Sample records for acenaphthene

  1. Degradation of Acenaphthene by Ozone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To investigate the oxidation of acenaphthene (Ace), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with a saturated C-C bond by ozone and to characterize the intermediate products of ozonation. Methods Ozone was generated from filtered dry oxygen by an ozone generator and continually bubbled into a reactor containing 1g/L Ace dissolved in an acetonitrile/water solvent mixture (90/10, v/v) at a rate of 0.5 mg/s. HPLC was used to analyze the Ace concentration. Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to measure the amount of water soluble organic compounds. GC-MS was used to identify the ozonized products. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of activated sludge was used to characterize the biodegradability of ozonized products. Results During the ozonation process, Ace was degraded, new organic compounds were produced and these intermediate products were difficult mineralize by ozone, with increasing TOC of soluble organics. The ozonized products were degraded by activated sludge more easily than Ace. Conclusion Ozonation decomposes the Ace and improves its biodegradability. The ozonation combined with biological treatment is probably an efficient and economical way to mineralize acenaphthene in wastewater.

  2. The Reaction of Acenaphthene with Nitrobenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The reaction of acenaphthene with nitrobenzene was investigated in the presence of AlCl3 . The results showed that the reaction proceeded via carboncation-electrophilic substitution reaction and free radical substitution reaction pathway. The products of acenaphthenyl phenylamine and biacenaphthyl could be synthesized by this reaction. The influence of the amount of AlCl3 and the temperature on the components of products were also studied in this reaction.

  3. Adsorption of Acenaphthene unto Activated Carbon Produced from Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Adelowo


    Full Text Available The suitability and the performance of activated carbon produced from flamboyant pod back, milk bush kernel shell and rice husk for the effective removal of acenaphthene from simulated wastewater under the influence of carbonization temperature and initial concentration were investigated. The adsorption capacities of all the activated carbons obtained from the selected raw materials are influenced by increasing carbonization temperature. Activated carbons obtained from rice husk at carbonisation temperature of 600°C had the maximum adsorption capacity (5.554 mg g-1 while carbons produced from milk bush at carbonisation temperature of 300°C had the minimum adsorption capacity (1.386 mg g-1, for the adsorption of acenaphthene from the simulated wastewater. The removal efficiencies of the investigated adsorbents generally rank high and the highest value (80.56% was obtained for the adsorption of acenaphthene by rice husk carbonized at 600°C. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies obtained in the study decreased as the initial concentrations of the adsorbate increased. The four selected isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich described well the equilibrium adsorption of acenaphthene unto activated carbon derived from Flamboyant pod bark, milk bush kernel shell and rice husk. Sequence of suitability of the selected isotherms in the study was Temkin ≈ Freundlich >Dubinin-Radushkevich>Langmuir for adsorption of acenaphthene. It therefore shows that Temkin isotherm is the most suitable model for fitting experimental data obtained from adsorption of acenaphthene from simulated wastewater unto activated carbon produced from Flamboyant pod bark, milk bush kernel shell and rice husk.

  4. Sterically encumbered tin and phosphorus peri-substituted acenaphthenes. (United States)

    Chalmers, Brian A; Athukorala Arachchige, Kasun S; Prentis, Joanna K D; Knight, Fergus R; Kilian, Petr; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Woollins, J Derek


    A group of sterically encumbered peri-substituted acenaphthenes have been prepared, containing tin moieties at the 5,6-positions in 1-3 ([Acenap(SnR3)2], Acenap = acenaphthene-5,6-diyl; R3 = Ph3 (1), Me3 (2); [(Acenap)2(SnMe2)2] (3)) and phosphorus functional groups at the proximal peri-positions in 4 and 5 ([Acenap(PR2)(P(i)Pr2)] R2 = Ph2 (4), Ph((i)Pr) (5)). Bis(stannane) structures 1-3 are dominated by repulsive interactions between the bulky tin groups, leading to peri-distances approaching the sum of van der Waals radii. Conversely, the quasi-linear CPh-P···P three-body fragments found in bis(phosphine) 4 suggest the presence of a lp(P)-σ*(P-C) donor-acceptor 3c-4e type interaction, supported by a notably short intramolecular P···P distance and notably large JPP through-space coupling (180 Hz). Severely strained bis(sulfides) 4-S and 5-S, experiencing pronounced in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of the exocyclic peri-bonds, have also been isolated following treatment of 4 and 5 with sulfur. The resulting nonbonded intramolecular P···P distances, ∼4.05 Å and ∼12% longer than twice the van der Waals radii of P (3.60 Å), are among the largest ever reported peri-separations, independent of the heteroatoms involved, and comparable to the distance found in 1 containing the larger Sn atoms (4.07 Å). In addition we report two metal complexes with square planar [(4)PtCl2] (4-Pt) and octahedral cis-[(4)Mo(CO)4] (4-Mo) geometries. In both complexes the bis(phosphine) backbone is distorted, but notably less so than in bis(sulfide) 4-S. All compounds were fully characterized, and except for bis(phosphine) 5, crystal structures were determined. PMID:25080308

  5. Isolation and Identification of Carcinogen Acenaphthene-Degrading Endemic Bacteria from Crude Oil Contaminated Soils around Abadan Refinery


    Farshid Kafilzadeh; Seyedeh Zeynab Hoseyni; Peyman Izedpanah; Houshang Jamali


    Background and Objective: PAHs are non-polar organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene multi-rings. Among these compounds, acenaphthene is a multi-ring hydrocarbon that occurs abundantly in nature. Use of microorganisms to clean the contaminations of soil can be cheap and effective. The most important acenaphthene-degrading bacteria are pseudomonas, micrococcus, and Bacillus. The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria which degrade acenaphthene in soils ar...

  6. Isolation and Identification of Carcinogen Acenaphthene-Degrading Endemic Bacteria from Crude Oil Contaminated Soils around Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: PAHs are non-polar organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene multi-rings. Among these compounds, acenaphthene is a multi-ring hydrocarbon that occurs abundantly in nature. Use of microorganisms to clean the contaminations of soil can be cheap and effective. The most important acenaphthene-degrading bacteria are pseudomonas, micrococcus, and Bacillus. The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria which degrade acenaphthene in soils around Abadan Refinery and to investigate the relation between the levels of environmental pollution with acenaphthene. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from three areas around Abadan Refinery. The number of the bacteria was counted on the nutrient agar culture with and without acenaphthene. Isolation of the bacteria was done by culturing the samples on acenaphthene broth with a mineral-salt medium, and on an acenaphthene agar medium. Then, the bacteria were identified via biochemical diagnostic tests. Results: The logarithm average of the bacteria was 4.786 ± 0.073 at a medium with acenaphthene, which was 6.671 ± 0.073 less than that of the control medium. The maximum number of degrading bacteria was 7.089 ± 0.089 at Station C, and the minimum number of the degrading bacteria was 4.485 ± 0.089 at Station B. In this study, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus Luteus, Corynebacterium sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas sp bacteria were isolated and identified in terms of frequency, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the soil around Abadan Refinery contained a great number of acenaphthene degrading bacteria, especially Bacillus and Micrococcus.

  7. Thermal kinetic and dielectric parameters of acenaphthene crystal grown by vertical Bridgman technique (United States)

    Karuppusamy, S.; Dinesh Babu, K.; Nirmal Kumar, V.; Gopalakrishnan, R.


    The bulk acenaphthene crystal was grown in a single-wall ampoule by vertical Bridgman technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the orthorhombic crystal system of title compound with space group Pcm21. Thermal behavior of compound was studied using thermogravimetry—differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Thermal kinetic parameters like activation energy, frequency factor, Avrami exponent, reaction rate and degree of conversion were calculated using Kissingers and Ozawa methods under non-isothermal condition for acenaphthene crystal and reported for the first time. The calculated thermal kinetic parameters are presented. Dielectric studies were performed to calculate the dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity, and activation energy from Arrhenius plot.

  8. Destruction of acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene by a dc gliding arc plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, four kinds of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) i.e. acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene and pyrene are used as targets for investigation of PAHs treatment process assisted by dc gliding arc discharge. The effects of carrier gas and external resistance on the PAHs decomposition process are discussed. The results indicate that the destruction rate can be achieved to the highest with the carrier gas of oxygen and the external resistance of 50 kΩ independent of type of PAHs. Furthermore, experimental results suggest that destruction energy efficiency of gliding arc plasma would be improved by treating higher concentration pollutants. Based on the analysis of experimental results, possible destruction mechanisms in different gas discharge are discussed.

  9. Recent developments in the coordination chemistry of bis(imino)acenaphthene (BIAN) ligands with s- and p-block elements. (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas J; Vargas-Baca, Ignacio; Cowley, Alan H


    Bis(imino)acenaphthenes (BIAN) have been known for many years. However, it is only since the 1990s that such compounds have been recognized as robust ligands for the support of catalytically active transition metal centers. More recently, the unique stereoelectronic properties of the BIAN ligand class are beginning to be appreciated and exploited for some fascinating new developments in synthetic, structural and catalytic s- and p-block chemistry. PMID:19089002

  10. Structural models of faceted-faceted eutectic system vanillin-acenaphthene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic model for the eutectic system vanillin-acenaphthene has been developed by analysing the excess functions computed from its experimentally determined solidus-liquidus equilibrium data. Spontaneous nucleation model has been explored from the maximum limit of undercooling of the system and verified by the experimental evidences of dislocation mechanism governing the anisotropic velocity of crystallisation determined at different undercoolings. Viscosity measurements of eutectic and non-eutectic melts at different temperatures revealed the essence of peculiar structural changes and specific energy interactions in the eutectic melt in the temperature range near its melting temperature. The rheological activation energy, Evis for eutectic and non-eutectic melts is found to be a function of temperature. Crystalline faceted structure of the system has been furnished with morphological evidences obtained from microscopic studies at different growth rates, whereas whisker reinforced structural model has been accomplished with mechanical properties computed for both isotropic and anisotropic modes of growth. Of greater interest is the special reference of moderate anisotropic growth, since experimental confirmation was obtained for the theoretical shape of parabolic variation in the mechanical properties of eutectic composite material with growth velocity. Direct evidence of three- to four-fold increase in strength properties of the eutectic material at its moderate anisotropic growth velocity (3.11x10-7 m3 s-1) in comparison with its isotropic growth in an ice bath (∼273 K), confirms a complete composite microstructure with whiskers in equilibrium with the matrix, embedded parallel to the growth direction

  11. X-ray, Hirshfeld surface analysis, spectroscopic and DFT studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Fluoranthene and acenaphthene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śmiszek-Lindert Wioleta


    Full Text Available The X-ray structure, theoretical calculation, Hirshfeld surfaces analysis, IR and Raman spectra of fluoranthene and acenaphthene were reported. Acenaphthene crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system and space group P21ma, with crystal parameters a = 7.2053 (9 Å, b = 13.9800 (15 Å, c = 8.2638 (8 Å, Z = 4 and V = 832.41 (16 Å3. In turn, the grown crystals of fluoranthene are in monoclinic system with space group P21/n. The unit cell parameters are a = 18.3490 (2 Å, b = 6.2273 (5 Å, c = 19.8610 (2 Å, β = 109.787 (13°, Z = 8 and unit cell volume is 2135.50 (4 Å3. Theoretical calculations of the title compounds isolated molecule have been carried out using DFT at the B3LYP level. The intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure, for both the title PAHs, were analyzed using Hirshfeld surfaces computational method.

  12. Impact of dissolved humic acid on the bioavailability of acenaphthene and chrysene assessed by membrane-based passive samplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is known to reduce the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aqueous environments. This reduction occurs as a result of adsorption to DOC, apparently reducing the freely dissolved concentration of HOCs. In the present study, triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to measure the uptake of acenaphthene and chrysene in the presence of commercial humic acid (HA) at different concentrations (0―15 mg C·L-1) under controlled laboratory conditions. Apparent uptake rate constants for PAHs in TECAM and medaka were compared and DOC-water partition coefficients (KDOCs) of two PAHs were calculated with different sampling methods by model fit. Results showed that HA present in water significantly reduced the uptake of PAHs in TECAM and medaka. The obtained values of log KDOC of acenaphthene and chrysene measured by TECAM were 4.63 and 5.83, respectively, whereas biologically determined values were 4.52 and 5.76, respectively. These log KDOC values were comparable to earlier published KDOCs toward commercial HA, thereby indicating that TECAM accumulated only the freely dissolved fraction of chemicals and uptake PAHs in a manner similar to that of fish. All these results suggested that the TECAM method can provide a good means for assessing the impact of DOC on bioavailability of PAHs in the aqueous environment.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra of protonated acenaphthene ([ACN+H]+) and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene ([DHP+H]+) have been recorded using an infrared free electron laser after the compounds were protonated by electrospray ionization and trapped in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer. In both compounds, the loss of two mass units is predominant. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) of the infrared spectra of all possible protonated isomers of each species showed that the observed IRMPD spectra are best fit to the isomer with the largest proton affinity and lowest relative electronic energy. Potential energy surfaces of the most stable isomers of [ACN+H]+ and [DHP+H]+ have been calculated for H and H2 loss. The lowest energy barriers are for loss of H2, with predicted energies 4.28 and 4.15 eV, respectively. After H2 ejection, the adjacent aliphatic hydrogens migrate to the bare ejection site and stabilize the remaining fragment. Single H loss may occur from [ACN+H]+ but the energy required is higher. No single H loss is predicted from [DHP+H]+, only H migration around the carbon skeleton. The vibrational bands in the parent closed-shell protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are compared to bands observed from the interstellar medium.

  14. Electronic Structure and Multicatalytic Features of Redox-Active Bis(arylimino)acenaphthene (BIAN)-Derived Ruthenium Complexes. (United States)

    Singha Hazari, Arijit; Ray, Ritwika; Hoque, Md Asmaul; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar


    The article examines the newly designed and structurally characterized redox-active BIAN-derived [Ru(trpy)(R-BIAN)Cl]ClO4 ([1a]ClO4-[1c]ClO4), [Ru(trpy)(R-BIAN)(H2O)](ClO4)2 ([3a](ClO4)2-[3c](ClO4)2), and BIAO-derived [Ru(trpy)(BIAO)Cl]ClO4 ([2a]ClO4) (trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, R-BIAN = bis(arylimino)acenaphthene (R = H (1a(+), 3a(2+)), 4-OMe (1b(+), 3b(2+)), 4-NO2 (1c(+), 3c(2+)), BIAO = [N-(phenyl)imino]acenapthenone). The experimental (X-ray, (1)H NMR, spectroelectrochemistry, EPR) and DFT/TD-DFT calculations of 1a(n)-1c(n) or 2a(n) collectively establish {Ru(II)-BIAN(0)} or {Ru(II)-BIAO(0)} configuration in the native state, metal-based oxidation to {Ru(III)-BIAN(0)} or {Ru(III)-BIAO(0)}, and successive electron uptake processes by the α-diimine fragment, followed by trpy and naphthalene π-system of BIAN or BIAO, respectively. The impact of the electron-withdrawing NO2 function in the BIAN moiety in 1c(+) has been reflected in the five nearby reduction steps within the accessible potential limit of -2 V versus SCE, leading to a fully reduced BIAN(4-) state in [1c](4-). The aqua derivatives ({Ru(II)-OH2}, 3a(2+)-3c(2+)) undergo simultaneous 2e(-)/2H(+) transfer to the corresponding {Ru(IV)═O} state and the catalytic current associated with the Ru(IV)/Ru(V) response probably implies its involvement in the electrocatalytic water oxidation. The aqua derivatives (3a(2+)-3c(2+)) are efficient and selective precatalysts in transforming a wide variety of alkenes to corresponding epoxides in the presence of PhI(OAc)2 as an oxidant in CH2Cl2 at 298 K as well as oxidation of primary, secondary, and heterocyclic alcohols with a large substrate scope with H2O2 as the stoichiometric oxidant in CH3CN at 343 K. The involvement of the {Ru(IV)═O} intermediate as the active catalyst in both the oxidation processes has been ascertained via a sequence of experimental evidence. PMID:27482834

  15. Molecular structures and thermodynamic properties of polybrominated acenaphthene compounds%多溴苊化合物的分子结构和热力学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小兰; 于永生


    Polybrominated acenaphthene (PBACE) compounds are one type of latent chemical pollutants. In this article, molecular geometric structures of 35 PBACE compounds were optimized using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G** level and some thermodynamic properties of them in the ideal gas state were calculated. The relations of these thermodynamic properties with the number and position of bromine atoms were also explored, from which the relative stability of PBACE congeners was theoretically proposed according to the magnitude of the relative standard Gibbs free energy of formation (△r,fGe). The computed results show that atoms other than four H are in the same plane in most PBACE isomers. The values of △fHe and △fGe of both most stable and least stable PBACE isomers increase with increasing the number of bromine atoms. The values of △fHe and △fGe for PBACE isomers with the same number of bromine atoms show a strong dependence on the position of bromine atoms and the relative stability of PBACE congeners are mainly determined by intramolecular adjacent Br-Br nuclear repulsive interaction between Br atoms at two different six-membered rings. All of PBACE congeners are more difficult to form thermodynamically than their parent compound.%多溴苊是一类潜在的有机污染物.本文采用密度泛函理论在B3LYP/6-311G**水平上优化35个多溴苊化合物的分子几何结构,并获得它们在理想气态的一些热力学性质的数值,研究这些性质与取代的溴原子数目和位置的关系,根据各异构体的标准生成Gibbs自由能的相对大小,求得它们的热力学稳定性顺序.计算结果表明:在大部分多溴苊分子中,除4个氢原子外的其他原子在同一平面上.多溴苊最稳定及最不稳定异构体的△fHθ及△fGθ,都随Br原子数目增加而逐渐增加.溴原子数目相同的多溴苊异构体的△fHθ和△fGθ与溴原子的取代位置有很大的关系,其相对稳定性主要

  16. 多环芳烃芴、苊的无保护流体室温磷光性质研究%Studies on Non-protected Fluid Room Temperature Phosphorescence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon of Fluoren and Acenaphthene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李隆弟; 牟兰; 陈小康


    @@ 我们[1,2]曾报道丹磺酰氯及其衍生物在无保护性介质亦无有机溶剂存在的水溶液中能诱导出强而稳定的室温磷光(RTP), 并命名为NP-RTP[3~7]. 此后, Carretero等[8~10]亦发现了萘唑啉、萘氧乙酸和苊溶液在无任何有序介质时的RTP发射现象. 在已有的研究中至少有两个问题需进一步探索: 其一, 除苊外, 已实现NP-RTP发射的化合物都仅具双环结构, 即萘系化合物, 对于多环化合物是否有类似的发射特性和随环的增多是否会出现新的特性; 其二, 对于无水溶性取代基的多环芳烃, 因其在水中的溶解度很小, 所引入的有机溶剂的种类和用量会对NP-RTP发射带来那些影响.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 264 - Ground-Water Monitoring List (United States)


    ... Naphthalene 1,4-Naphthoquinone 130-15-4 1,4-Naphthalenedione 1-Naphthylamine 134-32-7 1-Naphthalenamine 2-Naphthylamine 91-59-8 2-Naphthalenamine Nickel (Total) Nickel o-Nitroaniline 88-74-4 Benzenamine, 2-nitro- m... Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Chemical abstracts service index name 3 Acenaphthene 83-32-9 Acenaphthylene,...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 423 - 126 Priority Pollutants (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 126 Priority Pollutants A Appendix A to Part 423 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND... Priority Pollutants 001Acenaphthene 002Acrolein 003Acrylonitrile 004Benzene 005Benzidine...

  19. Partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on organobentonites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of organobentonites synthesized by exchanging organiccation such as dodecyltri-methylammonium (DTMA),benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (BDTDA), cetyltrimethyl-ammonium (CTMA), octodeyltrimethylammonium (OTMA) on bentonite. The optimal condition, properties and mechanisms for the organobentonites to sorb phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene in water were investigated in detail. The partition behavior was determined for four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and acenaphthene, from water to a series of organobentonites. The interlayer spacings and organic carbon contents of organobentonites, removal rate and sorption capacities for organobentonites to treat phenanthrene,anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene were correlated to the length of alkyl chains and the amounts of cation surfactant exchanged on Foundation item: the bentonite. Phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene sorption to organobentonites were characterized by linear isotherms, indicating solute partition between water and the organic phase composed of the large alkyl functional groups of quaternary ammonium cations. PAHs distribution coefficients (Kd)between organobentonites and water were proportional to the organic carbon contents of organobentonites. However, the partition coefficients (Koc) were nearly constants for PAHs in the system of organobentonite-water. The Koc of phenanthrene, anthracene,naphthalene, acenaphthene were 2.621x105, 2.106x105, 2.247x104,5.085x104, respectively. The means Koc values on the organobentonites are about ten to twenty times larger than the values on the soils/sediments, what is significant prerequisite for organobentonite to apply to remediation of pollution soil and groundwater. The sorption mechanism was also evaluated from octanol-water partition coefficients and aqueous solubility of PAHs. The correlations between lgKoc and 1gkow, 1gKoc and 1gS for PAHs in the system of water

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation by a New Marine Bacterium, Neptunomonas naphthovorans gen. nov., sp. nov.


    Hedlund, Brian P.; Geiselbrecht, Allison D.; Bair, Timothy J.; Staley, James T.


    Two strains of bacteria were isolated from creosote-contaminated Puget Sound sediment based on their ability to utilize naphthalene as a sole carbon and energy source. When incubated with a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound in artificial seawater, each strain also degraded 2-methylnaphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene; in addition, one strain, NAG-2N-113, degraded 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and phenanthrene. Acenaphthene was not degraded when it was used as a sole carbon source but wa...

  1. Organo/LDH nanocomposite as an adsorbent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and soil-water systems


    Bruna González, Felipe; de Celis, R; Real Ojeda, Miguel; Cornejo, J.


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered as priority pollutants because of their high risk to human health. In this paper, we addressed the issue of using hydrotalcite-based nanocomposites as adsorbents of six low molecular weight PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene) to reduce their negative effects on the environment. A nanocomposite (HTDDS) was prepared by intercalating the organic anion dodecylsulfate (DDS) in a Mg¿Al hydrotalcite (...

  2. Multicomponent Dipolar Cycloaddition Strategy: Combinatorial Synthesis of Novel Spiro-Tethered Pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline Hybrid Heterocycles. (United States)

    Sumesh, Remani Vasudevan; Muthu, Muthumani; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Suresh Kumar, Raju; Arumugam, Natarajan; Athimoolam, S; Jeya Yasmi Prabha, E Arockia; Kumar, Raju Ranjith


    The stereoselective syntheses of a library of novel spiro-tethered pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-pyrrolidine/pyrrolothiazole/indolizine-oxindole/acenaphthene hybrid heterocycles have been achieved through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides generated in situ from α-amino acids and 1,2-diketones to dipolarophiles derived from pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives. PMID:27027478

  3. Pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oily sludge from the Zhongyuan Oilfield and its peripheral soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Shaoping; XU Zhong


    The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of contamination caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in oily sludge and soils around it in the Zhongyuan Oilfield. The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oily sludge samples were determined with HPLC. The contents of PAHs of oily sludge from three different oil production plants vary from high to low in the order of the Wenming oily sludge dumping site of No. 3 Oil Production Plant (3W)>the Mazhai oily sludge dumping site of No. 3 Oil Production Plant (3M)>the Wen'er oily sludge dumping site of No. 4 Oil Production Plant (4W). Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine and phenanthrene are the major pollutants of PAHs in oily sludge. The contents of PAHs in soil samples around the oily sludge dumping sites vary widely from 434.49 to 2408.8 ng/g. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene and pyrene are the characteristic factors of PAHs in soil samples of 3M and 3W, and naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine and phenanthrene are the characteristic factors of PAHs in soil samples of 4W. According to these data and the ratios of Fl/Py, PAHs in oily sludge samples come mainly from petrogenic sources, and soil samples are divided into petrogenic soil samples and mixed-source soil samples, and both petrogenic and pyrogenic soil samples in terms of the sources of PAHs. The classification by Nemero index P indicates that soils around the oily sludge dumping sites have been seriously polluted.

  4. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAS em cachaça, rum, uísque e álcool combustível Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS in cachaça, rum, whiskey and alcohol fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Galinaro


    Full Text Available The concentration of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 57 samples of distillates (cachaça, rum, whiskey, and alcohol fuel has been determined by HPLC-Fluorescence detection. The quantitative analytical profile of PAHs treated by Partial Least Square - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA provided a good classification of the studied spirits based on their PAHs content. Additionally, the classification of the sugar cane derivatives according to the harvest practice was obtained treating the analytical data by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, using naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benz[b]fluoranthene, and benz[g,h,i]perylene, as a chemical descriptors.

  5. Temperature Effects on Retention and Separation of PAHs in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Using Columns Packed with Fully Porous and Core-Shell Particles


    Christophe Waterlot; Anaïs Goulas


    Effects of temperature on the reversed-phase chromatographic behavior of PAHs were investigated on three columns. The first was the recent C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) packed with 5 µm core-shell particles while the others were more conventional C18 columns (250 mm × 4.6 mm) packed with fully porous particles. Among the 16 PAHs studied, special attention has been paid to two pairs of PAHs, fluorene/acenaphthene and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene, which often present coeluting problems. Due to th...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in highway plants and soils. Evidence for a local distillation effect


    Bryselbout, C.; Henner, P.; Carsignol, J.; Lichtfouse, E.


    International audience Poa trivialis grasses and soils from the side slope of a high-traffic highway were analysed for their PAH content by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The ratios of volatile, low-molecular weight PAHs versus high-molecular weight PAHs increase with side slope height. For instance, naphthalene/pyrene values increase from 0.3 to 3.4 in plants. Acenaphthene/fluoranthene values increases from 0.017 to 0.123 in soils. Moreover, soil PAHs can be classified i...

  7. Evidence for in situ degradation of mono-and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in alluvial sediments based on microcosm experiments with 13C-labeled contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microcosm study was conducted to investigate the degradation of mono- and polyaromatic hydrocarbons under in situ-like conditions using alluvial sediments from the site of a former cokery. Benzene, naphthalene, or acenaphthene were added to the sediments as 13C-labeled substrates. Based on the evolution of 13C-CO2 determined by gas chromatography isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) it was possible to prove mineralization of the compound of interest in the presence of other unknown organic substances of the sediment material. This new approach was suitable to give evidence for the intrinsic biodegradation of benzene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene under oxic and also under anoxic conditions, due to the high sensitivity and reproducibility of 13C/12C stable isotope analysis. This semi-quantitative method can be used to screen for biodegradation of any slowly degrading, strongly sorbing compound in long-term experiments. - A method based on 13C-labeled substrates was developed to determine the intrinsic biodegradation potential of aromatic pollutants under oxic and under anoxic conditions

  8. Enhanced solubilisation of six PAHs by three synthetic cyclodextrins for remediation applications: molecular modelling of the inclusion complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Morillo

    Full Text Available Solubilisation of six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene by three synthetic cyclodextrins (CDs (2-hydroxypropyl-β-CD, hydroxypropyl-γ-CD and randomly methylated-β-CD was investigated in order to select the CD which presents the greatest increase in solubility and better complexation parameters for its use in contaminated scenarios. The presence of the three cyclodextrins greatly enhanced the apparent water solubility of all the PAHs through the formation of inclusion complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry. Anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene clearly presented a higher solubility when β-CD derivatives were used, and especially the complexes with the randomly methylated-β-CD were favoured. On the contrary, pyrene presented its best solubility results when using 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-CD, but for acenaphthene the use of any of the three CDs gave the same results. Complementary to experimental phase-solubility studies, a more in-depth estimation of the inclusion process for the different complexes was carried out using molecular modelling in order to find a correlation between the degree of solubilisation and the fit of PAH molecules within the cavity of the different CDs and to know the predominant driving forces of the complexation.

  9. Passive dosing versus solvent spiking for controlling and maintaining hydrophobic organic compound exposure in the Microtox® assay. (United States)

    Smith, Kilian E C; Jeong, Yoonah; Kim, Jongwoon


    Microbial toxicity bioassays such as the Microtox® test are ubiquitously applied to measure the toxicity of chemicals and environmental samples. In many ways their operation is conducive to the testing of organic chemicals. They are of short duration, use glass cuvettes and take place at reduced temperatures in medium lacking sorbing components. All of these are expected to reduce sorptive and volatile losses, but particularly for hydrophobic organics the role of such losses in determining the bioassay response remains unclear. This study determined the response of the Microtox® test when using solvent spiking compared to passive dosing for introducing the model hydrophobic compounds acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. Compared to solvent spiking, the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test with passive dosing was 3.4 and 12.4 times higher for acenaphthene and phenanthrene, respectively. Furthermore, fluoranthene only gave a consistent response with passive dosing. Benzo(a)pyrene did not result in a response with either spiking or passive dosing even at aqueous solubility. Such differences in the apparent sensitivity of the Microtox® test can be traced back to the precise definition of the dissolved exposure concentrations and the buffering of losses with passive dosing. This highlights the importance of exposure control even in simple and short-term microbial bioassays such as the Microtox® test. PMID:26117202

  10. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz


    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  11. Parameters describing nonequilibrium transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through contaminated soil columns: Estimability analysis, correlation, and optimization (United States)

    Ngo, Viet V.; Michel, Julien; Gujisaite, Valérie; Latifi, Abderrazak; Simonnot, Marie-Odile


    The soil and groundwater at former industrial sites polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produce a very challenging environmental issue. The description of PAH transport by means of mathematical models is therefore needed for risk assessment and remediation strategies at these sites. Due to the complexity of release kinetics and transport behavior of the PAHs in the aged contaminated soils, their transport is usually evaluated at the laboratory scale. Transport parameters are then estimated from the experimental data via the inverse method. To better assess the uncertainty of optimized parameters, an estimability method was applied to firstly investigate the information content of experimental data and the possible correlations among parameters in the two-site sorption model. These works were based on the concentrations of three PAHs, Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluoranthene (FLA) and Pyrene (PYR), in the leaching solutions of the experiments under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions.

  12. Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Present in Smoked Fish from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M.N. Palm


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in smoked Scomba japonicus sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation, smoked fish comes into contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of PAH generation. Levels of 20 individual PAHs including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(epyrene, benzo(ghiperylene, benzo(jfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cdpyrene, dibenzo(ahanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1, 2, 3-cdpyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 34 smoked fish samples using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(apyrene, which is one of the very few PAHs for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices inaddition to other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogens, were detected in most samples.

  13. Extraction of Eleven Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kanchanamayoon


    Full Text Available Eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons namely; naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were extracted simultaneously by solid phase and analysis by gas chromatograph. The LC-18 solid phase showed good recoveries for extraction of 11 PAHs by using 3 mL of the mixture of (1:1:1 dichloromethane: cyclohexane: hexane as eluent, the percentage recoveries were in the ranges of 84.31-97.38 with the standard deviation of 1.56-5.36. The detection limits for solid phase extraction were in the ranges of 0.06-0.55 ppm. Application for analysis of water samples were done by this technique. The concentration of PAHs in water samples were found slightly varied from the location. The advantages of solid phase are solvent consumption, reuse in several times and pre-concentration.

  14. Toxicity of xenobiotics during sulfate, iron, and nitrate reduction in primary sewage sludge suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars


    The effect and persistence of six organic xenobiotics was tested under sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions in primary sewage sludge suspensions. The xenobiotics tested were acenaphthene, phenanthrene, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate...... (LAS), and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) added to initial analytical concentrations of 54–117 mg L−1. The suspensions were incubated at 30 °C for 15 weeks and rates of sulfate, iron, and nitrate reduction were estimated from the time course of hydrogen sulfide accumulation, Fe(II) accumulation......, and nitrate depletion, respectively. Chemical analysis showed that the xenobiotics were persistent under the different electron acceptor regimes for the duration of the experiment. This was partly attributed to low bioavailability and microbial toxicity of the xenobiotics....

  15. Lignin peroxidase oxidation of aromatic compounds in systems containing organic solvents. (United States)

    Vazquez-Duhalt, R; Westlake, D W; Fedorak, P M


    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  16. Evaluation of toxicity to the biological treatment and removal of recalcitrant organic compounds from oil refineries wastewaters; Avaliacao da toxicidade ao tratamento biologico e remocao de compostos organicos recalcitrantes existentes em efluentes de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros Junior, Laerte M.; Macedo, Gorete R.; Bezerra, Marcio S.; Pereira, Franklin M.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Schmidell, Willibaldo [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)


    Oil industry waste water usually contains recalcitrant chemical compounds, like phenol, benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene and acenaphthene. The respirometry, determination of respiration rate of an active biomass, is an adequate methodology for quantification of aerobic activity biological. This study aims evaluate the inhibition effect of phenol in the oxidation capacity of an industrial sludge. This work also intends to study the phenol removal through biological and photochemical-biological processes. The respirometry was carried out with synthetic solution, using sludge from an oil processing industry. The phenol degradation experiments were carried out in an activated sludge unit and in a photochemical reactor. This work suggests the potential of photochemical-biological treatment use, in relation to the biological process with a no-acclimated sludge, in the removal of refractory organic compounds from oil industry wastewaters. The characterization of biomass using the respirometry methodology showed which is a useful tool in evaluation of phenol toxicity to biological treatment. (author)

  17. Evaluating emission levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic materials by analytical pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Daniele; Vassura, Ivano [Laboratory of Chemistry, C.I.R.S.A., University of Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, I-48100 Ravenna (Italy)


    A procedure in off-line analytical pyrolysis was investigated for the rapid determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) evolved from thermal degradation of organic materials. Samples spiked with perdeuterated PAHs were pyrolysed at 1000{sup o}C for 60s by means of a resistively heated filament pyrolyser inserted into a glass chamber connected to a cartridge with a sorbent (XAD-2 resin). PAHs trapped onto the resin were extracted with dichloromethane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical performance of the overall procedure (precision, recovery, effect of experimental parameters) was evaluated by pyrolysing a bituminous coal certified reference material (CRM). Emission levels of naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphtylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene were determined for bituminous and anthracite coals, tyre, and cellulose. Despite some limitations, the method was adequate to the purpose of quantitatively measuring the tendency of various materials to release volatile PAHs upon heating. (author)

  18. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.


    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  19. occupational exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons at a coke plant: Part II. Exposure assessment of volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Bieniek, Grazyna; Kurkiewicz, Slawomir; Wilczok, Tadeusz; Klimek, Katarzyna; Swiatkowska, Longina; Lusiak, Agnieszka


    The objective of the study is to assess the external and internal exposures to aromatic hydrocarbons in the tar and oil naphthalene distillation processes at a coke plant. 69 workers engaged as operators in tar and oil naphthalene distillation processes and 25 non-exposed subjects were examined. Personal analyses of the benzene, toluene, xylene isomers, ethylbenzene, naphthalene, indan, indene and acenaphthene in the breathing zone air allowed us to determine the time weighted average exposure levels to the aromatic hydrocarbons listed above. The internal exposure was investigated by measurement of the urinary excretion of naphthols, 2-methylphenol and dimethylphenol isomers by means of gas chromatography with a flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Urine metabolites were extracted after enzymatic hydrolysis by solid-phase extraction with styrene-divinylbenzene resin. The time-weighted average concentrations of the hydrocarbons detected in the breathing zone air shows that the exposure levels of the workers are relatively low in comparison to the exposure limits. Statistically significant differences between average concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene isomers) determined at the workplaces in the tar distillation department have been found. Concentrations of the naphthalene and acenaphthene detected in workers from the oil distillation department are higher that those from the tar distillation department. Concentrations of naphthols, 2-methoxyphenol and dimethylphenol isomers in the urine of occupationally exposed workers were significantly higher than those of non-exposed subjects. Concentrations of the 2-methoxyphenol and dimethylphenol isomers in urine were significantly higher for the tar distillation workers, whereas concentrations of naphthols were higher for the oil naphthalene distillation workers. Operators at the tar and naphthalene oil distillation processes are simultaneously exposed to a mixture of different hydrocarbons

  20. Microbial degradation of acenapthene and napthalene under denitrification conditions in soil--water systems: Annual report, October 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihelcic, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.


    This study examined the microbial degradation of acenaphthene and naphthalene under denitrification conditions at soil-to-water ratios of 1:25 and 1:50 with soil containing approximately 10/sup 5/ denitrifying organisms per gram of soil. Under nitrate-excess conditions, both acenaphthene and naphthalene were degraded microbially from initial aqueous-phase concentrations of about one and several mg/l, respectively, to nondetectable levels (<0.01 mg/l) in time periods less than 9 weeks. Acclimation periods of 12 to 36 days were observed prior to the onset of microbial degradation in tests with soil not previously exposed to PAH, while acclimation periods were absent in tests with soil reserved from prior PAH degradation tests. It was judged that the apparent acclimation period resulted from the time for a small population of organisms capable of PAH degradation to attain sufficient densities to exhibit detectable PAH reduction. About 0.9 percent of the naturally occurring soil organic carbon could be mineralized under denitrification conditions, and this accounted for the greater proportion of the nitrate depletion. The mineralization of the labile fraction of the soil organic carbon via microbial denitrification occurred without an observed acclimation period, and was rapid compared to PAH degradation. Under nitrate-limiting conditions the PAH compounds were stable owing to the depletion of nitrate via the more rapid process of soil organic carbon mineralization. The microbial degradation of the PAH compound depends on the interrelationships between: the desorption kinetics and the reversibility of desorption of sorbed compound from the soil, the concentration of PAH-degrading microorganisms, and the competing reaction for nitrate utilization via mineralization of the labile fraction of naturally occurring soil organic carbon. 44 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion (United States)

    Rojas, Nestor Y.; Milquez, Harvey Andrés; Sarmiento, Hugo


    A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were extracted from the filters using the Soxhlet technique, with dichloromethane as solvent. The extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (FID). No significant difference was found between PM mass collected when fueled with diesel and B15. Ten of the 16 PAH concentrations were not reduced by adding biodiesel: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. The acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and anthracene concentrations were 45%-80% higher when using diesel, whereas those for benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and pyrene were 30%-72% higher when using the B15 blend. Even though the 16 priority-PAH cumulative concentration increased when using the B15 blend, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was not different for both fuels.

  2. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Lu


    Full Text Available Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.

  3. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction. (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael


    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. PMID:17268774

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill. (United States)

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A


    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  5. Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level between suspended solid and sediment samples of Pengkalan Chepa River, Kelantan state, Malaysia (United States)

    Muslim, Noor Zuhartini Md; Babaheidari, Seyedreza Hashemi; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi


    Sixteen type of common Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which consist of naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]-perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]-pyrene and dibenz[a,h]-anthracene in suspended solid and sediment samples of Pengkalan Chepa River, Kelantan state, Malaysia were investigated. The analysis samples were taken from six different sites of Pengkalan Chepa River during sunny day. The samples were subjected to a series of pre-treatment before the level of PAHs can be determined. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was the prime method for the analysis of PAHs level. A total of 16 PAHs concentration in suspended solid of the whole Pengkalan Chepa River was found to be 2144.6 ng/g dry weights. This concentration was about eight times more than 16 PAHs concentration in sediment which found to be 266.5 ng/g dry weights.

  6. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi


    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (psoil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (psoil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  7. Wastewater Irrigation: Persistent Organic Pollutans in Soil and Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin AYDIN


    Full Text Available Treated or untreated wastewaters, used for irrigation purpose, contain various persistent organic pollutants. The long use of these waters for irrigation purpose results in deposition of the pollutants in soil, contaminates products and has adverse health affect on the human through food chain, and biologic activity of flora and fauna. The wastewaters of Konya were conveyed to the Salt Lake through the main drainage channel without any treatment until 2010.  During the arid period, the wastewater in the main drainage channel was used for irrigation and the products were cultivated. In this work, persistent organic pollutants i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, acenaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene are determined in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil samples and the wheat samples cultivated in the region. High alkaline properties and clay structure of Konya soil were determined. These properties of soil result in the accumulation of contaminants in top soil layer used for agricultural production. On the other hand, PCB and PAH compounds were determined in comparable concentrations in well water irrigated reference soils with wastewater irrigated soils. PCB and PAH sources other than wastewater irrigation was evidenced for the study field.

  8. Selective accelerated solvent extraction for the analysis of soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been successfully used in the analysis of a wide range of chemicals from many sample matrices. However, the main problem with accelerated solvent extraction is low selectivity towards the analyte because during the extraction process, many interfering components are co-extracted together with target analytes and thus requires post-extraction clean-up processes. In this study, a selective accelerated solvent extraction with clean-up step incorporated inside the extraction cell was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sterols in soil. PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene, pyrene) and sterols (coprostanol, cholestrol, stigmasterol, stigmastanol) were extracted separately using two elution steps. The selectivity and efficiency of this approach were evaluated using several sorbents and proper choice of solvents. Using polar sorbents, PAHs were recovered in the first extraction using n-hexane while sterols were recovered in the second extraction using a more polar solvent such as methanol, isopropanol, acetone and mixture of DCM: MeOH (40:60, v/ v). Recoveries for PAHs ranged from 76.5-99.2 % and sterols from 83.7-91.4 % using silica as the sorbent, n-hexane as the first eluent, and methanol as the second eluent. (author)

  9. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  10. Hot foam for weed control-Do alkyl polyglucoside surfactants used as foaming agents affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil? (United States)

    Cederlund, H; Börjesson, E


    Use of alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) as a foaming agent during hot water weed control may influence the environmental fate of organic contaminants in soil. We studied the effects of the APG-based foaming agent NCC Spuma (C8-C10) on leaching of diuron, glyphosate, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sand columns. We also examined how APG concentration affected the apparent water solubility and adsorption of the herbicides and of the PAHs acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and fluorene. Application of APGs at the recommended concentration of 0.3% did not significantly affect leaching of any of the compounds studied. However, at a concentration of 1.5%, leaching of both diuron and glyphosate was significantly increased. The increased leaching corresponded to an increase in apparent water solubility of diuron and a decrease in glyphosate adsorption to the sand. However, APG addition did not significantly affect the mobility of PAHs even though their apparent water solubility was increased. These results suggest that application of APG-based foam during hot water weed control does not significantly affect the mobility of organic contaminants in soil if used according to recommendations. Moreover, they suggest that APGs could be useful for soil bioremediation purposes if higher concentrations are used. PMID:27149400

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Residues in Serum Samples of Autopsied Individuals from Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramandla Ramesh


    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in human blood sera samples (n = 650 obtained at autopsy from individuals who died of drug abuse, alcohol toxicity, homicide, suicide and other unknown causes. The analyzed samples from decedents revealed the presence of PAHs of which B(aP was the most predominant one, followed by benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(kfluoranthene. The other PAHs detected sporadically and measured were benzo(g,h,iperylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene The mean concentrations of PAHs were greater in the twenties to fifties age groups compared to others. The PAH residue levels detected were high in African Americans compared to Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics. It appears that environmental exposure, dietary intake and in some cases occupational exposure may have contributed to the PAH body burden. While the PAH residue concentrations measured fall within the range of those reported for healthy adults elsewhere, in isolated cases, the concentrations detected were high, calling the need for a reduction in PAH emissions and human biomonitoring studies for purposes of risk assessment.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of the Zhelin Bay in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qiaoxiang; HUANG Hong; HUANG Changjiang


    This study examined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments collected in July 2004 from eight stations in the Zhelin Bay, one of the most important bays for large-scale mariculture in Guangdong Province. Thirteen individual parent PAH compounds were identified using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The overall average concentration of total PAHs was 477.0 ng/g, ranging from 146.1 to 928.8 ng/g. Low molecular mass PAHs with two to three rings (e.g., acenaphthene) were dominant in each sample. The PAH concentration varied among sampling stations, with the highest concentration observed at bay outlets and the lowest found at stations outside the bay. Ratios of low to high molecular mass PAHs and fluoranthene to pyrene were used to determine the origin of PAHs, and results indicated mainly petroleum-derived contamination. Compared with other bays and harbors around the world, the total concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments at the Zhelin Bay are moderate, but this does not exclude the possibility of potential impact on human consumers because some strong carcinogenic PAHs with high molecular mass were found at the station with a nearby caged-fish and oyster farm. Long-term monitoring of PAH contamination in the Zhelin Bay is recommended to reduce the potential toxicological effects on aquatic: organisms and humans.

  13. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish: evaluation of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extraction method. (United States)

    Ramalhosa, Maria João; Paíga, Paula; Morais, Simone; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Prior Pinto


    QuEChERS method was evaluated for extraction of 16 PAHs from fish samples. For a selective measurement of the compounds, extracts were analysed by LC with fluorescence detection. The overall analytical procedure was validated by systematic recovery experiments at three levels and by using the standard reference material SRM 2977 (mussel tissue). The targeted contaminants, except naphthalene and acenaphthene, were successfully extracted from SRM 2977 with recoveries ranging from 63.5-110.0% with variation coefficients not exceeding 8%. The optimum QuEChERS conditions were the following: 5 g of homogenised fish sample, 10 mL of ACN, agitation performed by vortex during 3 min. Quantification limits ranging from 0.12-1.90 ng/g wet weight (0.30-4.70 microg/L) were obtained. The optimized methodology was applied to assess the safety concerning PAHs contents of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and farmed seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Although benzo(a)pyrene, the marker used for evaluating the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in food, was not detected in the analysed samples (89 individuals corresponding to 27 homogenized samples), the overall mean concentration ranged from 2.52 +/- 1.20 ng/g in horse mackerel to 14.6 +/- 2.8 ng/g in farmed seabass. Significant differences were found between the mean PAHs concentrations of the four groups. PMID:19750509

  14. Fast pyrolysis of creosote treated wood ties in a fluidized bed reactor and analytical characterization of product fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fraction of creosote treated wood ties was pyrolyzed in a pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char-separation system at different temperatures. Analyses of each pyrolysis product, especially the oil, were carried out using a variety of analytical tools. The maximum oil yield was obtained at 458 °C with a value of 69.3 wt%. Oils obtained were easily separated into two phases, a creosote-derived fraction (CDF) and a wood-derived fraction (WDF). Major compounds of the WDF were acetic acid, furfural and levoglucosan, while the CDF was mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene. HPLC analysis showed that the concentration of PAHs of the CDF obtained at 458 °C constituted about 22.5 wt% of the oil. - Highlights: • Creosote treated wood ties was stably pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor. • Pyrolysis oil contained extremely low metal content due to the char removal system. • Bio-oil components was quantitatively analyzed by relative response factor. • Creosote-derived pyrolysis oil fraction was composed of PHAs and has a high caloric value (39 MJ/kg)

  15. Characterization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Biodegradation of recalcitrant toxic organics under radioactive conditions. → Biodegradation of PAHs of varying size and complexity in mixed waste streams. → Validation of radiation-tolerance and performance of the isolated organisms. - Abstract: PAH degrading Pseudomonad and Alcaligenes species were isolated from landfill soil and mine drainage in South Africa. The isolated organisms were mildly radiation tolerant and were able to degrade PAHs in simulated nuclear wastewater. The radiation in the simulated wastewater, at 0.677 Bq/μL, was compatible to measured values in wastewater from a local radioisotope manufacturing facility, and was enough to inhibit metabolic activity of known PAH degraders from soil such as Pseudomonas putida GMP-1. The organic constituents in the original radioactive waste stream consisted of the full range of PAHs except fluoranthene. Among the observed PAHs in the nuclear wastewater from the radioisotope manufacturing facility, acenaphthene and chrysene predominated-measured at 25.1 and 14.2 mg/L, respectively. Up to sixteen U.S.EPA priority PAHs were detected at levels higher than allowable limits in drinking water. The biodegradation of the PAHs was limited by the solubility of the compounds. This contributed to the observed faster degradation rates in low molecular weight (LMW) compounds than in high molecular weight compounds.

  16. Effects of sludge retention time and biosurfactant on the treatment of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in a petrochemical industry wastewater. (United States)

    Sponza, D T; Gok, O


    A laboratory-scale aerobic activated sludge reactor (AASR) system was employed to investigate the effects of sludge retention time (SRT) on the removal of three polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with low benzene rings [(acenaphthene (ACT), fluorene (FLN) and phenanthrene (PHE)] and six PAHs with high benzene rings [(benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DahA), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP)] in the presence of rhamnolipid (RD), emulsan (EM) and surfactine (SR) biosurfactants. This study showed that biosurfactants enhance the PAH biodegradation by increasing the biomass growth. RD exhibits a better performance than the other biosurfactants in the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and PAHs. At a RD concentration of 15 mg/L aerobic treatment for 25 days, SRT was enough to remove over 95% of total PAHs, and COD(dis). Under the same conditions 75% of COD originating from the inert organics (COD(inert)) and 96% of COD originating from the inert soluble microbial products (COD(imp)) were removed. At 25 days SRT and 15 mg/L RD concentration, about 88% of PAHs were biodegraded by the AASR system, 4% were accumulated in the system, 3% were released in the effluent, and 5% remained in the waste sludge. PMID:22156134

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation. (United States)

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. PMID:27235950

  18. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil: a comparison between bioremoval and supercritical fluids extraction. (United States)

    Amezcua-Allieri, M A; Ávila-Chávez, M A; Trejo, A; Meléndez-Estrada, J


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic substances which are resistant to environmental degradation due to their highly hydrophobic nature. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose potential risks to human and ecological health, therefore concern over their adverse effects have resulted in extensive studies on their removal from contaminated soils. The main purpose of this study was to compare experimental results of PAHs removal, from a natural certified soil polluted with PAHs, by biological methods (using bioaugmentation and biostimulation in a solid-state culture) with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using supercritical ethane as solvent. The comparison of results between the two methods showed that maximal removal of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and chrysene was performed using bioremediation; however, for the rest of the PAHs considered (fluoranthene, pyrene, and benz(a)anthracene) SFE resulted more efficient. Although bioremediation achieved higher removal ratios for certain hydrocarbons and takes advantage of the increased rate of natural biological processes, it takes longer time (i.e. 36 d vs. half an hour) than SFE and it is best for 2-3 PAHs rings. PMID:22197016

  19. Initial environmental impacts of the Obed Mountain coal mine process water spill into the Athabasca River (Alberta, Canada). (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Schwindt, Colin; Davies, Martin; Donahue, William F; Azim, Ekram


    On October 31, 2013, a catastrophic release of approximately 670,000m(3) of coal process water occurred as the result of the failure of the wall of a post-processing settling pond at the Obed Mountain Mine near Hinton, Alberta. A highly turbid plume entered the Athabasca River approximately 20km from the mine, markedly altering the chemical composition of the Athabasca River as it flowed downstream. The released plume traveled approximately 1100km downstream to the Peace-Athabasca Delta in approximately four weeks, and was tracked both visually and using real-time measures of river water turbidity within the Athabasca River. The plume initially contained high concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); some Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environmental (CCME) Guidelines were exceeded in the initial days after the spill. Subsequent characterization of the source material revealed elevated concentrations of both metals (arsenic, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc) and PAHs (acenaphthene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene). While toxicity testing using the released material indicated a relatively low or short-lived acute risk to the aquatic environment, some of the water quality and sediment quality variables are known carcinogens and have the potential to exert negative long-term impacts. PMID:27017080

  20. Delocalization and Valence Tautomerism in Vanadium Tris(iminosemiquinone) Complexes. (United States)

    Bendix, Jesper; Clark, Kensha Marie


    To survey the noninnocence of bis(arylimino) acenaphthene (BIAN) ligands (L) in complexes with early metals, the homoleptic vanadium complex, [V(L)3 ] (1), and its monocation, [V(L)3 ]PF6 (2), were synthesized. These complexes were found to have a very rich electronic behavior, whereby 1 displays strong electronic delocalization and 2 can be observed in unprecedented valence tautomeric forms. The oxidation states of the metal and ligand components in these complexes were assigned by using spectroscopic, crystallographic, and magnetic analyses. Complex 1 was identified as [V(IV) (L(red) )(L(.) )2 ] (L(red) =N,N'-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylamido)acenaphthylene; L(.) =N,N'-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylimino)acenaphthenesemiquinonate). Complex 2 was determined to be [V(V) (L(red) )(L(.) )2 ](+) at T150 K. Cyclic voltammetry experiments reveal six quasi-reversible processes, thus indicating the potential of this metal-ligand combination in catalysis or materials applications. PMID:26799365

  1. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2,5 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method was validated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM2,5 particles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, Benzo (a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo (b)fluoranthene, Benzo (k)fluoranthene, Benzo (a)pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h)anthracene, Benzo (g, h, i)perylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CD)pyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit have been between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l. An equipment DIONEX, ICS 3000 model is used, that has two in series detectors: one ultraviolet model VWD-1, and fluorescence detector, model RF-2000, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds analyzed, the recovery factor has found not significantly different from each other and the repeatability and reproducibility has been to be suitable for an analytical method, especially for the lighter PAHs. (author)

  2. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part A-Monocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty


    Present study focused on the screening of bacterial consortium for biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (MAH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Target compounds in the present study were naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene (PAHs), and benzene (MAH). Microbial consortia enriched with the above target compounds were used in screening experiments. Naphthalene-enriched consortium was found to be the most efficient consortium, based on its substrate degradation rate and its ability to degrade other aromatic pollutants with significantly high efficiency. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order benzene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > phenanthrene. Chryseobacterium and Rhodobacter were discerned as the predominant species in naphthalene-enriched culture. They are closely associated to the type strain Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae and Rhodobacter maris, respectively. Single substrate biodegradation studies with naphthalene (PAH) and benzene (MAH) were carried out using naphthalene-enriched microbial consortium (NAPH). Phenol and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the predominant intermediates during benzene and naphthalene degradation, respectively. Biodegradation of toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenol, and indole by NAPH was also investigated. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for benzene, whereas multiple substrate biodegradation model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for naphthalene. PMID:26054614

  3. Porous carbon derived from aluminum-based metal organic framework as a fiber coating for the solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nanoporous carbon derived from an aluminum-based metal-organic framework was deposited on stainless steel wires in a sol–gel matrix. The resulting fibers were applied to the solid-phase microextraction of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene from water and soil samples. The fiber was then directly inserted into the GC injector and the PAHs were quantified by GC-MS. The effects of salt addition, extraction temperature, extraction time, sample volume and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency were optimized. A linear response to the analytes was observed in the 0.1 to 12 μg∙L−1 range for water samples, and in the 0.6 to 30 μg∙kg−1 for soil samples, with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9934 to 0.9985. The limits of detection ranged from 5.0 to 20 ng∙L−1 for water samples, and from 30 to 90 ng∙kg−1 for soil samples. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 72.4 and 108.0 %, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, is <12.8 %. (author)

  4. Evaluation of butyl rubber as sorbent material for the removal of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from seawater. (United States)

    Ceylan, Deniz; Dogu, Saadet; Karacik, Burak; Yakan, Sevil D; Okay, Oya S; Okay, Oguz


    Ecological disasters resulting from oil spills have created a great need to find more efficient materials for oil spill cleanup. This research highlights the use of a novel macroporous polymeric material based on butyl rubber (BR) as a sorbent in an oil spill cleanup. The sorption capacity of BR for crude oil and petroleum products is 15-23 g g(-1) as compared to the value of 10-16 g g(-1) obtained using a nonwoven polypropylene (PP), a widely used commercial oil sorbent. BR sorbent is reusable after simple squeezing and its continuous sorption capacity for crude oil is 7.6 g g(-1) in each cycle, about 3 times the capacity of the PP sorbent BR sorbents also remove efficiently polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as acenaphthene and pyrene from seawaters. The results suggest that the rubber sorbents are a better alternative to the widely used PP sorbents by improving the efficiency of oil sorption and the reusability of the sorbent. PMID:19544897

  5. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fugitive PM10 emissions from an integrated iron and steel plant. (United States)

    Khaparde, V V; Bhanarkar, A D; Majumdar, Deepanjan; Rao, C V Chalapati


    Fugitive emissions of PM10 (particles <10μm in diameter) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored in the vicinity of coking unit, sintering unit, blast furnace and steel manufacturing unit in an integrated iron and steel plant situated in India. Concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound total PAHs, benzo (a) pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs were found to be highest around the sintering unit. Concentrations of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were recorded to be highest in the coking unit whereas 5-and 6-ring PAHs were found to be highest in other units. The following indicatory PAHs were identified: indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, benzo (k) fluoranthene in blast furnace unit; indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, chrysene in sintering unit; Anthracene, fluoranthene, chrysene in coking unit and acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene in steel making unit. Total-BaP-TEQ (Total BaP toxic equivalent quotient) and BaP-MEQ (Total BaP mutagenic equivalent quotient) concentration levels ranged from 2.4 to 231.7ng/m(3) and 1.9 to 175.8ng/m(3), respectively. BaP and DbA (dibenzo (a,h) anthracene) contribution to total-BaP-TEQ was found to be the highest. PMID:27099996

  6. Dissipation of PAHs in saturated, dredged sediments: a field trial. (United States)

    Smith, K E; Schwab, A P; Banks, M K


    Sediments dredged from navigable rivers often contain elevated concentrations of recalcitrant, potentially toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these compounds often requires that the sediments be stored in fully contained disposal facilities. A 3-year field study was conducted at the Jones Island disposal facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to compare bioremediation of PAHs in contaminated dredged sediments in the absence of plants to phytoremediation with Salix nigra (black willow) (SX61), Spartina pectinata (prairie cord grass), Carex aquatalis (lake sedge), Lolium multiflorum (annual rye), and Scirpus fluviatilis (bulrush). Nine PAHs were detected initially in the sediments. Over the 3-year experiment, acenaphthene dissipation ranged from 94% to 100%, whereas anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene and indo[1,2,3-cd]pyrene generally had modest decreases in concentration (0-30% decrease). The remaining five PAHs ranged in degree of disappearance from 23% to 82%. Planted treatments did not enhance PAH dissipation relative to those without plants, but treatments with high biomass yield and high transpiration plant species had significantly less removal of PAHs than unplanted controls. Significant, negative correlations between nitrogen removal and decreases in PAH concentration suggest that competition for nutrients between plants and microorganisms may have impeded the microbial degradation of PAHs in the rhizosphere of the more rapidly growing plant species. PMID:18547603


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚先; 张勇; 庄一廷; Ka-FaiPoon; MichaelH.W.Lam; 洪华生; RudolfS.S.Wu


    A new mimic biological Semi-permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) introduced for sampling organic pollutants yielded satisfactory results when it was frrst used as a passive sampler to concentrate and determine 16 kinds of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of capillary GC on an HP 5890 GC-FID in coastal sediment perewater. The concentration of PAHs in sediment porewater for naphthalene(N), acenaphthlene(AL), acenaphthene (AE), fluorene (F), phenaphthene(P), anthracene(A), fluoranthene(FA), pyrene(Py), benzo[a]anthracene(B[a]A), chrysene(Chr), benzo[b] fluor- anthene(B[b]F), benzo[k]fluoranthene(B[k]F), benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P),indeno[1,2,3,-cd]-Pyrene(I[123]P), dibenz[a,h]anthracene(D[ab]A) and benzo[g,h,i] perylene(B[ghi]P) were:50.36, under detection limits(UD), 18.19, 8.41, 8.40, 1.44, UD, 8.01, 524.15, 168.47, 50.13,123.66, 63.48, 27.40, 82.04 and 58,81 ng/L, respectively.

  8. Identification and quantification of phencyclidine pyrolysis products formed during smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of frequent phencyclidine (PCP) abuse, pyrolysis studies were conducted to further investigate its fate during smoking. Marijuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with 3H-PCP HCl and burned under conditions simulating smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters as well as acidic and basic traps. Approximately 90% of the starting material could be accounted for in the first glass wool trap and cigarette holder. HPLC and GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of these glass wool traps revealed the presence of 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (47% of the starting material) > PCP (40%) > piperidine (15%) > N-acetylpiperidine (9%). It was not possible to fully account for the remainder of the piperidine moiety. It has been reported that at high temperatures PCP is converted to numerous polynuclear aromatic compounds which include styrene, α-methylstyrene, naphthalene, 2-methyl-naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, cyclohexylbenzene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These compounds were not formed from PCP under smoking conditions

  9. Growth of rhodococcus S1 on anthracene. (United States)

    Tongpim, S; Pickard, M A


    Three slow-growing bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for growth on anthracene, using creosote-contaminated soil as the inoculum. Organisms were shown to use anthracene by the production of a clear zone around the colony after a mineral salts agar plate was sprayed with anthracene. All three bacteria were nonmotile, nonsporulating, gram-positive rods and stained acid-fast. Physiological and biochemical tests, GC content, and cell wall lipid patterns of whole cell methanolysates indicated that they belonged to the Nocardia-Mycobacterium-Rhodococcus group. On the basis of these characteristics and pyrolysis gas chromatography, they were assigned to the genus Rhodococcus. Growth of the isolates was slow on crystalline anthracene, giving a doubling time of 1.5-3 days, and they grew mainly on the crystal surface. When anthracene was supplied by precipitation from a solvent, doubling time was reduced to 1 day. All three isolates mineralized anthracene but not phenanthrene or naphthalene, nor could they grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, fluoranthene, acenaphthene, pyrene, chrysene, or naphthacene as sole carbon source. One isolate, Rhodococcus S1, was able to use 2-methylanthracene or 2-chloroanthracene as carbon source but not 1- or 9-substituted analogs. These results suggest that the initial enzyme attacking anthracene in these isolates has a narrow substrate specificity. PMID:8868237

  10. Spatial Variability of PAHs and Microbial Community Structure in Surrounding Surficial Soil of Coal-Fired Power Plants in Xuzhou, China. (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wangyuan; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Shaoliang; Feng, Qiyan; Hou, Huping; Chen, Fu


    This work investigated the spatial profile and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil that surrounds coal-fired power plants in Xuzhou, China. High-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the composition and structure of soil bacterial communities. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the surface soils ranged from 164.87 to 3494.81 μg/kg dry weight. The spatial profile of PAHs was site-specific with a concentration of 1400.09-3494.81 μg/kg in Yaozhuang. Based on the qualitative and principal component analysis results, coal burning and vehicle emission were found to be the main sources of PAHs in the surface soils. The phylogenetic analysis revealed differences in bacterial community compositions among different sampling sites. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, while Acidobacteria was the second most abundant. The orders of Campylobacterales, Desulfobacterales and Hydrogenophilales had the most significant differences in relative abundance among the sampling sites. The redundancy analysis revealed that the differences in bacterial communities could be explained by the organic matter content. They could also be explicated by the acenaphthene concentration with longer arrows. Furthermore, OTUs of Proteobacteria phylum plotted around particular samples were confirmed to have a different composition of Proteobacteria phylum among the sample sites. Evaluating the relationship between soil PAHs concentration and bacterial community composition may provide useful information for the remediation of PAH contaminated sites. PMID:27598188

  11. Comparison of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs concentrations in urban and natural forest soils in the Atlantic Forest (São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bourotte


    Full Text Available Studies about pollution by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in tropical soils and Brazil are scarce. A study was performed to examine the PAHs composition, concentrations and sources in red-yellow Oxisols of remnant Atlantic Forest of the São Paulo State. Sampling areas were located in an urban site (PEFI and in a natural one (CUNHA.The granulometric composition, pH, organic matter content and mineralogical composition were determined in samples of superficial soils. The sum of PAHs (ΣHPAs was 4.5 times higher in the urban area than in the natural one. Acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene have been detected in the soils of both areas and presented similar concentrations. Acenaphthene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds. Pyrene was twice more abundant in the soils of natural area (15 µ than of the urban area and fluoranthene was the dominant compound (203 µ in urban area (6.8 times higher than in the natural area. Some compounds of higher molecular weight, which are tracers of vehicular emissions showed significant concentrations in urban soils. Pyrene represented 79% of ΣPAHs whereas it has not been detected in natural soils. The results showed that forest soils in urban area are characterized by the accumulation of high molecular weight compounds of industrial and vehicular origin.Estudos sobre a poluição por Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (HPAs são escassos em solos tropicais e no Brasil. Um estudo foi realizado para examinar a composição, as concentrações e fontes de HPAs encontrados em Latossolos vermelho-amarelo (Oxissolos, remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no Estado de São Paulo. As áreas de estudos localizaram-se em um sítio urbano (PEFI e um natural (CUNHA. A composição granulométrica, pH, teor de matéria orgânica e composição mineralógica foram determinados em amostras de solo superficial. A soma dos HPAs analisados (ΣHPAs foi 4,5 vezes mais

  12. Synthesis and ethylene polymerization of acenaphthy-based nickel(II)-α-diimine complexes%后过渡金属苊基α-双亚胺镍催化剂的合成及催化乙烯聚合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯彦辉; 邢莹莹; 胡博文; 孟聪; 翟飞帆; 韩伟伟; 张宇峰; 杨敏


    Twoα-diimine nickel complexes [Ar-N=C(Nap)-C(Nap)=N-Ar] NiBr2 with new structures [Ar=Ar=2,6-(i-Pr)2-phenyl, Nap=5-R-1,8-naphthdiyl; Cat.A R=H; Cat.B=OCH3] were synthesized successfully and characterized by the 1H-NMR analysis and elemental analysis. They were used to catalyse ethylene polymerization. The influences resulting from the changes of polymerization temperatures, the mole ratio of Al/Ni and the alkyl substituents on backbone carbon of acenaphthene on the ethylene polymerization activities were investigated. The results showed that polymerization activities were improved significantly because of the introduction of electron donating substituent on backbone carbon of acenaphthene. Especially, the catalytic system had the highest activity when Al/Ni equalled 1 500. The ethylene polymerization activities with Cat.A reached 371 kg/(mol·h) under the condition 30℃and those reached 446 kg/(mol·h) under 10℃with Cat.B.%合成2种具有新型结构的苊二亚胺Ni催化剂[ArN=C(Nap)-C(Nap)=NAr]NiBr2(Ar=2,6-(i-Pr)2-phenyl, Nap=5-R-1,8-naphthdiyl;其中,Cat.A中R=H;Cat.B中R=OCH3),通过核磁氢谱分析(1H-NMR)及元素分析对其进行表征.同时,该催化剂也被用于乙烯聚合反应中,考察聚合体系的温度、铝镍比以及苊碳骨架上的取代基团对乙烯聚合反应活性的影响.研究结果表明:苊碳骨架上引入供电子取代基后催化剂的催化活性明显提高;当铝镍摩尔比为1500时,2种新型Ni(II)催化剂的催化活性最高,氢取代的催化剂(Cat.A)在聚合温度为30℃时对乙烯的催化活性为371 kg/(mol·h),而甲氧基取代的催化剂(Cat.B)在10℃下对乙烯聚合的催化活性达到了446 kg/(mol·h).

  13. Modeling of experimental data on trace elements and organic compounds content in industrial waste dumps. (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Drobek, Leszek; Dombek, Václav; Bąk, Andrzej


    The main objective of the study presented was to investigate the differences between 20 mine waste dumps located in the Silesian Region of Poland and Czech Republic, in terms of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were applied in exploration of the studied data. Since the data set was affected by outlying objects, the employment of a relevant analysis strategy was necessary. The final PCA model was constructed with the use of the Expectation-Maximization iterative approach preceded by a correct identification of outliers. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that three mine waste dumps located in Poland were characterized by the highest concentrations of dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and six objects located in Czech Republic and three objects in Poland were distinguished by high concentrations of chrysene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene. Three of studied mine waste dumps, one located in Czech Republic and two in Poland, were characterized by low concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthen, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene in comparison with the remaining ones. The analysis contributes to the assessment and prognosis of ecological and health risks related to the emission of trace elements and organic compounds (PAHs) from the waste dumps examined. No previous research of similar scope and aims has been reported for the area concerned. PMID:27497349

  14. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else? (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A


    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples. PMID:27224000

  15. Fate of aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian municipal wastewater systems: an overview of wastewater treatment using conventional activated-sludge processes (CASP) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs). (United States)

    Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Bolzonella, David; Cecchi, Franco


    We studied the occurrence, removal, and fate of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Italian municipal wastewater treatment systems in terms of their common contents and forms, and their apparent and actual removal in both conventional activated-sludge processes (CASP) and membrane bioreactors (MBRs). We studied five representative full-scale CASP treatment plants (design capacities of 12,000 to 700,000 population-equivalent), three of which included MBR systems (one full-scale and two pilot-scale) operating in parallel with the conventional systems. We studied the solid-liquid partitioning and fates of these substances using both conventional samples and a novel membrane-equipped automatic sampler. Among the VOCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, and 4-chlorotoluene were ubiquitous, whereas naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and phenanthrene were the most common PAHs. Both PAHs and aromatic VOCs had removal efficiencies of 40-60% in the headworks, even in plants without primary sedimentation. Mainly due to volatilization, aromatic VOCs had comparable removal efficiencies in CASP and MBRs, even for different sludge ages. MBRs did not enhance the retention of PAHs sorbed to suspended particulates compared with CASPs. On the other hand, the specific daily accumulation of PAHs in the MBR's activated sludge decreased logarithmically with increasing sludge age, indicating enhanced biodegradation of PAHs. The PAH and aromatic VOC contents in the final effluent are not a major driver for widespread municipal adoption of MBRs, but MBRs may enhance the biodegradation of PAHs and their removal from the environment. PMID:20804998

  16. Impact of transverse and longitudinal dispersion on first-order degradation rate constant estimation (United States)

    Stenback, Greg A.; Ong, Say Kee; Rogers, Shane W.; Kjartanson, Bruce H.


    A two-dimensional analytical model is employed for estimating the first-order degradation rate constant of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in contaminated groundwater under steady-state conditions. The model may utilize all aqueous concentration data collected downgradient of a source area, but does not require that any data be collected along the plume centerline. Using a least squares fit of the model to aqueous concentrations measured in monitoring wells, degradation rate constants were estimated at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) site in the Midwest U.S. The estimated degradation rate constants are 0.0014, 0.0034, 0.0031, 0.0019, and 0.0053 day -1 for acenaphthene, naphthalene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and toluene, respectively. These estimated rate constants were as low as one-half those estimated with the one-dimensional (centerline) approach of Buscheck and Alcantar [Buscheck, T.E., Alcantar, C.M., 1995. Regression techniques and analytical solutions to demonstrate intrinsic bioremediation. In: Hinchee, R.E., Wilson, J.T., Downey, D.C. (Eds.), Intrinsic Bioremediation, Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, pp. 109-116] which does not account for transverse dispersivity. Varying the transverse and longitudinal dispersivity values over one order of magnitude for toluene data obtained from the FMGP site resulted in nearly a threefold variation in the estimated degradation rate constant—highlighting the importance of reliable estimates of the dispersion coefficients for obtaining reasonable estimates of the degradation rate constants. These results have significant implications for decision making and site management where overestimation of a degradation rate may result in remediation times and bioconversion factors that exceed expectations. For a complex source area or non-steady-state plume, a superposition of analytical models that incorporate longitudinal and transverse dispersion and time may be used at sites where the centerline method would not be

  17. A screening method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water by headspace SPME with GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuazagoitia, D.; Millan, E.; Garcia, R. [Univ. of Pais Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Applied Chemistry


    A simple method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed. In order to obtain the convenient experimental conditions for HS-SPME extraction an experimental design with two steps was accomplished. A 2{sup 6-2} fractional factorial design and central composite design (CCD) considering three significant factors were used. Naphthalene, anthracene and fluoranthene were chosen as representatives of two, three and four aromatic rings, and the global response of three PAHs was used for the results, evaluation. The chosen extraction conditions were: 85 {mu}m polyacrylate fibre; 50 C temperature; 60 min time; 20 mL-dissolution volume (in 40 mL glass vial); without salt addition; and 2 min desorption time. The procedure was extended to other seven PAHs (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene) and the analytical characteristics were checked. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.08 (anthracene) to 0.20 {mu}g L{sup -1} (naphthalene). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD in %) using 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} of each analyte ranged from 6.8 to 17 %. The method was applied to the analysis of the surface waters and leaching waters of contaminated soils from Gipuzkoa (North Spain). The PAHs were not detected in surface water samples. Most of the PAHs were found in the leachates from contaminated soils showing a maximum global value of 75.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. (orig.)

  18. A Potential Impact on the Chemical Composition in the Marine Boundary Layer in the Arctic Ocean by Ship Emissions (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Wang, X.; Blum, J. D.; Sun, L.


    Samples of aerosols in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Arctic Ocean were collected aboard R/V ()Xuelong during the summer on the Second Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (July-September, 2003). Chemical compositions including major and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosol particles were analyzed. Results showed that significant amounts of S, Fe, V and Ni are emitted from ship diesel engines and contaminate the ambient air. The total amount of Fe, which plays a significant role in the ocean ()biological pump, emitted from ships in the Arctic is estimated at 4.33-A106 kg yr-1. Sulfur emitted into the atmosphere may be transformed to sulfur acid and result in a chlorine depletion in sea-salt. Because the global inventory of sulfur from ship exhausts is large and halogens may have important consequences in possible tropospheric ozone destruction, the role of ships in effecting halogen depression in sea-salt should be evaluated. For organic compounds, 17 PAHs including Fluoranthene, Phenanthrene, Chrysene, Indeno[123-cd]pyrene, Pyrene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[ghi]pyrene, Naphthalene, Benzo[a]anthracene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Coronene, Fluorene, Benzo[a]pyrene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and Acenaphthylene were detected. The average levels of subspecies of PAHs in ambient air ranged from 0.003 to 0.089 ng/m3. Among the 17 PAHs, fluoranthene had a relative high level, while the level of acenaphthylene was relative low. The aerosols contaminated by the ship, which were commonly excluded in previous investigations, thus provide an opportunity to investigate and understand the role of ship emissions in the atmospheric chemistry of the marine boundary layer, especially in the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Occurrence of organic pollutants in recovered soil fines from construction and demolition waste. (United States)

    Jang, Y C; Townsend, T G


    The objective of this study was to characterize recovered soil fines from construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling facilities for trace organic pollutants. Over a period of 18 months, five sampling trips were made to 14 C&D waste recycling facilities in Florida. Screened soil fines were collected from older stockpiles and newly generated piles at the sites. The samples were analyzed for the total concentration (mg/kg) of a series of volatile organic compound (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (semi-VOCs). The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) test was also performed to evaluate the leachability of the trace organic chemicals. During the total analysis only a few volatile organic compounds were commonly found in the samples (trichlorofluoromethane, toluene, 4-isopropyltoluene, trimethylbenzene, xylenes, and methylene chloride). A total of nine VOCs were detected in the leaching test. Toluene showed the highest leachability among the compounds (61.3-92.0%), while trichlorofluoromethane, the most commonly detected compound from both the total and leaching tests, resulted in the lowest leachability (1.4-39.9%). For the semi-VOC analysis, three base-neutral semi-VOC compounds (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate) and several PAHs (acenaphthene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and phenanthrene) were commonly detected in C&D fines samples. These compounds also leached during the SPLP leaching test (0.1-25%). No acid extractable compounds, pesticides, or PCBs were detected. The results of this study were further investigated to assess risk from land applied recovered soil fines by comparing total and leaching concentrations of recovered soil fines samples to risk-based standards. The results of this indicate that the organic chemicals in recovered soil fines from C&D debris recycling facilities were not of a major concern in terms of human risk and leaching risk to groundwater under reuse and contact scenarios

  20. Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities. (United States)

    Morillo, E; Romero, A S; Maqueda, C; Madrid, L; Ajmone-Marsan, F; Grcman, H; Davidson, C M; Hursthouse, A S; Villaverde, J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of urban soil from three European cities: Glasgow (UK), Torino (Italy) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fifteen PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were measured in urban soil samples, using harmonised sampling, sample extraction and analyte quantification methods. Although the mean concentration of each PAH in urban soils of each city showed a wide range of values, high levels of contamination were only evident in Glasgow, where the sum of concentrations of 15 PAHs was in the range 1487-51,822 microg kg(-1), cf. ranges in the other two cities were about ten-fold lower (89.5-4488 microg kg(-1)). The three predominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the sum of these compounds about 40% of the total PAH content. These data, together with some special molecular indices based on ratios of selected PAHs, suggest pyrogenic origins, especially motor vehicle exhausts, to be the major sources of PAHs in urban soils of the three cities. The largest concentrations for PAHs were often found in sites close to the historic quarters of the cities. Overall, the different climatic conditions, the organic carbon contents of soil, and the source apportionment were the dominant factors affecting accumulation of PAHs in soil. PMID:17726562

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles with hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity for solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples. (United States)

    Xue, Shu-Wen; Tang, Min-Qiong; Xu, Li; Shi, Zhi-guo


    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) featured with divinylbenzene (DVB) and sulfonate functionalities (Fe3O4-DVB-SO3(-)) were prepared via "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The hydrophobic DVB moieties were dedicated for extraction while the hydrophilic sulfonate groups were designed for dispersing the MNPs in aqueous sample solution. Thus, the specially designed material could ensure operational convenience and improve reproducibility during extraction. The application of the material was demonstrated by the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. The main factors influencing the extraction, including the type of the desorption solvent, the agitation mode, the amount of MNPs, extraction and desorption time and salt addition in sample solution, were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed satisfactory reproducibility with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 16.5% and 21.2%, and low limits of detection of 1.1pgmL(-1), 0.8pgmL(-1), 1.1pgmL(-1), 1.4pgmL(-1), 0.6pgmL(-1), 2.1pgmL(-1) and 0.7pgmL(-1) for naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene, respectively. The developed method was also successfully used for determination of the PAHs in genuine lake and river environmental water samples by standard addition method. All the studied PAHs were detected in these waters with comparable results by the standard liquid-liquid extraction method. The developed MNPs with dual property of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were suitable for the treatment of water samples. The magnetic solid phase extraction based on this material was reliable and convenient. It has great potential in the preconcentration of trace analytes in complex matrix. PMID:26260841

  2. Tunable Electrochemical and Catalytic Features of BIAN- and BIAO-Derived Ruthenium Complexes. (United States)

    Hazari, Arijit Singha; Das, Ankita; Ray, Ritwika; Agarwala, Hemlata; Maji, Somnath; Mobin, Shaikh M; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar


    This article deals with a class of ruthenium-BIAN-derived complexes, [Ru(II)(tpm)(R-BIAN)Cl]ClO4 (tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane, R-BIAN = bis(arylimino)acenaphthene, R = 4-OMe ([1a]ClO4), 4-F ([1b]ClO4), 4-Cl ([1c]ClO4), 4-NO2 ([1d]ClO4)) and [Ru(II)(tpm)(OMe-BIAN)H2O](2+) ([3a](ClO4)2). The R-BIAN framework with R = H, however, leads to the selective formation of partially hydrolyzed BIAO ([N-(phenyl)imino]acenapthenone)-derived complex [Ru(II)(tpm)(BIAO)Cl]ClO4 ([2]ClO4). The redox-sensitive bond parameters involving -N═C-C═N- or -N═C-C═O of BIAN or BIAO in the crystals of representative [1a]ClO4, [3a](PF6)2, or [2]ClO4 establish its unreduced form. The chloro derivatives 1a(+)-1d(+) and 2(+) exhibit one oxidation and successive reduction processes in CH3CN within the potential limit of ±2.0 V versus SCE, and the redox potentials follow the order 1a(+) Mulliken spin density distributions in paramagnetic intermediate states which reveal metal-based (Ru(II) → Ru(III)) oxidation and primarily BIAN- or BIAO-based successive reduction processes. The aqua complex 3a(2+) undergoes two proton-coupled redox processes at 0.56 and 0.85 V versus SCE in phosphate buffer (pH 7) corresponding to {Ru(II)-H2O}/{Ru(III)-OH} and {Ru(III)-OH}/{Ru(IV)═O}, respectively. The chloro (1a(+)-1d(+)) and aqua (3a(2+)) derivatives are found to be equally active in functioning as efficient precatalysts toward the epoxidation of a wide variety of alkenes in the presence of PhI(OAc)2 as oxidant in CH2Cl2 at 298 K, though the analogous 2(+) remains virtually inactive. The detailed experimental analysis with the representative precatalyst 1a(+) suggests the involvement of the active {Ru(IV)═O} species in the catalytic cycle, and the reaction proceeds through the radical mechanism, as also supported by the DFT calculations. PMID:25928272

  3. Impact of electrochemical treatment of soil washing solution on PAH degradation efficiency and soil respirometry. (United States)

    Mousset, Emmanuel; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Nihal; Guibaud, Gilles; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A


    The remediation of a genuinely PAH-contaminated soil was performed, for the first time, through a new and complete investigation, including PAH extraction followed by advanced oxidation treatment of the washing solution and its recirculation, and an analysis of the impact of the PAH extraction on soil respirometry. The study has been performed on the remediation of genuine PAH-contaminated soil, in the following three steps: (i) PAH extraction with soil washing (SW) techniques, (ii) PAH degradation with an electro-Fenton (EF) process, and (iii) recirculation of the partially oxidized effluent for another SW cycle. The following criteria were monitored during the successive washing cycles: PAH extraction efficiency, PAH oxidation rates and yields, extracting agent recovery, soil microbial activity, and pH of soil. Two representative extracting agents were compared: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and a non-ionic surfactant, Tween(®) 80. Six PAH with different numbers of rings were monitored: acenaphthene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP). Tween(®) 80 showed much better PAH extraction efficiency (after several SW cycles) than HPCD, regardless of the number of washing cycles. Based on successive SW experiments, a new mathematical relation taking into account the soil/water partition coefficient (Kd*) was established, and could predict the amount of each PAH extracted by the surfactant with a good correlation with experimental results (R(2) > 0.975). More HPCD was recovered (89%) than Tween(®) 80 (79%), while the monitored pollutants were completely degraded (>99%) after 4 h and 8 h, respectively. Even after being washed with partially oxidized solutions, the Tween(®) 80 solutions extracted significantly more PAH than HPCD and promoted better soil microbial activity, with higher oxygen consumption rates. Moreover, neither the oxidation by-products nor the acidic media (p

  4. ENA of heterocyclic hydrocarbons by adding hydrogen peroxide in groundwater circulation wells - a field-based study on a large physical model scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    filter sections. Field monitoring at TFS showed the degradation of all PAH along the plume, except for acenaphthene. The NSO-HET are still present in the plume due to anaerobic conditions. In a second step, the technology is to be applied in a field trial of about one year's duration

  5. The differences in transformation mechanism in natural and anthropogenic PAH in environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    mg/L): Naphthalene-269,65; Acenaphthene+Fluorene -10,71; Phenanthrene-167,27; Anthracene-2,47; Fluoranthene-170,76; Benzo (a) anthracene-10,61; Chrysene-66,59; Benzo (b) fluoranthene-25,65; Benzo (k) fluoranthene-3,22; Benzo (a) pyrene-0,49; Dibenzo (a, h) anthracene-18,68; Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene-6,13. For comparison were investigated near 50 samples of oil polluted soils selected from oilfield sites and was determined background level of PAH around of oilfields in radius of 700-1000 m

  6. Impact assessment of agricultural inputs into a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain) on transplanted clams (Ruditapes decussatus) by biochemical and physiological responses. (United States)

    Campillo, Juan A; Albentosa, Marina; Valdés, N Juliana; Moreno-González, Rubén; León, Víctor M


    The Mar Menor is a coastal lagoon threatened by the development of intensive agriculture in the surrounding areas. Large amounts of pesticides from these areas are discharged into El Albujón, a permanent watercourse flowing into the lagoon. We have used a multi-biomarker approach to assess the biological effects of agricultural pollution on a bivalve species. Biomarkers indicative of neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT; glutathione reductase, GR and lipid peroxidation, LPO), phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics (glutathione S-transferase, GST) and physiological stress (scope for growth, SFG) were measured in clams transplanted to four sites of the lagoon (two reference sites and two sites affected by the dispersion of the effluent of the El Albujón), for exposure periods of 7 and 22 days. The hazards of this effluent were also examined by simultaneously measuring up to 83 contaminants (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and others) in samples of fresh water from the watercourse mouth and seawater from the deployed sites, as well as the bioaccumulation of organochlorinated compounds and PAHs in the transplanted animals. Biomarker responses showed marked differences between reference and affected sites after 7 and 22 days. However it was only after 22 days that principal component analysis (PCA) of the biomarker responses distinguished between clams deployed in sites affected by the dispersion of the effluent of the watercourse and those from the reference sites. The chemical analysis of water showed high concentrations of pesticides close to El Albujón watercourse mouth, with the greatest input flux corresponding to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, followed by pendimethalin and naphthalene, and at lower levels acenaphthene, terbuthylazine-desethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl. In this regard, PCA analysis showed that the biological effects of the mixture of pesticides in caged clams after 22 days were reduced levels of AchE and SFG

  7. Validación de un método de análisis para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia en partículas PM10 Y PM2,5 Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2, 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo


    Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos presentes en partículas PM10 y PM 2,5 recolectadas en el aire mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR. Los HPA incluidos en la metodología comprenden: Naftaleno, Acenaftileno, Fluoreno, Acenafteno, Fenantreno, Antraceno, Fluoranteno, Pireno, Benzo (aantraceno, Criseno, Benzo (bfluoranteno, Benzo (kfluoranteno, Benzo (apireno, Dibenzo (a,h antraceno, Benzo (g,h,iperileno y Indeno (1,2,3- C.D pireno. Para estos compuestos, los límites de detección y cuantificación estuvieron entre 0,02 y 0,1 mg/l utilizando un equipo marca Dionex modelo ICS- 3000, el cual consta de dos detectores en serie, un ultravioleta modelo VWD-1 y un detector de fluorescencia modelo RF-2000, permitiendo diferenciar las distintas señales de absorción y emisión para la debida identificación de los distintos compuestos. Para todos los compuestos analizados, el factor de recuperación resultó no ser significativamente diferente de uno y la repetibilidad y reproducibilidad resultó ser adecuada para un método analítico, especialmente para los HPA más ligeros.An analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM 2.5 par ticles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene,pyrene,Benzo(aanthracene,Chrysene, Benzo (bfluoranthene, Benzo (kfluoranthene, Benzo (apyrene Dibenzo (a, hanthracene, Benzo (g, h, iperylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CDpyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit were between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l using a DIONEX ICS 3000 model cromatograph, that has two in serie detectors: UV/Vis and Fluorescense, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds

  8. Improved optimization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixtures resolution in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography by using factorial design and response surface methodology. (United States)

    Andrade-Eiroa, Auréa; Diévart, Pascal; Dagaut, Philippe


    A new procedure for optimizing PAHs separation in very complex mixtures by reverse phase high performance (RPLC) is proposed. It is based on changing gradually the experimental conditions all along the chromatographic procedure as a function of the physical properties of the compounds eluted. The temperature and speed flow gradients allowed obtaining the optimum resolution in large chromatographic determinations where PAHs with very different medium polarizability have to be separated. Whereas optimization procedures of RPLC methodologies had always been accomplished regardless of the physico-chemical properties of the target analytes, we found that resolution is highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of the target analytes. Based on resolution criterion, optimization process for a 16 EPA PAHs mixture was performed on three sets of difficult-to-separate PAHs pairs: acenaphthene-fluorene (for the optimization procedure in the first part of the chromatogram where light PAHs elute), benzo[g,h,i]perylene-dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene-indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (for the optimization procedure of the second part of the chromatogram where the heavier PAHs elute). Two-level full factorial designs were applied to detect interactions among variables to be optimized: speed flow, temperature of column oven and mobile-phase gradient in the two parts of the studied chromatogram. Experimental data were fitted by multivariate nonlinear regression models and optimum values of speed flow and temperature were obtained through mathematical analysis of the constructed models. An HPLC system equipped with a reversed phase 5 microm C18, 250 mm x 4.6mm column (with acetonitrile/water mobile phase), a column oven, a binary pump, a photodiode array detector (PDA), and a fluorimetric detector were used in this work. Optimum resolution was achieved operating at 1.0 mL/min in the first part of the chromatogram (until 45 min) and 0.5 mL/min in the second one (from 45

  9. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de, E-mail: [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Sergio Machado [Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Glauco Correa da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Using GC/FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  10. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong


    High mountains may serve as condenser for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the vegetation in remote areas has been used as a means to characterized atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Himalayan spruce needle samples from Zhangmu-Nyalam region (central-Himalayas) were analyzed and the altitudinal gradient of these pollutants was investigated. Total HCHs and DDTs concentration in needles were in the range of 1.3-2.9 ng g(-1) dry weight and 1.7-11 ng g(-1) dry weight, which were lower than concentrations reported in spruce needles from Alps, however higher than concentrations in conifer needles from mountain areas of Alberta. Total Himalayan spruce needle PAHs was below 600 ng g(-1) and fluorene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene were abundant individual compounds measured. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH in pine needles were similar with the usual values for technical HCH, implying technical HCHs might be used in this region. The high ratios of o-p'-DDT/p-p'-DDT and no p-p'-DDE measured in this study led to the suspicion that a new source of o-p'-DDT and/or p-p'-DDT existed in this region. In addition, higher ratios of low molecular weight-/high molecular weight-PAHs in this region indicated that petroleum combustion, vehicle emission and low-temperature combustion might be the major contributions of PAH source. To examine the POPs distillation, the analyte concentrations were correlated with altitude. The more volatile OCPs, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, aldrin and alpha-endosulfan positively correlated with altitude, however, less volatile OCPs (DDT and DDD) inversely related with elevation. Almost all PAHs detected in this area showed positive correlations with altitude. It is worthy to note that heavy PAHs (Benzo[k] fluoranthene and Benzo[a]anthracene) displayed positive correlation, which implied the sources of PAHs were near the sampling sites. The

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer from organic semiconductors onto redox mediators for CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the photoinduced electron transfer from organic semiconductors onto redox mediator catalysts for CO2 reduction has been investigated. In the beginning, the work focuses on the identication, characterization and test of suitable catalyst materials. For this purpose, rhenium compounds with 2,2'-bipyridine bis(arylimino) acenaphthene ligands and pyridinium were tested for molecular homogenous catalysis. Infrared, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used for initial characterization of the catalyst substances. Since the interpretation of infrared spectra was difficult for large molecules based on measured data only, additionally infrared absorption spectra obtained by quantum mechanical density functional theory(DFT) calculations were successfully used to correlate characteristic features in the measured spectra to their molecular origin. It was found that experimentally observed data and quantum chemical predictions for the infrared spectra of the novel compounds are in good agreement. Additionally, quantum mechanical calculations were carried out for the determination of molecular orbital frontier energy levels and correlated to UV-Vis absorption and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Extensive cyclic voltammetry measurements and bulk controlled-potential electrolysis experiments were performed using a N2- and CO2-saturated electrolyte solution. Together with a detailed product analysis via infrared spectroscopy, gas and ion chromatography the results allowed electrochemical characterizations of the novel catalysts regarding their suitability for electrochemical CO2 reduction. Once suitable catalysts were identied, the materials were immobilized on the electrode surface by electro-polymerization of the catalyst (5,5'bisphenylethynyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)Re(CO)3Cl itself or by incorporation of (2,2'-bipyridyl)Re(CO)3Cl into a polypyrrole matrix, thereby changing from homogeneous to heterogeneous

  12. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    /FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  13. High Active α-Diimine Nickel(Ⅱ)/DEAC Catalyst System for Ethylene Polymerization%高活性α-二亚胺基Ni(Ⅱ)配合物的合成、表征及其催化乙烯聚合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建超; 刘玉凤; 梅铜简; 王学虎


    A new tert-butyl-substituted α-diimine compound 1 and its corresponding Ni(Ⅱ) complex,{bis[N,N-(4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene}dibromonickel (2), were successfully synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis, FT-IR and XPS.Complex 2 with sterically bulky, donating group tert-butyl, activated by diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC) produces very active catalyst system for the polymerization of ethylene [3.15 × 108 g PE/(mol·Ni·h·MPa)]and led to a branched polyethylene (ca.131 branches/1000 C).The effects of the Al/Ni molar ratio, polymerization temperature and polymerization time on the catalyst activity also were investigated.The catalyst system 2/DEAC showed the highest activity with the 600 of Al/Ni molar ratio at 5 ℃.The polyethylene (PE) samples were characterized by 1H NMR, GPC, DSC and TG.%设计并合成了一种新型的含有强供电子、大体积基团tert-butyl的α-二亚胺配体1及其Ni(Ⅱ)配合物2,并利用1H NMR,13C NMR,元素分析,FT-IR,XPS对其进行了表征.配合物2/氯化二乙基铝(DEAC)组成的催化体系催化乙烯聚合显示了非常高的活性,最高可达3.15×108 g PE/(mol·Ni·h·MPa).所得聚乙烯的支化度也较高,最高可达131branches/1000C.并研究了聚合条件如聚合反应温度、Al/Ni物质的量比、反应时间等因素对催化剂活性的影响.在反应温度为5℃,Al/Ni物质的量比为600时,该催化体系催化乙烯聚合活性最高.采用1H NMR,GPC,DSC,TG分别对聚合物进行了表征.

  14. [Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from Shanghai urban area]. (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-bo; Liu, Min; Ou, Dong-ni; Gao, Lei; Wang, Li-li; Xu, Shi-yuan


    Seasonal variation and function-area difference of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust from Shanghai centre area were studied, and the probable reasons were also discussed. The result showed that the accumulation level of PAHs varied significantly from winter to summer, namely, and the concentrations of total PAHs and the homologues in winter were higher than that in summer. Total PAH concentrations (t-PAH) in winter samples ranged from 9176 to 32,573 ng x g(-1), with a mean value of 20,648 ng x g(-1), whereas they varied from 6875 to 27,766 ng x g(-1) in summer, with an average of 14098 ng x g(-1). The individual PAHs composition ranged from 50 (acenaphthylene) to 3162 (indeno (1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in winter, and 3 (acenaphthene) to 1485 (indeno(1,2,3,-cd) pyrene) ng x g(-1) in summer. The results exhibited that the levels showed a great rise from summer to winter. The difference of PAHs concentrations in road dust from functional areas were also obvious, that is, in winter, PAHs concentrations in road dust at industrial area (ID), commercial area (CO) and traffic area (TR) were much higher than those in other areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 31 163, 24 932 and 18 815 ng x g(-1) resepectively, while city park (CP) and public lawn (PL) had the lowest level (7885, 8036 ng x g(-1)). In summer, the lowest concentration (7942 ng x g(-1)) appeared in CP, however, TR, ID and CO were the most polluted areas, with t-PAH mean concentration of 14,528, 14,247 and 11,523 ng x g(-1), respectively. The concentration of PAH homologues raised gradually with the ring number or molecular weight. Seasonal variation and function-area difference of PAHs in road dust from urban area correlated with both their sources and their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:18290438

  15. Parameters describing nonequilibrium transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through contaminated soil columns: estimability analysis, correlation, and optimization. (United States)

    Ngo, Viet V; Michel, Julien; Gujisaite, Valérie; Latifi, Abderrazak; Simonnot, Marie-Odile


    The soil and groundwater at former industrial sites polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produce a very challenging environmental issue. The description of PAH transport by means of mathematical models is therefore needed for risk assessment and remediation strategies at these sites. Due to the complexity of release kinetics and transport behavior of the PAHs in the aged contaminated soils, their transport is usually evaluated at the laboratory scale. Transport parameters are then estimated from the experimental data via the inverse method. To better assess the uncertainty of optimized parameters, an estimability method was applied to firstly investigate the information content of experimental data and the possible correlations among parameters in the two-site sorption model. These works were based on the concentrations of three PAHs, Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluoranthene (FLA) and Pyrene (PYR), in the leaching solutions of the experiments under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. The estimability results showed that the experiment under unsaturated flow conditions contained more information content for estimating four transport parameters than under the saturated one. In addition, whatever the experimental conditions for all three PAHs the fraction of sites with instantaneous sorption, f, was highly correlated with the adsorption distribution coefficient, Kd. The very strong correlation between the two parameters f and Kd suggests that they should not be simultaneously calibrated. Transport parameters were optimized using HYDRUS-1D software with different scenarios based on the estimability analysis results. The optimization results were not always reliable, especially in the case of the experiment under saturated flow conditions because of its low information content. In addition, the estimation of transport parameters became very uncertain if two parameters f and Kd were optimized simultaneously. The findings of the current work can suggest some

  16. Bioaccumulation surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway. (United States)

    Langston, W J; O'Hara, S; Pope, N D; Davey, M; Shortridge, E; Imamura, M; Harino, H; Kim, A; Vane, C H


    Biomonitoring of contaminants (metals, organotins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs) was undertaken in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) and a reference site in the Tywi Estuary (St Ishmael/Ferryside) during 2007-2008. Bioindicator species encompassed various uptake routes-Fucus vesiculosus (dissolved contaminants); Littorina littorea (grazer); Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule (suspension feeders); and Hediste (=Nereis) diversicolor (sediments). Differences in feeding and habitat preference have subtle implications for bioaccumulation trends though, with few exceptions, contaminant burdens in MHW were higher than the Tywi reference site, reflecting inputs. Elevated metal concentrations were observed at some MHW sites, whilst As and Se (molluscs and seaweed) were consistently at the higher end of the UK range. However, for most metals, distributions in MH biota were not exceptional. Several metal-species combinations indicated increases in bioavailability upstream, which may reflect the influence of geogenic/land-based sources-perhaps enhanced by lower salinity. TBT levels in MH mussels were below OSPAR toxicity thresholds and in the Tywi were close to zero. Phenyltins were not accumulated appreciably in M. edulis, whereas some H. diversicolor populations appear subjected to localized (historical) sources. PAHs in H. diversicolor were distributed evenly across most of MHW, although acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were highest at one site near the mouth; naphthalenes in H. diversicolor were enriched in the mid-upper Haven (a pattern seen in M. edulis for most PAHs). Whilst PAH (and PCB) concentrations in MH mussels were mostly above reference and OSPAR backgrounds, they are unlikely to exceed ecotoxicological thresholds. Bivalve Condition indices (CI) were highest at the Tywi reference site and at the seaward end of MH, decreasing upstream-giving rise to several significant (negative) relationships between CI and body burdens

  17. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs em aguardentes PHAs in spirits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bettin


    Full Text Available A presença de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (HPAs em aguardentes foi investigada por cromatografia líquida (CLAE após sua prévia extração em fase sólida (SPE. A separação foi realizada em uma coluna Supelco, LCPAH-octadecil silano (25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm com gradiente acetonitrila/água e a quantificação utilizando detector de fluorescência. Os HPAs (naftaleno; acenaftaleno; fluoreno; fenantreno; antraceno; fluoranteno; pireno; 1,2- benzo(epireno; criseno; benzo(epireno; 2,3-benzo(aantraceno; 1,2-benzo(bfluoranteno; benzo(kfluoranteno; dibenzo(a,hantraceno; benzo(apireno; benzo(ghipirileno foram identificados e quantificados em vinte e oito amostras de aguardentes de cana. Os resultados experimentais para as amostras de aguardentes (cachaças são analisados em termos de análises de componentes principais (PCA objetivando a diferenciação entre o perfil das aguardentes produzidas a partir de cana-de-açúcar queimada e não-queimada.The presence of PHAs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocabons in spirits has been investigated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after solid phase extraction (SPE. The separation was achieved with a Supelco LCPAH-octadecil silane column [25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm] and acetonitrile/water elution gradient and the quantification using a fluorescence detector. The PHAs (naphthalene; acenaphthene; fluorene; phenantrene; anthracene; phuorantene; pyrene; 1,2-benzo(epyrene; chrysene; benzo(epyrene; 2,3-benzo(aanthracene; 1,2-benzo(bphluoranthene; benzo(kfluoranthene; dibenzo(a,hanthracene; benzo(apyreno; benzo(ghipyrilene were quantifed in twenty eight samples of sugar cane spirits. All the experimental data for sugar cane spirit have been analyzed through principal components analysis (PCA aiming to compare the chemical profile of beverages produced from burned and not burned sugar cane.

  18. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Singh

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001 was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001 as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001 among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs

  19. The Source of Some Contaminants during Pretreatment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and the Purification Method%水中多环芳烃前处理过程中的污染来源及去除方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏峰; 吕爱娟; 陈海英; 郑荣华; 骆宏玉; 沈加林


    实验设备、耗材等物品以及实验室环境中都有可能存在一定浓度的多环芳烃,造成样品在前处理过程中可能受到污染,从而影响多环芳烃测定结果的准确性.文章系统地研究了水样分析中萘、苊、芴、菲、蒽等多环芳烃污染物的引入和去除方法.在排除了数据处理和仪器测试的原因后,确认污染来自于样品前处理过程.对容器污染、试剂干扰、前处理间环境污染和氮吹浓缩系统等因素的排查结果表明,氮吹浓缩系统是主要的污染源.进一步实验证实,氮气、减压阀以及连接管线等均可造成多环芳烃污染.通过采取更换氮气、减压阀和连接管线的措施,并将氮气通过活性炭柱,能够有效地去除这些污染.实验设计了装有活性炭的玻璃柱装置,可以有效去除存在的萘等多环芳烃物质的污染;但专用减压阀避免多环芳烃污染的效果验证、氮气中多环芳烃污染物的来源确认以及多环芳烃污染去除装置的优化改进等问题还有待于进一步研究.%Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) existed in equipments, and materials, which would indicate that the lab environment is a potential source of contamination during the pretreatment of samples and consequently affects the accurate analysis of PAHs. A systematic study was undertaken on the sources of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene contaminants during PAHs analysis in water, and a way to remove them successfully. The process of pretreatment was confirmed by the source of some contaminants after excluding uncertainties from data processing and instrument measurement. After examining glass containers, solvents, and the nitrogen condensation system separately, the nitrogen condensation system was found to be the primary source of contaminants. Further investigation confirmed that the nitrogen gas, reductor and pipe used to conduct the nitrogen could contaminate the

  20. 北京地区表层土壤中多环芳烃的分布特征及污染源分析%Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in topsoil of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张枝焕; 卢另; 贺光秀; 彭旭阳; 朱雷; 王新伟; 焦煦


    根据北京地区不同环境功能区62个样品的分析结果,讨论了研究区表层土壤中多环芳烃的分布特征及污染源类型.结果表明:(1)研究区表层土壤中检测到的多环芳烃主要包括萘、苊、菲、惹烯、三芴、荧蒽、芘、(屈)、苯并蒽、苯并[b]荧蒽、苯并[K]荧蒽、苯并[e]芘、苯并[a]芘、苝、二苯并[a,h]蒽、茚并[1,2,3-cd]芘、苯并[g,h,i]苝及其同系物;(2)不同环境功能区表层土壤中多环芳烃的组成及质量分数均存在一定的差别,16种优先控制的多环芳烃质量分数为175.1~10 344ng·g-1,其中城市中心区表层土壤中多环芳烃的质量分数最高,交通干线附近、工矿企业附近表层土壤中PAHs的质量分数较高,林地、果园和农田表层土壤中PAHs的质量分数较低;(3)表层土壤中PAHs既有来源于石油源,也有来源于化石燃料燃烧产物的,但不同功能区二者贡献存在差别,其中农业用地(林地、果园、农田)中PAHs主要来源于石油源(或部分来源于土壤母岩中的有机质),城区、交通干线附近及工矿企业附近表层土壤中PAHs污染源以化石燃料燃烧产物输入为主.%Sixty-two topsoil samples collected in Beijing were detected and analyzed.The distribution and contamination sources of Polyeyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds (PAHs) were discussed.The results showed that (1) many kinds of PAHs in topsoil samples of Beijing were found, mainly including naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, retene, fluorene, dibenzofuran,dibenzothiophene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzanthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene,benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and their homologous compounds;(2) the composition and concentration of PAHs in topsoil samples from different environmental function areas were different.The concentration of sixteen prior pollutants PAHs was between 175

  1. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal


    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (‑48.4%), Ni (‑41.4%), Co (‑36.9%), Cu (‑35.7%), Mn (‑34.3%), Cd (‑33.2%), and Pb (‑30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the

  2. Determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil by HPLC%HPLC测定鄱阳湖湿地土壤中15种多环芳烃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平华; 曾祥晖


    Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil, by using acetone and hexane(1︰1)as the extraction solvent,extraction of 40min by ultrasonic extraction method, the total amount of solvent is 70 mL (10 g samples), chromatographic conditions: the injection volume was 20μL,flow rate 1 mL/min,temperature 30℃,the appropriate mobile phase gradient elution program and the fluorescence detector wave length conversion program.The concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil has been determinated by HPLC. The contents of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil is Naphthalene, 92.45;Acenaphthene,not detected;Fluorene, 9.90;Phenanthrene, 91.75;Anthracene,119.67;Fluoranthene,not detected;Pyrene,81.51;Benzo (a) anthracene, 13.26;Chrysene,6.79;Benzo (b) fluoranthene,4.53;Benzo (k) fluoranthene,7.76;Benzo (a) pyrene,not detected;Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene,7.74;Benzo(g,h,i)perylene,not detected;Indeno (123-cd) pyrene,not detected. The standard addition recovery of this method was 76.8%-115.1%, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.3%-5.8%, with good accuracy and precision. The established method can used to determinate the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil. It provide the basis for further study of pollution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil.%测定鄱阳湖湿地土壤中多环芳烃的含量,采用丙酮+正己烷(1︰1)为提取溶剂,超声提取40 min,总溶剂量为70 mL(10 g样品),色谱条件为进样量为20μL、流量为1 mL/min、柱温30℃,采用适当的流动相梯度淋洗程序与荧光检测器波长变换程序,高效液相色谱法测定鄱阳湖湿地土壤中15种多环芳烃的含量。结果表明:鄱阳湖湿地土壤中15种多环芳烃的含量为(ng/g):萘,92.45;苊,未检出;芴,9.90;菲,91.75;蒽,119

  3. Evaluation of Macronet polymeric adsorbents for removal of PAHs from contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    problem is the use of improved polymeric adsorbents as Hypersol Macronet resins that could be chemically regenerated. Hypersol Macronet resins present a hyper-reticulated structure that provides to the solid macro-porosity and micro-porosity at the same time. This means to have a control on the size pores and relatively high surface areas (1000-2000 m2/g). Then sorption barriers have been used as containment technology for PAHs. Groundwater velocity, barrier reactivity, and contaminant concentration among other factors affect the required size of the barrier. The reactivity of the barrier media should be determined from laboratory tests The present work describes the sorption properties (loading capacity and kinetic parameters) of Macronet polymeric adsorbent MN200. Batch experiments were performed to determine both equilibrium and kinetic parameters on the removal of different PAHs (Naphthalene, Acenaphthene Pyrene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene and Fluorene). Sorption parameters have been use to determine design parameters on the application of MN200 as reactive material in extractable PRBs. It is recognised that a fixed bed sorption process is operationally simple, however in order to be able and economically competitive, the adsorbent must exhibit high selectivity toward the target contaminant, be amenable to efficient regeneration and durable. MN200 has shown to be an excellent sorption material for PAH removal. The sorption process could be achieved with high values of loading capacities (35-220 mg/g). The experimental data was adjusted to adsorption isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson). Langmuir isotherm showed good fitting for adsorption on activated carbon, meanwhile Redlich-Peterson describe better adsorption on Macronet resin MN200. The sorption process could be described by a first order kinetic model as has been obtained in previous studies when studying the sorption of PAH using activated carbon. The possibility of efficient chemical

  4. Vieillissement du polyamide 11 utilisé dans les conduites flexibles : influence de la composition du fluide transporté Influence of the Chemical Nature of the Environment on the Aging of Polyamide 11 Used for Offshore Flexible Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrich E.


    hydrocarbons absorbed preferentially, and having a pasticating role, was determined. These are two-cycle aromatics (alkylnaphthalenes, acenaphthenes, diphenyls, acenaphthylenes, fluorenes and sulfur-containing aromatics (benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes. The different results led to the conclusion that the principal phenomenon involved in aging is a hydrolysis caused by the presence of absorbed water in the material, which leads to the cutting of the macromolecular chains and embrittlement of the polymer. Lastly, the model created with gas-oil cuts was applied to a case of aging of a crude oil, and this led to the satisfactory prediction of how the mechanical and physicochernical properties of the polymer evolve in such an environment.

  5. Chemistry%化学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    O612 01050129 具有微孔/大孔双孔道体系沸石材料的合成=Synthesis of Silicate Materials with Micro/Macroporous Bimodal Pore Systems[刊, 中]/王亚军(复旦大学),唐颐…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1013~1015 国家自然科学基金(29873011)资助 O612 01050130 一种新型磷酸钛大单晶的溶剂热法合成与结构研究=Studies on Solvothermal Synthesis and Structure of a New Titanium Phosphate Large Single Crystal[刊, 中]/郭阳虹(吉林大学),施展…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1010~1012 国家自然科学基金(29571011)资助 O613 01050131 一种氟气源的制备及热分解=Preparation and Thermal Decomposition of a Kind of Fluorine Source[刊, 中]/刘文元(西北核技术研究所),李辉…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&300~303 国家"八六三”计划资助课题 O613 01050132 铒在HBTMPTP-正庚烷/水溶液间的传质动力学=Mass Transfer of Er(Ⅲ) between HBTMPTP Dissolved in n-Heptane and HAc-NaAc[刊, 中]/乐善堂(中科院长春应用化学所),马根祥…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&832~835 在(30±0.5)℃下,用层流恒界面池研究了铒在HBTMPTP-正庚烷-0.2mol/L(H,Na)Ac萃取体系中的传质动力学.测定了该体系的界面张力,考察了水相酸度、萃取剂浓度、氯离子浓度、温度和比界面对萃取速率的影响.图6参16 国家自然科学基金(29771028,29801004)资助 O613 01050133 岩石中硼的提取分离及同位素组成的测定=Extraction and Separation of Boron in Rock Samples and lts lsotopic Determination by Thermal lonization Mass Spectrometry[刊, 中]/王刚(中科院青海盐湖所),王蕴慧…∥岩矿测试.&2000, 19(3).&169~172 介绍了一种用Na2CO3+K2CO3混合熔剂对岩石样品进行分解,用硼特效树脂和阴、阳混合离子交换树脂相结合进行岩石样品中硼的纯化分离的方法.采用该方法从岩石样品中提取、分离出来的硼能满足硼同位素质谱法测定的需要,不产生硼同位素分馏,硼同位素测定精度大多优于0.05%.表3参7 国家自然科学基金(29775028)资助 O614 01050134 有机/无机纳米杂化材料负载钛催化剂及聚合研究:Ⅰ.乙烯聚合=Study of Titanium Catalysts Supported on he Organic/Inorganic Hybrid and Polymerization Thereby:Ⅰ.Polymerization of Ethylene[刊, 中]/朱宁(中科院长春应用化学所),唐涛…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&233~237 以苯乙烯与马来酸酐无规共聚物为有机组分,以正硅酸乙酯为无机组分,利用sol-gel方法制得纳米杂化材料,以此为载体合成了杂化材料载体钛系催化剂.图3表3参13 国家自然科学基金(29774028)资助 O614 01050135 硫酸锌与L-α-缬氨酸固体配合物的合成与表征=Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Sulfate Complexes with L-α-Valine[刊, 中]/张晓玉(西北大学),杨旭武…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&243~247 用半微量相平衡方法研究了ZnSO4-Val-H2O体系在25℃时的溶度图及饱和溶液折光率曲线.体系中未形成新化合物.合成了配合物Zn(Val)SO4*H2O、Zn(Val)2*H2O,并进行了表征.图2表3参13 国家自然科学基金(29871023)资助 O614 01050136 微乳液法制备超细包裹型铁粉=Preparation of Ultrafine Fe Particles by Microemulsion Method[刊, 中]/张朝平(贵州大学),邓伟…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&248~251 应用W/O型微乳液法制备了纳米量级包裹型超细铁粉.由XRD、SEM、TEM和IR谱测试表明:它属于表面活性剂包裹型超细微粒.图3参9 国家自然科学基金(19872021)资助 O614 01050137 以12-钨(钼)磷杂多酸为掺杂剂的导电聚N,N-二甲基苯胺的合成与导电性=Synthesis and Conductivity of Conducting Poly N,N-Dimethaniline Doped by 12-Tungsto(Molybdo) Phosphoric Acid Used as Doping Agent[刊, 中]/张贞文(湖北大学),柳士忠…∥湖北大学学报(自然科学版).&2000, 22(3).&270~273 以12-钨(钼)磷杂多酸为掺杂剂,合成了聚N,N-二甲基苯胺.并利用ICP、元素分析、循环伏安、红外光谱及室温固体电导率的测定等手段进行了表征.结果表明,掺杂的PDMAn/PM12的室温导电率约为12-13 S/cm.图3参6 国家自然科学基金(29971010)资助 O614 01050138 Co(phen)2TATP3+与DNA在旋转金盘金环电极上的相互作用研究=Electrochemical Studies on the Interactions of the Complex of Co(phen)2TATP3+ with DNA at Rotating Au-Au Electrode[刊, 中]/李红(中山大学),蒋雄…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&995~998 在pH=7.2的Tris缓冲溶液中,利用旋转环盘电极法研究了金电极上Co(phen)2TATP3+与DNA的相互作用,并根据扩散控制和电化学控制下得到的各种参数,对它们作用的模式进行了讨论.图3表2参13 国家自然科学基金(29871036)资助 O614 01050139 双金属杂原子分子筛CrCoBEA的合成、波谱及催化性能研究=Studies on the Synthesis, Spectroscopy and Catalytic Properties of CrCoBEA Metallosilicate[刊, 中]/王亚军(南开大学),唐祥海…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&999~1004 采用水热晶化法首次合成出BEA结构含铬、钴双金属杂原子分子筛CrCoBEA,对晶化时间、晶化温度、成胶配比等合成条件进行了优化研究,测试其物相、波谱性质和催化性能.图6表1参15 国家自然科学基金重点项目(29733070)资助 O614 01050140 Ru(bpy)2+3在MCM-48中的组装及其发光性质=The Assembly of Tris(Bipyridine)Ruthenium(Ⅱ) in MCM-48 and Photoluminescent Properties of Assembly Products[刊, 中]/房铭(吉林大学),张萍…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1016~1017 国家自然科学基金(29771013,59795006)资助 O621 01050141 2-烯丙基-1,1-偕二金属环已烷的合成研究=Synthesis of 2-Allyl-1,1-Gemdimetallic Cyclohexane[刊, 中]/宋国强(江苏石油化工学院),王钒…∥合成化学.&2000, 8(3).&216~219 在无水乙醚中1-锂代环己烯和烯丙基溴化镁于无水溴化锌作用下发生金属化克兰荪重排反应,生成2-烯丙基-1,1-偕二金属环己烷.通过对温度、溶剂量和投料顺序等重排反应主要影响因素的考察和优化,可使2-烯丙基-1,1-偕二金属环己烷的收率达到65%.图2表3 国家自然科学基金(2947043)资助 O621 01050142 沙丘芦苇特有一小分子化合物及其对叶绿体的逆境保护效应[刊, 中]/浦铜良(兰州大学),程佑发…∥科学通报.&2000, 45(12).&1308~1313 用柱层析手段从沙漠地区沙丘芦苇叶片中分离得到一种为该生态型所特有的小分子物质,其化学特征与已报道的逆境胁迫诱导累积的溶质均不同,具多氨基芳香族强极性特征.其自然丰度与月平均气温和月极端高温值为指标的生境高温程度呈显著相关性.并主要存在于光合细胞器叶绿体中.该物质对离体叶绿体在高温下电子传递链的功能具有保护作用.图5表2参15 国家自然科学基金(39870062)资助 O621 01050143 亚胺氧自由基与酚类的反应=The Reaction of Iminoxy Radical with Phenols[刊, 中]/胡家欣(南京大学),吉民…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1045~1047 研究了亚胺氧自由基与酚类的反应,一步合成了取代苯并C023唑、萘并及喹啉并C023唑类衍生物,同时探讨了反应机理.表2参8 国家自然科学基金(29375052)资助 O621 01050144 新型磺酰胺类含氮手性配体的合成、晶体结构及催化苯乙酮的不对称氢转移反应=Studies on the Synthesis of New Sulfonylamide Ligand, Crystal Structure and Asymmetric Hydrogen Transfer Reaction of Acetophenone[刊, 中]/董春娥(中科院成都有机化学所),张俊龙…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1070~1072 国家自然科学基金(29973042)资助 O624 01050145 P+7原子团簇及其特殊配位=P+7 Clusters and Their Specical Coordinations[刊, 中]/陈明旦(厦门大学),罗海彬…∥厦门大学学报(自然科学版).&2000, 39(3).&341~346 在激光产生的磷原子团簇正离子的质谱图中,P+7具有最强的谱峰.使用分子图形软件设计出24种P+7的同分异构体,并进行分子力学、PM3半经验量子化学和ADF密度泛函优化.从各异构体成键能量的比较中可得知,最稳定的P+7构型是在最稳定的P6的双键位置增加1个磷原子所生成的结构.图2表2参23 国家自然科学基金资助 O626 01050146 硫醚双酐聚酰胺酸的合成及其热稳定性=The Synthesis and Thermal Stability of Thioether Dianhydride Poly(Amic Acid)[刊, 中]/王江洪(中科院感光化学所),沈玉全∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&879~883 合成了硫醚二酐和4-硝基-4′-[N,N-二(2-氨乙基)氨基]偶氮苯(二胺单体)及对应的硫醚聚酰胺酸,并对其结构进行表征.目前,这些聚合物在高敏感非线性光学材料方面显示着广泛的应用前景.图3参14 国家自然科学基金(69637010)资助 O626 01050147 具有光致变色和发光性能的有机化合物的合成及其性能研究=Synthesis and Characteristics of Compounds Having Both Photochromic and Fluorescent Character[刊, 中]/庞美丽(南开大学),王永梅…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&903~907 以吲哚啉螺苯并吡喃与香豆素衍生物为原料.用DCC缩合酯化法在温和条件下合成了8种新的具有光致变色和发光性能的化合物.所得化合物同时具有光致变色和发荧光的双重特性.图2参15 国家自然科学基金(29872015)资助 O626 01050148 1,2,4-三唑并[3,2-d][1,5]-苯并氧氮杂C024化合物的合成=Synthesis of 1,2,4-Triazolo[3,2-d][1,5] Benzoxazepine Compounds[刊, 中]/刘现军(复旦大学),刘毅…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1052~1055 苯并二氢吡喃-4-酮的芳腙衍生的偶氮基碳正离子与腈发生1,3-偶极环加成反应,加成产物通过[1,2]-迁移扩环重排反应,形成新颖的三环系杂环化合物1,2,4-三唑并[3,2-d][1,5]-苯并氧氮杂C024化合物.图1表3参9 国家自然科学基金(A29872007)资助 O626 01050149 四(4-N-吡啶基)卟啉衍生物的合成及表征=Synthesis and Characterization of Meso-Tetrakis(4-Pyridyl) Porphyrin Derivatives[刊, 中]/刘淑清(吉林大学),孙浩然…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&260~263 利用吡啶氮烷基化合成了一系列具有空间效应的水溶性和油溶性的四(4-N-吡啶基)卟啉衍生物及其对应的金属钴卟啉.表5参8 国家自然科学基金(29733090,29803003)资助 O627 01050150 η6-苯乙烯二羰基(三苯基膦)铬配合物的合成与聚合=Synthsis and Polymerization of η6-Styrenedicarbonyl (Triphenylphos- phine) Chromium Complexes[刊, 中]/田晓慧(华东理工大学),林嘉平…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(4).&419~422 国家教委留学回国人员科研启动基金资助 O627 01050151 Schiff碱单核及双核配合物拟酶催化性能的研究=Studies on the Biomimetic Catalytic Character of New Schiff Base Mono-and Di-Nuclear Complexes[刊, 中]/陈新斌(湖南大学),朱申杰…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1048~1051 国家自然科学基金(29472055)资助 O627 01050152 Cp2TiCl2/BuiMgBr/THF体系还原二芳基二硒醚=Reduction of Diphenyldiselides with Cp2TiCl2/BuiMgBr/THF[刊, 中]/许新华(南开大学),黄宪∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1073~1074 国家自然科学基金(29672008)资助 O629 01050153 环肽合成方法的研究进展=Progress in the Study on Synthetic Method of Cyclopeptide[刊, 中]/唐艳春(北京大学),田桂玲…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1056~1063 介绍了纯环肽与杂环肽合成的方法、策略及其优缺点,列举了一些常用缩合试剂,探讨了反应溶液浓度、线型肽前体化合物的结构及构象等因素对环化反应的影响.参64 国家自然科学基金(29772001)资助 O63 01050154 N-异丙基丙烯酰胺/N-乙烯基吡咯烷酮水凝胶的研究=Synthesis and Characterization of Copolymer Hydrogels of Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-N-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone)[刊, 中]/刘郁杨(西北工业大学),范晓东…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(4).&380~384 陕西省自然科学基金资助 O63 01050155 组织工程细胞支架及其细胞亲和性改进研究进展=Cells Scaffold for Tissue Engineering and Improvement of Cells Affinity between the Cells and Cells Scaffold[刊, 中]/杨健(中科院化学所),贝建中…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(4).&455~460 国家"973计划” O63 01050156 新型的乙烯聚合催化剂=Novel Catalysts for Ethylene Polymerization[刊, 中]/罗祥(中山大学),伍青∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(4).&481~486 广东省自然科学基金资助 O631 01050157 衣康酸对聚丙烯腈原丝结构和性能的影响=Effect of Itaconic Acid on the Structure and Properties of PAN Precursor[刊, 中]/张旺玺(山东工业大学)∥高分子学报.&2000, (3).&287~291 控制单体配比,采用丙烯腈与衣康酸自由基溶液共聚,以偶氮二异丁腈为引发剂在溶剂二甲基亚砜中合成了聚丙烯腈原丝纺丝溶液,并纺制了碳纤维前驱体聚丙烯腈原丝.通过元素分析、IR、DSC、13C-NMR等手段,讨论了共聚单体衣康酸对共聚反应及聚丙烯腈原丝结构和性能的影响.图3表3参11 国家自然科学基金(59783002)资助 O631 01050158 Cr(Ⅱ)与过氧化莰烷酮酰体系引发的活性自由基聚合反应研究=Study on "Living” Radical Polymerization Initiated by Aged Chronum (Ⅱ) Acetate and Ketopinyl Peroxide[刊, 中]/李增昌(中国科学技术大学),吴承佩…∥高分子学报.&2000, (3).&330~334 合成了过氧化莰烷酮酰(KPO),用它和Cr(Ac)2组成的氧化还原体系经陈化后,引发甲基丙烯酸甲酯,甲基丙烯酸β-羟乙酯和丙烯酸进行了聚合反应.其中甲基丙烯酸甲酯具有活性聚合特征.并有效引发含羟基单体如甲基丙烯酸β羟乙酯和丙烯酸进行聚合.图2表4参10 国家自然科学基金(29774027)资助 O631 01050159 MgCl2负载(dbm)2Ti(OPh)2催化乙烯聚合=Ethylene Polymerization with MgCl2-Supported(dbm)2Ti(OPh)2[刊, 中]/阎卫东(中科院化学所),洪瀚…∥高分子学报.&2000, (3).&358~360 报道了用MgCl2负载的二苯氧基二(二苯甲酰甲烷)钛铬合物(dbm)2Ti(OPh),以甲基铝氧烷为助催化剂,常压催化乙烯聚合的结果.图1表2参8 国家自然科学基金(29734141)重点资助 O631 01050160 单分散聚苯乙烯乳胶有序膜在二氧化硅多孔材料制备中的模板作用=Template Effects of the Ordered Film Formed from Monodispersed Polystyrene Latex[刊, 中]/杨振忠(中科院化学所),齐凯…∥高分子学报.&2000, (3).&364~367 以单分散聚苯乙烯乳胶室温形成的有序膜为模板,采用快速溶胶凝胶方法,制备了聚苯乙烯/二氧化硅杂化物,高温烧蚀除去有机物得到了二氧化硅有序孔材料,并讨论了聚苯乙烯有序膜的模板作用机理.图5参15 国家自然科学基金(29774038)资助 O631 01050161 新型含环氧端基聚芳醚酮的合成及表征=Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Epoxy-Terminated Poly(Aryl Ether Ketoe)[刊, 中]/宣英男(大连理工大学),蹇锡高…∥高分子学报.&2000, (4).&407~410 国家"九五”攻关项目 O631 01050162 超支化聚(胺-酯)的分子设计及其制备=Synthesis and Characterization of Hyperbranched Poly(Amine-Ester)[刊, 中]/陆玉(中国科学技术大学),林德…∥高分子学报.&2000, (4).&411~414 国家自然科学基金(59673026)资助 O631 01050163 聚苯基单醚喹C023啉薄膜的性能与物理老化=The Relations between Properties and Physical Aging of Polyphenylquinoxaline Film[刊, 中]/刘万军(中科院化学所),沈静姝…∥高分子学报.&2000,(4).&415~419 国家科委基础性研究重大项目 O631 01050164 端基附壁模型聚合物环形链的构象统计理论=Configurational Statistics of Model Polymer Loop Chains Attached to a Surface[刊, 中]/廖琦(四川大学),吴大诚∥高分子学报.&2000,(4).&420~425 国家自然科学基金(29774016)资助 O631 01050165 拉格朗日-欧拉方法模拟高分子复杂流体平面收缩流动=The Lagrangian-Eulerian Method:Solutions for Planar Contraction Flow[刊, 中]/李险峰(中科院化学所),袁学锋…∥高分子学报.&2000,(4).&432~437 国家自然科学基金(29634030)资助 O631 01050166 气体膜分离用过渡金属有机络合物-聚酰亚胺杂化材料的研究=Study on Transitional Metal Organic Complex-Polyimide Hybrid Material for Gas Separation Membranes[刊, 中]/史德青(石油大学),孔瑛…∥高分子学报.&2000,(4).&457~461 科技部国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 O631 01050167 原子转移自由基聚合制备聚(丙二醇-g-苯乙烯)=Synthesis of Poly(Propylene Glycol-g-Styrene) from Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization[刊, 中]/黄昌国(华东理工大学),万小龙…∥高分子学报.&2000,(4).&467~471 国家自然科学基金(29634010)资助 O631 01050168 聚苯胺嵌入氧化石墨复合物的合成及表征=Synthesis and Characterization of Polyaniline Intercalated Graphite Oxide Composite[刊, 中]/刘平桂(北京航空材料研究院),龚克成∥高分子学报.&2000,(4).&492~495 国家自然科学基金(59836230)资助 O631 01050169 乙交酯/丙交酯共聚物的体内外降解行为及生物相容性研究=Study on the Biocompatibility and Degradation Behavior of Poly(l-Lactide-co-Glycolide) in vitro and in vivo[刊, 中]/蔡晴(中科院化学所),贝建中…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(3).&249~254 国家重点基础研究发展规划(973)资助 O631 01050170 动态下HTDB/TDI体系凝胶化的研究=Study on the Gelation of Hydroxy-Teminated Polybutadiene/Diisocyanate Blends under Dynamic Condition[刊, 中]/邱方正(华东理工大学),陈建定∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(3).&289~292 国家教育部博士点基金资助 O631 01050171 含偶氮苯生色团的聚醚的合成与热致液晶性质=Synthesis and Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Properties of Two Polyethers Containing Azobenzene Groups[刊, 中]/梁旭霞(中山大学),张灵志…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(3).&277~284 广东省自然科学基金资助 O631 01050172 CoSalphen在壳聚糖上的固定化及对DOPA的催化氧化研究=CoSalphen Immobilized onto Chitosan and Its Activate in Catalytic Oxidation of DOPA[刊, 中]/马会宣(陕西师范大学),胡道道…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(3).&301~305 陕西省自然科学基金资助 O631 01050173 环氧基活化凝胶的开环反应=Ring-Opening Reaction on Epoxy-Activated Resin[刊, 中]/查娟(生物反应器工程国家重点实验室),刘坐镇…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(3).&321~324 由自制的乙酸乙烯酯-甲基丙烯酸缩水甘油酯-甲基丙烯酸烯丙酯大孔共聚物与氨水反应,实现了环氧基的开环反应.考查了不同的氨水浓度、反应温度和时间对胺化转化率的影响,并测定了形成的伯胺基的pKa值为6.9.图4表1参12 国家自然科学基金(29706002)资助 O631 01050174 纳米自组装聚电解质超薄多层膜=Polyelectrolyte Ultrathin Multilayer Films by Nano-Self-Assembly Process[刊, 中]/孙启龙(华南理工大学),王朝阳∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(3).&332~336 国家杰出青年科学基金(29725411)与国家自然科学基金(29804003)资助 O631 01050175 十二烷基硫酸钠减慢二苯胺-4-重氮盐及重氮树脂在水溶液中热分解反应的机理=The Mechanism of Thermal Decomposition of DDS and DR in Aqueous Solution Delayed by SDS[刊, 中]/杨伯C025(北京大学),曹维孝∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&969~975 国家自然科学基金(59633110及29774001)资助 O631 01050176 芘标记磺酸基聚电解质在水与DMSO中的荧光光谱=Fluorescence Spectra of Pyrene Labeled Polyelectrolytes with Sulfonate Groups in Water and DMSO[刊, 中]/高峰(华南理工大学),严宇…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&976~979 国家自然科学基金(29804003)与国家杰出青年科学基金(29725411)资助 O631 01050177 尼龙1012的Brill转变=Brill Transition of Nylon 1012[刊, 中]/李勇进(上海交通大学),颜德岳…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&983~984 国家自然科学基金(29974017)资助 O631 01050178 热致液晶含氯侧基聚芳醚酮的单晶状条带织构=The Single Crystal-Like Banded Textures in the Films of a Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Poly(Aryl Ether Ketone) Containing a Lateral Chloro Group[刊, 中]/富露祥(中科院长春应用化学所),张善举…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&988~990 国家自然科学基金(29974032)资助 O631 01050179 具有RAFT链转移过程的活性自由基聚合的Monte Carlo模拟=Monte Carlo Simulation on Living Radical Polymerization with RAFT Process[刊, 中]/李莉(复旦大学),何军坡…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1146~1148 国家自然科学基金资助 O631 01050180 C60-苯乙烯-顺丁烯二酸酐的三元自由基共聚=Free Radical Ternary Copolymerization of C60 with Styrene and Maleic Anhydride[刊, 中]/官文超(华中理工大学),雷洪…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1149~1150 国家自然科学基金(29674010)资助 O631 01050181 聚(苯乙烯-b-2-甲基-2-C023唑啉)嵌段共聚物的合成=Studies on Synthesis of P(S-b-Me-OXZ) Block Copolymers[刊, 中]/刘燕飞(华东理工大学),万小龙…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1157~1159 国家自然科学重点基金(29634010-2)资助 O631 01050182 乙丙共聚物接枝马来酸酐反应机理的模拟研究=Investigation of Reaction Mechanism of Maleic Anhydride Grafted onto Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer[刊, 中]/黄宏亮(中科院长春应用化学所),姚占海…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&256~259 国家自然科学基金(59873022)资助 O631 01050183 稀土催化丁二烯-异戊二烯共聚合过程中的原位环化反应=In situ Cyclization in the Course of Butadiene Isoprene Copolymerization with Nd-Based Catalyst[刊, 中]/董为民(中科院长春应用化学所),逄束芬…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&272~275 国家自然科学基金(29574179)资助 O631 01050184 计算机模式识别在颜料表面改性中的应用=Study on the Application of Pattern Recognition with a Computer in Surface Modification of Pigment[刊, 中]/严乐美(天津大学),杨桂琴…∥天津大学学报.&2000, 33(3).&344~347 国家自然科学基金(29376254)资助 O631 01050185 共混物中聚氯乙烯凝胶化度测试=Studies on Gelling Value of Polyvingyl Chloride in the Blend[刊, 中]/何本桥(湖北大学),张玉红…∥湖北大学学报(自然科学版).&2000, 22(4).&367~370 湖北省自然科学基金资助 O631 01050186 二氧化硅模板技术制备三维有序聚苯乙烯孔材料[刊, 中]/容建华(中科院化学所),杨振忠…∥科学通报.&2000, 45(15).&1627~1630 以单分散二氧化硅颗粒形成的有序结构为模板,制备了聚苯乙烯孔材料.通过扫描电子显微镜观察了模板、复合物及有序多孔聚苯乙烯的形态.结果表明,所合成的多孔材料中,孔大小均匀,空间排布高度有序,且结构与模板中二氧化硅小球自组装方式完全相同.图6参8 国家自然科学基金(20023003)资助 O631 01050187 光导性偶氮聚合物材料的设计[刊, 中]/周雪琴(浙江大学),陈红征…∥自然科学进展.&2000, 10(6).&543~548 以电荷转移理论为指导,对偶氮聚合物材料结构进行设计,获得了两类光导性偶氮聚合物材料,并对其结构和光导性进行了分析与讨论.图4表1参16 国家自然科学基金(59333071,69890230)资助 O631 01050188 聚合物复合材料中填料的摩擦学作用=Tribological Actions of Filiers in Polymer Composites[刊, 中]/薛群基(中科院兰州化学物理所),阎逢元∥中国科学基金.&2000, 14(4).&211~215 综述了就填料对聚合物复合材料的结构和摩擦学行为的影响,并对目前研究过程中所存在的问题进行了简要分析.图3参29 国家自然科学基金资助 O633 01050189 双马来酰亚胺树脂链结构对熔点和反应活性的影响=The Effect of Chain Structure of Bismaleimide Resins on Melting Point and Reactivity of Reaction[刊, 中]/刘润山(湖北省化学研究所),赵三平…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(4).&487~493 湖北省自然科学基金资助 O636 01050190 高分子固体电解质材料研究进展=Advances in Material of Solid Polymer Electrolytes[刊, 中]/赵地顺(河北科技大学),孙凤霞…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(4).&469~475 河北省自然科学基金资助 O64 01050191 Ru(bpy)2(NCS)2染料敏化CdS/Zn2+-TiO2复合半导体纳米多孔膜的光电化学=Photoelectrochemistry of CdS/Zn2+-TiO2 Composite Semiconductor Nanoporous Films Sensitized by Ru-(bpy)2(NCS)2 Dye[刊, 中]/张莉(北京大学),王艳芹…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1075~1079 国家自然科学基金(29773003)资助 O641 01050192 富勒烯笼结构的平面展示法[刊, 中]/叶大年(中科院地质与地球物理所),艾德生…∥科学通报.&2000, 45(16).&1781~1785 采用船式F5和F6与海燕式F5和F6分别表示富勒烯笼几何结构的两种平面图.这些平面图最大的优点是:(1)不破坏富勒烯笼的空间对称性;(2)可以非常清楚地展示出结构中F5和F6的配位形式.这为富勒烯笼的结构几何研究打下了基础.图3参17 国家自然科学基金(49872019)资助 O641 01050193 布朗扩散系数对胶体分形粒子簇扩散控制聚集动力学影响的Monte Carlo模拟=Monte Carlo Simulation to the Effect of Cluster Brownian Diffusion Coefficient on the Colloidal Fractal Cluster Aggregation Kinetics[刊, 中]/王惠(南开大学),王贵昌…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&922~925 使用表征粒子簇结构的几何形状因子,通过对扩散控制聚集过程的模拟,从微观或介观层次研究了粒子簇结构对粒子簇增长速率和速率常数的影响规律,并与实验结果进行了对比分析.图4表1参15 国家自然科学基金(29573109)资助 O641 01050194 一些富勒烯C60双加成物稳定性的理论研究=Theoretical Studies on the Stabilities of Some C60 Bis-Adducts[刊, 中]/陈中方(南开大学),王贵昌…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1127~1129 国家自然科学基金(29773022)资助 O641 01050195 M(bpy)+32(M=Fe,Ru,Os)电子结构与相关性质=Electronic Structure and Related Chemical Properties of Complexes(M=Fe,Ru,Os)[刊, 中]/郑康成(中山大学),匡代彬…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(7).&608~612 报道了对配合物(M=Fe,Ru,Os)的量子化学密度泛函法研究的结果,探讨的电子结构特征及相关性质,特别是中心原子对配合物的配位键长、光谱性质、电荷布居及化学稳定性等的影响规律.图2表6参14 国家自然科学基金资助 O642 01050196 纳米HZSM-5分子筛的热稳定性=Thermostability of Nanosized HZSM-5 Zeolite[刊, 英]/张维萍(中科院大连化物所),包信和∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&195~196 科技部攀登计划项目 O642 01050197 微量热法研究硒对大肠杆菌生长代谢的作用=Microcalorimetric Study of the Action of Seleniumcontaining Complexes on Growth Metabolism of Escherichia coli[刊, 中]/李曦(武汉大学),刘义…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&568~572 采用微量热法测定了Na2SeO3、吗啉、硒代吗啉和N,N'-亚基双硒代吗啉对大肠杆菌作用的热功率输出曲线,根据热功率输出曲线求算在这些药物作用下,大肠杆菌生长代谢的速率常数,并对它们的作用特征进行了比较.图2表1参7 国家自然科学基金资助 O642 01050198 反相气相色谱法测定溶剂在PBMA中的无限稀释活度系数=Measurement of Infinite Diluted Activity Coefficient of Solvent in PBMA by Inverse Gas Chromatography Method[刊, 中]/冯媛媛(华东理工大学),叶汝强…∥华东理工大学学报.&2000, 26(3).&305~308 用反相气相色谱方法测定了16种溶剂在聚甲基丙烯酸丁酯(PBMA)中343~433K范围内的无限稀释活度系数,并用周浩等的高分子溶液分子热力学模型对实验结果进行了关联,结果令人满意.图8表2参15 国家自然科学基金(29976011)资助 O643 01050199 海泡石对非晶态NiB合金催化剂的改性研究=Studies on the Modification of Sepiolite for Amorphous NiB Alloy Catalyst[刊, 中]/石秋杰(南昌大学),陈昭萍…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&501~506 以常压气相苯加氢为探针反应,考察了酸改性前后海泡石的加入对非晶态NiB合金催化剂的加氢及抗硫性能的影响,用TPR、TPD表征了催化剂的表面性质,测定了酸改性前后海泡石的比表面及孔径分布,并与活性进行了关联.图3表3参12 国家自然科学基金资助 O643 01050200 F+NCO反应的机理和动力学=Mechanism and Kinetics of the F+NCO Reaction[刊, 中]/侯华(山东大学),王宝山…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&517~521 高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金资助 O643 01050201 激光溅射下原子团簇生长的非平衡力学(Ⅱ)=Non-Equilibrium Kinetics of Clusters Growth under Laser Ablation(Ⅱ)[刊, 中]/曹玉群(厦门大学),黄荣彬…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(7).&621~626 国家自然科学基金(29890210,29773040)资助 O643 01050202 双(2,4-二甲基戊二烯基)氯化钆的合成及晶体结构=Synthesis and Structure of Bis(2,4-Dimethylpentadienyl)Gadolinium Chloride[刊, 中]/王建辉(吉林大学),母瀛…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&829~831 国家自然科学基金(29672013,29754143)资助 O643 01050203 温控相转移催化&&水/有机两相催化新进展=Thermoregulated Phase-Transfer Catalysis&&Recent Advances in Water/Organic Biphasic Catalysis[刊, 中]/金子林(大连理工大学),梅建庭…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&941~946 综述了"温控相转移催化”的原理,温控膦配体的设计、合成及其在水溶性极小的底物高碳烯烃的水/有机两相氢甲酰化反应中的应用效果.图4表5参35 国家自然科学基金(29792074)资助 O643 01050204 Cr-HMS合成、表征及其在催化氧化反应中的应用=Synthesis, Characterization of Cr-HMS and the Application in Catalytic Oxidation[刊, 中]/乐洪咏(复旦大学),华伟明…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1101~1104 合成了一系列不同Cr含量的Cr-HMS介孔分子筛,并对其物化性质进行了表征.结果表明,Cr的引入降低了介孔分子筛骨架结构的规整度和孔径的均一程度.Cr-HMS对苯羟基化和环己烷氧化反应均表现出良好的催化活性.并且随Cr含量的增加,催化活性呈火山型分布.图3表3参14 国家自然科学基金(29873011)资助 O643 01050205 新型甲烷无氧芳构化催化剂MoO3/MCM-49=A Novel Catalyst of MoO3/MCM-49 over Nonoxidative Aromatization of CH4[刊, 中]/许宁(吉林大学),阚秋斌…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1113~1114 国家自然科学基金(29973011)资助 O643 01050206 以TiCl4为钛源合成钛硅分子筛=Synthesis of Titanosilicalite Using Titanium Tetrachloride as Titanium Source[刊, 英]/张义华(大连理工大学),王祥生∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&197~198 以四丙基溴化铵为模板剂,以四氯化钛为钛源,研究了合成小晶粒钛硅分子筛(TS-1)的合成路线.合成的TS-1样品在丙烯环氧化反应中显示有较高的活性(96%)和选择性(95%),H2O2利用率高于95%.图3表1参8 国家自然科学基金(29792071)资助 O643 01050207 稀土氧化物在Fe1-xO基氨合成催化剂中的作用规律=Regular Effect of Rare Earth Oxide on Fe1-xO Catalyst for Ammonia Synthesis[刊, 中]/季德春(浙江工业大学),李小年∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&199~203 考察了稀土氧化物对Fe1-xO基催化剂性能的影响.结果表明,稀土氧化物与Fe1-xO作用生成一种复合氧化物REFeO3,从而促进了催化剂的还原,这种促进作用随稀土离子半径不同呈现规律性变化.图1表6参14 国家自然科学基金(29706011)资助 O643 01050208 光电催化降解磺基水杨酸的研究=Study of Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sulfosalicylic Acid[刊, 中]/刘鸿(中科院大连化学物理所),冷文华∥催化学报, 21(3).&209~212 建立了以TiO2/Ni为工作电极、泡沫镍为对电极、饱和甘汞电极为参比电极的光电催化反应体系,研究了在磺基水杨酸(SSal)的光电催化降解过程中,外加电压和溶液pH值对降解速率的影响.图5表1参18 国家自然科学基金(29877024)资助 O643 01050209 多孔TiO2薄膜的表面微结构对甲基橙光催化脱色的影响=Effect of Surface Microstructure of Porous TiO2 Thin Films on Photocatalytic Decolorization of Methyl Orange[刊, 中]/余家国(武汉工业大学),赵修建∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&213~216 湖北省自然科学基金资助 O643 01050210 γ-Mo2N催化剂上的乙炔选择加氢=Selective Hydrogenation of Ethyne on γ-Mo2N[刊, 中]/郝志显(中科院大连化学物理所),魏昭彬∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&217~220 对γ-Mo2N催化剂上乙炔加氢反应进行了研究.在150℃的反应温度下,乙炔转化率为95%,乙烯选择性达80%,乙烷选择性为4%,丁烯选择性为10%.反应温度和空速对产物的选择性没有明显的影响.图4参17 国家自然科学基金(29625305)资助 O643 01050211 WO3/ZrO2固体强酸催化剂上异丁烷/丁烯的烷基化反应:Ⅱ.过渡金属的助催化作用=Study on Alkylation of Isobutane with Butene over WO3/ZrO2 Strong Solid Acid:Ⅱ. Promotions Effect of Transition Metal[刊, 中]/孙闻东(中科院长春应用化学所),吴越∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&229~233 制备了一系列用过渡金属活化的WO3/ZrO2固体强酸催化剂,并对其晶型结构、表面状态和酸量进行了表征.图7表2参22 国家自然科学基金(29792076)资助 O212 01050212 超细镍基催化剂上CH4-CO2重整反应的性能:Ⅰ.制备方法对催化剂结构和还原性能的影响=CH4 Reforming with CO2 over Superfine Ni-Based Catalysts:Ⅰ. Effects of Preparation Methods on Structure and TPR of Catalysts[刊, 中]/许峥(清华大学),张鎏∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&234~238 国家博士点基金资助 O643 01050213 SO2对Co3O4/Al2O3选择性催化氧化NO的影响=Effect of SO2 on Catalytic Oxidation of NO over Co3O4/Al2O3[刊, 中]/赵秀阁(华东理工大学),肖文德∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&239~242 采用流动态原位IR,TPD及XPS技术研究了NO及SO2在Co3O4/Al2O3金属氧化物催化剂表面上的吸附及脱附行为,并与该催化剂上模拟烟道气中NO的选择性催化氧化活性相关联,考察了SO2对该反应过程的影响及作用机理.图5参13 国家自然科学基金(29633030)资助 O643 01050214 Lewis酸对杂多酸催化异丁烷/丁烯烷基化反应的作用=Effect of Lewis Acid on Alkylation of Isobutane with Butene[刊, 中]/赵振波(中科院长春应用化学所),吴越∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&243~246 考察了SbCl5对杂多酸(HPA)催化异丁烷/丁烯烷基化反应的修饰作用,用Hammett指示剂测定了SbCl5/HPA催化剂的酸强度.结果表明,经SbCl5修饰的HPA的酸强度有所提高,SbCl5的加入量、反应温度及反应时间对烷基化油收率及产物分布均有不同的影响.图5表2参15 国家自然科学基金(29792076)资助 O643 01050215 微波固相法制备的ZnCl2/Y在α-蒎烯环氧化物重排反应中的催化性能=Catalytic Performance of ZnCl2/Y Catalyst Prepared by Solid-State Microwave Irradiation for Rearrangement Reaction of α-Pinene Oxide[刊, 中]/尹笃林(湖南师范大学),银董红∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&251~254 国家自然科学基金(29572042,29972011)资助 O643 01050216 Co-Mo/HZSM-5甲烷无氧芳构化催化剂上的积炭=Characterization of Coke on Co-Mo/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Methane Dehydro-Aromatization in the Absence of Oxygen[刊, 中]/田丙伦(中科院大连化学物理所),徐奕德∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&255~258 国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 O643 01050217 热处理改性的活性炭纤维的脱硫活性=Desulfurization Activity of Activated Carbon Fiber Modified by Heat Treatment[刊, 中]/李开喜(中科院山西煤炭化学所),凌立成∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&264~268 考察了在O2和水蒸气存在下高温热处理对活性炭纤维(ACF)催化转化SO2为H2SO4的活性的影响,关联了ACF表面含氧官能团的种类及数量与其脱硫活性之间的关系.图4表2参20 国家自然科学基金(29633030)资助 O643 01050218 制备方法对锶改性氧化铝的高温热稳定性的影响=The Influence of Preparation Methods on the Thermal Stability of Alumina Modified by Strontium[刊, 中]/刘勇(复旦大学),陈晓银∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&273~275 福特-中国研究与发展基金资助 O643 01050219 NO在氧化铝负载的Pd催化剂上吸附的TPD-MS研究=TPD-MS Study of NO Adsorption on Alumina Supported Pd Catalysts[刊, 中]/刘振林(中国科技大学),伏义路∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&279~282 福特-中国研究与发基金资助项目 O643 01050220 不同焙烧气氛对氟化镁表面碱性的影响=The Effect of Different Calcination Atmosphere on the Surface Basicity of Magnesium Oxide[刊, 中]/孟明(中国科技大学),林培琰∥催化学报.&2000, 21(3).&286~288 在不同气氛中600℃下焙烧Mg(OH)2制得了MgO样品.结果表明,Mg(OH)2经焙烧后分解为MgO.样品的比表面积受焙烧气氛的影响,真空中制备的样品比表面积最大,而空气中制备的样品比表面积最小.真空中制备的样品具有最多的碱位和最强的碱性.图3表2参8 国家自然科学基金(29973037)资助 O643 01050221 Ni改性Cu/Mn/ZrO2催化剂上合成低碳混合醇的研究=Synthesis of Mixed Higher Alcohols by CO Hydrogenation over Ni-Modified Cu/Mn/ZrO2 Catalyst[刊, 中]/陈小平(中科院山西煤炭化学所),吴贵升∥催化学报.&2000, 21(4).&301~304 国家自然科学基金(29873064)资助 O643 01050222 超细镍基催化剂上CH4-CO2重整反应的性能:Ⅱ.制备方法对催化和抗积碳性能的影响=CH4 Reforming with CO2 over Superfine Ni-Based Catalysts:Ⅱ.Effects of Preparation Methods on Reactivity and Carbon Deposition over Catalysts[刊, 中]/许峥(清华大学),张鎏∥催化学报.&2000, 21(4).&309~313 国家博士点基金资助 O643 01050223 合成甲基叔丁基醚的分子筛催化剂研究=A Study of Zeolite Catalysts for Synthesis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether[刊, 中]/李永红(天津大学),王莅∥催化学报.&2000, 21(4).&323~326 中国石油化工集团公司资助 O643 01050224 二苯并噻吩在CoMoNx催化剂上的加氢脱硫=Hydrodesulfurization of Dibenzothiophene over Cobalt-Promoted Molybdenum Nitride Catalysts[刊, 中]/柳云骐(石油大学),刘晨光∥催化学报.&2000, 21(4).&337~340 中国石油天然气集团公司资助 O643 01050225 锆助剂含量对钴基费-托合成催化剂的影响=Effect of ZrO2 Loadings on Catalytic Performance of Co/SiO2 for F-T Synthesis[刊, 中]/陈建刚(中科院山西煤炭化学所),相宏伟∥催化学报.&2000, 21(4).&359~362 国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 O643 01050226 一种天然气直接转化制乙烯的新过程=A Novel Process for Direct Conversion of Natural Gas to Ethylene[刊, 英]/朱爱民(中科院大连化物所),田志坚∥催化学报.&2000, 21(4).&395~396 国家科技部资助项目 O643 01050227 N,N-二甲基胺乙基膦酸-磷酸氢锆为载体的新型固体碱研究=Study on Solid Base Supported on Zirconium Dimethyl Aminoethylphosphonate-Phosphate[刊, 中]/龚成斌(中科院大连化学物理所),曾仁权…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&264~267 国家自然科学基金资助 O643 01050228 丙烷在钒-磷混合氧化物催化剂上晶格氧氧化及其循环流化床工艺=Oxidation of Propane over Vanadium-Phosphorus Oxides Catalyst by Lattice Oxygen and Its Circulating Fluidized Bed Process[刊, 中]/王鉴(浙江大学),赵如松…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&313~315 用脉冲色谱研究了丙烷在钒-磷混合氧化物催化剂上的选择氧化反应,并结合TPD和XRD表征结果,证明丙烷是与催化剂的晶格氧反应生成丙烯酸和乙酸.图2参5 国家自然科学基金(29676007)资助 O643 01050229 用以分解氟里昂-12的新型催化剂WO3/Al2O3=A Novel Catalyst WO3/Al2O3 for Decomposition of CFC-12[刊, 中]/马臻(复旦大学),华伟明…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&319~321 国家科委攀登计划资助 O643 01050230 LaFeO3的光催化性=Photocatalytic Activity of LaFeO3[刊, 中]/白树林(天津大学),付希贤…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&343~345 采用柠檬酸法和微乳液法制备纳米晶LaFeO3.结果表明,微乳液法较柠檬酸法制备的LaFeO3粒径小,表面积大,使LaFeO3吸附性增加,因此表现出较强的光催化活性.图2表1 国家自然科学基金(59772019)资助 O643 01050231 NiO/SiO2催化剂上CO氧化的反应机理研究=Mechanism of CO Oxidation on NiO/SiO2 Catalyst[刊, 中]/王远洋(宁夏大学),高荫本…∥宁夏大学学报(自然科学版).&2000, 21(2).&147~149 NiO/SiO2是优良的非贵金属型CO氧化催化剂,EXAFS和TPR表征表明其活性中心为NiO.在此基础上的Monte Carlo模拟表明,在NiO/SiO2上CO氧化遵循L-H机理.图5参11 国家自然科学基金(29803009)资助 O643 01050232 烯基取代的茂钛族络合物合成及应用于烯烃催化聚合的进展=Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Alkenyl Substituted Metallocene Complexes(Ti,Zr,Hf) and the Application of Its to α-Olefins Polymerization[刊, 中]/钱贤苗(华东理工大学),许胜…∥功能高分子学报.&2000, 13(3).&358~366 综述了含烯基取代基的茂钛族络合物的合成,取代基上双键的化学反应,以及在α-烯烃催化聚合上的最新进展.表2参45 国家自然科学基金(29871010)资助 O643 01050233 氧化态Co/γ-Al2O3催化剂的结构与反应性能研究:Ⅱ.钴物种微观结构的XAFS表征=Studies on the Structures and Catalytic Properties of Oxidized Co/γ-Al2O3 Catalysts:Ⅱ.XAFS Characterizations of the Micro-Structures of Co Species[刊, 中]/孟明(中国科学技术大学),林培琰…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&161~165 采用X-射线吸收近边结构与扩展X-射线吸收精细结构技术,对用不同原料盐和不同焙烧温度制得的Co/γ-Al2O3催化剂中钴的微观结构进行了详细的表征.图5表1参8 国家自然科学基金(29973037)资助 O643 01050234 CuCl/γ-Al2O3上NO脱除过程研究=Reaction Mechanism of NO Conversion over CuCl/γ-Al2O3[刊, 中]/朱月香(北京大学),尉继英…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&166~170 设计了一系列的对比实验,利用XRD、XPS、TPR、EXAFS等技术,系统研究了CuCl/γ-Al2O3上的NO脱除反应过程.图4表1参8 国家自然科学基金(29733080)资助 O643 01050235 以Au(PPh3)(NO3)为前体的Au/NiO催化剂的制备及其对CO的催化氧化=Preparation and Catalytic Performance of Au/NiO Catalyst Derived from Au(PPh3)(NO3) for CO Oxidation[刊, 中]/邹旭华(烟台大学),齐世学…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&171~174 采用有机金属配合物固载法,将金的有机配合物Au(PPh3)(NO3)沉积于刚制备出的Ni(OH)2沉淀上.结果表明,以K2CO3作为制备Ni(OH)2的沉淀剂,金担载量为3%(质量分数)在焙烧温度为300℃的条件下,制备出的负载型金催化剂Au/NiO对CO的低温氧化有很高的催化活性.图2表3参15 国家自然科学基金(29873041)资助 O643 01050236 CexZr1-xO2复合氧化物负载PdO催化剂的CO和CH4氧化性能研究=CO and Methane Oxidation over CexZr1-xO2 Mixed Oxide Supported PdO Catalysts[刊, 中]/马磊(浙江大学),韩立峰…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&175~178 浙江省自然科学基金资助 O643 01050237 溶胶-凝胶法镍基催化剂的研究&&Ti/Si原子比对NiO-TiO2-SiO2结构和苯加氢性能的影响=Study of the Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method&&The Effects of Si/Ti Atomic Ratios on the Structure and Catalytic Performance for Benzene Hydrogenation of NiO/TiO2-SiO2[刊, 中]/朱毅青(江苏石油化工学院),林西平…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&184~190 中石化集团公司资助课题 O643 01050238 (NH4)15[La(PMo9V2O39)2]*6H2O杂多配合物对苯酚羟化的催化作用=Catalytic Activity of (NH4)15[La(PMo9V2O39)2]*6H2O Heteropoly Complex in Phenol Hydroxylation with Hydrogen Peroxide[刊, 中]/林深(福建师范大学),郑瑛…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&191~194 福建省科委资助项目 O643 01050239 Co改性Mo/HZSM-5催化剂上甲烷无氧芳构化反应研究=Methane Dehydro-Aromatization over Cobalt Modified Mo/HZSM-5 Catalysts in the Absence of Oxygen[刊, 中]/田丙伦(中科院大连化学物理所),刘红梅…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&200~204 国家重点基础研究发展规划项目 O643 01050240 甲醇催化氧化重整反应制氢的研究=Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Oxidation and Reforming of Methanol[刊, 中]/陈兵(华南理工大学),董新法…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&205~208 广东省高教厅自然科学基金资助 O643 01050241 TiO2催化Cr(Ⅵ)-氯代苯酚共存体系中Cr(Ⅵ)的光致还原=Photo-Induced Cr(Ⅵ) Reduction in Cr(Ⅵ)-4CP Coexist Pollution System in the Presence of TiO2 Photocatalyst[刊, 中]/付宏祥(中科院兰州化学物理所),吕功煊…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&214~218 中科院重大项目资助 O643 01050242 三磺化三苯基膦(TPPTS)制备方法的改进=Improvement of Synthesis Method of TPPTS[刊, 中]/张敬畅(北京化工大学),曹维良…∥分子催化.&2000, 14(3).&223~226 国家"九五”科技攻关项目 O644 01050243 预处理对TiO2表面超亲水性的影响=Effect of Pretreatment on Superhydrophilicity of TiO2 Films[刊, 中]/管自生(中科院化学所),马颖∥感光科学与光化学.&2000, 18(3).&204~207 在高温度环境下,应用紫外光辐射对溶胶-凝胶TiO2薄膜预处理,经过预处理的薄膜烧结后具有快速光致高度亲水特性和良好的光催化活性.超亲水的薄膜能够吸附大量的酸性品红,在光照下薄膜将吸附的酸性品红逐渐降解掉.图3参6 国家自然科学基金(59932040)重点资助 O644 01050244 荧光探针在测定N-异丙基丙烯酰胺共聚物最低临界溶液温度(LCST)时的扩散过程=The Diffusion Process of Fluorescence Probe in Measurement of LCST of Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylamide) Aqueous Solution[刊, 中]/李俊(中科院感光化学所),史向阳∥感光科学与光化学.&2000, 18(3).&208~213 合成了多种不同配比的N-异丙基丙烯酰胺(NIPAM)与丙烯酰胺(AM)的共聚物.研究了共聚物溶液在温度变化过程中发生的线团-胶粒转变,及荧光探针分子扩散进入疏水胶粒的动力学过程.图3表2参9 国家自然科学基金(29733100)资助 O644 01050245 蒽醌冠醚铕离子络合物分子内能量转移=Intramolecular Energy Transfer in Anthraquione Crown Ether-Eu3+ Complex[刊, 中]/江华(中科院感光化学所),许慧君∥感光科学与光化学.&2000, 18(3).&223~228 研究结果表明,选择性激发铕离子络合物中的蒽醌冠醚能发生分子内能量转移,观察到铕离子的发光.荧光衰减测试表明,由于冠醚的包络作用使得铕离子络合物的荧光寿命较未络合铕离子的寿命有所延长.图5表1参10 国家自然科学基金(29733100)资助 O644 01050246 有机染料光褪色机理及主要原因=The Mechanism and Main Reasons of Photofading of Organic Dyes[刊, 中]/于新瑞(大连理工大学),张淑芬∥感光科学与光化学.&2000, 18(3).&243~253 综述了有机染料光褪色机理的主要研究方法以及现有研究结论.对光氧化和光还原过程、影响因素、典型反应步聚、研究手段进行了系统的阐述,同时也对通过染料分子结构设计合成、通过添加剂的使用提高染料光牢度的方法进行了介绍.图4表3参29 国家自然科学基金重点基金(29836150)资助 O644 01050247 荧光分子开关的研究进展=The Progress of the Research on Fluorescent Molecular Switches[刊, 中]/甘家安(华东理工大学),陈孔常∥感光科学与光化学.&2000, 18(3).&254~262 根据开关动作完成的方式对近年来研究的各类荧光分子开关进行了简要的归类总结,并介绍了一些具有特殊功能的荧光分子开关器件.图8参33 国家自然科学基金(29836150)资助 O644 01050248 半花菁衍生物LB膜的光致荧光特性研究=Photoluminescence Characteristics of Hemicyanine Derivatives in Langmuir Blodgett Multilayers[刊, 中]/王文军(复旦大学),陆兴泽…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&496~500 通过改变半花菁的亲水基团与硫水基团而得到了四种半花菁衍生物,利用稳态和时间分辨荧光研究了不同亲水基团与疏水基团对半花菁衍生物光学特性的影响.图1表3参7 国家自然科学基金重点基金(19834030)资助 O644 01050249 N-萘甲基多乙撑多胺类荧光化学敏感器=Fluorescence Chemical Sensor of Naphthylmethyl Polyethylenepolyamine[刊, 中]/梅明华(中科院感光化学所),吴世康∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&559~562 合成了一类带有萘甲基的多乙撑多胺化合物,对其在不同溶剂中作为FCS检测锌离子时的荧光光谱变化进行了研究.结果表明,两种不同锌盐化合物与配体相互作用时,其所带阴离子对络合物的组成和方式有很大的影响.图2表1参6 国家自然科学基金(29733100)资助 O644 01050250 三聚氰胺甲醛树脂的光学性质=Optical Properties of Melamine Formaldehyde Resin[刊, 中]/刘海波(复旦大学),侯占佳…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&563~567 对三聚氰胺甲醛树脂的合成过程、波导制备条件及利用三聚氰胺甲醛树脂作为掺杂基质的非线性光学性质进行了研究.实验结果表明,三聚氰胺甲醛树脂是一种极具有应用前景的光学材料.图3参14 国家自然科学基金(69708005,69808001)资助 O644 01050251 紫菜两个光系统间激发能分配研究对光合进化的启示[刊, 中]/潘洁(中科院化学所),施定基…∥科学通报.&2000, 45(12).&1276~1279 选择两个不同发育阶段(孢子体和配子体)的条斑紫菜作为研究对象.对过多激发能在两个光系统间的分配进行了比较研究.图2参13 国家自然科学基金(39890390,29733100)资助 O644 01050252 非线性光学配合物的化学研究[刊, 中]/左景林(南京大学),游效曾∥科学通报.&2000, 45(14).&1457~1464 从化学角度出发,在分子水平上研究和探索新型分子基非线性光学材料是一个新的研究领域.总结了近年来在新型二阶、三阶极化率和光限制等非线性光学配合物的化学研究方面所取得的进展.图6表2参46 国家自然科学基金(29631040)资助 O644 01050253 螺旋共轭化合物1′,3′,3′-三甲基-6-羟基螺旋[2H-1-苯并吡喃-2,2′-二氢吲哚]的结构、光谱、非线性光学性质和光异构化过程的理论研究=Theoretical Study of the Structures, Spectra, Nonlinear Second-Order Optical Properties and Photoisomerization Process of the Spiroconjugated Compound 1′,3′,3′-Trimethyl-6-Hydroxyspiro[2H-1-Benzopyran-2,2′-Indoline][刊, 中]/孙秀云(吉林大学),封继康…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1080~1085 用AM1和ZINDO方法研究了螺旋共轭化合物1′,3′,3′-三甲基-6-羟基螺旋[2H-1-苯并吡喃-2,2′-二氢吲哚](HBPS)及其光导构化产物的结构和光谱性质,从理论上研究了HBPS的光异构化反应过程,并在此基础上,用自编的完全态求和公式(SOS)程序计算了非线性光学系数.图4表7参17 国家自然科学基金(29873016)资助 O644 01050254 Af型自由基均聚反应的固化理论(Ⅲ)&&高分子凝胶网络缺陷=The Curing Theory of Af Type Free Radical Homopolymerization(Ⅲ)&&The Defects of Polymer Gel Network[刊, 中]/王海军(河北大学),赵敏…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1138~1141 应用高分子反应统计理论,分析了高分子网络的形成过程,讨论了Af型自由基均聚反应凝胶网络中的缺陷&&悬吊环的数目及其形成几率.图4参22 国家自然科学基金(29673018)资助 O646 01050255 微过氧化物酶-11修饰电极对O2和H2O2的电催化还原=Electrocatalytic Reduction of O2 and H2O2 at the Glass Carbon Electrode Modified with Microperoxidase-11[刊, 中]/杨辉(南京师范大学),黄志忠…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&527~532 运用电化学循环伏安法和旋转圆盘电极技术研究了O2和H2O2在Nafion膜固定的微过氧化物酶-11修饰的玻碳电极上的电化学还原.图6参16 国家自然科学基金资助 O646 01050256 电沉积Co-Cu颗粒膜的巨磁电阻效应=Giant Magnetoresistance in Electro-Deposited Co-Cu Granular Film[刊, 中]/李浩华(兰州大学),黎超…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&573~576 用电化学沉积法制备了Co-Cu纳米颗粒膜,并对这种膜的结构、磁性、巨磁电阻效应作了较详细的研究.图6参7 国家自然科学基金资助 O646 01050257 磷酸溶液中铝恒压阳极氧化的研究=Investigation of Aluminum Anodizing in Phosphoric Acid Solution at Constant Voltage[刊, 中]/王为(天津大学),郭鹤桐…∥天津大学学报.&2000, 33(3).&341~343 结果表明,随着电解电压的升高,形成的氧化铝多孔膜的阻挡层增厚,多孔层的孔径和胞径均增加,其原因与离子迁移等密切相关.图6参6 国家自然科学基金(69601006)资助 O646 01050258 二次微分简易示波伏安法测定痕量镍=Determination of Trace Nickel by Second-Order Differential Simple Oscillographic Voltammetry[刊, 中]/傅业伟(西北大学),高敏…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&296~299 国家自然科学基金(29775018)资助 O646 01050259 Ml(NiCuAlZn)5储氢合金粉末的包覆处理=Encapsulation of Ml(NiCuAlZn)5 Hydrogen Storage Alloy Powder[刊, 中]/王一菁(南开大学),赵东…∥应用化学.&2000, 17(3).&310~312 国家"八六三”计划资助项目 O646 01050260 和厚朴酚电化学还原机理的研究=Theoretical Study on the Mechanism of Electrochemical Reductions Reaction of Honokiol[刊, 中]/孙成科(曲靖师范高等专科学校),龚思源…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&912~917 用量子化学AM1、PM3方法研究了和厚朴酚分子的电化学还原反应机理.结果表明,和厚朴酚分子电还原的基团为两个烯丙基的双键,其中邻位烯丙基优先被还原,对位次之,整个还原反应中和厚朴酚得到4e和4H+,使两个烯丙基饱和,计算结果较好地说明了实验事实.图2表7参12 国家自然科学基金(29773007)资助 O646 01050261 Fourier自去卷积示波计时电位法的研究=Oscillographic Chronopotentiometry with Fourier Self-Deconvolution[刊, 中]/郑建斌(西北大学),张红权…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1037~1039 国家自然科学基金(29775018)资助 O646 01050262 用规整膜板对砷化镓的三维微结构图形加工刻蚀=Three-Dimensional Microfabrication on GaAs Using a Regular Patterns Mold[刊, 中]/董海苟(厦门大学),孙建军…∥电化学.&2000, 6(3).&253~257 以微齿轮图形结构作为规整模板.用约束刻蚀剂层技术对GaAs样品表面进行了加工刻蚀.在有捕捉剂H3AsO3存在的情况下,规则微齿轮图形能够很好地在样品表面复制.图5参6 国家自然科学基金重点项目(29833070)资助 O646 01050263 混凝土中钢筋的腐蚀行为研究=Corrosion Behavior of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete[刊, 中]/林荣归(厦门大学),胡融刚…∥电化学.&2000, 6(3).&305~310 钢筋在混凝土中受到高碱性环境的保护,耐蚀性好,但随着介质pH的降低、Cl-含量的上升,钢筋腐蚀电流升高;动电位阳极极化曲线的测试表明,钢筋的维钝电流增大,击穿电位负移,混凝土中钢筋的耐蚀性下降.图4表1参6 国家自然科学基金(59871043)资助 O647 01050264 天冬氨酸在Cu(001)表面吸附的扫描隧道显微镜研究=Adsorption of Aspartic Acid on Cu(001) Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy[刊, 中]/王浩(北京大学),赵学应…∥物理学报.&2000, 49(7).&1316~1320 国家自然科学基金(19634010)资助 O647 01050265 共聚高分子吸附的Monte Carlo模拟=Monta Carlo Simulation of Adsorption of Diblock Copolymer at Solid-Liquid Interface[刊, 中]/陈霆(华东理工大学),刘洪来…∥化工学报.&2000, 51(4).&512~518 用Monte Carlo方法对选择性溶剂中两嵌段共聚高分子在固液界面的吸附进行了模拟,获得了吸附等温线以及吸附层厚度、链附着率、表面覆盖率、链节浓度分布等表征吸附层结构的信息,同时模拟获得了固液界面区吸附构型大小及分布等表征高分子构型的微观信息.图12表1参10 国家自然科学基金(29736170)资助 O647 01050266 无规共聚高分子溶液相平衡的Monte Carlo模拟=Monte Carlo Simulations of Phase Equilibria of Random Copolymer Solutions[刊, 中]/陈霆(华东理工大学),刘洪来…∥化工学报.&2000, 51(4).&552~554 用构型偏倚蒸发Monte Carlo方法模拟研究了密堆积格子模型上A、B无规共聚高分子的相平衡问题,无规共聚高分子中链节A、B以不同的相互作用能来区别.模拟获得了链长直至200个链节的无规共聚高分子系统相平衡数据,同时计算获得了不同链长固定组成下无规共聚高分子系统相应的临界点.图2表1参12 国爱自然科学基金(29736170)资助 O648 01050267 Triton X-100/正癸醇/水层状液晶制备泡囊=Preparation of Vesicles from Lamellar Liquid Crystal in Triton X-100/n-C10H21OH/H2O System[刊, 中]/丁元华(扬州大学),刘天晴…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&481~486 以Triton X-100/n-C10H21OH/H2O体系生成的层状液晶为介质制备泡囊,所得泡囊分布比较均匀,囊径在0.2~0.5 μm之间.研究了层状液晶组成、pH、超声振荡时间等因素对所制泡囊的电位及微极性的影响.图6表2参16 国家自然科学基金(29673035)资助 O648 01050268 表面波技术研究TBP对C12E8表面流变性质的影响=Influence of TBP on the Surface Rheological Properties of C12E8 Studied by Surface Wave Method[刊, 中]/韩国彬(厦门大学),吴金添…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&507~511 利用表面波技术研究消泡剂TBP对起泡剂C12E8表面流变性质的影响,阐述泡沫的排液过程中液膜变形所产生的表面张力梯度修复机理以及液膜强度与表面膨胀模量、表面膨胀弹性和表面膨胀粘度的关系,并且探讨了消泡剂TBP的消泡机理.图4参6 国家自然科学基金(29973033)资助 O648 01050269 制备宽温区O/W微乳的新方法=Novel Method to Prepare O/W Microemulsions within a Wide Temperature Range[刊, 英]/梁文平(中科院化学所),Tharwat F Tadros∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&538~542 通过把一个带有羧基的离子表面活性剂镶嵌在微乳界面的单分子层中,在低pH值时,形成水包油微乳,然后用氢氧化钠中和使其表面离子化而形成一个较厚的双电层,从而得到的宽温区(0-90℃)水包油微乳.研究了油相浓度、pH以及微乳液滴的大小对体系的浊点的影响.图5参12 国家自然科学基金资助 O65 01050270 Triton X-100与牛血清白蛋白的相互作用=The Interaction between Triton X-100 and Bovine Serum Albumin[刊, 中]/魏晓芳(中科院化工冶金所),刘会洲∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&699~701 国家自然科学基金重点项目资助 O65 01050271 球形铜离子模板缩聚物的制备及其选择吸附性能=The Preparation of Globular Copper(Ⅱ) Template Condensation Polymer and Its Behavior of the Selective Adsorption[刊, 中]/王旭东(南开大学),何锡文…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(7).&805~809 以苯酚、甲醛、四乙烯五胺为反应单体,铜离子为模板,反相悬浮聚合制备出球形离子模板缩聚物.该模板缩聚物对铜离子的吸附性能显著优于相应的非模板缩聚物.图6参3 国家自然科学基金(29775011)资助 O65 01050272 杯芳烃银离子敏感场效应晶体管传感器=Silver Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor Based on Calixarene[刊, 中]/陈朗星(南开大学),牛文成…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(7).&815~819 报道了硫醚取代的杯[4]芳烃化合物的合成,以此化合物为敏感材料,研制了聚氯乙烯膜的银离子敏感场效应晶体管(Ag+-ISFET)传感器.Ag+-ISFET传感器对银离子表现出优良的能斯特响应,该传感器对碱金属、碱土金属及过渡金属离子有极高的选择性.图5表1参13 国家自然科学基金(29975014)资助 O65 01050273 电极扩散层内物质浓度及分布研究方法进展=Development of Research Method of Concentration Observation and Distribution in Electrode Diffusion Layer[刊, 中]/杨玉书(重庆大学),夏之宁…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(7).&897~903 评述了测试电极扩散层内物质浓度及分布的各种方法,分别从方法原理、实验装置、影响因素及其应用等方面加以论述,评价了各种方法的特点,并对发展方向进行了展望.参52 国家自然科学基金(29775035)资助 O657 01050274 甲烷氧化偶联Na-W-Mn/SiO2催化剂的喇曼光谱=Raman Spectroscopy Characterization of Na-W-Mn/SiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Coupling of Methane[刊, 中]/陈宏善(中科院兰州化学物理所),牛建中…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(6).&543~546 研究了A16061/SiCp复合材料表面双层稀土转化膜的微观结构以及化学组成,并对稀土转化膜对抗腐蚀性能进行了评估.结果表明,稀土转化膜能显著提高耐蚀性.图2表3参10 国家自然科学基金资助 O657 01050275 12-钼磷酸-葡聚糖包合物的研究=Study on the Inclusion Compound of 12-Molybdenum Phosphoric Acid with Dextran[刊, 中]/程贤C026(福建师范大学),苏英草…∥物理化学学报.&2000, 16(7).&658~662 福建省教委基金资助 O657 01050276 O/W微乳液中制备甲基丙烯甲酯-苯乙烯共聚物超细颗粒=Preparation of Methyl Methacrylate and Styrene Copolymer Ultrafine Particles in the Oil-in-Water Microemulsions[刊, 中]/钱君律(同济大学),甘礼华…∥同济大学学报(自然科学版).&2000, 28(3).&320~323 在甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)-苯乙烯-环己烷/十六烷基三甲基溴化铵/水体系的O/W微乳液中,制备了粒径约58 nm球状甲基丙烯酸甲酯-苯乙烯共聚物超细颗粒.研究了影响粒子形态和大小的因素.图4表1参12 国家自然科学基金(29673030)资助 O657 01050277 基于小波神经网络的新型算法用于化学信号处理=A Novel Algorithm Based on the Wavelet Neural Network for Processing Chemical Signals[刊, 中]/蔡文生(中国科技大学),于芳…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&855~859 基于紧支集正交小波神经网络的构造思想,用具有紧支集的B-样条函数的伸缩和平移替代小波函数,提出了一种新型算法,并将其应用于化学信号的处理,实现了信号的压缩和滤噪,与自适应小波神经网络相比,学习速度得到了大幅度的提高.图4表2参9 国家自然科学基金(29775001)资助 O657 01050278 改进溶胶-凝胶法固定酶结构剖析及在苯酚光化学传感器中的应用=The Microstructure Analysis of Enzymes Immobilized by Sol-Gel Method and Its Application in Phenol Optical Chemical Sensor[刊, 中]/李军(湖南大学),王柯敏…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1018~1022 结果表明,酶固定于溶胶-凝胶中后,与在溶液中一样,呈均匀分布且不易流失.此敏感膜可用于制备基于化学发光强度减弱的苯酚光化学传感器;用竞争反应的原理讨论了响应机理.图3表1参20 国家自然科学基金(29675005)及国家杰出青年基金(29825110)资助 O657 01050279 一种用于电热蒸发-原子光谱的微型化固相萃取技术=A Miniaturization Solid-Phase Extraction Technique Designed for Electrothermal Vaporization-Atomic Emission Spectrometry Determination[刊, 中]/熊宏春(武汉大学),胡斌…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1035~1036 国家自然科学基金(29875022)资助 O657 01050280 多环芳烃芴、苊的无保护流体室温磷光性质研究=Studies on Non-Protected Fluid Room Temperature Phosphorescence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon of Fluoren and Acenaphthene[刊, 中]/李隆弟(清华大学),牟兰…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1040~1042 国家自然科学基金(29775013)资助 O657 01050281 高效液相色谱/大气压化学电离质谱快速分析水中痕量有机磷农药=Rapid Analysis of Trace Organophosphorous Pesticides in Water by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry[刊, 中]/潘元海(中科院生态环境研究中心),金军…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&661~671 用反相液谱短柱实现了6种有机磷农药(乙酰甲胺磷,甲基对硫磷、杀螟硫磷、喹硫磷、二嗪农、辛硫磷)的高效液相色谱/大气压化学电离质谱(HPLC/APCIMS)快速分析.此技术可以很好地实现水中痕量有机磷农药的测定,一次联机分析仅需10 min.图3表2参11 国家自然科学基金(29977023)资助 O657 01050282 氧氟沙星对映体的同步-导数荧光光谱法识别与测定=Recognition and Determination of Ofloxacin Enantiomers by Synchronization-Derivative Fluorimetry[刊, 中]/弓巧娟(山西大学),晋卫军…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&672~677 控制pH=3,首次通过同步一阶导数荧光光谱技术,有效地识别和分辨氧氟沙星的R和S对映体,同时有效地消除尿样背景的干扰.据此建立了同时识别与测定两种旋光体的同步-导数荧光光谱法.图5表2参9 国家自然科学基金(29875016)资助 O657 01050283 一种新的重原子微扰剂氯代叔丁烷在亚硫酸钠化学除氧环糊精诱导室温磷光法中的应用研究=A Study of t-Butyl Chloride as Heavy Atom Perturber in Chemical Deoxygenation-Cyclodextrin Induced Room Temperature Phosphorimetry[刊, 中]/张淑珍(山西大学),魏雁声…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&678~681 以氯代叔丁烷作重原子微扰剂采用亚硫酸钠化学除氧技术建立了菲、7,8-苯并喹啉、2-溴代萘在环糊精介质中的室温磷光分析法.图4表2参5 国家自然科学基金(29575204)资助 O657 01050284 小牛胸腺脱氧核糖核酸诱导中性红聚集的机理及其影响因素=The Aggregation of Neutral Red Encouraged by Deoxyribonucleic Acids and Its Depending Factors[刊, 中]/黄新华(西南师范大学),李原芳…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&682~686 在pH7.6~7.8和低离子强度条件下,中性红与小牛脱氧核糖核酸(ctDNA)作用产生以535 nm为特征的共振光散射增强(ERLS)光谱.机理研究表明,这种ERLS是由于DNA诱导中性红的聚集所致.图6表1参11 国家自然科学基金(29875019)资助 O657 01050285 蛋白质样品的非竞争性毛细管电泳免疫分析激光诱导荧光检测=Noncompetitive Capillary Electrophoresis Based Immunoassay for Proteins with Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection[刊, 中]/王清刚(清华大学),罗国安…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&687~691 国家自然科学基金重点资助 O657 01050286 亲和毛细管电泳测定孕酮与其单克隆抗体的结合常数=Determination of the Binding Constant between Progesterone and Its Monoclonal Antibody Using Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis[刊, 中]/王清刚(清华大学),王义明…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&731~734 采用亲和毛细管电泳的配体分离模式,以激光诱导荧光作为检测手段,测定了荧光素标记的孕酮与孕酮单克隆抗体之间的结合常数,并研究了温育时间、电泳条件等因素对测定的影响.图3参5 国家自然科学基金重点资助 O657 01050287 钌(Ⅱ)-联吡啶-铈(Ⅳ)-戊二醛化学发光体系及其应用=Chemiluminescence System of Ru(bpy)2+3-Ce(Ⅳ)-Glutaraldehyde and Its Application[刊, 中]/韩鹤友(武汉大学),何治柯…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&738~740 基于在硫酸介质中戊二醛增强铈(Ⅳ)氧化钌(Ⅱ)-联吡啶的化学发光强度.在优化后的条件下,方法的线性范围和检测限分别为2.5×10-6~2.5×10-3 mol/L和3.1×10-7 mol/L戊二醛.图1表1参6 国家自然科学基金(29605001)资助 O657 01050288 毛细管区带电泳法测定甲氧苄胺嘧啶和磺胺甲基异C023唑的离解常数及其在复方新诺明中的含量=Determination of Dissociation Constants of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole and Their concentrations in Co-Trimoxazole Tablets by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis[刊, 中]/李前锋(兰州大学),张红医…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(7).&793~797 国家自然科学基金(29475194和29675007)资助 O657 01050289 联用色谱数据的半自动解析法=Semiautomatic Deconvolution of Hyphenated Chromatographic Data[刊, 中]/甘峰(湖南大学),李晓宁…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(7).&833~836 采用正交投影法获得初始迭代光谱,继采用非负最小二乘法和常规最小二乘法进行交替迭代,最终获得纯光谱和纯色谱向量.图2参15 国家自然科学基金(29875007)资助 O657 01050290 陈皮挥发油的气相色谱/质谱分析=Determination of the Volatile Oil of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry[刊, 中]/龚范(湖南大学),梁逸曾…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(7).&860~864 用GC/MS分析复方制剂平胃散中的一种单味药材陈皮的挥发油化学成分及其相对含量.分离出53个组分,其中鉴定了34个组分,约占其挥发油总量的96.08%.图5表1参7 国家自然科学基金(29875007)资助 657 01050291 人工神经网络法鉴别红外光谱=Artificial Neural Network for the Identification of Infrared Spectra[刊, 中]/李燕(南京理工大学),王俊德…∥光谱学与光谱分析.&2000, 20(4).&477~479 将反向传播人工神经网络用于FTIR,鉴别未知化合物.结果表明,当训练集样本不含噪声时,纯光谱的预测结果很好.而当训练集样本有少量噪声干扰时,预测结果随预测集样本的不同,而得到了不同的改善.图3参6 国家自然科学基金资助 O657 01050292 苯丙氨酸桥联金属双卟啉的诱导圆二色光谱研究=The Study of Induced Circular Dichroism of Phenylalanine Bridged Metal Bis-Porphyrin[刊, 中]/刘海洋(华南理工大学),黄锦汪…∥光谱学与光谱分析.&2000, 20(4).&495~497 报道了邻位和对位桥联苯丙氨酸锌双卟啉的合成,考查了双卟啉的分子结构对诱导圆二色性的影响.结果表明,两个卟啉环之间的π-π堆积和手性激子偶合作用是影响此类双卟啉圆二色光谱的主要因素.图3参16 国家自然科学基金(29771034)资助 O657 01050293 砷和汞的顺序注射-蒸气发生原子吸收光谱测定=Sequential Injection Vapor Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Mercury and Arsenic[刊, 中]/马泓冰(东北大学),徐淑坤…∥光谱学与光谱分析.&2000, 20(4).&529~532 建立了砷和汞的顺序注射-蒸气发生原子吸收光谱测定方法.在流动注射蒸气发生原子吸收光谱测定方法的基础上,采用汇流技术,通过两个微量注射泵和一个多位选择阀的计算机程控操作,实现待测组分与硼氢化钠间的强氧化还原反应及其气-液分离过程.图3表4参4 国家自然科学基金资助 O657 01050294 氢化物的气相富集及其在超痕量分析中的应用=The Gaseous Phase Enrichment Techniques in Hydride Generation (Review)[刊, 中]/郭旭明(厦门大学),黄本立…∥光谱学与光谱分析.&2000, 20(4).&533~536 从富集原理及其在光谱超痕量分析的应用方面分别对这几种氢化物发生后的气相富集技术进行了较详细地综述.这些气相富集方法包括液氮冷却捕集技术、气球收集技术、石墨炉原位捕集技术、吸收液吸收技术及固体吸附技术等.参63 国家自然科学基金资助 O657 01050295 pH诱导牛血清白蛋白芳香氨基酸残基微环境变化的光谱分析=Spectral Study of the Microenviroment Change of Aromatic Amino-Acid Residues in BSA Induced by pH[刊, 中]/魏晓芳(中科院化工冶金所),刘会洲…∥光谱学与光谱分析.&2000, 20(4).&556~559 用荧光光谱和紫外吸收光谱研究了pH=2.3~11.3范围内牛血清白蛋白芳香氨基酸残基微环境的变化,以此推断蛋白质构象的变化,并讨论蛋白质表面疏水性变化的趋势.图4表1参8 国家自然科学基金重点基金资助 O657 01050296 传感器几何结构对近红外组织氧合检测仪灵敏度的影响=The Influence of Probe Geometry on the Sensitivity of Tissue Oximeter Using Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy[刊, 中]/王峰(清华大学),丁海曙…∥光谱学与光谱分析.&2000, 20(4).&585~588 利用蒙特卡罗仿真方法对光在多层生物组织模型中的平均穿透深度、光子平均飞行距离和空间灵敏度分布进行了仿真,结果表明,传感器几何结构,即光源与光检测器之间的距离是影响灵敏度的重要因素,适当增加这一距离有助于深层组织生化信息的提取和测量灵敏度的提高,但是它又受到信噪比降低的限制.图8参3 国家自然科学基金资助 O657 01050297 精密气动液压伺服系统用于傅里叶变换光谱仪光谱测量=Spectral Measuring of Fourier Transform Spectrometer Using Pneumatic Hydraulic Servo System[刊, 中]/李志刚(中科院长春光学精密机械所),王淑荣…∥光谱学与光谱分析.&2000, 20(4).&589~591 讨论了傅里叶变换光谱仪动镜稳定平移的重要性,研制了以高压无氧氮气为动力源的精密气动液压系统用于推进在研傅里叶变换光谱仪"猫眼”动镜系统,并在此基础上测量了ZYGO干涉仪光源光谱图.图4参5 国家自然科学基金资助 O658 01050298 超临界流体色谱法分离手性化合物的进展=Advances in Chiral Separations by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography[刊, 中]/任其龙(浙江大学),苏宝根…∥分析化学.&2000, 28(6).&772~776 国家自然科学基金(29776040)资助 O658 01050299 长江口水体混合过程中溶解态稀土元素分布特征[刊, 中]/王中良(中科院地球化学所),刘丛强∥科学通报.&2000, 45(12).&1322~1326 采用液-液萃取与反萃取分离富集方法和ICP-MS测试技术,对长江河口南支盐度0.15~19 mg/g表层水体中溶解态稀土元素的浓度进行了测定.图2表1参17 国家杰出青年科学基金(49625304)资助 O658 01050300 分子烙印手性固定相分离过程热力学研究=Thermodynamic Study on Separation of Molecular Imprinting Chiral Stationary Phase[刊, 中]/王进防(中科院大连化学物理所),周良模…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(6).&930~933 结果表明,分子烙印手性固定相的分离过程为焓控制过程.随着温度的升高,样品的容量因子降低,手性选择因子α减小.样品与分子烙印固定相的作用力包括非特异作用力和特异作用力,只有特异作用力的差值才是手性分离的本质.表2参22 国家自然科学基金(29575212)资助 O658 01050301 十八烷基醚型高效液相反相色谱填料的制备=Synthesis and Characterization of Ether-Bond RP-Packing[刊, 中]/喻昕(中科院化学所),赵睿…∥高等学校化学学报.&2000, 21(7).&1043~1044 国家自然科学基金(29635010)资助