least in part due to a compromise between catalyst activity and lifetime, leading to a higher overall productivity with respect to catalysts based on their symmetrical counterparts. Additionally, careful analysis of the reaction profiles provided information on the catalyst deactivation pathway. The latter begins with the reduction of a Pd(II) Ar-BIAN complex to the corresponding Pd(0) species, a reaction that can be reverted by the action of benzoquinone. Then the ligand is lost, a process that appears to be facilitated by the contemporary coordination of an olefin or a CO molecule. The so formed Pd(0) complex immediately reacts with another molecule of the initial Pd(II) complex to give a Pd(I) dimeric species that irreversibly evolves to metallic palladium. Mechanistic investigations performed on the complex with a nonsymmetrical Ar-BIAN probe evidence that the detected intermediates are characterized by the Pd-C bond trans to the Pd-N bond of the aryl ring bearing electron-withdrawing substituents. In addition, the intermediate resulting from the insertion of 4-methylstyrene into the Pd-acyl bond is a five-member palladacycle and not the open-chain η(3)-allylic species observed for complexes with Ar-BIANs substituted in ortho position.

  10. Assessment of cancer and noncancer health risks from exposure to PAHs in street dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Luginaah, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a broader initiative to characterize, quantify and assess the human health risk associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust along the Trans-ECOWAS highway in West Africa. In the first part, PAHs were characterized and quantified in low- and high-traffic zones. In this study, cancer and noncancer human health risks from exposure to (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana were assessed in accordance with the USEPA risk assessment guidelines. The results of the study as obtained from inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and chrysene via central tendency exposure parameters (CTE) by trespassers (street hawkers including children and adults) in street dust within low traffic zones in the Tamale metropolis are 1.6E-02, 4.7E-02, 1.8E-03, and 1.6E-04 respectively. For reasonable maximum exposure parameters (RME), risk values of 1.2E-01, 3.5E-01, 1.3E-02 and 1.2E-03 respectively were obtained for benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene. Hazard index for acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorine, naphthalene and pyrene in the CTE and RME scenarios were 2.2, 3.E-01, 2.6, 2.6, 100, 38 and 12, 1.7,15, 14, 550, 210 respectively. Generally, the cancer health risk associated with inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene revealed that resident adults and children in the Tamale metropolis are at risk from exposure to these chemicals. The results of this preliminary assessment that quantified PAH related health risks along this part of the Trans-ECOWAS highway revealed that, there is the need for regulatory agencies to put in comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks posed to these categories of human receptors.

  11. Integrated Use of n-Alkanes and PAH to Evaluate the Anthropogenic Hydrocarbon Sources and the Toxicity Assessment of Surface Sediments from the Southwestern Coasts of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golshan Shirneshan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds and normal alkanes form a large group of undegradable environmental contaminats. This study aims to determine the sources and distribution of oil pollution (PAH compounds and normal alkanes in the sediments of the southwestern coastal areas of the Caspian Sea and to compare their levels with the relevant standards. For this purpose, 18 surface sediment samples were collected from depths of 10, 20, and 50 meters along two transects in the vertical direction located in the coastal areas of Sangachin and Hashtpar (Gilan Province. The samples were then examined using mass-spectrometric gas chromatography. The origins of n-alkanes were identified using CPI index (0.76-0.95, U/R (3.30‒6.57, and Pristane/Phytane (0.21‒0.42. The sources of PAHs were determined using the index ratios of LMW/HMW (1.93‒13.37, Phenanthrene/Anthracene (11.44‒ 16.7, Chrysene/Benzo (a anthracene (4.69‒10/33, Fluoranthene/Pyrene (0.53‒0.69, and MP/P (0.05‒0.08. Results confirmed the dominant petrogenic source of the hydrocarbons found in the region. The total concentrations of 30 aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in the sediments ranged from 823.8 to 3899.5 µg/g and from 626.95 to 3842.5362 ng/g, respectively. Comparison of the measured PAH concentrations with US sediment quality guidelines revealed that the levels of naphthalene, fluorine, Acenaphthylene, and Acenaphthene exceeded the ERLs at stations with depths of 50m in Sangachin and Hashtpar while comparisons with Canadian standards indicated that they were higher than PELs at all the stations sampled. A major point of great concern is the high concentration of naphthalene as the most toxic PAH compound, which naturally warrants due attention to adopt appropriate management programs.

  12. CARBON CYCLES, NITROGEN FIXATION AND THE LEGUME-RHIZOBIA SYMBIOSIS AS SOIL CONTAMINANT BIOTEST SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Werner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The major pools and turnover  rates of the global carbon (C cycles are presented and compared to the human production of CO2  from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal and oil and geothermal  fuels (natural  gases, both categorized as non-renewable energy resources which  in amount  reaches around  6.5 Gigatons C per year. These pools that serve as C-holding stallions  are in the atmosphere,  the land plant biomass, the organic soils carbon, the ocean carbon and the lithosphere. In another related case, the present focus in the area of nitrogen  fixation  is discussed with  data on world  production of grain  legumes  compared  to cereals production and nitrogen  fertilizer use. The focus to understand  the molecular  biology of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis as a major contributor to nitrogen  fixation  is in the areas of signal exchange between  host plants and rhizobia  in the rhizophere including  the nod factor signalling, the infection  and nodule compartmentation and the soils stress factors affecting the symbiosis. The use of the Legume-Rhizobia symbiosis as a biotest system for soil contaminants includes data for cadmium,  arsenate, atrazine,  lindane,  fluoranthene, phenantrene and acenaphthene and also results  on the mechanism,  why the symbiotic system is more sensitive  than test systems with plant growth  parameters.

  13. Electrodeposition of self-assembled poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) @gold nanoparticles on stainless steel wires for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-11-04

    In this work, a novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)@Au nanoparticles (PEDOT@AuNPs) hybrid coating was prepared and characterized. Firstly, the monomer 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene was self-assembled on AuNPs, and then electropolymerization was performed on a stainless steel wire by cyclic voltammetry. The obtained PEDOT@AuNPs coating was rough and showed cauliflower-like micro-structure with thickness of ∼40μm. It displayed high thermal stability (up to 330°C) and mechanical stability and could be used for at least 160 times of solid phase microextraction (SPME) without decrease of extraction performance. The coating exhibited high extraction capacity for some environmental pollutants (e.g. naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene and phenathrene) due to the hydrophobic interaction between the analytes and PEDOT and the additional physicochemical affinity between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and AuNPs. Through coupling with GC detection, good linearity (correlation coefficients higher than 0.9894), wide linear range (0.01-100μgL -1 ), low limits of detection (2.5-25ngL -1 ) were achieved for these analytes. The reproducibility (defined as RSD) was 1.1-4.0% and 5.8-9.9% for single fiber (n=5) and fiber-to-fiber (n=5), respectively. The SPME-GC method was successfully applied for the determination of three real samples, and the recoveries for standards added were 89.9-106% for lake water, 95.7-112% for rain water and 93.2-109% for soil saturated water, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of PAHs in farmland soil and rainfall runoff in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Aifeng; Tian, Yong; Zhao, Zongshan

    2017-10-14

    Rainfall runoff can remove certain amounts of pollutants from contaminated farmland soil and result in a decline in water quality. However, the leaching behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with rainfall have been rarely reported due to wide variations in the soil compositions, rainfall conditions, and sources of soil PAHs in complex farmland ecosystems. In this paper, the levels, spatial distributions, and composition profiles of PAHs in 30 farmland soil samples and 49 rainfall-runoff samples from the Tianjin region in 2012 were studied to investigate their leaching behaviors caused by rainfall runoff. The contents of the Σ 16 PAHs ranged from 58.53 to 3137.90 μg/kg in the soil and 146.58 to 3636.59 μg/L in the runoff. In total, most of the soil sampling sites (23 of 30) were contaminated, and biomass and petroleum combustion were proposed as the main sources of the soil PAHs. Both the spatial distributions of the soil and the runoff PAHs show a decreasing trend moving away from the downtown, which suggested that the leaching behaviors of PAHs in a larger region during rainfall may be mainly affected by the compounds themselves. In addition, 4- and 5-ring PAHs are the dominant components in farmland soil and 3- and 4-ring PAHs dominate the runoff. Comparisons of the PAH pairs and enrichment ratios showed that acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and fluoranthene were more easily transferred into water systems from soil than benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[123-cd]pyrene, which indicated that PAHs with low molecular weight are preferentially dissolved due to their higher solubility compared to those with high molecular weight.

  15. Biological monitoring as a useful tool for the detection of a coal-tar contamination in bitumen-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Angerer, J.; Pesch, B.; Marczynski, B.; Hahn, J.U.; Spickenheuer, A.; Preuss, R.; Ruhl, R.; Rode, P.; Bruning, T. [Institute at the Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In our research project entitled 'Chemical irritative and/or genotoxic effect of fumes of bitumen under high processing temperatures on the airways,' 73 mastic asphalt workers exposed to fumes of bitumen and 49 construction nonexposed workers were analyzed and compared with respect to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and exposure-related health effects. In order to assess the internal exposure the monohydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and phenanthrene, 1-, 2- and 9-, and 3- and 4-hydroxyphenanthrene (OHPH) were determined in pre- and post-shift urinary samples. Significantly higher concentrations 1-OHP and OHPH were detected in the post-shift urine samples of 7 mastic asphalt workers working on the same construction site compared to the reference workers and all other 66 mastic asphalt workers. The adjusted mean OHPH in the reference, 66 mastic worker, and 7 worker subgroups was 1022, 1544, and 12919 ng/g creatinine (crn) respectively, indicating a marked rise in the 7 worker subgroup. In addition, there was a more than 12-fold increase of PAH metabolites from pre- to post-shift in these 7 workers, whereas in the other mastic asphalt workers there was only a twofold rise in PAH-metabolite concentration between pre- and post-shift values. The analysis of a drilling core from the construction site of the seven workers led to the detection of the source for this marked PAH exposure during the working shift as being coal tar plates, which were, without knowledge of the workers and coordinators, the underground material of the mastic asphalt layer. The evaluation of the stationary workplace concentration showed enhanced levels of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluorene, anthracene, and acenaphthene during working shifts at the construction site of these seven workers. Our study shows that biological monitoring is also a useful tool for the detection of unrecognized sources with high PAH concentrations.

  16. A screening method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water by headspace SPME with GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuazagoitia, D.; Millan, E.; Garcia, R. [Univ. of Pais Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2007-11-15

    A simple method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed. In order to obtain the convenient experimental conditions for HS-SPME extraction an experimental design with two steps was accomplished. A 2{sup 6-2} fractional factorial design and central composite design (CCD) considering three significant factors were used. Naphthalene, anthracene and fluoranthene were chosen as representatives of two, three and four aromatic rings, and the global response of three PAHs was used for the results, evaluation. The chosen extraction conditions were: 85 {mu}m polyacrylate fibre; 50 C temperature; 60 min time; 20 mL-dissolution volume (in 40 mL glass vial); without salt addition; and 2 min desorption time. The procedure was extended to other seven PAHs (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene) and the analytical characteristics were checked. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.08 (anthracene) to 0.20 {mu}g L{sup -1} (naphthalene). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD in %) using 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} of each analyte ranged from 6.8 to 17 %. The method was applied to the analysis of the surface waters and leaching waters of contaminated soils from Gipuzkoa (North Spain). The PAHs were not detected in surface water samples. Most of the PAHs were found in the leachates from contaminated soils showing a maximum global value of 75.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. (orig.)

  17. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10 3 times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total

  18. [Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediment from Zhoushan coastal area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Tuan, Le Huy; Mei, Wei-Ping; Ruan, Hui-Hui; Wu, Hao

    2014-07-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in water and sediments of Zhoushan coastal area every two months in 2012. The concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 382.3 to 816.9 ng x L(-1), with the mean value of 552.5 ng x L(-1) in water; whereas it ranged from 1017.9 to 3047.1 ng x g(-1), with the mean value of 2 022.4 ng x g(-1) in sediment. Spatial distribution showed that Yangshan and Yanwoshan offshore area had the maximum and minimum of total PAHs contents in water, while the maximum and minimum occurred at Yangshan and Zhujiajian Nansha offshore area in sediment. Temporal distribution revealed that total PAHs contents in water reached the maximum and minimum values in October and June, however in sediments these values were found in August and June, respectively. The PAHs pollution was affected by oil emission, charcoal and coal combustion. Using the biological threshold and exceeded coefficient method to assess the ecological risk of PAHs in Zhoushan coastal area, the result showed that sigma PAHs had a lower probability of potential risk, while there was a higher probability of potential risk for acenaphthylene monomer, and there might be ecological risk for acenaphthene and fluorene. Distribution of PAHs between sediment and water showed that Zhoushan coastal sediment enriched a lot of PAHs, meanwhile the enrichment coefficient (K(d) value) of sediment in Daishan island was larger than that in Zhoushan main island.

  19. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, Artaches A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McCord, James; Muddiman, David C. [W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Paull, Brett, E-mail: Brett.Paull@utas.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L{sup −1} levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min{sup −1}, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L{sup −1} for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  20. Chemometric Analysis of Selected Organic Contaminants in Surface Water of Langat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rafaie Mohamed Zubir; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim

    2016-01-01

    Chemometric techniques namely hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were applied to the distribution of selected organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sterols, pesticides (chloropyrifos), and phenol) to assess the potential of using these organic contaminants as chemical markers in Langat River Basin. Water samples were collected from February 2012 to January 2013 on a monthly basis for nine monitoring sites along Langat River Basin. HACA was able to classify the sampling sites into three clusters which can be correlated to the level of contamination (low, moderate and high contamination sites). DA was used to discriminate the sources of contamination using the selected organic contaminants and relate to the existing DOE local activities groupings. Forward and backward stepwise DA was able to discriminate two and five organic contaminants variables, respectively, from the original 13 selected variables. The five significant variables identified using backward stepwise DA were fluorene, pyrene, stigmastanol, stigmasterol and phenol. PCA and FA (varimax functionality) were used to identify the possible sources of each organic contaminant based on the inventory of local activities. Five principal components were obtained with 66.5 % of the total variation. Result from FA indicated that PAHs (pyrene, fluorene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene) originated from industrial activity and socio-economic activities; while sterols (coprostanol, stigmastanol and stigmasterol) were associated to domestic sewage and local socio-economic activities. The occurrence of chloropyrifos was correlated to agricultural activities, urban and domestic discharges. This study showed that the application of chemometrics on the distribution of selected organic contaminants was able to trace the sources of contamination in surface water. (author)

  1. [Simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Li; Ruan, Yibin; Wang, Weiwei; Ji, Houwei; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Fucheng; Liu, Jian

    2017-10-08

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter was developed by isotope internal standard combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cigarette filters were extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract was filtered with 0.22 μm organic phase membrane. The samples were isolated by DB-5MS column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring mode of electron impact source under positive ion mode. The linearities of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, ben[ a ]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[ b ]fluoranthene, benzo[ k ]fluoranthene, benzo[ a ]pyrene, dibenzo[ a,h ]anthracene, benzo[ g,h,i ]perylene and indeno[1,2,3- c,d ]pyrene) were good, and the correlation coefficients ( R 2 ) ranged from 0.9914 to 0.9999. The average recoveries of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 81.6%-109.6% at low, middle and high spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%, except that the relative standard deviation of fluorene at the low spiked level was 19.2%. The limits of detection of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 0.02 to 0.24 ng/filter, and the limits of quantification were 0.04 to 0.80 ng/filter. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible. It is suitable for the quantitative analysis of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filters.

  2. Atmospheric concentrations and air–soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing–Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m3 and 114 ng/m3, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m3. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban–rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%–77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air–soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m2/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air–soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air–soil gas exchange of PAHs. PMID:21669328

  3. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (pcatalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF μg/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  4. Accumulation of metals, polycyclic (halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons, and biocides in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine and Meuse rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, A.J. [RIZA, Lelystad (Netherlands). Inst. for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment; Pieters, H.; Boer, J. de [DLO-Netherlands Inst. for Fisheries Research, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and various groups of organic microcontaminants were measured in zebra mussel and eel from the Rhine-Meuse basin. Residues in mussel from the Rhine and Meuse were on average 2.3 and 2.9 times higher than in those from the reference location of IJsselmeer. Total body burdens of organic microcontaminants in mussel and eel varied between 0.05 to 0.07 mmol/kg fat weight in six out of seven samples. The largest contribution in mussels and eel came from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Concentrations of bromodiphenyl-ethers, chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroterphenyls, and chlorobenzyltoluenes were lower. Total polybrominated biphenyl residues appear lower than total PCB levels. The largest chlorobiocide residues were noted for 4,4{prime}-DDE, toxaphene, trichlorophenylmethane, and {gamma}-hexachlorocyclohexane. An extraordinary high body burden of 1.2 mmol/kg fat weight, largely consisting of acenaphthene, was observed in one sample. Ratios of concentrations in organism fat and dry organic suspended solids varied between 1 and 10 for traditionally monitored organochlorines, independent of the octanol-water partition coefficient. The values did not deviate significantly from a value of about 3.3, expected for equilibrium partitioning of persistent chemicals. Lower values were observed for PAHs and some chloro(nitro)benzenes. Most ratios of concentrations in eel and mussel fat were within the range of 1 to 10, also largely independent of K{sub ow}. Yet, values tended to be higher at K{sub ow} > 10{sup 6}. Ratios below 1 were noted for pentabromodiphenylether, pentachloro(thio)anisol, chlorobenzyltoluenes, and some chloronitrobenzenes, chlorobiphenyls, and chlorobiocides. These field data confirm recent modeling efforts on bioconcentration and biomagnification. For heavy metals, atomic mass explained 67% of the variation in zebra mussel residues.

  5. Sources and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in kitchen air, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhong; Wang, Jing

    2003-02-01

    Twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, multi-ringed compounds known to be carcinogenic in air of six domestic kitchens and four commercial kitchens of China were measured in 1999-2000. The mean concentration of total PAHs in commercial kitchens was 17 microg/m3, consisting mainly of 3- and 4-ring PAHs, and 7.6 microg/m3 in domestic kitchens, where 2- and 3-ring PAHs were predominant, especially naphthalene. The BaP levels in domestic kitchens were 0.0061-0.024 microg/m3 and 0.15- 0.44 microg/m3 in commercial kitchens. Conventional Chinese cooking methods were responsible for such heavy PAHs pollution. The comparative study for PAH levels in air during three different cooking practices: boiling, broiling and frying were conducted. It was found that boiling produced the least levels of PAHs. For fish, a low-fat food, frying it produced a larger amount of PAHs compared to broiling practice, except pyrene and anthracene. In commercial kitchens, PAHs came from two sources, cooking practice and oil-fumes, however the cooking practice had a more predominant contribution to PAHs in commercial kitchen air. In domestic kitchens, except for cooking practice and oil-fumes, there were other PAHs sources, such as smoking and other human activities in the domestic houses, where 3-4 ring PAHs mainly came from cooking practice. Naphthalene (NA, 2-ring PAHs) was the most predominant kind, mostly resulting from the evaporation of mothball containing a large quantity of NA, used to prevent clothes against moth. A fingerprint of oil-fumes was the abundance of 3-ring PAHs. Heating at the same temperature, the PAHs concentrations in different oil-fumes were lard > soybean oil > rape-seed oil. An increase in cooking temperature increased the levels of PAHs, especially acenaphthene.

  6. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in sampled cooked food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm Naa-Dedei, L.M.

    2010-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the following traditionally prepared food: smoked and grilled Scomba japonicus, grilled meat (khebab) and bread sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation of traditional food, some food comes into direct contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon generation. Levels of 20 individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 11 smoked and 5 grilled fish, 4 grilled pieces of meat and 3 loaves of baked bread using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(a)pyrene, which is one of the few PAH for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices and other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogenic have been detected in high concentrations in most samples. Bread samples gave mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 20.39 μg/kg while khebab samples gave mean polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 67.61 μg/kg. There was positive correlation of 0.987 between levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in khebab samples from locations Osu and Atomic down. There was a positive correlation in the concentrations of the high molecular weight PAHs in all smoked fishes from four locations with values between 0.954 and 0.999 for the correlation between any two groups. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration determined in smoked fish samples deceased in terms of location according to the order Winneba > Madina > Chorkor > Ada.

  8. Oxidation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsey, S.P.; Thomson, N.R.; Barker, J.F. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-04-15

    The reactivity of permanganate towards polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well known but little kinetic information is available. This study investigated the oxidation kinetics of a selected group of coal tar creosote compounds and alkylbenzenes in water using permanganate, and the correlation between compound reactivity and physical/chemical properties. The oxidation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, carbazole isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene and methylbenzene closely followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation of pyrene was initially very rapid and did not follow pseudo first-order kinetics at early times. Fluoranthene was only partially oxidized and the oxidation of anthracene was too fast to be captured. Biphenyl, dibenzofuran, benzene and tert-butylbenzene were non-reactive under the study conditions. The oxidation rate was shown to increase with increasing number of polycyclic rings because less energy is required to overcome the aromatic character of a polycyclic ring than is required for benzene. Thus the rate of oxidation increased in the series naphthalene < phenanthrene < pyrene. The rate of side chain reactivity is controlled by the C-H bond strength. For the alkyl substituted benzenes an excellent correlation was observed between the reaction rate coefficients and bond dissociation energies, but for the substituted PAHs the relationship was poor. A trend was found between the reaction rate coefficients and the calculated heats of complexation indicating that significant ring oxidation occurred in addition to side chain oxidation. Clar's aromatic sextet theory was used to predict the relative stability of arenes towards ring oxidation by permanganate.

  9. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs em aguardentes PHAs in spirits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bettin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A presença de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (HPAs em aguardentes foi investigada por cromatografia líquida (CLAE após sua prévia extração em fase sólida (SPE. A separação foi realizada em uma coluna Supelco, LCPAH-octadecil silano (25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm com gradiente acetonitrila/água e a quantificação utilizando detector de fluorescência. Os HPAs (naftaleno; acenaftaleno; fluoreno; fenantreno; antraceno; fluoranteno; pireno; 1,2- benzo(epireno; criseno; benzo(epireno; 2,3-benzo(aantraceno; 1,2-benzo(bfluoranteno; benzo(kfluoranteno; dibenzo(a,hantraceno; benzo(apireno; benzo(ghipirileno foram identificados e quantificados em vinte e oito amostras de aguardentes de cana. Os resultados experimentais para as amostras de aguardentes (cachaças são analisados em termos de análises de componentes principais (PCA objetivando a diferenciação entre o perfil das aguardentes produzidas a partir de cana-de-açúcar queimada e não-queimada.The presence of PHAs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocabons in spirits has been investigated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after solid phase extraction (SPE. The separation was achieved with a Supelco LCPAH-octadecil silane column [25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm] and acetonitrile/water elution gradient and the quantification using a fluorescence detector. The PHAs (naphthalene; acenaphthene; fluorene; phenantrene; anthracene; phuorantene; pyrene; 1,2-benzo(epyrene; chrysene; benzo(epyrene; 2,3-benzo(aanthracene; 1,2-benzo(bphluoranthene; benzo(kfluoranthene; dibenzo(a,hanthracene; benzo(apyreno; benzo(ghipyrilene were quantifed in twenty eight samples of sugar cane spirits. All the experimental data for sugar cane spirit have been analyzed through principal components analysis (PCA aiming to compare the chemical profile of beverages produced from burned and not burned sugar cane.

  10. Validación de un método de análisis para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia en partículas PM10 Y PM2,5 Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2, 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos presentes en partículas PM10 y PM 2,5 recolectadas en el aire mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR. Los HPA incluidos en la metodología comprenden: Naftaleno, Acenaftileno, Fluoreno, Acenafteno, Fenantreno, Antraceno, Fluoranteno, Pireno, Benzo (aantraceno, Criseno, Benzo (bfluoranteno, Benzo (kfluoranteno, Benzo (apireno, Dibenzo (a,h antraceno, Benzo (g,h,iperileno y Indeno (1,2,3- C.D pireno. Para estos compuestos, los límites de detección y cuantificación estuvieron entre 0,02 y 0,1 mg/l utilizando un equipo marca Dionex modelo ICS- 3000, el cual consta de dos detectores en serie, un ultravioleta modelo VWD-1 y un detector de fluorescencia modelo RF-2000, permitiendo diferenciar las distintas señales de absorción y emisión para la debida identificación de los distintos compuestos. Para todos los compuestos analizados, el factor de recuperación resultó no ser significativamente diferente de uno y la repetibilidad y reproducibilidad resultó ser adecuada para un método analítico, especialmente para los HPA más ligeros.An analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM 2.5 par ticles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene,pyrene,Benzo(aanthracene,Chrysene, Benzo (bfluoranthene, Benzo (kfluoranthene, Benzo (apyrene Dibenzo (a, hanthracene, Benzo (g, h, iperylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CDpyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit were between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l using a DIONEX ICS 3000 model cromatograph, that has two in serie detectors: UV/Vis and Fluorescense, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer from organic semiconductors onto redox mediators for CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portenkirchner, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this work the photoinduced electron transfer from organic semiconductors onto redox mediator catalysts for CO 2 reduction has been investigated. In the beginning, the work focuses on the identication, characterization and test of suitable catalyst materials. For this purpose, rhenium compounds with 2,2'-bipyridine bis(arylimino) acenaphthene ligands and pyridinium were tested for molecular homogenous catalysis. Infrared, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used for initial characterization of the catalyst substances. Since the interpretation of infrared spectra was difficult for large molecules based on measured data only, additionally infrared absorption spectra obtained by quantum mechanical density functional theory(DFT) calculations were successfully used to correlate characteristic features in the measured spectra to their molecular origin. It was found that experimentally observed data and quantum chemical predictions for the infrared spectra of the novel compounds are in good agreement. Additionally, quantum mechanical calculations were carried out for the determination of molecular orbital frontier energy levels and correlated to UV-Vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Extensive cyclic voltammetry measurements and bulk controlled-potential electrolysis experiments were performed using a N 2 - and CO 2 -saturated electrolyte solution. Together with a detailed product analysis via infrared spectroscopy, gas and ion chromatography the results allowed electrochemical characterizations of the novel catalysts regarding their suitability for electrochemical CO 2 reduction. Once suitable catalysts were identied, the materials were immobilized on the electrode surface by electro-polymerization of the catalyst (5,5'bisphenylethynyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)Re(CO) 3 Cl itself or by incorporation of (2,2'-bipyridyl)Re(CO) 3 Cl into a polypyrrole matrix, thereby changing from homogeneous to

  12. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-04-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  13. The differences in transformation mechanism in natural and anthropogenic PAH in environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navai, A.I.; Abasova, D.R.; Suleymanov, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    mg/L): Naphthalene-269,65; Acenaphthene+Fluorene -10,71; Phenanthrene-167,27; Anthracene-2,47; Fluoranthene-170,76; Benzo (a) anthracene-10,61; Chrysene-66,59; Benzo (b) fluoranthene-25,65; Benzo (k) fluoranthene-3,22; Benzo (a) pyrene-0,49; Dibenzo (a, h) anthracene-18,68; Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene-6,13. For comparison were investigated near 50 samples of oil polluted soils selected from oilfield sites and was determined background level of PAH around of oilfields in radius of 700-1000 m

  14. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; Hullebusch, Eric D. van; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A.

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween"® 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween"® 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R"2 > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween"® 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween"® 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  15. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de, E-mail: andressa@ctaa.embrapa.br [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Sergio Machado [Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Glauco Correa da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using GC/FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  16. ENA of heterocyclic hydrocarbons by adding hydrogen peroxide in groundwater circulation wells - a field-based study on a large physical model scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagner, A.; Tiehm, A.; Trotschler, O.; Haslwimmer, Th.; Koschitzky, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    filter sections. Field monitoring at TFS showed the degradation of all PAH along the plume, except for acenaphthene. The NSO-HET are still present in the plume due to anaerobic conditions. In a second step, the technology is to be applied in a field trial of about one year's duration

  17. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  18. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de; Correa, Sergio Machado; Silva, Glauco Correa da

    2011-01-01

    /FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  19. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Singh

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001 was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001 as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001 among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and air-soil gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Simonich, Staci; Giri, Basant; Chang, Ying; Zhang, Yuguang; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Cao, Jun; Lu, Xiaoxia

    2011-07-01

    Forty passive air samplers were deployed to study the occurrence of gas and particulate phase PAHs in remote, rural village and urban areas of Beijing-Tianjin region, North China for four seasons (spring, summer, fall and winter) from 2007 to 2008. The influence of emissions on the spatial distribution pattern of air PAH concentrations was addressed. In addition, the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs was studied using fugacity calculations. The median gaseous and particulate phase PAH concentrations were 222 ng/m³ and 114 ng/m³, respectively, with a median total PAH concentration of 349 ng/m³. Higher PAH concentrations were measured in winter than in other seasons. Air PAH concentrations measured at the rural villages and urban sites in the northern mountain region were significantly lower than those measured at sites in the southern plain during all seasons. However, there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the rural villages and urban sites in the northern and southern areas. This urban-rural PAH distribution pattern was related to the location of PAH emission sources and the population distribution. The location of PAH emission sources explained 56%-77% of the spatial variation in ambient air PAH concentrations. The annual median air-soil gas exchange flux of PAHs was 42.2 ng/m²/day from soil to air. Among the 15 PAHs measured, acenaphthylene (ACY) and acenaphthene (ACE) contributed to more than half of the total exchange flux. Furthermore, the air-soil gas exchange fluxes of PAHs at the urban sites were higher than those at the remote and rural sites. In summer, more gaseous PAHs volatilized from soil to air because of higher temperatures and increased rainfall. However, in winter, more gaseous PAHs deposited from air to soil due to higher PAH emissions and lower temperatures. The soil TOC concentration had no significant influence on the air-soil gas exchange of PAHs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Digallane with redox-active diimine ligand: dualism of electron-transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Skatova, Alexandra A; Dodonov, Vladimir A; Chudakova, Valentina A; Bazyakina, Natalia L; Piskunov, Alexander V; Demeshko, Serhiy V; Fukin, Georgy K

    2014-05-19

    The reactivity of digallane (dpp-Bian)Ga-Ga(dpp-Bian) (1), which consists of redox-active ligand 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (dpp-Bian), has been studied. The reaction of 1 with I2 proceeds via one-electron oxidation of each of two dpp-Bian ligands to a radical-anionic state and affords complex (dpp-Bian)IGa-GaI(dpp-Bian) (2). Dissolution of complex 2 in pyridine (Py) gives monomeric compound (dpp-Bian)GaI(Py) (3) as a result of a solvent-induced intramolecular electron transfer from the metal-metal bond to the dpp-Bian ligands. Treatment of compound 3 with B(C6F5)3 leads to removal of pyridine and restores compound 2. The reaction of compound 1 with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-ortho-benzoquinone (3,6-Q) proceeds with oxidation of all the redox-active centers in 1 (the Ga-Ga bond and two dpp-Bian dianions) and results in mononuclear catecholate (dpp-Bian)Ga(Cat) (4) (Cat = [3,6-Q](2-)). Treatment of 4 with AgBF4 gives a mixture of [(dpp-Bian)2Ag][BF4] (5) and (dpp-Bian)GaF(Cat) (6), which both consist of neutral dpp-Bian ligands. The reduction of benzylideneacetone (BA) with 1 generates the BA radical-anions, which dimerize, affording (dpp-Bian)Ga-(BA-BA)-Ga(dpp-Bian) (7). In this case the Ga-Ga bond remains unchanged. Within 10 min at 95 °C in solution compound 7 undergoes transformation to paramagnetic complex (dpp-Bian)Ga(BA-BA) (8) and metal-free compound C36H40N2 (9). The latter is a product of intramolecular addition of the C-H bond of one of the iPr groups to the C═N bond in dpp-Bian. Diamagnetic compounds 3, 5, 6, and 9 have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and paramagnetic complexes 2, 4, 7, and 8 by ESR spectroscopy. Molecular structures of 2-7 and 9 have been established by single-crystal X-ray analysis.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    in the monitoring plots situated through the prevailing wind direction from NPs. Level of dehydrogenases has high positive correlation with technogenic accumulated biphenyl, acenaphthene and negative correlation with anthracene content in studied soil. The lowmolecular PAHs content of soil influenced activity of dehydrogenases positively. Urease activity of monitoring plots has a high positive correlation with 12 PAHs exclude biphenyl, benzo(a)anthracene, naphthalene. Negative dependence of urease activity was observed for lowmolecular PAHs. The abundance of soil bacteria has a negative correlation with PAHs level. Anthracene has no correlations with abundance of soil bacteria and negatively influences on dehydrogenase, urease. Thus, the most subjected to technogenic pollution in 2015 were monitoring plots situated through the prevailing wind direction from NPs. It was established that ratio of low- and highmolecular PAHs content in soils of monitoring plots is the indicator of technogenic pollution soils. Contamination by PAHs in the affected zone has negative influence at the abundance of soil bacteria. The most number of PAHs has positive correlation with biological activity parameters of soil. This work was supported by grant of the Russian Scientific Foundation № 16-14-10217.

  3. 天津滨海地区表层沉积物中持久性有机污染物的含量特征与生态风险%Concentration Characteristics and Ecological Risk of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓霞; 张姝; 陈超琪; 侯珍; 杨君君

    2012-01-01

    ranged from 274.06 μg·kg-1 to 2 656.65 μg·kg-1,with the average being 1 198.51μg·kg-1.Combustion of fossil fuel such as coal and gasoline was the major source of PAHs in the surface sediments,while input of petroleum products might occur in some locations.In the Dagu discharging river,the total concentration of 22 OCPs was 3 103.36 μg·kg-1,the total concentration of 35 PCBs and the total concentration of 14 PBDEs were 87.31 μg·kg-1 and 13.88 μg·kg-1,respectively.The concentrations of OCPs,PCBs and PBDEs in other sampling locations were low.The total organic carbon in the surface sediments had good correlation with PAHs but not with OCPs,PCBs and PBDEs,and this might be due to the fact that PAHs mainly came from area pollution while the other compounds mainly came from point pollution.In the sediments,PAHs(particularly low molecular weight PAHs) had high ecological risk;in multiple locations,the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations,indicating that they were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms.In the Dagu discharging river,the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane(gamma-BHC) exceeded their probable effect concentrations and were most likely causing adverse effects to benthonic organisms.The OCPs in other sampling locations had low ecological risk.Overall,PCBs and PBDEs had low ecological risk.

  4. Evaluation of Macronet polymeric adsorbents for removal of PAHs from contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valderrama, C.; Gamisans, X.; Lao, C.; Farran, A.; Cortina, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    problem is the use of improved polymeric adsorbents as Hypersol Macronet resins that could be chemically regenerated. Hypersol Macronet resins present a hyper-reticulated structure that provides to the solid macro-porosity and micro-porosity at the same time. This means to have a control on the size pores and relatively high surface areas (1000-2000 m 2 /g). Then sorption barriers have been used as containment technology for PAHs. Groundwater velocity, barrier reactivity, and contaminant concentration among other factors affect the required size of the barrier. The reactivity of the barrier media should be determined from laboratory tests The present work describes the sorption properties (loading capacity and kinetic parameters) of Macronet polymeric adsorbent MN200. Batch experiments were performed to determine both equilibrium and kinetic parameters on the removal of different PAHs (Naphthalene, Acenaphthene Pyrene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene and Fluorene). Sorption parameters have been use to determine design parameters on the application of MN200 as reactive material in extractable PRBs. It is recognised that a fixed bed sorption process is operationally simple, however in order to be able and economically competitive, the adsorbent must exhibit high selectivity toward the target contaminant, be amenable to efficient regeneration and durable. MN200 has shown to be an excellent sorption material for PAH removal. The sorption process could be achieved with high values of loading capacities (35-220 mg/g). The experimental data was adjusted to adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson). Langmuir isotherm showed good fitting for adsorption on activated carbon, meanwhile Redlich-Peterson describe better adsorption on Macronet resin MN200. The sorption process could be described by a first order kinetic model as has been obtained in previous studies when studying the sorption of PAH using activated carbon. The possibility of efficient chemical

  5. Vieillissement du polyamide 11 utilisé dans les conduites flexibles : influence de la composition du fluide transporté Influence of the Chemical Nature of the Environment on the Aging of Polyamide 11 Used for Offshore Flexible Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrich E.

    2006-11-01

    hydrocarbons absorbed preferentially, and having a pasticating role, was determined. These are two-cycle aromatics (alkylnaphthalenes, acenaphthenes, diphenyls, acenaphthylenes, fluorenes and sulfur-containing aromatics (benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes. The different results led to the conclusion that the principal phenomenon involved in aging is a hydrolysis caused by the presence of absorbed water in the material, which leads to the cutting of the macromolecular chains and embrittlement of the polymer. Lastly, the model created with gas-oil cuts was applied to a case of aging of a crude oil, and this led to the satisfactory prediction of how the mechanical and physicochernical properties of the polymer evolve in such an environment.