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Sample records for accurate group difference

  1. Accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We investigate accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector between ν-oscillation and seesaw energy scales. We consider decoupling effects of top quark and Higgs boson on the renormalization group equations of light neutrino mass matrix. Since the decoupling effects are given in the standard model scale and independent of high energy physics, our method can basically apply to any models beyond the standard model. We find that the decoupling effects of Higgs boson are negligible, while those of top quark are not. Particularly, the decoupling effects of top quark affect neutrino mass eigenvalues, which are important for analyzing predictions such as mass squared differences and neutrinoless double beta decay in an underlying theory existing at high energy scale.

  2. Fourth order accurate compact scheme with group velocity control (GVC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For solving complex flow field with multi-scale structure higher order accurate schemes are preferred. Among high order schemes the compact schemes have higher resolving efficiency. When the compact and upwind compact schemes are used to solve aerodynamic problems there are numerical oscillations near the shocks. The reason of oscillation production is because of non-uniform group velocity of wave packets in numerical solutions. For improvement of resolution of the shock a parameter function is introduced in compact scheme to control the group velocity. The newly developed method is simple. It has higher accuracy and less stencil of grid points.

  3. Accurate finite difference methods for time-harmonic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Isaac; Turkel, Eli

    1994-01-01

    Finite difference methods for solving problems of time-harmonic acoustics are developed and analyzed. Multidimensional inhomogeneous problems with variable, possibly discontinuous, coefficients are considered, accounting for the effects of employing nonuniform grids. A weighted-average representation is less sensitive to transition in wave resolution (due to variable wave numbers or nonuniform grids) than the standard pointwise representation. Further enhancement in method performance is obtained by basing the stencils on generalizations of Pade approximation, or generalized definitions of the derivative, reducing spurious dispersion, anisotropy and reflection, and by improving the representation of source terms. The resulting schemes have fourth-order accurate local truncation error on uniform grids and third order in the nonuniform case. Guidelines for discretization pertaining to grid orientation and resolution are presented.

  4. Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2010-10-10

    Interferometers are key elements in radial velocity (RV) experiments in astronomy observations, and accurate calibration of the group delay of an interferometer is required for high precision measurements. A novel field-compensated white light scanning Michelson interferometer is introduced as an interferometer calibration tool. The optical path difference (OPD) scanning was achieved by translating a compensation prism, such that even if the light source were in low spatial coherence, the interference stays spatially phase coherent over a large interferometer scanning range. In the wavelength region of 500-560 nm, a multimode fiber-coupled LED was used as the light source, and high optical efficiency was essential in elevating the signal-to-noise ratio of the interferogram signal. The achromatic OPD scanning required a one-time calibration, and two methods using dual-laser wavelength references and an iodine absorption spectrum reference were employed and cross-verified. In an experiment measuring the group delay of a fixed Michelson interferometer, Fourier analysis was employed to process the interferogram data. The group delay was determined at an accuracy of 1×10(-5), and the phase angle precision was typically 2.5×10(-6) over the wide wavelength region.

  5. Consistent Multigroup Theory Enabling Accurate Course-Group Simulation of Gen IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnema, Farzad; Haghighat, Alireza; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2013-11-29

    The objective of this proposal is the development of a consistent multi-group theory that accurately accounts for the energy-angle coupling associated with collapsed-group cross sections. This will allow for coarse-group transport and diffusion theory calculations that exhibit continuous energy accuracy and implicitly treat cross- section resonances. This is of particular importance when considering the highly heterogeneous and optically thin reactor designs within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) framework. In such reactors, ignoring the influence of anisotropy in the angular flux on the collapsed cross section, especially at the interface between core and reflector near which control rods are located, results in inaccurate estimates of the rod worth, a serious safety concern. The scope of this project will include the development and verification of a new multi-group theory enabling high-fidelity transport and diffusion calculations in coarse groups, as well as a methodology for the implementation of this method in existing codes. This will allow for a higher accuracy solution of reactor problems while using fewer groups and will reduce the computational expense. The proposed research represents a fundamental advancement in the understanding and improvement of multi- group theory for reactor analysis.

  6. Psychological wellness constructs: relationships and group differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Gropp

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI, Locus of Control Inventory (LOC, Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC, and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 200 employees of a financial services company. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups on several of the wellness variables with the manager and White groups obtaining higher scores on these variables than their comparison groups. However, in respect of External Locus of Control, the non-manager and Black groups obtained the higher scores. Factor analytic results demonstrated that the wellness variables clustered in two correlated factors (r = 0,43 labeled psychological wellness and self-actualisation.

  7. Psychological wellness constructs: relationships and group differences

    OpenAIRE

    Liezl Gropp; Dirk Geldenhuys; Deléne Visser

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), Locus of Control Inventory (LOC), Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 20...

  8. Psychological wellness constructs: Relationships and group differences.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationships between several constructs that were hypothesised to be components underlying psychological wellness and to establish whether there were differences between managerial and non-managerial groups or between Black and White groups in respect of the wellness variables. The Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), Locus of Control Inventory (LOC), Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and the Bar-On EQ-I were administered to a random sample of 200...

  9. Construction of Difference Equations Using Lie Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    The theory of prolongations of the generators of groups of point transformations to the grid point values of dependent variables and grid spacings is developed and applied to the construction of group invariant numerical algorithms. The concepts of invariant difference operators and generalized discrete sources are introduced for the discretization of systems of inhomogeneous differential equations and shown to produce exact difference equations. Invariant numerical flux functions are constructed from the general solutions of first order partial differential equations that come out of the evaluation of the Lie derivatives of conservation forms of difference schemes. It is demonstrated that invariant numerical flux functions with invariant flux or slope limiters can be determined to yield high resolution difference schemes. The introduction of an invariant flux or slope limiter can be done so as not to break the symmetry properties of a numerical flux-function.

  10. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  11. Differences in problems of motivation in different special groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E.S.; Steenbeek, H.W.

    1999-01-01

    In general, children with a range of special needs have below-average motivation and perceived control. We have investigated whether differences exist between the types of problem in different special groups. Theory distinguishes between two types: low motivation and perceived control can be based e

  12. Direct Calculation of Permeability by High-Accurate Finite Difference and Numerical Integration Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2016-07-21

    Velocity of fluid flow in underground porous media is 6~12 orders of magnitudes lower than that in pipelines. If numerical errors are not carefully controlled in this kind of simulations, high distortion of the final results may occur [1-4]. To fit the high accuracy demands of fluid flow simulations in porous media, traditional finite difference methods and numerical integration methods are discussed and corresponding high-accurate methods are developed. When applied to the direct calculation of full-tensor permeability for underground flow, the high-accurate finite difference method is confirmed to have numerical error as low as 10-5% while the high-accurate numerical integration method has numerical error around 0%. Thus, the approach combining the high-accurate finite difference and numerical integration methods is a reliable way to efficiently determine the characteristics of general full-tensor permeability such as maximum and minimum permeability components, principal direction and anisotropic ratio. Copyright © Global-Science Press 2016.

  13. Patterns of Ageism in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs John

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines age-based stereotypes in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model in four different age groups: schoolchildren, adolescents, adults and the elderly. Participants were asked to rank graphic portraits of both genders of four age clusters in terms of warmth and competence. The hypothesis that age groups, besides a positive evaluation of their own age cluster, would rate old people in an increasingly negative way as they themselves get older, was not confirmed. On the contrary, young children seem to have the most extreme prejudice against older people. Interestingly, adults and elderly appear to evaluate their own age cluster rather negatively too. Other relations between age groups indicate that ageism does not only affect old people and that it can include positive stereotypes as well. It is also argued, that ageism may have a changing pattern throughout the lifespan.

  14. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Li, Xueping; Chen, Weixin; Chen, Jianye; Lu, Wangjin; Chen, Lei; Fu, Danwen

    2012-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1) and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2) genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2), 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental conditions.

  15. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  16. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  17. Accurate variational electronic structure calculations with the density matrix renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. The underlying matrix product state (MPS) ansatz is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached. Whereas the MPS ansatz will only yield an efficient description for noncritical one-dimensional systems, it can still be used as a variational ansatz for other finite-size systems. Rather large virtual dimensions are then required. The two most important aspects to reduce the corresponding computational cost are a proper choice and ordering of the active space orbitals, and the exploitation of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. By taking care of both aspects, DMRG becomes an efficient replacement for exact diagonalization in quantum chemistry. DMRG and Hartree-Fock theory have an analogous structure. The former can be interpreted a...

  18. Bisulfite-based epityping on pooled genomic DNA provides an accurate estimate of average group DNA methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docherty Sophia J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation plays a vital role in normal cellular function, with aberrant methylation signatures being implicated in a growing number of human pathologies and complex human traits. Methods based on the modification of genomic DNA with sodium bisulfite are considered the 'gold-standard' for DNA methylation profiling on genomic DNA; however, they require relatively large amounts of DNA and may be prohibitively expensive when used on the large sample sizes necessary to detect small effects. We propose that a high-throughput DNA pooling approach will facilitate the use of emerging methylomic profiling techniques in large samples. Results Compared with data generated from 89 individual samples, our analysis of 205 CpG sites spanning nine independent regions of the genome demonstrates that DNA pools can be used to provide an accurate and reliable quantitative estimate of average group DNA methylation. Comparison of data generated from the pooled DNA samples with results averaged across the individual samples comprising each pool revealed highly significant correlations for individual CpG sites across all nine regions, with an average overall correlation across all regions and pools of 0.95 (95% bootstrapped confidence intervals: 0.94 to 0.96. Conclusion In this study we demonstrate the validity of using pooled DNA samples to accurately assess group DNA methylation averages. Such an approach can be readily applied to the assessment of disease phenotypes reducing the time, cost and amount of DNA starting material required for large-scale epigenetic analyses.

  19. Conservative high-order-accurate finite-difference methods for curvilinear grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man M.; Chakrvarthy, Sukumar

    1993-01-01

    Two fourth-order-accurate finite-difference methods for numerically solving hyperbolic systems of conservation equations on smooth curvilinear grids are presented. The first method uses the differential form of the conservation equations; the second method uses the integral form of the conservation equations. Modifications to these schemes, which are required near boundaries to maintain overall high-order accuracy, are discussed. An analysis that demonstrates the stability of the modified schemes is also provided. Modifications to one of the schemes to make it total variation diminishing (TVD) are also discussed. Results that demonstrate the high-order accuracy of both schemes are included in the paper. In particular, a Ringleb-flow computation demonstrates the high-order accuracy and the stability of the boundary and near-boundary procedures. A second computation of supersonic flow over a cylinder demonstrates the shock-capturing capability of the TVD methodology. An important contribution of this paper is the dear demonstration that higher order accuracy leads to increased computational efficiency.

  20. Some Critical Differences between Self-Help and Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Richard J.; Beggs, Marilyn S.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a scheme for addressing differences between self-help groups and therapy groups, characterizing a list of group work parameters according to emphasis placed on each in therapy groups in contrast with self-help groups. Distinguishes between support groups, started by professional helping organizations or individuals, and self-help groups,…

  1. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  2. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  3. How accurate is patients' anatomical knowledge: a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of six patient groups and a general public sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinman John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older studies have shown that patients often do not understand the terms used by doctors and many do not even have a rudimentary understanding of anatomy. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of anatomical knowledge of different patient groups and the general public in order to see whether this has improved over time and whether patients with a specific organ pathology (e.g. liver disease have a relatively better understanding of the location of that organ. Methods Level of anatomical knowledge was assessed on a multiple-choice questionnaire, in a sample of 722 participants, comprising approximately 100 patients in each of 6 different diagnostic groups and 133 in the general population, using a between-groups, cross-sectional design. Comparisons of relative accuracy of anatomical knowledge between the present and earlier results, and across the clinical and general public groups were evaluated using Chi square tests. Associations with age and education were assessed with the Pearson correlation test and one-way analysis of variance, respectively. Results Across groups knowledge of the location of body organs was poor and has not significantly improved since an earlier equivalent study over 30 years ago (χ2 = 0.04, df = 1, ns. Diagnostic groups did not differ in their overall scores but those with liver disease and diabetes were more accurate regarding the location of their respective affected organs (χ2 = 18.10, p 2 = 10.75, p Conclusion Many patients and general public do not know the location of key body organs, even those in which their medical problem is located, which could have important consequences for doctor-patient communication. These results indicate that healthcare professionals still need to take care in providing organ specific information to patients and should not assume that patients have this information, even for those organs in which their medical problem is located.

  4. Within-Group Differences in Sexual Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…

  5. Fourth-order accurate compact-difference discretization method for Helmholtz and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijl, R.; Hoeijmakers, H.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A fourth-order accurate solution method for the three-dimensional Helmholtz equations is described that is based on a compact finite-difference stencil for the Laplace operator. Similar discretization methods for the Poisson equation have been presented by various researchers for Dirichlet boundary

  6. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  7. A new 9-point sixth-order accurate compact finite-difference method for the Helmholtz equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Majid; Siddiqui, M. H. Kamran; Dargahi, Javad

    2007-11-01

    A new 9-point sixth-order accurate compact finite-difference method for solving the Helmholtz equation in one and two dimensions, is developed and analyzed. This scheme is based on sixth-order approximation to the derivative calculated from the Helmholtz equation. A sixth-order accurate symmetrical representation for the Neumann boundary condition was also developed. The efficiency and accuracy of the scheme is validated by its application to two test problems which have exact solutions. Numerical results show that this sixth-order scheme has the expected accuracy and behaves robustly with respect to the wave number.

  8. Accurate finite difference beam propagation method for complex integrated optical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    A simple and effective finite-difference beam propagation method in a z-varying nonuniform mesh is developed. The accuracy and computation time for this method are compared with a standard finite-difference method for both the 3-D and 2-D versions......A simple and effective finite-difference beam propagation method in a z-varying nonuniform mesh is developed. The accuracy and computation time for this method are compared with a standard finite-difference method for both the 3-D and 2-D versions...

  9. AN ACCURATE SOLUTION OF THE POISSON EQUATION BY THE FINITE DIFFERENCE-CHEBYSHEV-TAU METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hani I. Siyyam

    2001-01-01

    A new finite difference-Chebyshev-Tau method for the solution of the twodimensional Poisson equation is presented. Some of the numerical results are also presented which indicate that the method is satisfactory and compatible to other methods.

  10. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2012-08-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in identity enactment processes--self-esteem, belonging, and efficacy--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with flatmates (an interpersonal network group), whereas motives involved in identity definition processes--meaning, self-esteem, and distinctiveness--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with halls of residence (an abstract social category). This article discusses implications for research into identity motives and social identity.

  11. Efficiency of High-Order Accurate Difference Schemes for the Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuta Poochinapan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two numerical models to obtain the solution of the KdV equation are proposed. Numerical tools, compact fourth-order and standard fourth-order finite difference techniques, are applied to the KdV equation. The fundamental conservative properties of the equation are preserved by the finite difference methods. Linear stability analysis of two methods is presented by the Von Neumann analysis. The new methods give second- and fourth-order accuracy in time and space, respectively. The numerical experiments show that the proposed methods improve the accuracy of the solution significantly.

  12. Accurate finite-difference time-domain simulation of anisotropic media by subpixel smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskooi, Ardavan F; Kottke, Chris; Johnson, Steven G

    2009-09-15

    Finite-difference time-domain methods suffer from reduced accuracy when discretizing discontinuous materials. We previously showed that accuracy can be significantly improved by using subpixel smoothing of the isotropic dielectric function, but only if the smoothing scheme is properly designed. Using recent developments in perturbation theory that were applied to spectral methods, we extend this idea to anisotropic media and demonstrate that the generalized smoothing consistently reduces the errors and even attains second-order convergence with resolution.

  13. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  14. Wind effect on PV module temperature: Analysis of different techniques for an accurate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Clemens; Petitta, Marcello; Ernst Wagner, Jochen; Belluardo, Giorgio; Moser, David; Castelli, Mariapina; Zebisch, Marc; Tetzlaff, Anke

    2013-04-01

    In this abstract a study on the influence of wind to model the PV module temperature is presented. This study is carried out in the framework of the PV-Alps INTERREG project in which the potential of different photovoltaic technologies is analysed for alpine regions. The PV module temperature depends on different parameters, such as ambient temperature, irradiance, wind speed and PV technology [1]. In most models, a very simple approach is used, where the PV module temperature is calculated from NOCT (nominal operating cell temperature), ambient temperature and irradiance alone [2]. In this study the influence of wind speed on the PV module temperature was investigated. First, different approaches suggested by various authors were tested [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. For our analysis, temperature, irradiance and wind data from a PV test facility at the airport Bolzano (South Tyrol, Italy) from the EURAC Institute of Renewable Energies were used. The PV module temperature was calculated with different models and compared to the measured PV module temperature at the single panels. The best results were achieved with the approach suggested by Skoplaki et al. [1]. Preliminary results indicate that for all PV technologies which were tested (monocrystalline, amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline silicon and cadmium telluride), modelled and measured PV module temperatures show a higher agreement (RMSE about 3-4 K) compared to standard approaches in which wind is not considered. For further investigation the in-situ measured wind velocities were replaced with wind data from numerical weather forecast models (ECMWF, reanalysis fields). Our results show that the PV module temperature calculated with wind data from ECMWF is still in very good agreement with the measured one (R² > 0.9 for all technologies). Compared to the previous analysis, we find comparable mean values and an increasing standard deviation. These results open a promising approach for PV module

  15. SPARC: Accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory. Part I: Isolated clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swarnava

    2016-01-01

    As the first component of SPARC (Simulation Package for Ab-initio Real-space Calculations), we present an accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for isolated clusters. Specifically, utilizing a local reformulation of the electrostatics, the Chebyshev polynomial filtered self-consistent field iteration, and a reformulation of the non-local component of the force, we develop a framework using the finite-difference representation that enables the efficient evaluation of energies and atomic forces to within chemical accuracies. Through selected examples consisting of a variety of elements, we demonstrate that SPARC obtains exponential convergence in energy and forces with domain size; systematic convergence in the energy and forces with mesh-size to reference plane-wave result at comparably high rates; forces that are consistent with the energy, both free from any noticeable `egg-box' effect; and accurate ground-state properties includin...

  16. SPARC: Accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory. Part II: Periodic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swarnava

    2016-01-01

    As the second component of SPARC (Simulation Package for Ab-initio Real-space Calculations), we present an accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for periodic systems. Specifically, employing a local formulation of the electrostatics, the Chebyshev polynomial filtered self-consistent field iteration, and a reformulation of the non-local force component, we develop a finite-difference framework wherein both the energy and atomic forces can be efficiently calculated to within chemical accuracies. We demonstrate using a wide variety of materials systems that SPARC obtains high convergence rates in energy and forces with respect to spatial discretization to reference plane-wave result; energies and forces that are consistent and display negligible `egg-box' effect; and accurate ground-state properties. We also demonstrate that the weak and strong scaling behavior of SPARC is similar to well-established and optimized plane-wave implementa...

  17. Fast and accurate numerical methods for solving elliptic difference equations defined on lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, A.; Martinsson, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Techniques for rapidly computing approximate solutions to elliptic PDEs such as Laplace's equation are well established. For problems involving general domains, and operators with constant coefficients, a highly efficient approach is to rewrite the boundary value problem as a Boundary Integral Equation (BIE), and then solve the BIE using fast methods such as, e.g., the Fast Multipole Method (FMM). The current paper demonstrates that this procedure can be extended to elliptic difference equations defined on infinite lattices, or on finite lattice with boundary conditions of either Dirichlet or Neumann type. As a representative model problem, a lattice equivalent of Laplace's equation on a square lattice in two dimensions is considered: discrete analogs of BIEs are derived and fast solvers analogous to the FMM are constructed. Fast techniques are also constructed for problems involving lattices with inclusions and local deviations from perfect periodicity. The complexity of the methods described is O( Nboundary + Nsource + Ninc) where Nboundary is the number of nodes on the boundary of the domain, Nsource is the number of nodes subjected to body loads, and Ninc is the number of nodes that deviate from perfect periodicity. This estimate should be compared to the O( Ndomainlog Ndomain) estimate for FFT based methods, where Ndomain is the total number of nodes in the lattice (so that in two dimensions, N˜Ndomain1/2). Several numerical examples are presented.

  18. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    characterisations are more than humoristic elements in TV shows; are there real, measurable personality differences among groups of academics? One way to study this is to look at students in different academic majors and examine whether they differ on the group level in broad personality traits. During the past...... decades, studies have regularly explored associations between enrolment in specific academic majors and scores on the Big Five personality traits; Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The present review examines this research systematically, summarises group...... group differences in the Big Five personality traits were generally found in the included studies. None of the included studies reported effect sizes, though, so the magnitude of the obtained differences was not estimated. Consequently, effect sizes were calculated using means and standard deviations...

  19. Sex Differences in Group Interaction and Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; And Others

    Research on gender differences in group performance suggests that males excel at brainstorming while females excel at human relations and integration. To investigate the relations among gender, interaction style, and task performance, 264 college students (130 female, 134 male) worked in three person same sex groups on a production task which…

  20. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  1. Fourth-order accurate compact-difference discretization method for Helmholtz and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steijl, R.; Hoeijmakers, H. W. M.

    2004-09-01

    A fourth-order accurate solution method for the three-dimensional Helmholtz equations is described that is based on a compact finite-difference stencil for the Laplace operator. Similar discretization methods for the Poisson equation have been presented by various researchers for Dirichlet boundary conditions. Here, the complicated issue of imposing Neumann boundary conditions is described in detail. The method is then applied to model Helmholtz problems to verify the accuracy of the discretization method. The implementation of the solution method is also described. The Helmholtz solver is used as the basis for a fourth-order accurate solver for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results obtained with this Navier-Stokes solver for the temporal evolution of a three-dimensional instability in a counter-rotating vortex pair are discussed. The time-accurate Navier-Stokes simulations show the resolving properties of the developed discretization method and the correct prediction of the initial growth rate of the three-dimensional instability in the vortex pair.

  2. Age-group differences in inhibiting an oculomotor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-11-01

    Age-group differences were examined in the delayed oculomotor response task, which requires that observers delay the execution of a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual cue. This task differs from antisaccade and attentional capture in that inhibition causes saccades to be postponed, not redirected. Older adults executed more premature saccades than young adults, but there were no age-group differences in latency or accuracy of saccades executed at the proper time. The results suggest that older adults are less capable of inhibiting a prepotent saccadic response, but that other aspects of visual working memory related to the task are preserved.

  3. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  4. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  5. Young and Older Emotional Faces: Are there Age-Group Differences in Expression Identification and Memory?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Studies finding that older compared to young adults are less able to identify facial expressions and have worse memory for negative than positive faces have used only young faces. Studies finding that both age groups are more accurate at recognizing faces of their own than other ages have used mostly neutral faces. Thus, age-differences in processing faces may not extend to older faces, and preferential memory for own-age faces may not extend to emotional faces. To investigate these possibili...

  6. Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876

  7. SPARC: Accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory: Isolated clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Swarnava; Suryanarayana, Phanish

    2017-03-01

    As the first component of SPARC (Simulation Package for Ab-initio Real-space Calculations), we present an accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for isolated clusters. Specifically, utilizing a local reformulation of the electrostatics, the Chebyshev polynomial filtered self-consistent field iteration, and a reformulation of the non-local component of the force, we develop a framework using the finite-difference representation that enables the efficient evaluation of energies and atomic forces to within the desired accuracies in DFT. Through selected examples consisting of a variety of elements, we demonstrate that SPARC obtains exponential convergence in energy and forces with domain size; systematic convergence in the energy and forces with mesh-size to reference plane-wave result at comparably high rates; forces that are consistent with the energy, both free from any noticeable 'egg-box' effect; and accurate ground-state properties including equilibrium geometries and vibrational spectra. In addition, for systems consisting up to thousands of electrons, SPARC displays weak and strong parallel scaling behavior that is similar to well-established and optimized plane-wave implementations, but with a significantly reduced prefactor. Overall, SPARC represents an attractive alternative to plane-wave codes for practical DFT simulations of isolated clusters.

  8. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAILWAYS OPERATORS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaeva V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of some individual psychological characteristics of the drivers of rail transport in the age groups 25–34 and 35–45 years. We have identified a number of differences between the two age groups associated with both features individually-psychological sphere, and in the psycho-physiological features. Features of age-related psychological differences can be explained by the age characteristics of the representatives of each group; psycho-physiological features of age differences may reflect developed in the course of a long professional activity features. We have also developed adaptive strategies, consciously or unconsciously selected during the long-running monotonous activities and in small social groups (teams of drivers allow, on the one hand, higher quality performance of their professional duties, on the other — to avoid the harmful effects of stressful situations at work. It can be assumed that the composition of drivers age group 35– 45 years is the result of natural selection, when those who did not cope with this type of activity is simply dismissed or transferred to other kinds of professions

  9. Epistemic Impact on Group Problem Solving for Different Science Majors

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of cognitive apprenticeship in an introductory physics lab group problem solving exercise may be mitigated by epistemic views toward physics of non-physics science majors. Quantitative pre-post data of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS) of 39 students of a first-semester algebra-based introductory physics course, while describing typical results for a traditional-format course overall (g = +0.14), suggest differences in epistemic views between health science majors and life science majors which may correlate with differences in pre-post conceptual understanding. Audiovisual data of student lab groups working on a context-rich problem and students' written reflections described each group's typical dynamics and invoked epistemic games. We examined the effects of framework-based orientation (favored by biology majors) and performance-based orientation (favored by computer science, chemistry, and health science majors) on pre-post attitud...

  10. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  11. SU-E-T-273: Do Task Group External Beam QA Recommendations Guarantee Accurate Treatment Plan Dose Delivery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, A; Liao, Y; Redler, G; Zhen, H [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM task groups 40/142 have provided an invaluable set of goals for physicists designing QA programs, attempting to standardize what would otherwise likely be a highly variable phenomenon across institutions. However, with the complexity of modalities such as VMAT, we hypothesize that following these guidelines to the letter might still allow unacceptable dose discrepancies. To explore this hypothesis we simulated machines bordering on QA acceptability, and calculated the effect on patient plans. Methods: Two errant machines were simulated in Aria/Eclipse, each just within task group criteria for output, percent depth dose, beam profile, gantry and collimator rotations, and jaw and MLC positions. One machine minimized dose to the PTV (machine A) and the other maximized dose to the OARs (machine B). Clinical treatment plans (3-phase prostate, n=3; hypofractionated lung, n=1) were calculated on these machines and the dose distributions compared. A prostate case was examined for contribution of error sources and evaluated using delivery QA data. Results: The prostate plans showed mean decreases in target D95 of 9.9% of prescription dose on machine A. On machine B, The rectal and bladder V70Gy each increased by 7.1 percentage points, while their V45Gy increased by 16.2% and 15.0% respectively. In the lung plan, the target D95 decreased by 12.8% and the bronchial tree Dmax increased by 21% of prescription dose, on machines A and B. One prostate plan showed target dose errors of 3.8% from MLC changes, 2% from output, ∼3% from energy and ∼0.5% from other factors. This plan achieved an 88.4% gamma passing rate using 3%/3mm using ArcCHECK. Conclusion: In the unlikely event that a machine exhibits all maximum errors allowed by TG 40/142, unacceptably large changes in dose delivered are possible especially in highly modulated VMAT plans, despite the machine passing routine QA.

  12. Diagnostic group differences in temporomandibular joint energy densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, LM; Iwasaki, LR; Gonzalez, YM; Liu, H; Marx, DB; Nickel, JC

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cartilage fatigue, due to mechanical work, may account for precocious development of degenerative joint disease in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This study compared energy densities (mJ/mm3) in TMJs of three diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population Sixty-eight subjects (44 women, 24 men) gave informed consent. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) and imaging were used to group subjects according to presence of jaw muscle or joint pain (+P) and bilateral disc displacement (+DD). Material and Methods Subjects (+P+DD, n=16; −P+DD, n=16; and −P−DD, n=36) provided cone-beam computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, and jaw tracking data. Numerical modeling was used to determine TMJ loads (Fnormal). Dynamic stereometry was used to characterize individual-specific data of stress-field dynamics during 10 symmetrical jaw closing cycles. These data were used to estimate tractional forces (Ftraction). Energy densities were then calculated as W/Q(W=workdoneormechanicalenergyinput=tractionalforce×distanceofstress-fieldtranslation,Q=volumeofcartilage). ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc analyses tested for intergroup differences. Results Mean ±standard error energy density for the +P+DD group was 12.7±1.5 mJ/mm3 and significantly greater (all adjusted p<0.04) when compared to −P+DD (7.4±1.4 mJ/mm3) and −P−DD (5.8±0.9 mJ/mm3) groups. Energy densities in −P+DD and −P−DD groups were not significantly different. Conclusion Diagnostic group differences in energy densities suggest that mechanical work may be a unique mechanism which contributes to cartilage fatigue in subjects with pain and disc displacement. PMID:25865545

  13. Properties of graphene inks stabilized by different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Di; Li Hongwei; Bower, Chris; Andrew, Piers; Ryhaenen, Tapani [Nokia Research Centre, Broers Building, 21 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Han Dongxue; Zhang Qixian; Niu Li; Yang Huafeng, E-mail: di.wei@nokia.com, E-mail: lniu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun City 130022, Jilin Province (China)

    2011-06-17

    Different graphene inks have been synthesized by chemical methods. These uniform dispersions were stabilized by various functional groups such as room temperature ionic liquid, polyaniline, polyelectrolyte (poly[2,5-bis(3-sulfonatopropoxy)-1,4-ethynylphenylene-alt-1, 4-ethynylphenylene] sodium salt) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The dispersions can be easily cast into high-quality, free-standing films but with very different physiochemical properties such as surface tension and adhesion. SEM and AFM methods have been applied to have a detailed study of the properties of the inks. It is found that graphenes modified by p-type polyaniline show the highest surface tension. Diverse surface adhesive properties to the substrate are also found with various functional groups. The different viscoelasticities of graphene inks were related to the microscopic structure of their coating layer and subsequently related to the configuration, chemistry and molecular dimensions of the modifying molecules to establish the property-structure relationship. Modifications of graphene inks made from chemical reduction cannot only enable cost-effective processing for printable electronics but also extend the applications into, for example, self-assembly of graphene via bottom-up nano-architecture and surface energy engineering of the graphenes. To fabricate useful devices, understanding the surface properties of graphene inks is very important. It is the first paper of this kind to study the surface tension and adhesion of graphene influenced by different functional groups.

  14. Microscopic study of human spleen in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizamma Alex

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microscopic structure of spleen is variable depending on the developmental stage of the organ, and the age and immune status of the individual. The aim of the investigation was to study the microscopic structure of human spleen in different age groups, starting from a six month old foetus up to the eighth decade of life. Methods: Seventy formalin fixed human spleens obtained postmortem, were included in the study. They were classified into different age groups, in both sexes, for a detailed study of the microscopic details. Results: The white pulp of spleen showed peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS and lymphatic follicles. The corona or mantle zone and the germinal centre were discernible in many of the Malpighian bodies. The marginal zone separating the red pulp from the white pulp also could be clearly demarcated. The marginal sinus and peri-follicular zone could be seen in some sections only. The capsule thickness, trabecular network, cellularity of white pulp and red pulp, the connective tissue framework seen in the red pulp etc., showed variations in the different age groups. Conclusion: The microscopic structure of spleen varies in different age groups, with the PALS and the white pulp showing scanty cellularity in the six month foetus, and almost uniform cellularity in all areas of spleen at full term. Thereafter the follicles showed increase in its cellularity up to the third decade, and then seemed becoming progressively atrophic. Further studies are required on age related changes in the cellular architecture of this organ correlating with its functions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1701-1706

  15. Accurate calculation of conformational free energy differences in explicit water: the confinement-solvation free energy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Jeremy; Cecchini, Marco

    2015-04-23

    The calculation of the free energy of conformation is key to understanding the function of biomolecules and has attracted significant interest in recent years. Here, we present an improvement of the confinement method that was designed for use in the context of explicit solvent MD simulations. The development involves an additional step in which the solvation free energy of the harmonically restrained conformers is accurately determined by multistage free energy perturbation simulations. As a test-case application, the newly introduced confinement/solvation free energy (CSF) approach was used to compute differences in free energy between conformers of the alanine dipeptide in explicit water. The results are in excellent agreement with reference calculations based on both converged molecular dynamics and umbrella sampling. To illustrate the general applicability of the method, conformational equilibria of met-enkephalin (5 aa) and deca-alanine (10 aa) in solution were also analyzed. In both cases, smoothly converged free-energy results were obtained in agreement with equilibrium sampling or literature calculations. These results demonstrate that the CSF method may provide conformational free-energy differences of biomolecules with small statistical errors (below 0.5 kcal/mol) and at a moderate computational cost even with a full representation of the solvent.

  16. Accurately computing the optical pathlength difference for a michelson interferometer with minimal knowledge of the source spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Mark H

    2005-12-01

    Astrometric measurements using stellar interferometry rely on precise measurement of the central white light fringe to accurately obtain the optical pathlength difference of incoming starlight to the two arms of the interferometer. One standard approach to stellar interferometry uses a channeled spectrum to determine phases at a number of different wavelengths that are then converted to the pathlength delay. When throughput is low these channels are broadened to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Ultimately the ability to use monochromatic models and algorithms in each of the channels to extract phase becomes problematic and knowledge of the spectrum must be incorporated to achieve the accuracies required of the astrometric measurements. To accomplish this an optimization problem is posed to estimate simultaneously the pathlength delay and spectrum of the source. Moreover, the nature of the parameterization of the spectrum that is introduced circumvents the need to solve directly for these parameters so that the optimization problem reduces to a scalar problem in just the pathlength delay variable. A number of examples are given to show the robustness of the approach.

  17. Bone Mineral Density Evaluation in Four Different Occupational Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Turgut Yıldızgören

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD and to discuss the potential risk factors for osteoporosis in four different occupational groups. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 males who were admitted to our clinics for their periodic occupational controls and 40 healthy subjects were included. Demographic features of the participants were recorded. BMD was evaluated by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA from lumbar vertebrae and proximal femur. Results: Participants were mainly from the following four occupational groups; accumulator manufacturers (n=30, 21.4%, painting workers (n=30, 21.4%, welders (n=15, 10.7%, and quartz miners (n=25, 17.9% sectors. In addition, there were 40 healthy subjects (28.6%. Compared with the control group, femoral neck T-scores (p=0.023 and Z-scores (p=0.031 were significantly lower in miners. L2-L4 BMD values were significantly lower in accumulator manufacturers (p=0.041 and quartz miners (p=0.022 as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Workers in the accumulator and mining sectors had lower BMD than control subjects. Clinicians should keep in mind occupational risk factors related with chemical exposure for osteoporosis while questioning osteoporosis risk factors. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 19-22

  18. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes. METHODS: Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001. CONCLUSION: The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  19. Different Polycomb group complexes regulate common target genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, Grigory; Leroy, Olivier; Akinci, Umut; Schubert, Daniel; Clarenz, Oliver; Goodrich, Justin; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Köhler, Claudia

    2006-09-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins convey epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. Although the mechanism of the action of PcG is not completely understood, methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) is important in establishing PcG-mediated transcriptional repression. We show that the plant PcG target gene PHERES1 is regulated by histone trimethylation on H3K27 residues mediated by at least two different PcG complexes in plants, containing the SET domain proteins MEDEA or CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. Furthermore, we identify FUSCA3 as a potential PcG target gene and show that FUSCA3 is regulated by MEDEA and CURLY LEAF/SWINGER. We propose that different PcG complexes regulate a common set of target genes during the different stages of plant development.

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Challenges for different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Lili; Wong, Vincent W

    2015-07-25

    Ethnicity is defined as "belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition". Membership of certain ethnic groups has long been associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies that examined ethnic differences amongst women with GDM were often conducted in western countries where women from various ethnic backgrounds were represented. The prevalence of GDM appears to be particularly high among women from South Asia and South East Asia, compared to Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic communities. For some, but not all ethnic groups, the body mass index is a risk factor for the development of GDM. Even within a particular ethnic group, those who were born in their native countries have a different risk profile for GDM compared to those born in western countries. In terms of treatment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays a key role in the management of GDM and the prescription of MNT should be culturally sensitive. Limited studies have shown that women who live in an English-speaking country but predominantly speak a language other than English, have lower rates of dietary understanding compared with their English speaking counterparts, and this may affect compliance to therapy. Insulin therapy also plays an important role and there appears to be variation as to the progression of women who progress to requiring insulin among different ethnicities. As for peri-natal outcomes, women from Pacific Islander countries have higher rates of macrosomia, while women from Chinese backgrounds had lower adverse pregnancy outcomes. From a maternal outcome point of view, pregnant women from Asia with GDM have a higher incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance test results post-partum and hence a higher risk of future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, women from Hispanic or African-American backgrounds with GDM are more likely to develop hypertension post-partum. This review highlights the fact

  1. Prevalence of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum disliking among different ethnocultural groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauer Lilli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilantro, the leaf of the Coriandrum sativum plant, is an herb that is widely consumed globally and has purported health benefits ranging from antibacterial to anticancer activities. Some individuals report an extreme dislike for cilantro, and this may explain the different cilantro consumption habits between populations. However, the prevalence of cilantro dislike has not previously been reported in any population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cilantro dislike among different ethnocultural groups from a population of young adults living in Canada. Subjects (n = 1,639 between the ages of 20 and 29 years were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Individuals rated their preference for cilantro on a 9-point scale from ‘dislike extremely’ to ‘like extremely’. Subjects also had the option to select ‘have not tried’ or ‘would not try’. Subjects who selected 1 to 4 were classified as disliking cilantro. Results The prevalence of dislike ranged from 3 to 21%. The proportion of subjects classified as disliking cilantro was 21% for East Asians, 17% for Caucasians, 14% for those of African descent, 7% for South Asians, 4% for Hispanics, and 3% for Middle Eastern subjects. Conclusions These findings show that the prevalence of cilantro dislike differs widely between various ethnocultural groups.

  2. Comparison between different reactions of group IV hydride with H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Shaolong; ZHANG; Xuqiang; ZHANG; Qinggang; ZHANG; Yici

    2006-01-01

    The four-dimensional time-dependent quantum dynamics calculations for reactions of group IV hydride with H are carried out by employing the semirigid vibrating rotor target model and the time-dependent wave packet method. The reaction possibility, cross section and rate constants for reactions (H+SiH4 and H+GeH4) in different initial vibrational and rotational states are obtained. The common feature for such kind of reaction process is summarized. The theoretical result is consistent with available measurement, which indicates the credibility of this theory and the potential energy surface.

  3. Language-group Differences in Very Early Retirement in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study very early retirement as an indicator for poor health, with focus on a comparison between the two language groups in Finland. Extensive longitudinal data are analysed with the help of random effects probit models. As expected from previous studies of mortality differences, the rate of retirement is lower among Swedish-speakers than among Finnish-speakers, and this cannot be attributed to socio-demographic and regional factors. Swedish-speaking males have a risk of very early retirement that is about 25 per cent lower than that of Finnish-speaking males. Among females the corresponding difference is about 15 per cent. Our results also suggest that not accounting for unobserved individual heterogeneity will bias the effect of native language downwards.

  4. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    in the participating centres in the PCNL Global Study, as categorised in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study was conducted from November 2007 to December 2009, and included 96 centres and >5800 patients. •  All children aged ≤14 years...... was preferred in 22 patients (20.5%). The overall mean operative duration was 97.02 min; blood transfusion rate, fever and stone-free rates were 9%, 14% and 70.1%, respectively. •  A comparison of the paediatric PCNL cases according to age groups showed no statistically significant differences between...... the subgroups for patient characteristics, co-morbidities, renal anomalies, or previous surgical history. •  In the evaluation of the operative details, the mean sheath size and nephrostomy tube size were larger in school-age children than the preschool children (P= 0.01 and 0.002, respectively...

  5. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  6. Energetic differences between bacterioplankton trophic groups and coral reef resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDole Somera, Tracey; Bailey, Barbara; Barott, Katie; Grasis, Juris; Hatay, Mark; Hilton, Brett J; Hisakawa, Nao; Nosrat, Bahador; Nulton, James; Silveira, Cynthia B; Sullivan, Chris; Brainard, Russell E; Rohwer, Forest

    2016-04-27

    Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse marine ecosystems on the Earth. They are also particularly sensitive to changing energetic requirements by different trophic levels. Microbialization specifically refers to the increase in the energetic metabolic demands of microbes relative to macrobes and is significantly correlated with increasing human influence on coral reefs. In this study, metabolic theory of ecology is used to quantify the relative contributions of two broad bacterioplankton groups, autotrophs and heterotrophs, to energy flux on 27 Pacific coral reef ecosystems experiencing human impact to varying degrees. The effective activation energy required for photosynthesis is lower than the average energy of activation for the biochemical reactions of the Krebs cycle, and changes in the proportional abundance of these two groups can greatly affect rates of energy and materials cycling. We show that reef-water communities with a higher proportional abundance of microbial autotrophs expend more metabolic energy per gram of microbial biomass. Increased energy and materials flux through fast energy channels (i.e. water-column associated microbial autotrophs) may dampen the detrimental effects of increased heterotrophic loads (e.g. coral disease) on coral reef systems experiencing anthropogenic disturbance.

  7. Understanding of Adultery in Families Belonging to Different Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmadeeva E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a pilot study aimed at identifying and analyzing understanding of adultery in ethnically homogeneous families who are representatives of the Bashkir, Russian and Tatar of ethnic groups are presented. Within the framework of the psychological approach, family is regarded as the space of joint life activity, within which the specific needs of the people connected by ties of blood are satisfied. To achieve this goal, E. V. Akhmadeeva designed the inventory “My attitude to adultery”, in which respondents were asked to give the definition of adultery and to mention the reasons, based on which adultery may occur. Also, a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS was used, allowing determining the spouses’ dominant values of a series of terminal and instrumental values. Marital satisfaction was detected with use of the marriage satisfaction questionnaire by V. V. Stolin, G. P. Butenko, T. L. Romanova. On the base of respondents’ answers in the questionnaire in order to define the level of satisfaction by marriage there have been distinguished three categories of people who consider their marriage to be successful, less successful and unsuccessful. Gender and age differences in understanding the adultery have been revealed. Having analyzed the works of outstanding psychologists there have been found out the psychological sense and meaning of “ethnic group”, “ethnic culture”, “sexual culture”, “adultery”. Identified dominant values of the spouses. The reasons of adultery commitment and non-commitment as respondents understand it have been found. As can be seen from this study, none ethnic group encourages adultery. However, the possibility of committing adultery is allowed, and there are differences in explaining the reasons for committing this action.

  8. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  9. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  10. Gender Similarities and Differences in Preadolescent Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Shi, Bing

    2009-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Mapping procedure was used to identify peer social groups in 26 fifth-grade classrooms from six elementary schools in a northeastern urban school district. Four group structural features were examined: size, the number of subcliques, cohesion, and salience hierarchy. Ethnic diversity index was calculated for each group. An…

  11. Entrepreneurial networking differences: An ethnic in-group and out-group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Researching entrepreneurship using a network perspective is important, as social networks are assets for small business owners struggling to survive in competitive markets.Research purpose: The research question of this study has focused on what we can learn about entrepreneurial networking, considering that there is an under-explored and unarticulated set of networking principles and practices which have not been previously analysed in terms of a multiethnic country context.Motivation for the study: Often the lack of network use is reported as a feature of entrepreneurs, who have less opportunity to utilise formal social capital features. Social networks provided by extended family, community-based or organisational relationships are often theorised to supplement the effects of education, experience and financial capital.Research design, approach and method: Based on hypothesised differences in networking ties, network assistance and support relationships, a survey was used to collect data on quantitative measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the hypotheses.Main findings: Results indicate that entrepreneurial networking is largely independent on group composition. Generally at least some aspects of networking are generic and as a consequence, a more integrated view of networking can be adopted.Practical/managerial implications: The practical value of the present study points to several areas of interest to entrepreneurs, policy makers and educators, through demonstrating the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurial networks for different groups and their explanatory potential in understanding networking.Contribution/value-add: Despite the importance of entrepreneurial networking, little empirical or theoretical research has examined the dynamics of networking in a developing country context such as South Africa, which has lower than expected total entrepreneurship activity.

  12. Different Agendas? The Views of Different Occupational Groups on Special Needs Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, G.; Nilholm, C.; Almqvist, L.; Wetso, G. -M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate how different occupational groups explain why children have problems in school, how they believe schools should help these children and the role they believe that special educational needs coordinators (SENCOs) should have in such work. A questionnaire was distributed to all teaching and support…

  13. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batan Alith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years. Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012; "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001; "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008. In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups, whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups. Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  14. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  15. [Lactase polymorphism in representatives of different ethnic-territorial groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A I; Sheremet'eva, V A; Kondik, V M

    1992-01-01

    Lactase polymorphism was studied in the native population of West Siberia and also in Buryatia. LAC*R frequency observed is-Khants- 0.8367, Mansi - 0.8660, Nenets - 0.8944, Buryats - 0.6883. The data obtained are considered to be the result of natural selection under traditional historical economical-cultural environment of the ethnic groups in question.

  16. Food risk perceptions by different consumer groups in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Thiele, Silke; Hansen, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the changing food risk perceptions of German consumers over the period 1992 to 2002. We analyse the respondents' general risk attitudes and their specific perceptions of food risks. Using cluster analysis we generate a typology of four consumer types. One group is worried about natural food risks, the second does not worry about any types of food risks, the third is concerned about technical food risks and the fourth is concerned about all food risks. A mult...

  17. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  18. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  19. ACCURATE DETECTION OF HIGH-SPEED MULTI-TARGET VIDEO SEQUENCES MOTION REGIONS BASED ON RECONSTRUCTED BACKGROUND DIFFERENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wentao; Li Xiaofeng; Li Zaiming

    2001-01-01

    The paper first discusses shortcomings of classical adjacent-frame difference. Sec ondly, based on the image energy and high order statistic(HOS) theory, background reconstruction constraints are setup. Under the help of block-processing technology, background is reconstructed quickly. Finally, background difference is used to detect motion regions instead of adjacent frame difference. The DSP based platform tests indicate the background can be recovered losslessly in about one second, and moving regions are not influenced by moving target speeds. The algorithm has important usage both in theory and applications.

  20. Job Attitudes among Different Occupational Status Groups. An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Simcha; Sadan, Simcha

    1984-01-01

    An economic model is applied to employee attitudinal variables to compare the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic factors to job satisfaction for skilled workers and managers in an electronics manufacturing organization. Intrinsic rewards are found to increase in importance as employment level increases, suggesting different frames of…

  1. Accurate, inaccurate, or biased teacher expectations : Do Dutch teachers differ in their expectations at the end of primary education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background. In several tracked educational systems, realizing optimal placements in classes in the first year of secondary education depends on the accuracy of teacher expectations. Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate between-teacher differences in their expectations regarding the academi

  2. Accurate, Inaccurate, or Biased Teacher Expectations: Do Dutch Teachers Differ in Their Expectations at the End of Primary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Kuyper, Hans; Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: In several tracked educational systems, realizing optimal placements in classes in the first year of secondary education depends on the accuracy of teacher expectations. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate between-teacher differences in their expectations regarding the academic aptitude of their students. Sample: The sample…

  3. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history.

  4. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  5. Accurate convergent finite difference approximations for viscosity solutions of the elliptic Monge-Amp\\`ere partial differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Froese, Brittany D

    2012-01-01

    The theory of viscosity solutions has been effective for representing and approximating weak solutions to fully nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) such as the elliptic Monge-Amp\\`ere equation. The approximation theory of Barles-Souganidis [Barles and Souganidis, Asymptotic Anal., 4 (1999) 271-283] requires that numerical schemes be monotone (or elliptic in the sense of [Oberman, SIAM J. Numer. Anal, 44 (2006) 879-895]. But such schemes have limited accuracy. In this article, we establish a convergence result for nearly monotone schemes. This allows us to construct finite difference discretizations of arbitrarily high-order. We demonstrate that the higher accuracy is achieved when solutions are sufficiently smooth. In addition, the filtered scheme provides a natural detection principle for singularities. We employ this framework to construct a formally second-order scheme for the Monge-Amp\\`ere equation and present computational results on smooth and singular solutions.

  6. Diversification strategies in family and non-family groups: main differences according non-family group type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández Trasobares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the interest for the study of ownership structure as a determinant of diversification arises. However, there is a lack of researches that analyze the influence of the nature of the ultimate owner in the level and type of diversification. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the diversification strategies used by the main Spanish business groups whose parent company is listed on the stock markets, and to study the differences between family and non-family business groups, considering in these last, the type of ultimate owner. In the study a sample of ninety-nine listed companies is used, where companies that constitute the business group are identified. In the paper are used as econometric methodologies the binomial logistic models and panel data models. The results show that family nature of business group positively influences in specialization and related diversification and negatively on unrelated diversification. Family groups differ most form those non-family groups where there is not a reference shareholder than can exercise effective control and ownership dispersion is higher, the groups referred as “non effective control”. The research allows further analysis of differences between family and non-family groups, considering the nature of the ultimate owner for non-family groups.

  7. A reliable and accurate portable device for rapid quantitative estimation of iodine content in different types of edible salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous monitoring of salt iodization to ensure the success of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI program can be significantly strengthened by the use of a simple, safe, and rapid method of salt iodine estimation. This study assessed the validity of a new portable device, iCheck Iodine developed by the BioAnalyt GmbH to estimate the iodine content in salt. Materials and Methods: Validation of the device was conducted in the laboratory of the South Asia regional office of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD. The validity of the device was assessed using device specific indicators, comparison of iCheck Iodine device with the iodometric titration, and comparison between iodine estimation using 1 g and 10 g salt by iCheck Iodine using 116 salt samples procured from various small-, medium-, and large-scale salt processors across India. Results: The intra- and interassay imprecision for 10 parts per million (ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm concentrations of iodized salt were 2.8%, 6.1%, and 3.1%, and 2.4%, 2.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Interoperator imprecision was 6.2%, 6.3%, and 4.6% for the salt with iodine concentrations of 10 ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm respectively. The correlation coefficient between measurements by the two methods was 0.934 and the correlation coefficient between measurements using 1 g of iodized salt and 10 g of iodized salt by the iCheck Iodine device was 0.983. Conclusions: The iCheck Iodine device is reliable and provides a valid method for the quantitative estimation of the iodine content of iodized salt fortified with potassium iodate in the field setting and in different types of salt.

  8. Relationship between Duffy blood groups genotypes and malaria infection in different ethnic groups of Choco- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, Lina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy- confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. In this direction, studies carried out in Colombia are scarce.Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities in La Italia (Chocó and malaria infection.Methodology: a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria subjects. Sample size : AfroAmerican, 73; Amerindian (Emberá, 74 and Mestizo, 171. Presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene by PCR and RFLP in order to identify the substitutions T-46C y A131G which origin the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C y G/G, G/A, A/A.Results: Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated to ethnicity (p=0,003. Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotype were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas other diplotypes were infected with either species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0,90-1,00, among Afrocolombians this was 0,50, equal to the C allele and with absence of heterozygous At locus 131, the highest frequency of the G allele was 0,30 in Amerindians and the A allele was 0,69 in Afrocolombians. Conclusions: In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+ was observed, but P. vivax was not the most common. Infection by P. vivax was out ruled in all FY- individuals.

  9. Young and older emotional faces: are there age group differences in expression identification and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Johnson, Marcia K

    2009-06-01

    Studies have found that older compared with young adults are less able to identify facial expressions and have worse memory for negative than for positive faces, but those studies have used only young faces. Studies finding that both age groups are more accurate at recognizing faces of their own than other ages have used mostly neutral faces. Thus, age differences in processing faces may not extend to older faces, and preferential memory for own age faces may not extend to emotional faces. To investigate these possibilities, young and older participants viewed young and older faces presented either with happy, angry, or neutral expressions; participants identified the expressions displayed and then completed a surprise face recognition task. Older compared with young participants were less able to identify expressions of angry young and older faces and (based on participants' categorizations) remembered angry faces less well than happy faces. There was no evidence of an own age bias in memory, but self-reported frequency of contact with young and older adults and awareness of own emotions played a role in expression identification of and memory for young and older faces.

  10. Classification and Identification of Plant Fibrous Material with Different Species Using near Infrared Technique—A New Way to Approach Determining Biomass Properties Accurately within Different Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Chengfeng; Han, Guangting; Via, Brian; Swain, Tammy; Fan, Zhaofei; Liu, Shaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Plant fibrous material is a good resource in textile and other industries. Normally, several kinds of plant fibrous materials used in one process are needed to be identified and characterized in advance. It is easy to identify them when they are in raw condition. However, most of the materials are semi products which are ground, rotted or pre-hydrolyzed. To classify these samples which include different species with high accuracy is a big challenge. In this research, both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were chosen to classify six different species of samples, including softwood, hardwood, bast, and aquatic plant. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used. The algorithm to classify different species of samples using PLS was created independently in this research. Results found that the six species can be successfully classified using SIMCA and PLS methods, and these two methods show similar results. The identification rates of kenaf, ramie and pine are 100%, and the identification rates of lotus, eucalyptus and tallow are higher than 94%. It is also found that spectra loadings can help pick up best wavenumber ranges for constructing the NIR model. Inter material distance can show how close between two species. Scores graph is helpful to choose the principal components numbers during the model construction. PMID:28105037

  11. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  12. On the properties of compact groups identified in different photometric bands

    CERN Document Server

    Taverna, Antonela; Zandivarez, Ariel; Joray, Francisco; Kanagusuku, Maria Jose

    2016-01-01

    Historically, compact group catalogues vary not only in their identification algorithms and selection functions, but also in their photometric bands. Differences between compact group catalogues have been reported. However, it is difficult to assess the impact of the photometric band in these differences given the variety of identification algorithms. We used the mock lightcone built by Henriques et al. (2012) to identify and compare compact groups in three different photometric bands: $K$, $r$, and $u$. We applied the same selection functions in the three bands, and found that compact groups in the u-band look the smallest in projection, the difference between the two brightest galaxies is the largest in the K-band, while compact groups in the r-band present the lowest compactness. We also investigated the differences between samples when galaxies are selected only in one particular band (pure compact groups) and those that exist regardless the band in which galaxies were observed (common compact groups). We...

  13. Evaluating EIV, OLS, and SEM Estimators of Group Slope Differences in the Presence of Measurement Error: The Single-Indicator Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Steven Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Measurement error significantly biases interaction effects and distorts researchers' inferences regarding interactive hypotheses. This article focuses on the single-indicator case and shows how to accurately estimate group slope differences by disattenuating interaction effects with errors-in-variables (EIV) regression. New analytic findings were…

  14. A rapid, accurate and robust particle-based assay for the simultaneous screening of plasma samples for the presence of five different anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Larsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish and validate a rapid, cost-effective and accurate screening assay for the simultaneous testing of human naturally occurring anti-cytokine autoantibodies (c-aAb) targeting interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), granulocyte-macrophage colony...... plasma samples and pooled normal immunoglobulin preparations were used to validate the assay. Plasma samples from 98 transfusion recipients, half of whom presented with febrile reactions, were tested by the assay. RESULTS: The assay detected specific and saturable immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding to each...... cytokine autoantibodies quantities in the negative plasma samples ranged between 80% and 125%. The analytical intra- and inter-assay variations were 4% and 11%, respectively. Varying c-aAb levels were detectable in the transfusion recipients. There was no difference in c-aAb frequency between the patients...

  15. Efficient and Accurate Calculation of Burnup Problems with Short-Lived Nuclides by a Krylov Subspace Method with the Newton Divided Difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Nowadays lattice physics codes tend to utilize a detailed burnup chain including short-lived nuclides in order to perform more accurate burnup calculations. But, since production codes, for example, ORIGEN2, take account of nuclides which have relatively long half-life, it is inappropriate for such detailed burnup chain calculation. To enhance that drawback, many matrix exponential calculation methods have been developed. Recently, a Krylov subspace method with the PADE approximation was used. In this paper, a Krylov subspace method based on spectral decomposition property of the matrix function theory with the Newton divided difference (NDD) is introduced. It is tested with a sample problem and compared with simple Taylor expansion method

  16. Effect of Different Types of Small-Group Activities on Students' Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Krista K.; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Teaching reform efforts in chemistry education often involve engaging students in small-group activities of different types. This study focused on the analysis of how activity type affected the nature of group conversations. In particular, we analyzed the small-group conversations of students enrolled in a chemistry course for nonscience majors.…

  17. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  18. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Jun [Testing and Analysis Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  19. A study on biochemical differences among five different groups of rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zibaee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biodiversity in different rice striped stem borer (Chilo supprressalis populations is very important to adopt suitable integrated pest management procedures. Larvae were collected from five different regions in north of Iran including Gourabzarmikh (Go, Sheikhmahaleh (Sh, Rasht (Ra, Amol (Am and Babol (Ba. Activity levels of five enzymes including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase were evaluated in 4th instar larvae. In addition, five non-enzymatic compounds such as glucose, cholesterol, total protein, uric acid and urea were also measured. Amount of measured compounds showed significant differences in all groups except for alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering under UPGMA model demonstrated that Ba population had the most genetic distance and was separated from other groups. In the second group, Go population had the most genetic distance from others and two groups of Ra and Sh had the least genetic distances.

  20. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  1. Gender and Ethnic Group Differences on the GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; McHale, Frederick

    Gender and ethnic group differences on the Analytical Writing Assessment that is part of the Graduate Management Admissions Test were evaluated. Data from the first operational administration for 36,583 examinees in October 1994 were used. Standardized differences from the White male reference group were computed separately for men and women in…

  2. Research the image of Samara city by students of the different professional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Lubov Davydkina

    2012-01-01

    The article presents results of the research of psychological areas in structure of an image of city of different professional groups: reveals value of psychological zoning of city space during structuring of an image of city. The author partitions and describes psychological areas and criteria of zoning of a group image of Samara city; compares psychological areas of different professional groups, describes the structure of psychological area, reveals the concept of a psy...

  3. Can dietary factors explain differences in serum cholesterol profiles among different ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Li, T.; Tan, W.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Suok Chai Chew,; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Singapore. there exists differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease among the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This study aimed to investigate if differences in dietary intakes of fat, types of fat, cholesterol, fruits, vegetables and grain foods could explain the

  4. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  5. The influence of climatic seasonality on the diversity of different tropical pollinator groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Abrahamczyk

    Full Text Available Tropical South America is rich in different groups of pollinators, but the biotic and abiotic factors determining the geographical distribution of their species richness are poorly understood. We analyzed the species richness of three groups of pollinators (bees and wasps, butterflies, hummingbirds in six tropical forests in the Bolivian lowlands along a gradient of climatic seasonality and precipitation ranging from 410 mm to 6250 mm. At each site, we sampled the three pollinator groups and their food plants twice for 16 days in both the dry and rainy seasons. The richness of the pollinator groups was related to climatic factors by linear regressions. Differences in species numbers between pollinator groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon tests for matched pairs and the proportion in species numbers between pollinator groups by correlation analyses. Species richness of hummingbirds was most closely correlated to the continuous availability of food, that of bees and wasps to the number of food plant species and flowers, and that of butterflies to air temperature. Only the species number of butterflies differed significantly between seasons. We were not able to find shifts in the proportion of species numbers of the different groups of pollinators along the study gradient. Thus, we conclude that the diversity of pollinator guilds is determined by group-specific factors and that the constant proportions in species numbers of the different pollinator groups constitute a general pattern.

  6. Group differences in the legitimization of inequality: Questioning the role of social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Samuel; Carvacho, Héctor; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time. The SDO mediation hypothesis is supported in the case of hostile sexism. However, it is unsupported in the case of benevolent sexism and LMs relating to ethnic hierarchy, where there was no cross-lagged effect of SDO. Moreover, being in the dominant ethnic group is associated with more legitimization of ethnic hierarchy but less legitimization of gender hierarchy, which is inconsistent with the notion of a general orientation underpinning group differences in legitimation. There was mixed evidence for a reverse path whereby specific LMs mediate group differences in SDO across time. We argue for the need to find alternative ways to theorize ideological consensus and difference between groups.

  7. What could critical mathematics education mean for different groups of students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    In this article I consider what critical mathematics education could mean for different groups of students. Much discussion and research has addressed students at social risk. My point, however, is that critical mathematics education concerns other groups as well: for example, students in comfort......In this article I consider what critical mathematics education could mean for different groups of students. Much discussion and research has addressed students at social risk. My point, however, is that critical mathematics education concerns other groups as well: for example, students...... in comfortable positions, blind students, elderly students, "other" students, university students, as well as engineering students. By considering such different groups of students, I will show that "reading and writing the world with mathematics" opens towards a range of different interpretations, which brings...

  8. Accurate Group Delay Measurement for Radial Velocity Instruments Using the Dispersed Fixed Delay Interferometer Method. II. Application of Heterodyne Combs Using an External Interferometer Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian; Wan, Xiaoke; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian

    2012-11-01

    A fixed delay interferometer is the key component in a DFDI (dispersed fixed delay interferometer) instrument for an exoplanet search using the radial velocity (RV) technique. Although the group delay (GD) of the interferometer can be measured with white light combs (WLCs), the measurement precision is limited by the comb visibility, and the wavelength coverage is constrained by the comb sampling. For instance, this method can calibrate only half of the SDSS-III MARVELS spectra and reach a precision of 2.2 m s-1. This article introduces an innovative method using a sine source for precision delay calibration over very broad wavelengths. The sine source is made of a monolithic Michelson interferometer fed with white light. The interferometer modulated white light (in a sinusoidal form) is fed into a DFDI instrument for calibration. Due to an optimal GD of the sine source, Fourier components from the DFDI interferometer, the sine source, and their frequency beating can be clearly separated and effectively extracted with a chirped Fourier transform to allow precision measurements of the interferometer GD over the entire range of operation wavelengths. The measurements of the MARVELS interferometer with a sine source show that this new calibration method has improved the wavelength coverage by a factor of 2 and the precision by a factor of 3. The RV measurement error induced by GD measurement uncertainties is controlled to be less than 1 m s-1, which has met the requirements for MARVELS moderate-to-high Doppler precision (∼5–30 m s-1) for exoplanet search around V ∼ 8–12 solar-type stars. Heterodyne combs using an external interferometer source can be applied in other areas of optics measurement and calibration.

  9. PredictSNP2: A Unified Platform for Accurately Evaluating SNP Effects by Exploiting the Different Characteristics of Variants in Distinct Genomic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jaroslav; Musil, Miloš; Štourač, Jan; Zendulka, Jaroslav; Damborský, Jiří; Brezovský, Jan

    2016-05-01

    An important message taken from human genome sequencing projects is that the human population exhibits approximately 99.9% genetic similarity. Variations in the remaining parts of the genome determine our identity, trace our history and reveal our heritage. The precise delineation of phenotypically causal variants plays a key role in providing accurate personalized diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of inherited diseases. Several computational methods for achieving such delineation have been reported recently. However, their ability to pinpoint potentially deleterious variants is limited by the fact that their mechanisms of prediction do not account for the existence of different categories of variants. Consequently, their output is biased towards the variant categories that are most strongly represented in the variant databases. Moreover, most such methods provide numeric scores but not binary predictions of the deleteriousness of variants or confidence scores that would be more easily understood by users. We have constructed three datasets covering different types of disease-related variants, which were divided across five categories: (i) regulatory, (ii) splicing, (iii) missense, (iv) synonymous, and (v) nonsense variants. These datasets were used to develop category-optimal decision thresholds and to evaluate six tools for variant prioritization: CADD, DANN, FATHMM, FitCons, FunSeq2 and GWAVA. This evaluation revealed some important advantages of the category-based approach. The results obtained with the five best-performing tools were then combined into a consensus score. Additional comparative analyses showed that in the case of missense variations, protein-based predictors perform better than DNA sequence-based predictors. A user-friendly web interface was developed that provides easy access to the five tools' predictions, and their consensus scores, in a user-understandable format tailored to the specific features of different categories of variations. To

  10. Cause and Causality in Daycare Research: An Investigation of Group Differences in Swedish Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Holger; Lamb, Michael E.; Hwang, Carl-Philip

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates problems facing researchers trying to demonstrate causal relationships between types of nonparental care and differences between groups of Swedish children. Argues that efforts must be made to validate and interpret differences that are found. Indicates ways to avoid misinterpretation of differences that are attributable to…

  11. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  12. Stable, high-order SBP-SAT finite difference operators to enable accurate simulation of compressible turbulent flows on curvilinear grids, with application to predicting turbulent jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jaeseung; Bodony, Daniel; Pantano, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Improved order-of-accuracy discretizations often require careful consideration of their numerical stability. We report on new high-order finite difference schemes using Summation-By-Parts (SBP) operators along with the Simultaneous-Approximation-Terms (SAT) boundary condition treatment for first and second-order spatial derivatives with variable coefficients. In particular, we present a highly accurate operator for SBP-SAT-based approximations of second-order derivatives with variable coefficients for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. These terms are responsible for approximating the physical dissipation of kinetic and thermal energy in a simulation, and contain grid metrics when the grid is curvilinear. Analysis using the Laplace transform method shows that strong stability is ensured with Dirichlet boundary conditions while weaker stability is obtained for Neumann boundary conditions. Furthermore, the benefits of the scheme is shown in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a Mach 1.5 compressible turbulent supersonic jet using curvilinear grids and skew-symmetric discretization. Particularly, we show that the improved methods allow minimization of the numerical filter often employed in these simulations and we discuss the qualities of the simulation.

  13. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  14. Time to Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVC) for Five Different Muscle Groups in College Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    College men and women were studied to ascertain the force-time components of a rapid voluntary muscle contraction for five muscle groups. Researchers found that the time required for full contraction differs: (1) in men and women; and (2) among the five muscle groups. (Authors/PP)

  15. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  16. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Worby

    2015-12-01

    While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5–17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute to reducing the epidemic's impact in the whole community.

  17. Body image and eating disturbances across ethnic groups: more similarities than differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Heather; Ramirez, Lisa; Trost, Ariel; Randall, Pat; Stice, Eric

    2004-03-01

    Sociocultural models of eating pathology posit that ethnic minority groups should show fewer eating disturbances than Whites. Thus, the authors tested whether there were ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms and risk factors for eating pathology and whether the relations between risk factors and eating pathology differed across ethnic groups, with data from adolescent and adult females (N = 785). Only 1 of the 14 tests of main effect differences between ethnic groups was significant and none of the 49 tests of whether ethnicity moderated the relations of risk factors to eating pathology were significant. Findings provide little support for the hypothesized ethnic differences in eating disturbances and suggest that ethnic minority groups have reached parity with Whites in this domain.

  18. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  19. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes. 

  20. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  1. Evaluation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in Pyrus pyrifolia using different tissue samples and seasonal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ubi, Benjamin E; Saito, Takanori; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated suitable reference genes for real time (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). We tested most frequently used genes in the literature such as β-Tubulin, Histone H3, Actin, Elongation factor-1α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, together with newly added genes Annexin, SAND and TIP41. A total of 17 primer combinations for these eight genes were evaluated using cDNAs synthesized from 16 tissue samples from four groups, namely: flower bud, flower organ, fruit flesh and fruit skin. Gene expression stabilities were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software packages or by ΔCt method. geNorm analysis indicated three best performing genes as being sufficient for reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data. Suitable reference genes were different among sample groups, suggesting the importance of validation of gene expression stability of reference genes in the samples of interest. Ranking of stability was basically similar between geNorm and NormFinder, suggesting usefulness of these programs based on different algorithms. ΔCt method suggested somewhat different results in some groups such as flower organ or fruit skin; though the overall results were in good correlation with geNorm or NormFinder. Gene expression of two cold-inducible genes PpCBF2 and PpCBF4 were quantified using the three most and the three least stable reference genes suggested by geNorm. Although normalized quantities were different between them, the relative quantities within a group of samples were similar even when the least stable reference genes were used. Our data suggested that using the geometric mean value of three reference genes for normalization is quite a reliable approach to evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. We propose that the initial evaluation of gene expression stability by ΔCt method, and subsequent evaluation by geNorm or NormFinder for limited number of superior gene candidates will be a practical way of finding out

  2. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  3. Constructing a Measurement Method of Differences in Group Preferences Based on Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research and data analysis of the differences involved in group preferences, conventional statistical methods cannot reflect the integrity and preferences of human minds; in particular, it is difficult to exclude humans’ irrational factors. This paper introduces a preference amount model based on relative entropy theory. A related expansion is made based on the characteristics of the questionnaire data, and we also construct the parameters to measure differences in the data distribution of different groups on the whole. In this paper, this parameter is called the center distance, and it effectively reflects the preferences of human minds. Using the survey data of securities market participants as an example, this paper analyzes differences in market participants’ attitudes toward the effectiveness of securities regulation. Based on this method, differences between groups that were overlooked by analysis of variance are found, and certain aspects obscured by general data characteristics are also found.

  4. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research

  5. Clinical-anthropometric characteristics of COPD outpatients belonging to the different groups and having different severity of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with COPD, which differ in the degree of airways obstruction and belong to groups A, B, C, D in accordance with GOLD, 2011 classification. A total of 112 ambulatory COPD patients in remission made the study sample. Anthropometric data, body mass index, medical history, dyspnea by mMRC scale, and spirometry was performed for all patients. There was confirmed that outpatients with COPD is a heterogeneous group, in which the majority are those with moderate (48.22 % and severe (30.36 %, airway obstruction. Despite the vast majority of men among outpatients, the percentage of women among patients with mild to moderate obstruction (22.58±5.31 % was significantly higher (p=0.002 as compared with those with severe or very severe limitation of airflow (6.00±3.36 %. Patients with severe and very severe obstruction were of significantly older age (p = 0.024. At the same time, the distribution of patients according to the GOLD, 2011 classification, demonstrate that all groups did not differ on any of the anthropometric indicators, including gender and age (p > 0.050. Distribution of patients by groups with different risk for future exacerbations is not a mirror image of gradation in accordance with the degree of airway obstruction. Every second (50.00±4.43 % of cases patient is included in group C and every tenth (10.20±4.32 % belongs to the group D not due to degree of bronchial obstruction, but due to the number of exa­cerbations in the past year. Therefore, in future studies it is advisable to use both principles of patients’ classification.

  6. Students of Different Subjects Have Different Levels of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Learn English: Two Different Groups of EFL Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran; Fujita, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Here is documented investigation to assess the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese, first-year, dental-university students taking part in compulsory EFL classes and to compare those motivational drivers with an investigation into the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese IT students. There was a clear difference between extrinsic and…

  7. Understanding Disproportionate Representation in Special Education by Examining Group Differences in Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christina D.; Kranzler, John H.; Algina, James; Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior-Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used…

  8. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  9. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  10. The Nature-Nurture Controversy Revisited: Divorce and Gender as Factors in Children's Racial Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Guidubaldi, John

    1997-01-01

    Examined divorce and gender as factors in racial differences in performance of elementary age children on Hahnemann Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test, Vineland Teachers Questionnaire, and an interview. Found more racial group differences within the divorced…

  11. Glioma cell line proliferation controlled by different chemical functional groups in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ju XU; Fu-Zhai CUI; Xiao-Long YU; Xiang-Dong KONG

    2013-01-01

    Glioma cell line C6 cultured on silicon surfaces modified by different chemical functional groups, including mercapto (-SH), carboxyl (-COOH), amino (-NH2), hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) groups, was studied here to investigate the influence of surface chemistry on the cell proliferation, adhesion and apoptosis. AFM confirmed the similar characteristic of different functional groups occupation. The adhering C6 exhibited morphological changes in response to different chemical functional groups. The C6 adhered to -COOH, -NH2, -OH and -CH3 surfaces and flattened morphology, while those on -SH surface exhibited the smallest contact area with mostly rounded morphology, which led to the death of cancer cells. The results of MTT assay showed that the -COOH and -NH2 groups promoted ceil proliferation, while the -SH significantly inhibited the proliferation. Compared with other chemical functional groups, the -SH group exhibited its unique effect on the fate of cancer cells, which might provide means for the design of biomaterials to prevent and treat glioma.

  12. Clinical and immunological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutdusova A.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical and immunological features of the hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in women of different age groups. Materials and methods: Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 148 women aged 17 to 65 years old have been investigated. Patients have been divided into two groups: group I included 101 patients with normal menstrual rhythm, group II included 47 female patients with menopause. In 57 women (36 from group I, 21 — from group II the content of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD19+ — sub-populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes has been determined. Results: In compared groups significant differences in structure and frequency of complications of the disease have been revealed. Unidirectional tendency to increase significantly reduced absolute rates of investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in dynamics of the disease has been identified. It also has been stated that by the time of early convalescence in case of severe form of HFRS the indices did not reach the standard level. In an older group of women deeper damage and long-term recovery of immune system have been marked. Conclusion: According to the results of clinical and immunological studies the research work has revealed that in young women the response of the immune system to HFRS has developed faster and stronger than that in patients during the menopause period.

  13. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  14. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  15. ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY USER TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa AKIYAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been requirments for a transport environment that will foster the development of safe, comfortable townships. The study of urban activities amid an aging society and effective use of public transport modes in addressing environmental problems have become particularly important issues. This study analyzes travel behaviour patterns of varying age groups using urban railways in order to examine the relationship between urban public transport use and urban activities. specifically, it analyzes the composition of urban activity and travel behaviour patterns among urban railway users in the Keihanshin (Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. This paper looks at urban activities within aging societies and identifies the differences in travel behaviour of railway users by separating them into young, middle aged and senior citizen age groups. Analysis makes particular use of the Railway station Database, which is a compilation of existing studies into attributes of railway stations and their surroundings, and results of person trip surveys. Rail use behaviour characteristics have been sorted by age group because mobility via urban railway systems is varied by age group. As a result, differences in railway usage patterns (travel objectives, distance and time, and number of transfers, etc. have been identified and so too have differences in urban activity patterns related to free activities (shopping, recreation. Furthermore, the study developed a travel behaviour pattern estimation model which is capable of categorizing specific transport behaviour patterns and estimating rail users and transport behaviour patterns from the relationship with areas surrounding railway stations to ensure future mobility by public transport for older age groups. The results make it possible to put forward proposals for urban rail services that will facilitate urban activities for the different age groups. Eventually, it will be possible to understand

  16. Typing of feline calicivirus isolates from different clinical groups by virus neutralisation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S; McArdle, F; Bennett, M; Carter, M; Milton, I P; Turner, P; Meanger, J; Gaskell, R M

    1993-07-03

    One hundred and thirteen isolates of feline calicivirus originating from seven different clinical groups were typed by virus neutralisation tests using eight different cat antisera. The clinical groups comprised 'healthy' cats, cases of acute oral/respiratory disease, chronic stomatitis, acute febrile lameness syndrome, vaccine reactions (clinical disease seen within 21 days of vaccination) and vaccine breakdowns (clinical disease seen more than 21 days after but within one year of vaccination). Isolates from the vaccine reaction cases were grouped into those associated with acute oral/respiratory disease alone and those associated with the lameness syndrome, and the latter group was further subdivided according to the vaccine used. Two groups appeared significantly different from others with some of the antisera. Thus the lameness vaccine reaction isolates associated with vaccine B were significantly different from the isolates from all the other clinical groups, including other lameness isolates, with a number of the antisera. In addition, the chronic stomatitis isolates were significantly different from those from the 'healthy' and the acute oral/respiratory disease groups with one or two of the antisera. Eighty-five to 88 per cent of the isolates were neutralised by antisera raised against F9 or F9-like vaccine strains at a dilution of 1 in 2. Twenty antibody units of such antisera neutralised 42 to 80 per cent of the isolates. A bivalent antiserum raised against a vaccine F9 strain and field strain LS015 neutralised 96 per cent of the isolates at a dilution of 1 in 2, and 20 antibody units neutralised 68 per cent of isolates. Antisera to field strain F65 neutralised all the remaining isolates at a dilution of 1 in 2 and 44 per cent of the remaining isolates at a dilution of 20 antibody units. Therefore, strains LS015 and F65 may be of use in the production of a polyvalent feline calicivirus vaccine, together with the widely used strain F9.

  17. Sex differences in the emergence of leadership during competitions within and between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Mark; Spisak, Brian R

    2008-09-01

    This experiment investigated potential gender biases in the emergence of leadership in groups. Teams played a public-goods game under conditions of intra- or intergroup competition. We predicted and found a strong preference for female leaders during intragroup competition and male leaders during intergroup competition. Furthermore, during intragroup competition, a female leader was more instrumental than a male leader in raising group investments, but this pattern was reversed during intergroup competition. These findings suggest that particular group threats elicit specific gender-biased leader prototypes. We speculate about the evolutionary and cultural origins of these sex differences in the emergence of leadership.

  18. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  19. Parameter identification and synchronization for uncertain network group with different structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengren; Lü, Ling; Sun, Ying; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wenjun; Sun, Ao

    2016-09-01

    We design a novel synchronization technique to research the synchronization of network group constituted of uncertain networks with different structures. Based on Lyapunov theorem, the selection principles of the control inputs and the parameter identification laws of the networks are determined, and synchronization conditions of the network group are obtained. Some numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the synchronization technique. We find that the network number, the number of network nodes and network connections indeed will not affect the stability of synchronization of network group.

  20. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  1. Catalytical Activities of Reconstructed Hemoglobin with Different Central Ions in Prosthetic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-yu; SUN Bao-wei; LI Yuan-zong; CHANG Wen-bao

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin(Hb) was de-prosthetized, which was then reconstructed with the prosthetic groups with different central metal ions including Fe(Ⅲ), Co(Ⅱ) and Mn(Ⅱ). The spectral properties along with the catalase and peroxidase activities of the reconstructed hemoglobin were compared with those of Hb and prosthetic groups with different ions. When the central ion is iron, the reconstituted Hb(rHb) has the highest catalase and peroxidase activities. Maybe it is the reason that iron is chosen as the central ion in the prosthetic groups of natural hemoproteins. Different from peroxidase activity, the catalase activity of hemin cannot be enhanced by the microenvironment of apoHb. This result shows that the structure of apoHb is more similar to that of apoHRP than that of apocatalase.

  2. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    .5% in blood donors. Age-adjusted prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) among females was almost the same in students and blood donors (68.8% and 66.7%) but female workers had a lower prevalence of TTH (57%). Age-adjusted prevalence of TTH among males did not differ significantly between students and blood...... prevalence was high and differed markedly among the three social groups. It is important that headache epidemiology also focus on socially defined groups in order to target future preventive efforts.......BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...

  3. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  4. Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence in Brazil: Are there differences in effectiveness when applied by different groups of psychologists?: effectiveness of group therapy for girls victims of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Habigzang

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy model for the treatment of girls victims of sexual violence (SV was investigated when applied by different groups of practitioners: researchers/psychologists who developed it (G1 and psychologists from the public social care network trained by the first group (G2. A quasi-experimental study was carried out, in which the group therapy model was applied by the two groups. A total of 103 girls victims of sexual violence (SV, aged between seven and 16 years (M=11.76 years, SD=2.02 years were included, with 49 attended by G1, and 54 by G2. The results indicated a significant reduction in the symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD. The comparison between the results obtained by the two groups of practitioners in the application of the model indicated no significant differences in the rates of improvement of the participants. These results indicate the effectiveness of the cognitive-behavioral group therapy model evaluated and the possibility of it being used as a care strategy by psychology practitioners working in public services.

  5. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...... be designed and promoted in order to attract different user groups. This review highlights advances in the understanding of mode choice from a psychological perspective, taking into account behavioural theories of car use and car-use reduction. In this contribution, attitudinal, sociodemographic, geographical...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use....

  6. Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, R; Athanasiadou, M; Nahar, N; Mamun, M I R; Mosihuzzaman, M; Bergman, A

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/Sigma DDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the Sigma DDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400 ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30 ng g(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  7. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  8. Interpreting the clinical importance of group differences in chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; McDermott, Michael P; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T; Hertz, Sharon; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rappaport, Bob A; Rauschkolb, Christine; Sampaio, Cristina

    2009-12-01

    An essential component of the interpretation of results of randomized clinical trials of treatments for chronic pain involves the determination of their clinical importance or meaningfulness. This involves two distinct processes--interpreting the clinical importance of individual patient improvements and the clinical importance of group differences--which are frequently misunderstood. In this article, we first describe the essential differences between the interpretation of the clinical importance of patient improvements and of group differences. We then discuss the factors to consider when evaluating the clinical importance of group differences, which include the results of responder analyses of the primary outcome measure, the treatment effect size compared to available therapies, analyses of secondary efficacy endpoints, the safety and tolerability of treatment, the rapidity of onset and durability of the treatment benefit, convenience, cost, limitations of existing treatments, and other factors. The clinical importance of individual patient improvements can be determined by assessing what patients themselves consider meaningful improvement using well-described methods. In contrast, the clinical meaningfulness of group differences must be determined by a multi-factorial evaluation of the benefits and risks of the treatment and of other available treatments for the condition in light of the primary goals of therapy. Such determinations must be conducted on a case-by-case basis, and are ideally informed by patients and their significant others, clinicians, researchers, statisticians, and representatives of society at large.

  9. Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.

  10. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  11. Difference between the attitudes towards minority groups among parents and their children

    OpenAIRE

    Mićević Jelena

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research is to establish if there are differences between discrimination attitudes of parents and their children towards various marginal groups (the Chinese, Roma, the rich, the poor, persons of different sex, disabled persons). 849 persons were examined in this research: 310 of children and 539 of parents. The questionnaire of identical form for parents and their children was used to examine these discrimination attitudes. The questionnaire contains the open-type questions a...

  12. Growth, bone maturation, and biochemical changes in Brazilian children from two different socioeconomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, E D; Round, J M; Jones, D A

    1986-10-01

    A study of blood biochemistry related to skeletal growth in 900 Brazilian children aged 7 to 17 yr is reported. Two groups were studied, a privileged and underprivileged sample. Anthropometry and measures of bone maturation in the control group were comparable with American and British standards. Underprivileged children showed growth impairment and delay in bone maturation. No signs of rickets were found in either group. Plasma calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and total protein did not differ in the two groups of Brazilian children. Plasma alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus were abnormal in the underprivileged children. Alkaline-phosphatase activity and phosphorus levels did not fall towards adult levels after the predicted age of the adolescent spurt for underprivileged children. Menarche was delayed in the underprivileged girls.

  13. Electrochemiluminescent Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide via Some Luminol Imide Derivatives with Different Substituent Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tifeng Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some luminol imide derivatives with different substituent groups have been designed and synthesized. Their electrochemiluminescence properties have been measured with a view to developing new biosensors. The ECL response to hydrogen peroxide in the presence of these luminescent derivatives has been investigated taking into account crucial factors such as the applied potential value, injection volume of hydrogen peroxide, and the substituent groups in molecular structures. The experimental data demonstrated that the substituent groups in these imide derivatives can have a profound effect upon the ECL abilities of these studied compounds. The present research work affords new and useful exploration for the design and development of new soft matter for ECL biosensors with luminol functional groups.

  14. The Effects of Social Misdirection on Magic Tricks: How Deceived and Undeceived Groups Differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Tachibana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of perception and cognition in our daily lives can be elucidated through studying misdirection, a technique used by magicians to manipulate attention. Recent findings on the effects of social misdirection induced by joint attention have been disputed, and differences between deceived (failed to detect the magic trick and undeceived (detected the magic trick groups remain unclear. To examine how social misdirection affects deceived and undeceived groups, we showed participants movie clips of the “cups & balls,” a classic magic trick, and measured participants' eye positions (i.e. where participants looked while viewing the clips using an eye tracker. We found that the undeceived group looked less at the magician's face than the deceived group. These results indicate that deceived individuals have difficulty trying not to allocate attention to the face. We conclude that social misdirection captures attention, influencing the emergence of deception.

  15. Grouping Normal Type Ia Supernovae by UV to Optical Color Differences

    CERN Document Server

    Milne, Peter A; Roming, Peter W A; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Observations of many SNe Ia with the UVOT instrument on the Swift satellite has revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-OPT colors of normal SNe. We examine UV-OPT color curves for 25 SNe Ia, dividing them into 4 groups, finding that ~1/3 of these SNe Ia have bluer UV-OPT colors than the larger group, with these "NUV-blue" SNe Ia 0.4 mag bluer than the "NUV-red" SNe Ia in u-v. Another group of events feature colors similar to NUV-red SNe Ia in the u-v to uvw1-v colors, but similar to the NUV-blue SNe Ia in the uvm2-v color. We name these events "MUV-blue". The last group initially has colors similar to NUV-red SNe Ia, but with color curves that feature more modest changes than the larger NUV-red group. These "irregular" events are comprised of all the NUV-red events with the broadest optical peaks, which leads us to consider this minor group a subset of the NUV-red group. When so separated and the accounting is made for the rapid time evolution of the UV-OPT colors, we find that the scat...

  16. Different stories of group work: Exploring problem solving in engineering education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Berge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to further the understanding of group work in higher education, primarily in science.This is done through an empirical investigation of problem solving in small groups. Position theory isused as an analytic tool for describing the complex and dynamic processes of group work, focusing simultaneously on the physics content and the student community and how they constitute each other. We analysed four video-recorded sessions with students from two Master’s programs, Engineering Physics and Bioengineering, respectively. The students addressed two introductory mechanics problems.The analysis resulted in a characterisation in terms of seven ‘storylines’ of two different kinds. These are argued to reflect different aspects of engineering student communities, where one kind of storylines captures ways of approaching the problems and the other kind exemplifies boundary work involved in the constitution of communities.

  17. Does the EDI Measure School Readiness in the Same Way across Different Groups of Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhn, Martin; Gadermann, Anne; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the Early Development Instrument (Offord & Janus, 1999) measures school readiness similarly across different groups of children. We employ ordinal logistic regression to investigate differential item functioning, a method of examining measurement bias. For 40,000 children, our analysis compares groups…

  18. Cultural Orientations in the United States: (Re)Examining Differences among Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Heather M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in individualism and collectivism between the U.S.'s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans). Surveys of Michigan college students indicated that Asian Americans and African Americans but not Hispanic Americans scored higher in collectivism that did…

  19. Job search and the theory of planned behavior: Minority – majority group differences in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of 'non-traditional' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority – majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using

  20. The Knowledge-Based Reasoning of Physical Education Teachers: A Comparison between Groups with Different Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuker, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The study addresses professional vision, including the abilities of selective attention and knowledge-based reasoning. This article focuses on the latter ability. Groups with different sport-specific and pedagogical expertise (n = 60) were compared according to their observation and interpretation of sport activities in a four-field design. The…

  1. Self-Compassion among College Counseling Center Clients: An Examination of Clinical Norms and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Neff, Kristin; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation,…

  2. Defining dimensions of distinctiveness : Group variability makes a difference to differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J; Spears, R; Manstead, ASR

    1998-01-01

    We tested the prediction, derived from an integration of social identity and self-categorization principles, that the relation between in-group distinctiveness and positive differentiation is curvilinear. Moderate distinctiveness is argued to provide the critical combination of intergroup difference

  3. Group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of nature development plans : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AE; Vlek, CAJ; Coeterier, JF

    1998-01-01

    The study presented here addresses theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the issue of group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of natural landscapes. Beauty ratings of an agrarian landscape and five computer simulations of nature development plans in this landscape were collected

  4. Learning Mathematics with Technology: The Influence of Virtual Manipulatives on Different Achievement Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia; Suh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of virtual manipulatives on different achievement groups during a teaching experiment in four fifth-grade classrooms. During a two-week unit focusing on two rational number concepts (fraction equivalence and fraction addition with unlike denominators) one low achieving, two average achieving, and one high…

  5. Radio vs. Television: Their Cognitive Impact on Children of Different Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Patricia; Beagles-Roos, Jessica

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies which compared the impact of radio and television on children from different social classes and ethnic groups. Found that radio was more stimulating than television to the imagination (especially among white children) and that television led to greater overall recall of information. (ARH)

  6. Correlates of sedentary time in different age groups: results from a large cross sectional Dutch survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaards, C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Hendriksen, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work

  7. Diagnostic Group Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings on the BRIEF and Conners' Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Riccio, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral rating scales are common instruments used in evaluations of ADHD and executive function. It is important to explore how different diagnostic groups perform on these measures, as this information can be used to provide criterion-related validity evidence for the measures. Method: Data from 92 children and adolescents were used…

  8. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  9. Differences Between Human Figure Drawings of Child Molesters and Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Frances A.; Johnston, Shawn A.

    1986-01-01

    Attempted to identify differences between human figure drawings of adult and juvenile child molesters and adult and juvenile control groups, based on ratings obtained for psychodiagnostic signs. Results revealed, for the molesters, factors of overall quality with a component of gender identity confusion, figure-size only, fingers only, and hidden…

  10. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d

  11. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the gen

  12. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  13. Lie group invariant finite difference schemes for the neutron diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegers, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    Finite difference techniques are used to solve a variety of differential equations. For the neutron diffusion equation, the typical local truncation error for standard finite difference approximation is on the order of the mesh spacing squared. To improve the accuracy of the finite difference approximation of the diffusion equation, the invariance properties of the original differential equation have been incorporated into the finite difference equations. Using the concept of an invariant difference operator, the invariant difference approximations of the multi-group neutron diffusion equation were determined in one-dimensional slab and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, for multiple region problems. These invariant difference equations were defined to lie upon a cell edged mesh as opposed to the standard difference equations, which lie upon a cell centered mesh. Results for a variety of source approximations showed that the invariant difference equations were able to determine the eigenvalue with greater accuracy, for a given mesh spacing, than the standard difference approximation. The local truncation errors for these invariant difference schemes were found to be highly dependent upon the source approximation used, and the type of source distribution played a greater role in determining the accuracy of the invariant difference scheme than the local truncation error.

  14. Group differences in measures of voice production and revised values of maximum airflow declination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkell, J S; Hillman, R E; Holmberg, E B

    1994-08-01

    In previous reports, aerodynamic and acoustic measures of voice production were presented for groups of normal male and female speakers [Holmberg et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 84, 511-529 (1988); J. Voice 3, 294-305 (1989)] that were used as norms in studies of voice disorders [Hillman et al., J. Speech Hear. Res. 32, 373-392 (1989); J. Voice 4, 52-63 (1990)]. Several of the measures were extracted from glottal airflow waveforms that were derived by inverse filtering a high-time-resolution oral airflow signal. Recently, the methods have been updated and a new study of additional subjects has been conducted. This report presents previous (1988) and current (1993) group mean values of sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, maximum airflow declination rate, ac flow, peak flow, minimum flow, ac-dc ratio, inferred subglottal air pressure, average flow, and glottal resistance. Statistical tests indicate overall group differences and differences for values of several individual parameters between the 1988 and 1993 studies. Some inter-study differences in parameter values may be due to sampling effects and minor methodological differences; however, a comparative test of 1988 and 1993 inverse filtering algorithms shows that some lower 1988 values of maximum flow declination rate were due at least in part to excessive low-pass filtering in the 1988 algorithm. The observed differences should have had a negligible influence on the conclusions of our studies of voice disorders.

  15. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  16. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  17. Comparison of Y-STR polymorphisms in three different Slovak population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrejcíková, Eva; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan; Rebała, Krzysztof; Boronová, Iveta; Bôziková, Alexandra; Sovicová, Adriana; Gabriková, Dana; Maceková, Sona; Svícková, Petra; Carnogurská, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Eleven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci included in the Powerplex Y multiplex kit were analyzed in different Slovak population samples: Habans (n = 39), Romanies (n = 100) and Slovak Caucasian (n = 148) individuals, respectively, from different regions of Slovakia. The analysis of molecular variance between populations indicated that 89.27% of the haplotypic variations were found within populations and only 10.72% between populations (Fst = 0.1027; p = 0.0000). The haplotype diversities were ranging from 0.9258 to 0.9978, and indicated a high potential for differentiating between male individuals. The study reports differences in allele frequencies between the Romanies, Habans and Slovak Caucasian men. Selected loci showed that both the Romany and Haban population belonged to endogamous and relatively small founder population groups, which developed in relatively reproductive isolated groups surrounded by the Slovak Caucasian population.

  18. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    literature search identified twelve eligible studies yielding an aggregated sample size of 13,389. Eleven studies reported significant group differences in one or multiple Big Five personality traits. Consistent findings across studies were that students of arts/humanities and psychology scored high......During the past decades, a number of studies have explored personality group differences in the Big Five personality traits among students in different academic majors. To date, though, this research has not been reviewed systematically. This was the aim of the present review. A systematic...... on Neuroticism and Openness; students of political sc. scored high on Openness; students of economics, law, political sc., andmedicine scored high on Extraversion; students ofmedicine, psychology, arts/humanities, and sciences scored high on Agreeableness; and students of arts/humanities scored low...

  19. [Cellulase and xylanase activities of Fusarium Lk:Fr. genus fungi of different trophic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Zhdanova, N M; Iarynchyn, A M; Iovenko, O M

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellulase and xylanase activities of 26 fungal strains of phytopathogenic, saprophytic and endophytic Fusarium species has been realized using the qualitative reactions. The rare of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethyl cellulose or xylane has been studied. It was shown that the fungi of genus Fusarium belonging to different trophic groups possessed low activities of investigated enzymes as a whole, but in endophytic strains their levels were lower than in phytopathogenic ones. At the same time the distinct strain dependence of cellulase and xylanase activities was fixed in the fungi of different trophic groups. As far as the cellulase and xylanase activities in phytopathogenic isolates varied from complete absence to high levels, and since the activity maximum for each of the investigated strains was observed in different growth terms the conclusion was made that the cellulase and xylanase activities could not be considered as possible markers of the fungal isolate pathogenicity on the strain level.

  20. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  1. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  2. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Suryaputra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The samples were 40 teenage from Santa Agnes seniorhigh school Surabaya (age 15-17 that was taken by simple random sampling, that divers to 20 obese and 20 non obese teenage group. The data were analysed by Mann Whitney test for nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fast food’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, consumption level of energy, carbohydrat, protein, and fat, physical activity and parental fatness. The result of the statistic test showed that variables significant difference are nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fastfood’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, energy consumption level, carbohydrate consumption level, protein consumption level, fat consumption level, physical activity and parental fatness between obese and non obese teenage group. The conlusion is that significant differences are food pattern and physical activity between obese and non obese teenage group. Recommendation is necessary to provide information and education to teenage about healthy food and adequate physical activity to prevent obesity

  3. Subject domain differences in secondary school teachers' attitudes towards grouping pupils by ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallam Susan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that teachers' attitudes to ability grouping are influenced by the type of ability grouping adopted in the school where they teach. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of teachers of different subjects teaching low, high or mixed ability classes in years 7 to 9 in 45 secondary schools. Over 1500 teachers from 45 secondary schools, with a range of subject specialisms completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Teachers of mathematics and modern foreign languages were more in favour of structured ability grouping than those teaching English and humanities. Science, arts and PE, and ICT, design and business studies teachers expressed intermediate attitudes. Attitudes were determined in part by conceptions of the nature of the subject but also by the type of ability groupings adopted by the school in which they taught. In taking decisions about the type of ability grouping to adopt consideration needs to be given to the nature of the subject matter to be taught and the attitudes of the teachers who teach that subject.

  4. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Moura Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. Objective: To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. Methods: A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years. Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. Results: The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years. Conclusion: Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumfer- ences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group.

  5. Geochemical characteristics of different maceral groups in the Huangxian Coal,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhen-yu; WANG Jin-xi; JIN Yu-jie; ZHANG Hong-jian; JIN Kan-kun

    2004-01-01

    In order to research how lignite is utilized, two coal samples of seams 2 and 4were taken from the Huangxian Basin, China. The samples were separated into vitrinite,sporinite, and resinite. Geo-chemical and pyrolysis methods were used to analyse three maceral groups and two seam samples. The results indicate that the resinite and sporinite groups have higher extract yields, S1, S2, HI values, and pyrolysis compounds.These differences may shed light on the usage of the Huangxian lignite. Seam 2 produces more gas and oil than seam 4 does because seam 2 contains more resinite and sporinite macerals.

  6. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, Peter A. [University of Arizona, Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Brown, Peter J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Roming, Peter W. A. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Corporation, P.O. Drawer 28510, San Antonio, TX 78228-0510 (United States); Bufano, Filomena [Universidad Andres Bello, Departmento de Cincias Fisicas, Avda. Republica 220, Santiago (Chile); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: pbrown@physics.tamu.edu [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Codes 660.1 and 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  7. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  8. Grain yield of coffee conilon different maturity groups by REML / BLUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Machado de Oliveira Moulin Carias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate the grain yield clones coffee Conilon three maturity groups by REML / BLUP. We studied 20 clones of coffee Conilon early ripening, maturation 20 intermediate and 20 late maturing for the characteristic grain yield. For each group, represented by different times of ripening of fruits installed an experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications, plots with five plants spaced 3.0 m X 1.2 m with 2777 plantas/ha-1e evaluations were made in the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, during harvest, conducted and ceded by the Institute Capixaba Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (Incaper. The average heritability (0.28, 0.38 and the value of accuracy (0.68, 0.69 of clone selection were higher for the group of early and intermediate maturity, respectively. In the late group, the experimental accuracy was not satisfactory and therefore, a low accuracy in inference about the mean genotypic, reflecting the difficulty of selection. Clones 14 and 17 of the early group and 20, 14 and 17 of the intermediate group occupied the first places in the middle of the feature and productivity were also allocated in the same positions for MHVG (Genetic Stability of Values, PRVG (Adaptability of Genetic Values and MHPRVG (Stability and Adaptability of Genetic Values, indicating a high yield, stability and adaptability to variations in four crops for these genotypes. The interaction clones x crops was significant for the three maturity groups, characterizing a complex type of interaction, which is problematic for the breeder due to inconsistency of the superiority of clones against variations of crops. The combined results showed superiority of the group over the intermediate early and late.

  9. The effect of hydroxyl group on the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirmand, M.

    2016-09-01

    A single hydroxyl group is functionalized on both sides of one ring of several carbon nanotubes (CNT) as CNT-OH. The electronic structure and chemical bonding parameters are studied with the help of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Anionic states of the CNT-O as deprotonated hydroxyl are studied in order to get insight into the nature of CNT-OH species, considering frozen and relaxed geometries of CNT-O compounds. The results show a significant difference between inside or outside substituted hydroxyl groups; and also complicated behavior of the CNT's diameter, and it can be concluded that hydroxyl group can be used to tune the CNT's properties, effectively, in interesting application of these nanostructures.

  10. A micrometeorological technique for detecting small differences in methane emissions from two groups of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Johannes; Grover, Samantha P. P.; Pinares-Patiño, Cesar S.; Molano, German

    2014-12-01

    Potential approaches for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from cattle will require verification of their efficacy at the paddock scale. We designed a micrometeorological approach to compare emissions from two groups of grazing cattle. The approach consists of measuring line-averaged CH4 mole fractions upwind and downwind of each group and using a backward-Lagrangian stochastic model to compute CH4 emission rates from the observed mole fractions, in combination with turbulence statistics measured by a sonic anemometer. With careful screening for suitable wind conditions, a difference of 10% in group emission rates could be detected. This result was corroborated by simultaneous measurements of daily CH4 emissions from each animal with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer-ratio technique.

  11. Do racial and ethnic group differences in performance on the MCAT exam reflect test bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dwight; Dorsey, J Kevin; Franks, Ronald D; Sackett, Paul R; Searcy, Cynthia A; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2013-05-01

    The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a standardized examination that assesses fundamental knowledge of scientific concepts, critical reasoning ability, and written communication skills. Medical school admission officers use MCAT scores, along with other measures of academic preparation and personal attributes, to select the applicants they consider the most likely to succeed in medical school. In 2008-2011, the committee charged with conducting a comprehensive review of the MCAT exam examined four issues: (1) whether racial and ethnic groups differ in mean MCAT scores, (2) whether any score differences are due to test bias, (3) how group differences may be explained, and (4) whether the MCAT exam is a barrier to medical school admission for black or Latino applicants. This analysis showed that black and Latino examinees' mean MCAT scores are lower than white examinees', mirroring differences on other standardized admission tests and in the average undergraduate grades of medical school applicants. However, there was no evidence that the MCAT exam is biased against black and Latino applicants as determined by their subsequent performance on selected medical school performance indicators. Among other factors which could contribute to mean differences in MCAT performance, whites, blacks, and Latinos interested in medicine differ with respect to parents' education and income. Admission data indicate that admission committees accept majority and minority applicants at similar rates, which suggests that medical students are selected on the basis of a combination of attributes and competencies rather than on MCAT scores alone.

  12. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence.

  13. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  14. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  15. Expectations of students of different age groups in Agricultural Technician the Professional Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Both

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed from this investigative study to analyze the expectations of entering students of technical course in Agriculture, with different age groups, as the contribution of professional education for its professionalism and continued education. A mixed questionnaire was applied and, to evaluate the data, the group was divided into two categories. Differences in their school history were evidenced, as well as their expectations regarding the course. The younger students have a tendency to be conducting the course because they could not join a college. On the other hand, older students seek in technical knowledge to act professionally or to be a complement of their graduation. Thus, the teachers and the school need to strengthen the possibilities that the course provide, in order to stimulate the course ending, in order to form professionals to contribute to the community.

  16. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  17. Conclusions Regarding Cross-Group Differences in Happiness Depend on Difficulty of Reaching Respondents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffetz, Ori; Rabin, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature explores differences in subjective well-being across demographic groups, often relying on surveys with high nonresponse rates. By using the reported number of call attempts made to participants in the University of Michigan’s Surveys of Consumers, we show that comparisons among easy-to-reach respondents differ from comparisons among hard-to-reach ones. Notably, easy-to-reach women are happier than easy-to-reach men, but hard-to-reach men are happier than hard-to-reach women, and conclusions of a survey could reverse with more attempted calls. Better alternatives to comparing group sample averages might include putting greater weight on hard-to-reach respondents or even extrapolating trends in responses. PMID:26316655

  18. Adolescent Substance Use Groups: Antecedent and Concurrent Personality Differences in a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, E. M.; Keyes, M.; Iacono, W. G.;

    2012-01-01

    personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groupsabstainers, experimenters, and problem userswere created......This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's () influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent...... at age 18. Age-18 substance use groups differed in age-11 and age-18 constraint such that problem users were lower than experimenters, who were lower than abstainers. Age-18 substance use groups did not differ in age-18 positive emotionality. However, abstainers were significantly lower than...

  19. Level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen of different age groups in sports aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Todorova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of choreographic preparedness of different age groups of sportsmen on sports aerobics. Material & Methods: videos of competitive programs of the sportsmen, who are specialized in aerobics, different age groups, method of expert evaluations are used for the quantitative analysis of choreographic preparedness; methods of mathematical analysis and synthesis are used for the determination of level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen. Results: the level of choreographic preparedness is determined on the basis of the rating scale of the criteria of implementation of the competitive programs (Competition rules of 2013–2016 of teams-participants of the Championship of Ukraine for sports aerobics. Conclusions: indicators, to which it is necessary to pay attention in the course of choreographic preparation at stages of long-term training of sportsmen, are defined.

  20. Ultrasensitive optical microfiber coupler based sensors operating near the turning point of effective group index difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiwei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Guigen; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Mengying; Wei, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We propose and study an optical microfiber coupler (OMC) sensor working near the turning point of effective group index difference between the even supermode and odd supermode to achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Theoretical calculations reveal that infinite sensitivity can be obtained when the measured RI is close to the turning point value. This diameter-dependent turning point corresponds to the condition that the effective group index difference equals zero. To validate our proposed sensing mechanism, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrahigh sensitivity of 39541.7 nm/RIU at a low ambient RI of 1.3334 based on an OMC with the diameter of 1.4 μm. An even higher sensitivity can be achieved by carrying out the measurements at RI closer to the turning point. The resulting ultrasensitive RI sensing platform offers a substantial impact on a variety of applications from high performance trace analyte detection to small molecule sensing.

  1. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  2. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191...

  3. The Therapeutic role of Magnesium in different depressive syndromes of the male population comprising of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Bano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic and fundamental role of Mg as being the second most abundant intercellular cation is established in various studies. It is identified as a divalent metal cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. The biological function is identified in neuromuscular excitability. Mg ion regulates calcium ion flow in neuronal channels, helping to regulate neuronal Nitric Oxide production1. Mg deficiency causes NMDA coupled Calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury & neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression. The present study confirms a reduction in the symptoms of depression found in the male population comprising of different age group by Mg treatment. CSF Mg has been found low in treatment resistant suicidal depression. Brain Mg is also low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy2. A 2009 randomized clinical trial shows that Mg therapy was an effective as TCAs in depressed diabetics. Increase in brain Mg enhances both short term synaptic facilitation and long term potentiation and improves learning and memory function3 The present study is based on findings that male subjects diagnosed as depressed showed a marked reduction in behavioral and somatic features of the disease after administration of Magnesium supplement. Physiological and somatic anxiety was also alleviated in a certain age group which displayed recovery from Insomnia and agitation. Suicidal tendency was also negative in all age groups. This study focuses on the behavioral and somatic responses pertaining to brain biochemical changes induced by Magnesium therapy.

  4. Exposure To Harmful Workplace Practices Could Account For Inequality In Life Spans Across Different Demographic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Joel; Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Zenios, Stefanos

    2015-10-01

    The existence of important socioeconomic disparities in health and mortality is a well-established fact. Many pathways have been adduced to explain inequality in life spans. In this article we examine one factor that has been somewhat neglected: People with different levels of education get sorted into jobs with different degrees of exposure to workplace attributes that contribute to poor health. We used General Social Survey data to estimate differential exposures to workplace conditions, results from a meta-analysis that estimated the effect of workplace conditions on mortality, and a model that permitted us to estimate the overall effects of workplace practices on health. We conclude that 10-38 percent of the difference in life expectancy across demographic groups can be explained by the different job conditions their members experience.

  5. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  6. Rapid and accurate identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and common non-tuberculous mycobacteria by multiplex real-time PCR targeting different housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria isolates from primary culture is important due to timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Conventional methods for identification of Mycobacterium species based on biochemical tests needs several weeks and may remain inconclusive. In this study, a novel multiplex real-time PCR was developed for rapid identification of Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and the most common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria species including M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and the M. gordonae in three reaction tubes but under same PCR condition. Genetic targets for primer designing included the 16S rDNA gene, the dnaJ gene, the gyrB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Multiplex real-time PCR was setup with reference Mycobacterium strains and was subsequently tested with 66 clinical isolates. Results of multiplex real-time PCR were analyzed with melting curves and melting temperature (T (m)) of Mycobacterium genus, MTC, and each of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species were determined. Multiplex real-time PCR results were compared with amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA ITS for identification of Mycobacterium species. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primers were each 100 % for MTC, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primer for genus Mycobacterium was 96 and 100 %, respectively. According to the obtained results, we conclude that this multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and these novel primers can be used for rapid and accurate identification of genus Mycobacterium, MTC, and the most common non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species.

  7. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment.

  9. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  10. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  11. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D V; Gigante, G E; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Schiavon, N; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35-48%), has been acquired with 15keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15keV X-rays (λ=0.82666 A(0)). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P63/m with the lattice parameters of a=9.4328Å and c=6.8842Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100μm resolution.

  12. PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra T. Galunska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine and compare the vitamin D status of different groups CKD patients on hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or no renal replacement therapy and to evaluate the effect of vitamin D therapy. Patients and Methods: This pilot study enrolled 40 consecutive CKD patients (21 men, 19 women divided into three groups: 15 CKD patients in 1,2,3,4 stage of the disease without renal replacement therapy (RRT; 10CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD and 15 CKD patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD, ten of which were on vitamin D therapy. Vitamin D status was determined by serum 25-xydroxyvitamin D (25OHD. Results: Ninety percent of patients were in vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency; and only 4 patients (10.0% reached 25OHD levels above 75nmol/L. The median 25OHD level was 31.15nmol/L (interquartile range: 16.67-48.33nmol/L.Tendency of worse vitamin D status in women than in men was observed. Higher 25OHD levels were found in pre-dialysis patients (median 44.81nmol/L, 25%-75% percentile 16.24-52.21nmol/L and lower in HD (median 31.15nmol/L, 25%-75% percentile 13.04-64.45nmol/L and PD patients (median 33.38nmol/L, 25%-75% percentile 23.15-48.49nmol/L, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Better vitamin D status was found in the PD group of patients receiving vitamin D preparations (p<0.05. Conclusions: 25OHD deficiency/insufficiency is prevalent in renal failure patients with or without renal replacement therapy. It seems that vitamin D therapy improves the vitamin D status of PD patients. Further larger studies are needed to clarify the effect of specific type vitamin D therapy on serum 25OHD levels and clinical outcome in different groups of CKD patients.

  13. Infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in heifers from different genetics groups

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    Adilson Marini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the infestation of ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in 59 heifers of three genetic groups was run: Nellore, Guzerá and ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, belonging to the roster APTA Regional Andradina / SP. Every 28 days held the count of ticks, where the left side of the animal, with evaluation of only engorged females with more than 4.5 mm in the period from June 2007 to May 2008. The genetic group (P 0.05. The count of ticks was higher in the rainy season (4.32 ± 5.20 in comparison with the dry season (3.74 ± 5.54. Despite the higher counts of ticks during the experimental period, in heifers ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, this genetic group obtained the highest average daily weight gain (0.57 kg/day. Heifers and bulls Nellore and Guzerá were not statistically different in relation to daily weight gain, with averages of 0.37 and 0.40kg/day, respectively. ½ Angus heifers genetic group cattle have a higher infestation by ticks.

  14. [Detection of influenza B virus antibodies in different age groups using hemagglutination inhibition tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuvar, S; Kocabeyoğlu, O; Emekdaş

    1991-01-01

    Antibody levels against influenza B virus were investigated by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HA-I) tests in 402 sera obtained from different age groups. Hemagglutination antigens were obtained by production of influenza B virus (B/Singapur/LLC 6201) in trypsinized Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell cultured and they were used in tests. In 355 out of 402 sera (88.3%) antibodies against influenza B virus were detected at titers varying between 1/20 and 1/1280. However in 47 sera (11.7%) no antibodies were detected at 1/20 titer. High titers of antibody (1/640-1/1280) were not detected in none of the sera obtained from an age group between 1 and 14. However high titer antibodies were detected in 15.6% of the sera from an age group between 26 and 35, in the 17.3% of the sera from a group above 50 years of age. Our findings suggest that the increase in the rates of seropositivity against influenza B virus depends on getting older and, that the infections by this virus may be widely seen in our country.

  15. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-07-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed.

  16. Mapping biodiversity value worldwide: combining higher-taxon richness from different groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. H.; Gaston, K. J.; Humphries, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Maps of large-scale biodiversity are urgently needed to guide conservation, and yet complete enumeration of organisms is impractical at present. One indirect approach is to measure richness at higher taxonomic ranks, such as families. The difficulty is how to combine information from different groups on numbers of higher taxa, when these taxa may in effect have been defined in different ways, particularly for more distantly related major groups. In this paper, the regional family richness of terrestrial and freshwater seed plants, amphibians, reptiles and mammals is mapped worldwide by combining: (i) absolute family richness; (ii) proportional family richness; and (iii) proportional family richness weighted for the total species richness in each major group. The assumptions of the three methods and their effects on the results are discussed, although for these data the broad pattern is surprisingly robust with respect to the method of combination. Scores from each of the methods of combining families are used to rank the top five richness hotspots and complementary areas, and hotspots of endemism are mapped by unweighted combination of range-size rarity scores.

  17. Group-based differences in anti-aging bias among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Andrade, Allen D; Anam, Ramanakumar; Taldone, Sabrina; Karanam, Chandana; Hogue, Christie; Mintzer, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Medical students (MS) may develop ageist attitudes early in their training that may predict their future avoidance of caring for the elderly. This study sought to determine MS' patterns of explicit and implicit anti-aging bias, intent to practice with older people and using the quad model, the role of gender, race, and motivation-based differences. One hundred and three MS completed an online survey that included explicit and implicit measures. Explicit measures revealed a moderately positive perception of older people. Female medical students and those high in internal motivation showed lower anti-aging bias, and both were more likely to intend to practice with older people. Although the implicit measure revealed more negativity toward the elderly than the explicit measures, there were no group differences. However, using the quad model the authors identified gender, race, and motivation-based differences in controlled and automatic processes involved in anti-aging bias.

  18. Food intake of individuals with and without diabetes across different countries and ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthlings, U; Boeing, H; Maskarinec, G; Sluik, D; Teucher, B; Kaaks, R; Tjønneland, A; Halkjaer, J; Dethlefsen, C; Overvad, K; Amiano, P; Toledo, E; Bendinelli, B; Grioni, S; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Mattiello, A; Beulens, JWJ; Iestra, JA; Spijkerman, AMW; van der A, DL; Nilsson, P; Sonestedt, E; Rolandsson, O; Franks, PW; Vergnaud, A-C; Romaguera, D; Norat, T; Kolonel, LN

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Given the importance of nutrition therapy in diabetes management, we hypothesized that food intake differs between individuals with and without diabetes. We investigated this hypothesis in two large prospective studies including different countries and ethnic groups. Methods Study populations were the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Study and the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). Dietary intake was assessed via food frequency questionnaires, and calibrated using 24h-recall information for the EPIC-Study. Only confirmed self-reports of diabetes at cohort entry were included: 6192 diabetes patients in EPIC and 13 776 in the MEC. For the cross-sectional comparison of food intake and lifestyle variables at baseline, individuals with and without diabetes were matched 1:1 on sex, age in five year categories, BMI in 2.5 kg/m2 categories, and country. Results Higher intake of softdrinks (by 13 and 44% in the EPIC and MEC), and lower consumption of sweets, juice, wine, and beer (>10% difference) were observed in participants with diabetes compared to those without. Consumption of vegetables, fish and meat was slightly higher in individuals with diabetes in both studies, but the differences were less than 10%. Findings were more consistent across different ethnic groups than countries, but generally showed largely similar patterns. Conclusions Although diabetes patients are expected to undergo nutritional education, we found only small differences in dietary behavior in comparison to cohort members without diabetes. These findings suggest that emphasis on education is needed to improve the current behaviors in order to assist in the prevention of complications. PMID:21346715

  19. Ethnic and gender differences in the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.

  20. Identification of copy number variants defining genomic differences among major human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Armengol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic contribution to phenotype variation of human groups is necessary to elucidate differences in disease predisposition and response to pharmaceutical treatments in different human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the genome-wide profile of structural variation on pooled samples from the three populations studied in the HapMap project by comparative genome hybridization (CGH in different array platforms. We have identified and experimentally validated 33 genomic loci that show significant copy number differences from one population to the other. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of genes related to environment adaptation (immune response, lipid metabolism and extracellular space within these regions and the study of expression data revealed that more than half of the copy number variants (CNVs translate into gene-expression differences among populations, suggesting that they could have functional consequences. In addition, the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with the copy number alleles allowed us to detect evidences of population differentiation and recent selection at the nucleotide variation level. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results provide a comprehensive view of relevant copy number changes that might play a role in phenotypic differences among major human populations, and generate a list of interesting candidates for future studies.

  1. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  2. Generalization of Muscle Strength Capacities as Assessed From Different Variables, Tests, and Muscle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuk, Ivan; Prebeg, Goran; Sreckovic, Sreten; Mirkov, Dragan M; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-02-01

    Cuk, I, Prebeg, G, Sreckovic, S, Mirkov, DM, and Jaric, S. Generalization of muscle strength capacities as assessed from different variables, tests, and muscle groups. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 305-312, 2017-The muscle strength capacities to exert force under various movement conditions have been indiscriminately assessed from various strength tests and variables applied on different muscles. We tested the hypotheses that the distinctive strength capacities would be revealed (H1) through different strength tests, and (H2) through different strength variables. Alternatively, (H3) all strength variables independent of the selected test could depict the same strength capacity of the tested muscle. Sixty subjects performed both the standard strength test and the test of alternating contractions of 6 pairs of antagonistic muscles acting in different leg and arm joints. The dependent variables obtained from each test and muscle were the maximum isometric force and the rate of force development. A confirmatory principle component analysis set to 2 factors explained 31.9% of the total variance. The factor loadings discerned between the tested arm and leg muscles, but not between the strength tests and variables. An exploratory analysis applied on the same data revealed 6 factors that explained 60.1% of the total variance. Again, the individual factors were mainly loaded by different tests and variables obtained from the same pair of antagonistic muscles. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the muscle strength capacity of the tested individual should be based on a single strength test and variable obtained from a number of different muscles, than on a single muscle tested through different tests and variables. The selected muscles should act in different limbs and joints, while the maximum isometric force should be the variable of choice.

  3. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  4. The Perception of Critical Success Factors for PPP Projects in Different Stakeholder Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Węgrzyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  The main goal of the research is to enhance understanding which factors are perceived as critical for the success of public-private partnerships (PPPs by different stakeholder groups on different stages of the project life cycle. Research Design & Methods:  The paper builds on a larger research study looking at the development of the best practice framework for PPPs. The research is based on both a literature review and empirical studies. To examinethe perception of critical success factors (CSFs a questionnaire was conducted within different stakeholder groups for PPPs in Poland. Findings:  The article concentrates on one of the two dimensions ofa PPP project success which is the idea of critical success factors. The research reveals that public and private parties do not share common perception of the PPPsuccess. In general, the private sector assigns lower values to the CSFs analysed from the whole life perspective of a PPP project. Implications & Recommendations: The research indicates that the interpretation of a PPP project success depends of the stakeholders' role  in the project. Future research might try to integrate a wider range of stakeholdersengaged in PPPs such as financial institutions or a final user of the services provided under a PPP project. Contribution & Value Added: The results of the study provides helpful information to identify areas that stakeholders should pay a specialattention to in order to achieve the success of a PPP project.

  5. Statistical group differences in anatomical shape analysis using Hotelling T2 metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek; Xu, Shun; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Gerig, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Shape analysis has become of increasing interest to the neuroimaging community due to its potential to precisely locate morphological changes between healthy and pathological structures. This manuscript presents a comprehensive set of tools for the computation of 3D structural statistical shape analysis. It has been applied in several studies on brain morphometry, but can potentially be employed in other 3D shape problems. Its main limitations is the necessity of spherical topology. The input of the proposed shape analysis is a set of binary segmentation of a single brain structure, such as the hippocampus or caudate. These segmentations are converted into a corresponding spherical harmonic description (SPHARM), which is then sampled into a triangulated surfaces (SPHARM-PDM). After alignment, differences between groups of surfaces are computed using the Hotelling T2 two sample metric. Statistical p-values, both raw and corrected for multiple comparisons, result in significance maps. Additional visualization of the group tests are provided via mean difference magnitude and vector maps, as well as maps of the group covariance information. The correction for multiple comparisons is performed via two separate methods that each have a distinct view of the problem. The first one aims to control the family-wise error rate (FWER) or false-positives via the extrema histogram of non-parametric permutations. The second method controls the false discovery rate and results in a less conservative estimate of the false-negatives. Prior versions of this shape analysis framework have been applied already to clinical studies on hippocampus and lateral ventricle shape in adult schizophrenics. The novelty of this submission is the use of the Hotelling T2 two-sample group difference metric for the computation of a template free statistical shape analysis. Template free group testing allowed this framework to become independent of any template choice, as well as it improved the

  6. Validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in strawberry fruits using different cultivars and osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Vanessa; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Labonde, Julia; Pereira, Ivan dos Santos; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2015-01-10

    The increasing demand of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) fruits is associated mainly with their sensorial characteristics and the content of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the strawberry production has been hampered due to its sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms highlighting stress response is of great importance to enable genetic engineering approaches aiming to improve strawberry tolerance. However, the study of expression of genes in strawberry requires the use of suitable reference genes. In the present study, seven traditional and novel candidate reference genes were evaluated for transcript normalization in fruits of ten strawberry cultivars and two abiotic stresses, using RefFinder, which integrates the four major currently available software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The candidate reference gene DBP (DNA binding protein) was considered the most suitable to normalize expression data in samples of strawberry cultivars and under drought stress condition, and the candidate reference gene HISTH4 (histone H4) was the most stable under osmotic stresses and salt stress. The traditional genes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 18S (18S ribosomal RNA) were considered the most unstable genes in all conditions. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene may induce erroneous results. This study is the first survey on the stability of reference genes in strawberry cultivars and osmotic stresses and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results for future breeding efforts.

  7. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals.

  8. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Bianchini, Eliandra; Paim, Tiago do Prado; de Lima, Flavia Gontijo; Braccini Neto, José; Castanheira, Marlos; Esteves, Geisa Isilda Ferreira; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR) and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR) with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals. PMID:26193274

  9. Group decisions and individual differences: route fidelity predicts flight leadership in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robin; Mann, Richard; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2011-02-23

    How social-living animals make collective decisions is currently the subject of intense scientific interest, with increasing focus on the role of individual variation within the group. Previously, we demonstrated that during paired flight in homing pigeons, a fully transitive leadership hierarchy emerges as birds are forced to choose between their own and their partner's habitual routes. This stable hierarchy suggests a role for individual differences mediating leadership decisions within homing pigeon pairs. What these differences are, however, has remained elusive. Using novel quantitative techniques to analyse habitual route structure, we show here that leadership can be predicted from prior route-following fidelity. Birds that are more faithful to their own route when homing alone are more likely to emerge as leaders when homing socially. We discuss how this fidelity may relate to the leadership phenomenon, and propose that leadership may emerge from the interplay between individual route confidence and the dynamics of paired flight.

  10. Microtribological study of perfluoropolyether with different functional groups coated on hydrogen terminated Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minn, Myo; Satyanarayana, Nalam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Sinha, Sujeet K., E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kondo, Hirofumi [Sony Chemical and Information Device Corporation, R and D Division, 1078 Kamiishikawa, Kanuma 322-8503 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Friction and wear properties of different perfluoropolyether (PFPE) films with and without hydrogen termination on Si (Si-H) were studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer. The physical and chemical properties of the films were evaluated using contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Coating of PFPEs onto bare Si has lowered the coefficient of friction (from 0.6 for Si to {approx}0.05 with PFPE) and enhanced the wear durability (20,000 times) in comparison with those for bare Si which failed immediately. The introduction of hydrogen termination onto Si prior to PFPE coating has further increased the wear durability of PFPE with different functional groups several times (>5 times) under a normal load of 30 mN and a sliding speed of 0.052 m/s.

  11. Single Alternating Group Explicit (SAGE) Method for Electrochemical Finite Difference Digital Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Zhao-Xiang(邓兆祥); LIN,Xiang-Qin(林祥钦); TONG,Zhong-Hua(童中华)

    2002-01-01

    The four different schemes of Group Explicit Method (GEM): GER, GEL, SAGE and DAGE have been claimed to be unstable when employed for electrochemical digital simulations with large model diffusion coefficient DM@ However, in this investigation, in spite of the conditional stability of GER and GEL, the SAGE scheme, which is a combination of GEL and GER, was found to be unconditionally stable when used for simulations of electrochemical reaction-diffusions and had a performance comparable with or even better than the Fast Quasi Explicit Finite Difference Method (FQEFD) in srme aspects. Corresponding differential equations of SAGE scheme for digital simulations of various electrochemical mechanisms with both uniform and exponentially expanded space units were established. The effectiveness of the SAGE method was further demonstrated by the simulations of an EC and a catalytic mechanism with very large homogoneous rate constants.

  12. Differences in morphological properties between the olivine group minerals formed in natural and industrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dević S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olivines are a large isomorphic series of minerals, belonging to silicates group. Regardless of their chemical composition, any of these minerals can be formed both in natural and industrial processes. The aim of this work is to describe these minerals and differences of morphological properties between the olivines formed in nature, and those formed as byproducts of some industrial processes , as Process Metalurgy-Ironmaking. The olivines whose formation is tied to rock masses (natural process and the olivines genetically tied to industrial processes of black metallurgy slags (process metallurgy-Ironmaking are shown in this paper. The morphological properties of these minerals and their differences have been analyzed by optical microscopy in refracted and in reflected light. .

  13. Extending the cereus group genomics to putative food-bornepathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron,Nathalie; Segurens, Beatrice; Dossat, Carole; Land, Miriam L.; Broussole,Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis,Vincent; Nguen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, Paul; Winker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S.Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2006-08-24

    The cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteriacontaining pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic foodpoisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presencein natural samples of these bacteria of about thirty clonal complexes.Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due tothe major interest for representatives closely related to B. anthracis.Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined,existing dataindicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetictree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomesdiscussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of thecereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severefood-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain must be arepresentative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacilluscytotoxis is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared toother cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma Bfactor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, notdetected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonalcomplex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B.cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B.anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge fromclinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4,is a typical psychrotrophe characteristic to unbiased soil communities.Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group interms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence ofextra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account forthis phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmidin this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicityspread from the psychrotrophic strain community. The results of thisgenomic work and ecological compartments of different strains incite

  14. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Auger, Sandrine [Genetique Microbienne; Galleron, Nathalie [Genetique Microbienne; Segurens, Beatrice [Center National Sequencage, F-91057 Evry, France; Simon, Jorg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Dossat, Carole [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Broussolle, Veronique [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Brillard, Julien [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Sanchis, Vincent [Genetique Microbienne; Nguen-the, Christophe [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Lereclus, Didier [Genetique Microbienne; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wincker, Patrick [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Weissenbach, Jean [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Ehrlich, Dusko [Genetique Microbienne; Sorokin, Alexei [Genetique Microbienne

    2008-01-01

    work and ecological compartments of different strains incite to consider a necessity of creating prophylactic vaccines against bacteria closely related to NVH391-98 and F837/76. Presumably developing of such vaccines can be based on the properties of non-pathogenic strains such as KBAB4 or ATCC14579 reported here or earlier. By comparing the protein coding genes of strains being sequenced in this project to others we estimate the shared proteome, or core genome, in the B. cereus group to be 3000 200 genes and the total proteome, or pan-genome, to be 20 25,000 genes.

  15. Different genetic algorithms and the evolution of specialization: a study with groups of simulated neural robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauto, Tomassino; Parisi, Domenico; Di Stefano, Gabriele; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that live in groups, from microbial symbionts to social insects and schooling fish, exhibit a number of highly efficient cooperative behaviors, often based on role taking and specialization. These behaviors are relevant not only for the biologist but also for the engineer interested in decentralized collective robotics. We address these phenomena by carrying out experiments with groups of two simulated robots controlled by neural networks whose connection weights are evolved by using genetic algorithms. These algorithms and controllers are well suited to autonomously find solutions for decentralized collective robotic tasks based on principles of self-organization. The article first presents a taxonomy of role-taking and specialization mechanisms related to evolved neural network controllers. Then it introduces two cooperation tasks, which can be accomplished by either role taking or specialization, and uses these tasks to compare four different genetic algorithms to evaluate their capacity to evolve a suitable behavioral strategy, which depends on the task demands. Interestingly, only one of the four algorithms, which appears to have more biological plausibility, is capable of evolving role taking or specialization when they are needed. The results are relevant for both collective robotics and biology, as they can provide useful hints on the different processes that can lead to the emergence of specialization in robots and organisms.

  16. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF AGE HENS ON THE INTENSITY LOAD CAPACITY FROM DIFFERENT WEIGHT GROUPS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pandurević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of hens on the intensity of load from different weight groups eggs. This paper presents the correlation connection, meaning and significance of differences connection for two weight classes (M - 53 to 63g and L – 63g to 73g, which make up the largest part of the total number of eggs produced during the entire production cycle, as well as for all of the eggs produced, as compared to age-laying hens. Between age and intensity of load to 53 weeks of age hens (SN53/34, there is a strong positive, medium and slight correlation coefficients determined and phenotypic correlation are statistically confirmed at the level of P <0.01 and P <0.05. From 53 weeks of age until the end of exploitation of laying hens (SN72/53 the correlation strength of the association was weaker and weaker, and in the last eight weeks passed in the negative, ie. Fortified negative phenotypic correlation coefficients, but were not statistically significant (P> 0.05. Between the age of hens and intensity of load hardest groups (classes eggs (L there is a complete and very strong connections and established correlation coefficients were statistically significant at P <0.001.

  18. WMS-III performance in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: group differences and individual classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, N; Strauss, E; Chelune, G J; Loring, D W; Martin, R C; Hermann, B P; Sherman, E; Hunter, M

    2001-11-01

    The utility of the WMS-III in detecting lateralized impairment was examined in a large sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods of analysis included evaluation of group means on the various indexes and subtest scores, the use of ROC curves, and an examination of Auditory-Visual Index discrepancy scores. In addition, performance on immediate and delayed indexes in the auditory and the visual modality was compared within each group. Of the WMS-III scores, the Auditory-Visual Delayed Index difference score appeared most sensitive to side of temporal dysfunction, although patient classification rates were not within an acceptable range to have clinical utility. The ability to predict laterality based on statistically significant index score differences was particularly weak for those with left temporal dysfunction. The use of unusually large discrepancies led to improved prediction, however, the rarity of such scores in this population limits their usefulness. Although the utility of the WMS-III in detecting laterality may be limited in preoperative cases, the WMS-III may still hold considerable promise as a measure of memory in documenting baseline performance and in detecting those that may be at risk following surgery.

  19. Epidemiological differences of lower urinary tract symptoms among female subpopulations and group level interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avasarala Atchuta Kameswararao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To study the risk factor profiles of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among adolescent girls, housewives and working women and its socioeconomic and quality of life losses. 2 To undertake risk factor modifications using the adolescent girls. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional descriptive study followed by educational intervention. Statistical Methods: Cluster sampling, Proportions, confidence intervals, Chi square and t-Tests and Logistic regression. Materials and Methods: House to house survey was done in two villages and one urban ward. Seventy-five housewives, 75 working women and 180 adolescent girls were asked about the risk factors and losses due to LUTS. Three teams of adolescent girls were utilized to bring about behavioral modifications. Impact was measured through user perspectives obtained from the participants. Results: Risk factors, social, economic and quality of life losses were different among the three female populations. Overall prevalence of LUTS among the three groups is 61(18.5%. Improper anal washing technique, malnutrition, presence of vaginal discharge, use of unsanitary menstrual pads, pinworm infestation and use of bad toilets were the significant causes among girls. Presence of sexually transmitted diseases was a contributing factor among housewives and working women. Prolonged sitting the posture was also contributing to LUTS among working women. Seventy-four per cent of beneficiaries expressed that intervention is useful. Conclusions: The causes for LUTS and their consequences were differing among the three female subpopulations. Specific group level interventions using trained girls were successful.

  20. Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Royle, Chris; Walker, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare.

  1. Accurate and efficient radiation transport in optically thick media -- by means of the Symbolic Implicit Monte Carlo method in the difference formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoke, A; Brooks, E D; McKinley, M; Daffin, F

    2005-03-30

    The equations of radiation transport for thermal photons are notoriously difficult to solve in thick media without resorting to asymptotic approximations such as the diffusion limit. One source of this difficulty is that in thick, absorbing media thermal emission is almost completely balanced by strong absorption. In a previous publication [SB03], the photon transport equation was written in terms of the deviation of the specific intensity from the local equilibrium field. We called the new form of the equations the difference formulation. The difference formulation is rigorously equivalent to the original transport equation. It is particularly advantageous in thick media, where the radiation field approaches local equilibrium and the deviations from the Planck distribution are small. The difference formulation for photon transport also clarifies the diffusion limit. In this paper, the transport equation is solved by the Symbolic Implicit Monte Carlo (SIMC) method and a comparison is made between the standard formulation and the difference formulation. The SIMC method is easily adapted to the derivative source terms of the difference formulation, and a remarkable reduction in noise is obtained when the difference formulation is applied to problems involving thick media.

  2. Analyzing individual and group differences in multijoint multiwaveform gait data using the Parafac2 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Nathaniel E; Hong, Sungjin; Bokhari, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion research often involves analyzing multiwaveform data (e.g., velocities, accelerations, etc.) from various body locations (e.g., knees, ankles, etc.) of several subjects. Therefore, some multivariate technique such as principal component analysis is often used to examine interrelationships between the many correlated waveforms. Despite its extensive use in locomotion research, principal component analysis is for two-mode data, whereas locomotion data are typically collected in higher mode form. In this paper, we present the benefits of analyzing four-mode locomotion data (subjects × time × joints × waveforms) using the Parafac2 model, which is a component model designed for analyzing variation in multimode data. Using bilateral hip, knee, and ankle angular displacement, velocity, and acceleration waveforms, we demonstrate Parafac2's ability to produce interpretable components describing (i) the fundamental patterns of variation in lower limb angular kinematics during healthy walking and (ii) the fundamental differences between normal and atypical subjects' multijoint multiwaveform locomotive patterns. Also, we illustrate how Parafac2 makes it possible to determine which waveforms best characterize the individual and/or group differences captured by each component. Our results indicate that different waveforms should be used for different purposes, confirming the need for the holistic analysis of multijoint multiwaveform locomotion data, particularly when investigating atypical motion patterns.

  3. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  4. The epidemiology of observed temperament: Factor structure and demographic group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Stifter, Cynthia A; Gottfredson, Nisha C

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of observational indicators of children's temperament that were collected across the first three years of life in the Family Life Project (N=1205) sample. A four-factor model (activity level, fear, anger, regulation), which corresponded broadly to Rothbart's distinction between reactivity and regulation, provided an acceptable fit the observed data. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that a majority of the observational indicators exhibited comparable measurement properties for male vs. female, black vs. white, and poor vs. not-poor children, which improved the generalizability of these results. Unadjusted demographic group comparisons revealed small to moderate sized differences (Cohen ds=|.23-.42|) in temperamental reactivity and moderate to large sized differences (Cohen ds=-.64--.97) in regulation. Collectively, demographic variables explained more of the variation in regulation (R(2)=.25) than in reactivity (R(2)=.02-.06). Follow-up analyses demonstrated that race differences were substantially diminished in magnitude and better accounted for by poverty. These results help to validate the distinction between temperamental reactivity and regulation using observational indicators.

  5. Difference between the attitudes towards minority groups among parents and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićević Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to establish if there are differences between discrimination attitudes of parents and their children towards various marginal groups (the Chinese, Roma, the rich, the poor, persons of different sex, disabled persons. 849 persons were examined in this research: 310 of children and 539 of parents. The questionnaire of identical form for parents and their children was used to examine these discrimination attitudes. The questionnaire contains the open-type questions and it is the part of questionnaire used in the investigation project of wider range. Independent estimators in the scale from 1 to 6 quantified these qualitative results obtained on the basis of open-type questions, by determine the intensity of these attitudes (in negative direction. So-called Canonical discrimination analysis was used, out of statistical methods. The obtained results show that parents and their children statistically differ significantly in discrimination attitudes towards the Chinese, male persons and disabled persons. Children express discrimination attitudes towards male sex and towards disabled persons, but do not have considerable discrimination attitudes towards the Chinese, but parents express discrimination attitudes towards the Chinese, but do not have considerable discrimination attitudes towards the male sex and towards disabled persons.

  6. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  7. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in different patient groups of a urban university in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hermôgenes Rocco Suassuna

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought for etndence of previous CMV infection in patients of a general hospital serving the low income population of Rio de Janeiro. An enzyme immunoassay was used to detect anti-CMV antibodies in 713 typical hospital patients classified into eight different groups. Positive tests were found in 87% of pregnant women, 85% of newborns, 61% of pediatric patients, 77% of adolescent patients, 81% of adult patients, 87% of dialysed transplant candidates, 89% of kidney donors, and 92% of patients after transplantation. Depending of the subgroup studied these results carry different meanings and necessitate different clinical approaches. The risk of congenital disease is probably low in view of the reduced number of pregnant women still susceptible to primary infection. The number of primary infections will also be low in transplant recipients. However, those still susceptible will almost certainly acquire the infection from, their donor. Prophylactic CMV matching in kidney transplantation is not a realistic approach due to the low probability of finding pairs of seronegative donors and recipients.

  8. A Class of Multiresponsive Colorimetric and Fluorescent pH Probes via Three Different Reaction Mechanisms of Salen Complexes: A Selective and Accurate pH Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinghui; Gou, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Shen, Guangyu; Zhou, Xiangge; Xiang, Haifeng

    2016-09-19

    We report a class of multiresponsive colorimetric and fluorescent pH probes based on three different reaction mechanisms including cation exchange, protonation, and hydrolysis reaction of K(I), Ca(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Al(III), and Pd(II) Salen complexes. Compared with traditional pure organic pH probes, these complex-based pH probes exhibited a much better selectivity due to the shielding function of the filled-in metal ion in the complex. Their pH sensing performances were affected by the ligand structure and the central metal ion. This work is the first report of "off-on-on'-off" colorimetric and fluorescent pH probes that possess three different reaction mechanisms and should inspire the design of multiple-responsive probes for important analytes in biological systems.

  9. Analysis of Feed for Digestibility Bali Cow in Group "Simantri" Program in Bali on Different Topographic

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    I Dewa Nyoman Sudita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the availability of feed ingredients, types and diversity as well as the proportion, relation to digestibility, VFA production and N-NH3 for Bali cow holding in the group "Simantri" program  in Bali on the different topography. Retrieving data using the method of observation at 27 group "Simantri", at 3 altitude / topography (lowland, medium and high. Variables measured: feed amount given, type and diversity of feed ingredients and proportions, sampling of feed materials, and take the liquid contents rumen. Sampling feed material to determine the nutrient content and digestibility of the ration, while knowing VFA rumen fluid contents (total and partial and N-NH3.  The results showed the higher the percentage of a natural grass in the lower ration. This condition causes the higher topography and diversity of the types of feed materials more and more.  The proportion of shrub legume Gliricidia leaves of trees, especially in the diet is relatively small (6.6%, while the potential of Gliricidia leaves pretty much at all altitude. Judging from the fulfillment of nutrients, Bali cow rations at all topographic meet the needs/head/day in the range of 6.10 to 8.14 kgDM, protein (CP ± of 750,2g  and energy ± 12 526 kcal ME.  In the test VFA rumen fluid obtained from 71.68 to 85.07 mMol in the category enough, while N-NH3: 5,21-6,11mMol still relatively low .  From this study we can conclude supply of feed for Bali cow in the group "Simantri" program in Bali nutrient content rations have to meet the needs.  The higher the proportion of legume shrub tree (Gliricidia leaves the digestibility, VFA production and N-NH3 getting better.

  10. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

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    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  11. Doing Anger Differently: two controlled trials of percussion group psychotherapy for adolescent reactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of 'Doing Anger Differently' (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1, but also followed up controls at 6 months. In study 1 (N = 54) the treatment resulted in lowered trait anger (Cohen's d = -1.3), aggression-reports (d = -1.0) and depression (d = -0.6), and increased self-esteem (d = 0.6), all maintained at six months. In study 2 (N = 65), aggression-reports fell to one fifth of pre-treatment levels at nine months follow-up (d = -1.2), with lowered trait anger (d = -0.4) and anger expression (d = -0.3) post-treatment.

  12. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  13. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  14. Reliability and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures among individuals with and without chronic neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bahar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians frequently rely on subjective categorization of impairments in mobility, strength, and endurance for clinical decision-making; however, these assessments are often unreliable and lack sensitivity to change. The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability, minimum detectable change (MDC, and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures for individuals with and without chronic neck pain (NP. Methods Nineteen individuals with NP and 20 healthy controls participated in this case control study. Two physical therapists performed a 30-minute examination on separate days. A handheld dynamometer, gravity inclinometer, ruler, and stopwatch were used to quantify cervical range of motion (ROM, cervical muscle strength and endurance, and scapulothoracic muscle length and strength, respectively. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were significantly greater than zero for most impairment measures, with point estimates ranging from 0.45 to 0.93. The NP group exhibited reduced cervical ROM (P ≤ 0.012 and muscle strength (P ≤ 0.038 in most movement directions, reduced cervical extensor endurance (P = 0.029, and reduced rhomboid and middle trapezius muscle strength (P ≤ 0.049. Conclusions Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining objective cervicothoracic impairment measures with acceptable inter-rater agreement across time. The clinical utility of these measures is supported by evidence of impaired mobility, strength, and endurance among patients with NP, with corresponding MDC values that can help establish benchmarks for clinically significant change.

  15. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  16. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  17. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  18. Assessment of acutely mentally ill patients' satisfaction of care: there is a difference among ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Robert L; Olson, Tom; Bader, Julia

    2007-03-01

    The relationship between quality of care and patient satisfaction has been documented. The specific research aim related to this study is to determine if differences exist among Caucasians, Asians, and Pacific Islanders who are hospitalized for an acute mental illness with regard to their perceived satisfaction with the care. The results of the overall study have been reported elsewhere. The sample was composed of 138 patients, of whom 34.7% were Caucasian, 31.2% Pacific Islanders, and 34.8% Asians. Within 24 hours of discharge, patients completed the Perceptions of Care instrument. Caucasians were over-represented in our sample in comparison to their percentage in the general population of Hawaii. These patients were significantly more satisfied (p = .04) with their care than the other ethnic groups. No single variable was found to specifically indicate why they were more satisfied than Pacific Islanders and Asians.

  19. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  20. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions.

  1. GPU-acceleration of parallel unconditionally stable group explicit finite difference method

    CERN Document Server

    Parand, K; Hossayni, Sayyed A

    2013-01-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are high performance co-processors originally intended to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in solution of the transient diffusion type equation by parallel and stable group explicit finite difference method. To accomplish that, GPU and CPU-based (multi-core) approaches were developed. Moreover, we proposed an optimal synchronization arrangement for its implementation pseudo-code. Also, the interrelation of GPU parallel programming and initializing the algorithm variables was discussed, using numerical experiences. The GPU-approach results are faster than a much expensive parallel 8-thread CPU-based approach results. The GPU, used in this paper, is an ordinary laptop GPU (GT 335M) and is accessible for e...

  2. Strengthening resistance self-efficacy: influence of teaching approaches and gender on different consumption groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Thomas; Bogner, Franz X

    2009-01-01

    Our study focused on strengthening the individual self-efficacy of low achieving 8th graders reducing drug-specific peer pressure through theoretical and practical training. The subject of the intervention was based on a substance-specific life skills program offering both teacher-centered and student-centered teaching approaches. A cluster analysis identified four consumption groups in our pre-test setting: (1) A "potentially curious" sample; (2) an "actually curious" sample; (3) an "experimenter" sample; and (4) a "consumer" sample. Self-efficacy was measured three times in a pre-, post-, and retention-test design. Only the "potentially curious" sub-sample showed higher resistance self-efficacy, boys and girls revealed no differences. Altogether, a short- and middle-term consistent increase was detected in both teaching methods. Consequences to increase the efficiency of drug prevention measurements are being discussed.

  3. Specific and unspecific gynecological alarm symptoms -prevalence estimates in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; Larsen, Pia V;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence estimates of gynecological alarm symptoms in different age groups and to describe common patterns of gynecological symptoms. DESIGN: Web-based cross-sectional survey study. SETTING: Nationwide in Denmark. POPULATION: A random sample of 51 090 women aged 20 years...... guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence estimates of self-reported experience of gynecological alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 26 466 women (54.5%) participated in the study. Some 80.3% had experienced at least one of the alarm symptoms within the preceding 4 weeks......: Gynecological alarm symptoms are frequent in the general population, mostly among younger women. Older women reported fewer symptoms, and they often appeared as single symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Different organochlorine contaminant profiles in groups of flounders (Platichthys flesus) from sampling locations around Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Rønsholdt, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    Flounders (Platichthys flesus) from the waters around Denmark were analysed for their organochlorine (OC) profile to study whether fish from the same genetic population could be separated into characteristic subpopulations, based on their feeding grounds. The chemical analysis of fish liver...... provided a data set of 16 OC compounds in 94 samples from 2004 to 2006. Except for hexachlorocyclohexane, OC compounds were intercorrelated, indicating similar environmental fate and bioaccumulation. OC profiles are less affected than absolute concentrations by potentially confounding biological factors...... and thus more suitable for studies of intrapopulation differences in relation to feeding grounds. Principal component analysis grouped the samples according to locations. All but three of the 94 samples could be reclassified. Samples from the same and additional locations collected in 2003 provided...

  5. Explaining the link between objective and perceived differences in groups: The role of the belonging and distinctiveness motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, Margaret E

    2016-02-01

    Group diversity research often focuses on objective diversity, or the actual compositional attributes of the group (e.g., differences in sex or functional background), and its impact on group processes and performance. More recently, diversity researchers have called for consideration of group members' perceptions of diversity, or their subjective understanding of differences within their group, because these perceptions have important effects on group outcomes. In fact, research has indicated only a modest correlation between objective and perceived diversity. Although the subjective nature of group diversity has important implications for group outcomes, we are still unclear about why and when perceived diversity diverges from objective diversity. In this article, I examine the role of identity motives, or motives that guide self-definition, in shaping member's perceptions of themselves and their group's composition. I argue that group members want to balance their needs for belonging and distinctiveness, but high levels of objective differences make them feel too distinct whereas low levels of objective differences makes them feel too deindividuated. Individual differences in the need to belong and be distinct further influence the degree to which these motives are satisfied. In turn, when these motives are unsatisfied, they will affect members' perceptions of differences. The presented theory helps to explain the discrepancy between objective differences and members' perceptions of differences, and ultimately helps integrate opposing findings in the diversity literature.

  6. Genetic and environmental contributions to population group differences on the Raven's Progressive Matrices estimated from twins reared together and apart

    OpenAIRE

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann; Vernon, Philip A; Čvorović, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    We carried out two studies to test the hypothesis that genetic and environmental influences explain population group differences in general mental ability just as they do individual differences within a group. We estimated the heritability and environmentality of scores on the diagrammatic puzzles of the Raven's Coloured and/or Standard Progressive Matrices (CPM/SPM) from two independent twin samples and correlated these estimates with group differences on the same items. In Study 1, 199 pair...

  7. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  8. High-fidelity simulation among bachelor students in simulation groups and use of different roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-12-01

    Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking.

  9. Constraining anisotropy of the universe from different groups of type-Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China); Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2014-03-15

    Recently released Planck data and other astronomical observations show that the universe may be anisotropic on large scales. Inspired by this, anisotropic cosmological models have been proposed. We note that the Finsler-Randers spacetime provides an appropriate framework for the anisotropic cosmology. By adding an arbitrary 1-form to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker line element, a privileged axis in the universe is picked out. The distance-redshift relation is modified to be direction-dependent. We wish that the anisotropic cosmological model may be tested crossly by independent observations. Type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) calibrated from four different light curve fitters are used to constrain the possible anisotropy of the universe. The magnitudes of anisotropy are all between 2-5 %, but the systematic uncertainty cannot be excluded. The directions of the privileged axis seem to differ from each other. The statistical significance is not high enough to make a convincing conclusion. Nevertheless, the 1σ contours in the (l,b) plane obtained from four groups of SNe Ia have an overlap, centering at (l,b) ∼ (170 , 0 ). Monte Carlo simulation shows that the anisotropy is unlikely to be caused by the selection effect. (orig.)

  10. Pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid deseases treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Миколаївна Владимирова

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the increase of endocrine diseases is observed worldwide. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid gland pathologies are the most widespread. Endocrine diseases can be acute or chronic. In some cases, they are life threatening.There are different reasons of thyroid gland pathologies development. Both poor nutrition and poor quality water use, and unfavorable environmental conditions, including radiation, are among them. Iodine deficiency is determined to be one of the main reasons of these diseases.Aim. Determination of the pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid diseases treatment.Methods. Thyroid stimulating action determination (primary screening and model pathology has been carried out by the method of “goiter reaction” in rats at the Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of National University of Pharmacy. Determination of thyroid hormone blood level in rats has been carried out at the Laboratory of Radioactive Endocrinology of the State Institution “Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology NAMS of Ukraine”.Results. According to the research results generalization, correctness of developed algorithms was confirmed; peculiarities of the influence on pathological processes in thyroid, and prospects of implementation and use of herbs and herbal remedies for thyroid diseases prevention and treatment were determined.Conclusion. Obtained experimental data are actual for the modern medicine, and new scientific research, specifying their place in etiology, pathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical course of many diseases, will improve the efficiency of treatment and prevention of thyroid diseases

  11. Management in non-traumatic arm, neck and shoulder complaints: differences between diagnostic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleus, Anita; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Miedema, Harald S; Verhaar, Jan A N; Koes, Bart W

    2008-09-01

    Arm, neck and/or shoulder complaints are common in western societies. In the Netherlands, general practice guidelines are issued on shoulder pain and epicondylitis only. Little is known about actual management of the total range of diagnoses. The objectives of the study are: to determine management in patients consulting the GP with a new episode of non-traumatic arm neck and shoulder complaints up to 6 months after the first consultation. To evaluate differences in management between patients with specific diagnoses versus non-specific diagnoses and between specific diagnostic groups. In a prospective cohort study in general practice. We recruited 682 eligible patients. Data on diagnosis, management, patient- and complaint-characteristics were collected. Co-occurrence of treatment options was presented in scaled rectangles. After 6 months, additional diagnostic tests had been performed in 18% of the patients, mainly radiographic examination (14%). Further, 49% had been referred for physiotherapy and 12% to the medical specialist. Patients with specific diagnoses were more frequently referred for specialist treatment, and patients with non-specific diagnoses for physiotherapy. Corticosteroid injections (17%) were mainly applied specific diagnoses (e.g. impingement syndrome, frozen shoulder, carpal tunnel and M. Quervain). Frequencies of prescribed medication (51%) did not differ between specific and non-specific diagnoses. In 19% of the patients no referral, prescribed analgesics or injection was applied. Braces (4%) were mainly prescribed in epicondylitis. Overall, management most frequently consisted of prescribed analgesics and referral for physiotherapy. Specific and non-specific diagnostic subgroups differed in the frequency corticosteroid injections were applied, and referrals to physiotherapy and to a medical specialist.

  12. Influenza C virus high seroprevalence rates observed in 3 different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Mélade, Julien; Pascalis, Hervé; Aherfi, Sarah; Dellagi, Koussay; Charrel, Rémi N; Carrat, Fabrice; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiology of Influenza C virus (FLUCV) infections remains poorly characterised. Here, we have examined the age- and location-specific seroprevalence of antibodies against FLUCV in 1441 sera from metropolitan continental France (Marseille), South-West Indian Ocean French territories (Reunion Island) and United-Kingdom (Edinburgh) using a combination of haemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralisation and ELISA assays. Our results show that immunity to FLUCV is common in all locations studied (global seroprevalence values >50%) and that the first immunising contacts generally occur early in life (i.e., in the 0-4 year-old age group). The latter item is further supported by the detection of FLUCV RNA by RT-PCR in naso-pharyngeal samples collected in patient attending the Emergency Room of the Public hospitals of Marseille, France with a large majority of children under 10 years-old: 17 (60.7%) in children ≤3 yo, 10 (35.7%) in the 4-10 yo age group and 1 (3.6%) in an adult (49yo). The temporal distribution of cases was atypical with regard to influenza (a large proportion of cases occurred in spring and summer) and the clinical presentation was diverse, including but being not limited to classical Influenza-like-Ilnesses. Altogether, our results indicate an intense circulation of FLUCV in the different study areas and an early occurrence of infection in human life. Flu C appears to be a widely under-diagnosed and under-studied human paediatric disease that obviously deserves further clinical and epidemiological characterisation.

  13. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mi Yu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age.ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9% ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female.Gastrointestinal system (34.4%, nervous system (14.4%, and psychiatric (12.1% disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%, anti-inflammatory products (10.5%, analgesics (7.2%, and antibacterials (7.1%. Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001, whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001. Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%, mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6% and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%, respectively.According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups.

  14. Species groups occupying different trophic levels respond differently to the invasion of semi-natural vegetation by Solidago canadensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de M.; Kleijn, D.; Jogan, N.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the impact of the invasive plant species Solidago canadensis on the species richness of vascular plants and the abundance, species richness and diversity of butterflies, hoverflies and carabid beetles in herbaceous semi-natural habitats near Ljubljana, Slovenia. The species groups were sa

  15. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Langen, Carolyn D.; Tonya White; Arfan Ikram, M.; Vernooij, Meike W.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationshi...

  16. Self-Reported Differences in Empowerment Between Lurkers and Posters in Online Patient Support Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van Cornelia F.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; Seydel, Erwin R.; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients who visit online support groups benefit in various ways. Results of our earlier study indicated that participation in online support groups had a profound effect on the participants’ feelings of “being empowered.” However, most studies of online patient support groups have focus

  17. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  18. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Verhelst Rita; Temmerman Marleen; Verstraelen Hans; Cools Piet; Saerens Bart; Claeys Geert; Tency Inge; El Aila Nabil A; Vaneechoutte Mario

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete....

  19. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  20. Detecting the Subtle Shape Differences in Hemodynamic Responses at the Group Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the hemodynamic response (HDR is still not fully understood due to the multifaceted processes involved. Aside from the overall amplitude, the response may vary across cognitive states, tasks, brain regions, and subjects with respect to characteristics such as rise and fall speed, peak duration, undershoot shape, and overall duration. Here we demonstrate that the fixed-shape or adjusted-shape methods may fail to detect some shape subtleties. In contrast, the estimated-shape method (ESM through multiple basis functions can provide the opportunity to identify some subtle shape differences and achieve higher statistical power at both individual and group levels. Previously, some dimension reduction approaches focused on the peak magnitude, or made inferences based on the area under the curve or interaction, which can lead to potential misidentifications. By adopting a generic framework of multivariate modeling (MVM, we showcase a hybrid approach that is validated by simulations and real data. Unlike the few analyses that were limited to main effect, two- or three-way interactions, we extend the approach to an inclusive platform that is more adaptable than the conventional GLM, achieving a practical equipoise among representation, false positive control, statistical power, and modeling flexibility.

  1. ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN CASE OF POLYTRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Pidruchna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background.  Associated injury is a worldwide social and economic problem. Age related aspects of endogenous intoxication are not studied comprehensively. Annually, from 44 000 to 65 000 citizens die because of traumatic injuries. As a result, this number increased by 32.6% for the last 10 years.     The detoxification system, as a component of the functional systems of the organism, experiences significant changes in case of polytrauma. Objective. The study was aimed to discover pathogenetic peculiarities of the multiple trauma in age aspect in different disease periods and to explore the level of endogenous intoxication in this condition. Methods. The experiments were performed on 72 white male rats aged 3, 6 and 12 months, which underwent simulation of severe skeletal trauma and examination of the contents of middle mass molecules and endogenous intoxication index (markers of endogenous intoxication in 1, 4 and 24 hours after the associated injury. Results. The most significant increase of the middle mass molecules was fixed in 24 hours after modeling of severe skeletal injuries in all groups of animals, especially it was the most pronounced in 12-month-old animals. The erythrocyte intoxication index reached the highest level in 4 hours after the injury, its increase was most significant in sexually mature adult animals. Conclusion. A significant increasing of endogenous intoxication markers in 12-month-old rats, if compared to 3- and 6-month-old animals, can be caused by the decrease in compensatory protection mechanisms.

  2. Size of government and entrepreneurship. Analysis of three groups of countries with different economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Díaz Casero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the "size of government" in entrepreneurial activity for countries with different levels of economical development. It has been used the variables "size of government" of the economic freedom indices released by the Economic Freedom Network (2000-2009 and by The Heritage Foundation (2000-2011, and the variables of "entrepreneurship" released by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Furthermore, the same analysis has been carried out grouping the countries by development level, following the classification elaborated by the World Economic Forum. Statistical analyses of correlations have shown that the “size of government” is related to entrepreneurship. The variables "Size of Government: Expenditures, Taxes and Enterprises" and " Government Size” have revealed a positive correlation with the total, opportunity and necessity entrepreneurial activity indices for the economies based on efficiency and innovation, thus less taxes on income and lower government spending, increase the entrepreneurship of the country. In “factor driven economies”, there is no relationship between the size of government and entrepreneurship

  3. Antioxidant and haematological biomarkers in different groups of horses supplemented with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélo, S K M; Diniz, A I A; de Lira, V L; de Oliveira Muniz, S K; da Silva, G R; Manso, H E C da C C; Manso Filho, H C

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been correlated with pathologies that impair the performance of athlete horses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with a mixture of polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E on the antioxidant and haematological biomarkers of horses. Horses under maintenance care (n = 6) and horses in training (n = 10) received 100 and 300 ml of the oil mixture respectively. Supplementation was provided for a period of 8 weeks, together with isocaloric inclusion. Blood samples were collected at three time periods (pretest, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks) to analyse the following: the red blood cell count (RBCc); haemoglobin (Hb); haematocrit (HT); leucocytes; lymphocytes; platelets; the mean corpuscular volume (MCV); the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); the standard deviation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD); the coefficient of variation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-CV); glutathione peroxidase (GPx); superoxide dismutase (SOD); uric acid (UrAc); total plasma proteins (TPP); and creatine kinase (CK). After the 8 weeks of supplementation, animals under maintenance care exhibited significant increases in SOD, UrAc, the white blood cell count (WBCc), the RDW-SD and the RDW-CV (p supplementation with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E increases blood antioxidants among animals under maintenance and in training, with different trends, while contributing to the fight against oxidative stress in each group analysed.

  4. Lending Groups and Different Social Capitals in Developed and Developing Countries

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    Diego A. B. Marconatto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lending groups (LGs and social capital are two central elements to the many microfinance solutions operating around the world. However, LG effectiveness in reducing transaction costs and lending risks for microfinance institutions (MFIs is mediated by institutional environments. Starting from this assumption, we discuss the existent interactions between the institutional environments of developed (Anglo-Saxon and communitarian and developing countries with different stocks of social capital (individual, network and institutional and the influences of this interaction on LG effectiveness. In order to do so, we applied the institutional perspective of O. Williamson to build a theoretical framework to examine the interaction of all these conditions, allowing for analysis of their main relations within the microfinance context. Based on this framework, we propose on the one hand that in developing and Anglo-Saxon developed nations, stocks of both individual and network social capital are the most important for an LG’s effectiveness. However, in Anglo-Saxon countries, these two stocks of social capital are complemented by formal contracting devices. In communitarian developed countries, on the other hand, the stocks of institutional social capital have a stronger positive impact on LG dynamics.

  5. Clinical validation of different echocardiographic motion pictures expert group-4 algorythms and compression levels for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Paolo; Alimento, Marina; Berna, Giovanni; Cavoretto, Dario; Celeste, Fabrizio; Muratori, Manuela; Guazzi, Maurizio D

    2004-01-01

    Tele-echocardiography is not widely used because of lengthy transmission times when using standard Motion Pictures Expert Groups (MPEG)-2 lossy compression algorythms, unless expensive high bandwidth lines are used. We sought to validate the newer MPEG-4 algorythms to allow further reduction in echocardiographic motion video file size. Four cardiologists expert in echocardiography read blindly 165 randomized uncompressed and compressed 2D and color Doppler normal and pathologic motion images. One Digital Video and 3 MPEG-4 compression algorythms were tested, the latter at 3 decreasing compression quality levels (100%, 65% and 40%). Mean diagnostic and image quality scores were computed for each file and compared across the 3 compression levels using uncompressed files as controls. File dimensions decreased from a range of uncompressed 12-83 MB to MPEG-4 0.03-2.3 MB. All algorythms showed mean scores that were not significantly different from uncompressed source, except the MPEG-4 DivX algorythm at the highest selected compression (40%, p=.002). These data support the use of MPEG-4 compression to reduce echocardiographic motion image size for transmission purposes, allowing cost reduction through use of low bandwidth lines.

  6. Comparison of the serum sensitivity of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from different diagnostic groups

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    J. Vraneš,

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal activity of serum caused by complement system is an important defence mechanism protecting the host organism against infection. The capacity to resist bactericidal activity of normal human serum contributes to the virulence of many gram-negative pathogens. Serum resistance in bacteria has been attributed to their surface components, but exact mechanism of resistance which most likely involves multiple factors is not well understood. In this study, the capacity of Escherichia coli to resist the bactericidal action of serum was examined in 85 clinical isolates obtained from patients with acute pyelonephritis (n=23, acute cystitis (n=22, chronic pyelonephritis (n=22 and asymptomatic bacteriuria (n=18. Serum sensitivity was also examined in relation to the serogroup specificity and expression of the different adhesins of the strains.Bacterial susceptibility to serum killing was measured by assessing regrowth after incubation in serum according to Schiller and Hatch method. The adhesins of E. coli were determined by hemagglutination and inhibition of hemagglutiation, and serotyping was performed on glass slides and confirmed using a mechanized microtechnique.The significant correlation between serum resistance of uropathogenic strains of E. coli and expression of P-fimbriae and O6 serogroup was observed.Theincidence of serum-resistant E. coli strains was significantly higher in strains isolated from urine of patients with acute pyelonephritis, as compared to strains isolated in other diagnostic groups, which is in accordance with higher virulence and invasive potential of these strains.

  7. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in different patient groups of a urban university in Brazil

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    José Hermôgenes Rocco Suassuna

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought for etndence of previous CMV infection in patients of a general hospital serving the low income population of Rio de Janeiro. An enzyme immunoassay was used to detect anti-CMV antibodies in 713 typical hospital patients classified into eight different groups. Positive tests were found in 87% of pregnant women, 85% of newborns, 61% of pediatric patients, 77% of adolescent patients, 81% of adult patients, 87% of dialysed transplant candidates, 89% of kidney donors, and 92% of patients after transplantation. Depending of the subgroup studied these results carry different meanings and necessitate different clinical approaches. The risk of congenital disease is probably low in view of the reduced number of pregnant women still susceptible to primary infection. The number of primary infections will also be low in transplant recipients. However, those still susceptible will almost certainly acquire the infection from, their donor. Prophylactic CMV matching in kidney transplantation is not a realistic approach due to the low probability of finding pairs of seronegative donors and recipients.Evidência de infecção passada por citomegalovírus foi pesquisada em pacientes de um hospital que serve à população de baixa renda na cidade do Rio de faneiro. Realizou-se, com um imunoensaio enzimãtico, a pesquisa de anticoipos anti-CMV em 713 pacientes hospitalares, divididos em oito grupos. As taxas observadas foram 87% para grávidas, 85% para recém-natos, 61% para pacientes pediátricos, 77% para adolescentes e 81% para adultos, 87% para pacientes em diálise, 89% para doadores de rim e 92% para pacientes após o transplante renal. Estes resultados têm diferentes significados e implicam em diferentes abordagens clínicas dependendo do subgrupo estudado. O risco de infecção congênita provavelmente é baixo devido ao reduzido número de mulheres grávidas ainda susceptíveis a infecções primárias. Pelo mesmo motivo, o número de

  8. Do structured arrangements for multidisciplinary peer group supervision make a difference for allied health professional outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pim Kuipers,1,2 Susan Pager,1 Karen Bell,3 Fiona Hall,4 Melissa Kendall2,5,6 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Community Science, School of Human Services, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 3Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Queensland, Australia; 4Allied Health Professions Office of Queensland, Health Service and Innovation Division, Queensland, Australia; 5Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6Transitional Rehabilitation Programme, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Peer group supervision, particularly in multidisciplinary formats, presents a potential means of providing professional support, and specifically clinical supervision, for allied health professionals. Debate exists regarding the extent to which the activities of these groups should be formalized. Results drawn from an evaluation of a large-scale peer group supervision initiative are described. Analysis of 192 responses from professionals involved in peer groups indicates that participants in groups that used formal documentation – which adopted the tools provided in training, and particularly those that used formal evaluation of their groups – rated their groups as having better processes and greater impact. Interestingly, multidisciplinary peer groups were rated as having similar impacts, processes, and purposes as the more homogenous single-discipline groups. It is concluded that the implementation of formal arrangements enhances the processes and outcomes of peer groups implemented for professional support and clinical supervision. Multidisciplinary membership of such groups is perceived as equally beneficial as single-discipline groups. Keywords: allied health, professional supervision, clinical supervision, professional support, multidisciplinary

  9. The differences between Groupon and other group-buying intermediaries: : from transactional and relational coordination perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yijing; Wu, Qiongshen

    2011-01-01

    Groupon is a popular group-buying website offering daily deals and has experiencedfast growth. It has attracted amounts of imitators and they sprang up all over the world.We treat this phenomenon by taking Groupon as an intermediary executing coordinationbetween merchants and customers in the group-buying activities. To see the particularpractices of Groupon in operating transactional and relational coordination mechanisms,we collect diverse group-buying forms from the earliest buying club si...

  10. A social work study on emotional intelligence among different groups of people how are addicted to drugs

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    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction has become serious problem among many developing countries. Many young people become addicted to different toxicated materials and as a result, they cannot contribute to their society. They lose any employment opportunity, cannot continue their education and lose their healthcare. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure emotional intelligence among different groups of people who were addicted to drugs. The study distributes a questionnaire among three groups consists of 117 questions and 15 scales. The first group of the survey is under community-based treatment, the second group includes the people who are members of a community with unknown identification and the third group covers outpatient patient who receive medication. The results of our survey indicate the level of emotional intelligence among the first group of our study is much more than the other groups.

  11. Chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of indigenous pasture plants in different plant groups (Preliminary report

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    Torstein H. Garmo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Several plant species from the following plant groups: ferns + horsetails, lichens, conifers (juniper, three leaves (Salix spp., Betula spp., Populus tremula, Sorbus aucuparid, heathers, grassens, rushes/sedges and forbs were collected in a mountain area of southerns Norway during the growing season from the 15th of June up to the 15th of September the years 1982 — 1984. Mean values (% of dry matter of the different chemical constituents and in vitro dry matter digestibility of the different plant groups sampled throughout the growing season are given in Table 2. The mean crude protein content varied from 4.1% in lichens up to 17.5% in forbs; the crude fat were lowest for rushes/sedges (1.9% and highest in juniper (13.3%; the crude fibre varied from 14.1% to 26.1% of three leaves and grasses, respectively; NFE showed lowest values for grasses (54% and highest in lichens (74%. Ferns + horsetails contained the greatest (13.3% and lichens the lowest (1.9% amount of ash of the different plant groups. The levels of the macrominerals calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium were all lowest in lichens (0.15; 0.09; 0.05; 0.13% and highest in the forbs (1.19; 0.36; 0.37; 1.65%. Sodium levels varied from 0.029% in the heathers to 0.116% of ferns + horsetails. The forbs showed the highest mean in vitro dry matter digestibility (69% and lichens the lowest (35%. However, the in vitro method (using sheep rumen inoculum probably underestimates the dry matter digestibility of lichens, three leaves, juniper and heathers. Great variations in most of the chemical constituents as well as in vitro dry matter digestibility throughout the growing season for the different plant groups were demonstrated (Table 2. Keywords: nutrients, macrominerals, digestibility, livestock, wild ruminants, native pastures.Kjemisk innhald og in vitro fordøyelsesgrad av planter innan ulike plantegrupper frå fjellbeite (Førebels rapport.Abstract in Norwwegian / Samandrag: Ulike

  12. Differences in intracellular fate of two spotted fever group Rickettsia in macrophage-like cells

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    Pedro Curto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (R. conorii and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R. rickettsii. Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. These studies raise the hypothesis that the role of macrophages in rickettsial pathogenesis may have been underappreciated. Herein, we evaluated the ability of two SFG rickettsial species, R. conorii (a recognized human pathogen and R. montanensis (a non-virulent member of SFG to proliferate in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, or within non-phagocytic cell lines. Our results demonstrate that R. conorii was able to survive and proliferate in both phagocytic and epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, R. montanensis was able to grow in non-phagocytic cells, but was drastically compromised in the ability to proliferate within both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, association assays revealed that R. montanensis was defective in binding to THP-1-derived macrophages; however, the invasion of the bacteria that are able to adhere did not appear to be affected. We have also demonstrated that R. montanensis which entered into THP-1-derived macrophages were rapidly destroyed and partially co-localized with LAMP-2 and cathepsin D, two markers of lysosomal compartments. In contrast, R. conorii was present as intact bacteria and free in the cytoplasm in both cell types. These findings suggest that a phenotypic difference between a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic SFG member lies in their respective ability to proliferate in macrophage-like cells, and may provide an explanation as to why certain SFG rickettsial species are not associated with

  13. Effect of Cu toxicity at different salinity on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU You-jun; LI Jia-er; CAI Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Effects of copper toxicity and salinity shock on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus were investigated. The fish were exposed to different Cu2+ concentrations of 0 (blank), 0.02 (C1), 0.05 (C2), 0.10 (C3), and 0.15 mg·L-1 (C4) at a salinity of 10‰ or 40‰ for 96 h, with the salinity of 29‰ as the control. The results showed that the effects of the acute salinity stimulation to survival rates of pompano between control (29‰) and lower or higher salinity for 96 h were not significant (p>0.05). However, the survival rates in each treatment were decreased with the increase of Cu2+concentration. The dominant factor influencing body moisture of the fish was salinity, and there was no sign that body moisture was correlated with exposure to Cu2+. The gill lamellas in high level of Cu2+concentration (C4 treatments) were abnormal under the salinity of 40‰ and extremely curly under the salinity of 10‰. Hemorrhage in gill was observed in the two C4 treatments. Under transmission electron microscope, pillar cells in gill lamellas appeared deformed and ruptured in some areas of the epithelia in the higher concentration of Cu2+, resulting in the death of the fish due to the destruction of gill tissue, elevation of the arithmetic mean distance from water to blood, the decrease of oxygen diffusion capacity, and other physiological functions. These findings indicate that the pompano might suffer much more pressure when encountered with Cu2+ pollution and low salinity.

  14. Differences in Intracellular Fate of Two Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Macrophage-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, Pedro; Simões, Isaura; Riley, Sean P.; Martinez, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (Rickettsia conorii) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii). Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. These studies raise the hypothesis that the role of macrophages in rickettsial pathogenesis may have been underappreciated. Herein, we evaluated the ability of two SFG rickettsial species, R. conorii (a recognized human pathogen) and Rickettsia montanensis (a non-virulent member of SFG) to proliferate in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, or within non-phagocytic cell lines. Our results demonstrate that R. conorii was able to survive and proliferate in both phagocytic and epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, R. montanensis was able to grow in non-phagocytic cells, but was drastically compromised in the ability to proliferate within both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, association assays revealed that R. montanensis was defective in binding to THP-1-derived macrophages; however, the invasion of the bacteria that are able to adhere did not appear to be affected. We have also demonstrated that R. montanensis which entered into THP-1-derived macrophages were rapidly destroyed and partially co-localized with LAMP-2 and cathepsin D, two markers of lysosomal compartments. In contrast, R. conorii was present as intact bacteria and free in the cytoplasm in both cell types. These findings suggest that a phenotypic difference between a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic SFG member lies in their respective ability to proliferate in macrophage-like cells, and may provide an explanation as to why certain SFG rickettsial species are not associated

  15. Impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in different ethnic groups: calculating population attributable fractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Oteng-Ntim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To quantify the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to maternal obesity. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of routine obstetric dataset. SETTING: Guy's and St Thomas's NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT. POPULATION: 23,668 women who had singleton deliveries at GSTFT between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between BMI and outcome in different ethnic groups. Adjusted odds ratios, and the proportions of obese women, were used to calculate population attributable risk fractions (PAFs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (I MATERNAL OUTCOMES: diabetes, type of delivery, post-partum haemorrhage, and preterm delivery. (ii Perinatal outcomes: macrosomia, low birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care/special care baby unit, and perinatal death. RESULTS: The prevalence of maternal obesity was 14%. Increasing BMI was independently associated with increasing risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. At the individual level, the effect of obesity on diabetes was highest in Asian women compared to white women (p for interaction = 0.03. Calculation of population attributable risk fractions demonstrated that one third of diabetes cases and one in six Caesarean sections could be avoided in this population if all obese women were of normal BMI. At the population level, the contribution of obesity to diabetes was highest for Black women (42%, and lowest for oriental women (8%. Seven percent of neonatal macrosomia in all the population, and 13% in Black mothers, were attributable to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing obesity prior to pregnancy will substantially reduce the burden of obstetric and neonatal morbidity in this population. This reduction will be higher in Black women.

  16. Age Difference and Face-Saving in an Inter-Generational Problem-Based Learning Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate whether learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) group was influenced by student demographic diversity. Data comprised observations, in the form of video footage, of one first-year PBL group carried out over the period of an academic year, along with student interviews. Using the…

  17. The Effects of Different Leadership Styles on Group Performance: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Anthony Joseph, III

    This study tested Fiedler's contingency model of leadership effectiveness on 86 nursing students in a large midwestern hospital. Fourteen individuals representing the task oriented and relationship-oriented leadership styles and two levels of sociometric status were randomly designated as leaders for small groups. The groups worked on five…

  18. Speaking Fluently And Accurately

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    Even after many years of study,students make frequent mistakes in English. In addition, many students still need a long time to think of what they want to say. For some reason, in spite of all the studying, students are still not quite fluent.When I teach, I use one technique that helps students not only speak more accurately, but also more fluently. That technique is dictations.

  19. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

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    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    sample size for statistical analysis.Results: The nonparametric analysis correctly classified 81% of the sample. Dysrhythmic patterns, decreased delta, and increased beta differentiated AD from controls. Shorter ERP latencies were found in several individual patients, mostly from the OCD group. Hyperactivities were found at the right frontorbital-striatal network in OCD and at the panic circuit in PD.Conclusions: Our findings support diffuse cortical instability in AD in general, with individual differences in information processing deficits and regional hyperactivities in OCD and PD. Study limitations and the rationale behind the variable selection and combination strategy will be discussed before addressing the therapeutic implications of our findings. Keywords: anxiety disorders, dysrhythmic, epileptiform, ERP, EEG, LORETA

  20. Differences in anticipated interaction drive own group biases in face memory.

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    John Paul Wilson

    Full Text Available According to much research, the Own Group Bias (OGB in face memory occurs as a consequence of social categorization - ingroup members are more likely than outgroup members to be encoded as individuals and remembered well. The current work is an examination of the role of anticipated future interaction in the OGB. We conducted two studies showing that anticipated interaction influences group-based face memory. In Study 1, we provided correlational evidence that beliefs about the amount and importance of future interaction one will have with racial outgroup members is associated with the OGB, such that people expecting more interaction with outgroup members show a reduced OGB. In Study 2, we manipulated expectations about future interactions with lab-created groups and observed that high levels of anticipated future interaction with the outgroup eliminated the OGB. Thus, social group categorization drives face memory biases to the extent that group membership affords the expectation of interpersonal interaction.

  1. Differences in anticipated interaction drive own group biases in face memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John Paul; See, Pirita E; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt; Chartier, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    According to much research, the Own Group Bias (OGB) in face memory occurs as a consequence of social categorization - ingroup members are more likely than outgroup members to be encoded as individuals and remembered well. The current work is an examination of the role of anticipated future interaction in the OGB. We conducted two studies showing that anticipated interaction influences group-based face memory. In Study 1, we provided correlational evidence that beliefs about the amount and importance of future interaction one will have with racial outgroup members is associated with the OGB, such that people expecting more interaction with outgroup members show a reduced OGB. In Study 2, we manipulated expectations about future interactions with lab-created groups and observed that high levels of anticipated future interaction with the outgroup eliminated the OGB. Thus, social group categorization drives face memory biases to the extent that group membership affords the expectation of interpersonal interaction.

  2. Differences in mortality between different groups of older migrants and non-migrants in Belgium, 2001 to 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus-Pons, Matias; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Janssen, Fanny; Kibele, Eva U.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: European societies are rapidly ageing and becoming multicultural, and Belgium is part of the countries ahead in this transition. Differences in mortality between migrants and non-migrants in Europe have been shown to depend on age, sex, socio-economic status, migrant background and count

  3. Selective incivility: immigrant groups experience subtle workplace discrimination at different rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Franciska; Johnston, Claire; Binggeli, Steve; Maggiori, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Immigrants play an increasingly important role in local labor markets. Not only do they grow steadily in number but also in cultural, educational, and skill diversity, underlining the necessity to distinguish between immigrant groups when studying discrimination against immigrants. We examined immigrant employees' subtle discrimination experiences in a representative sample in Switzerland, controlling for dispositional influences. Results showed that mainly members of highly competitive immigrant groups, from immediate neighbor countries, experienced workplace incivility and that these incivility experiences were related to higher likelihoods of perceived discrimination at work. This research confirms recent accounts that successful but disliked groups are particularly likely to experience subtle interpersonal discrimination.

  4. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF TEMPERATURE RESPONSES OF CARIBBEAN SEAWEEDS FROM DIFFERENT BIOGEOGRAPHIC GROUPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAKKER, H; BREEMAN, AM; VANREINE, WFP; VANDENHOEK, C

    1995-01-01

    Temperature tolerances were determined for Caribbean isolates (total 31) of seaweeds belonging to three distributional groups: 1) species confined to the tropical western Atlantic (Botryocladia spinulifera, Chamaedoris peniculum, Cladophoropsis sundanensis, Dictyopteris justii, Dictyurus occidentali

  5. Group differences in fairness perceptions and decision making in voting rights cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Angela P; Thomas, Ewart A C

    2006-10-01

    Participants recruited from one Historically Black University (HBU) and two predominantly White higher-education institutions evaluated and decided simulated voting rights case summaries in which the plaintiff was either a racially-defined (African American) or a nonracially-defined (farmers) minority group. Contrary to social identity and social justice findings of an in-group bias, the present study showed greater support at all institutions for the voting rights of the African Americans than for the rural farmers, and the greatest support for both minority groups was found at the HBU. Perceived evidence strength was a better predictor of decisions than perceived unfairness, and both of these predictor variables completely mediated the effects of institution-type and involvement of a racially-defined group on decisions.

  6. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

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    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  7. LABORATORY TESTING RESULTS ANALYSIS OF GIARDIASIS PREVALENCE AMONG DIFFERENT POPULATION GROUPS IN THE NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT

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    N. S. Bobyreva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nenets Autonomous District (NAD refers to the territories of the Russia’s Far North. The country is the only region of Russia, where there are still no roads. The extreme weather conditions, as well as residential patterns in the NAD reduce the availability of specialized medical care, as indigenous people and other nationalities living in the district, which requires the use of health care management specific forms. The article presents data on giardiasis studies amongst different categories of the NAD population, obtained as a result of the population surveys in remote regions of the Russian Federation Arctic zone. Samples studied were serum and faecal emulsion. The study used the following laboratory methods: for serum — Giardia lamblia antibody screening method using ELISA kit, emulsion stool — native smear microscopy analysis, the method of enrichment using disposable concentrators «Parasep» immunological diagnostic methods based on the detection of specific lamblia antigen in faeces using ELISA kits. For statistics was used descriptive statistics analysis (mean values, the percentage error of the mean, the construction of the trend line with program SPSS 20.00, Excel 2010, the method of analysis of official statistical reporting hospitals survey on giardiasis, data of Rospotrebnadzor (Russian Sanitary service for NAD and data from own research from 2002 to 2013. Just in the process of research carried out research on the 10 356 giardiasis, registered diseases by 3470 cases of giardiasis, accounting for 99.14% of the total number of protozoonosises registered and 37.4% of all registered in the NAD parasitosis. The comparison was made among the population of the county towns, home to both the indigenous people, nomadic, and representatives of other ethnic groups, sedentary with urban population of the city of Naryan-Mar. The article analyzes the incidence rates for giardiasis according to district official statistical reporting

  8. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection in different age groups of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Singh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hepatitis A is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the pediatric age group and the most common cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF among children in India. Hepatitis A is a waterborne disease. High endemicity obviates the need for vaccine in the community. Aims: We studied 116 children in the outpatient department (OPD to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV, total antibodies, and the effect of various demographic and water sanitation variables on it. Settings and Design: Children attending the pediatric OPD with minor problems in a medical college hospital were chosen for this study. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and seroepidemiologic investigative study. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of randomly selected children were collected and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test was done for the detection of total anti-HAV antibodies, [both immunoglobulin M (IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG], using a commercially available ELISA kit. "Dia.Pro" (Diagnostic Bioprobes srl via Columella n° 31 20128 Millano, Italy. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test using Epi Info software 3.5.4 version (2012 [Center for disease control and prevention (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia (USA]. Results: Seroprevalence in children from the upper social class was 54.5% versus 87.2% in the lower social class (P = 0.00075. 90.9% of the children with rural background were seropositive compared to 77.1% of children with urban background. The mother′s education above and below secondary level had a seropositivity for HAV in children up to 69.23% and 87.1%, respectively. The method of water treatment using boiled water, mechanical filtration, filtration plus ultraviolet (UV light treatment, and no treatment had a seropositivity of 50.0%, 83.33%, 37.5%, and 84%, respectively, (P = 0.0036. Seropositivity was the highest when the water source was municipal bore well pipeline (88

  9. Factors That Are Associated With Physical Activity Among Visitors To Urban National Parks: Are There Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    physical activity in women from diverse racial/ethnic groups: The Women’s Cardiovascular Health Network Project-- summary and conclusions. American...study of correlates of physical activity in women from diverse racial/ethnic groups: The Women’s Cardiovascular Health Network Project-- summary and... Physical Activity Among Visitors To Urban National Parks: Are There Group Differences? Juleon Rabbani, M.P.H. Doctor of Public Health 2015

  10. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn D Langen

    Full Text Available Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1 middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2 patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  11. Differences in outcomes between GOLD groups in patients with COPD in the TIOSPIR® trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusser D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Dusser,1 Robert A Wise,2 Ronald Dahl,3 Antonio Anzueto,4,5 Kerstine Carter,6 Andy Fowler,7 Peter M Calverley8 1Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; 2Asthma and Allergy Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark; 4Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Texas, 5South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 6Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 7Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma Ltd, Bracknell, UK; 8Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK  Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification could predict mortality risk factors and whether baseline treatment intensity would relate to mortality within each group, using data from TIOSPIR®, the largest randomized clinical trial in COPD performed to date.Methods: A total of 17,135 patients from TIOSPIR® were pooled and grouped by GOLD grading (A–D according to baseline Medical Research Council breathlessness score, exacerbation history, and spirometry. All-cause mortality and adjudicated cardiovascular (CV and respiratory mortality were assessed.Results: Of the 16,326 patients classified, 1,248 died on treatment. Group B patients received proportionally more CV treatment at baseline. CV mortality risk, but not all-cause mortality risk, was significantly higher in Group B than Group C patients (CV mortality – hazard ratio [HR] =1.74, P=0.004; all-cause mortality – HR =1.18, P=0.11. Group D patients had a higher incidence of all-cause mortality than Group B patients (10.9% vs 6.6%. Similar trends were observed regardless of respiratory or CV medication at baseline. In contrast, respiratory deaths increased consistently from Groups A–D (0.3%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 4.2% of

  12. Understanding obstacles to the recognition of and response to dementia in different European countries: a modified focus group approach using multinational, multi-disciplinary expert groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliffe, S; De Lepeleire, J; Van Hout, H; Kenny, G; Lewis, A; Vernooij-Dassen, M

    2005-01-01

    Experts from eight European countries (Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom) and the disciplines of clinical psychology, general practice, geriatric medicine, old age psychiatry, medical sociology, nursing and voluntary body organisation met in 2003 to explore obstacles to recognition of and response to dementia in general practice within Europe. A modified focus group methodology was used in this exploratory process. Groups were conducted over a two-day period, with five sessions lasting 1-1.5 hours each. An adapted nominal group method was used to record themes arising from the group discussion, and these themes were used in a grounded theory approach to generate explanations for delayed recognition of and response to dementia. The overarching theme that arose from the focus groups was movement, which had three different expressions. These were: population movement and its consequences for localities, services and professional experience; the journey of the person with dementia along the disease process; and the referral pathway to access services and support. Change is the core issue in dementia care, with multiple pathways of change that need to be understood at clinical and organisational levels. Practitioners and people with dementia are engaged in managing emotional, social and physical risks, making explicit risk management a potentially important component of dementia care. The boundary between generalist and specialist services is a particular problem, with great potential for dysfunctionality. Stigma and ageism are variably distributed phenomena both within and between countries.

  13. Detection of Babesia bigemina in cattle of different genetic groups and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M C S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Regitano, L C A; Alencar, M M; Néo, T A; Silva, A M; Oliveira, H N

    2008-08-17

    Babesia bigemina infections were investigated in four genetic groups of beef cattle and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus engorged female ticks. Blood samples and engorged female ticks were collected from 15 cows and 15 calves from each of the following genetic groups: Nelore, Angus x Nelore, Canchim x Nelore, and Simmental x Nelore. Microscopic examination of blood smears and tick hemolymph revealed that merozoites of B. bigemina (6/60) as well as kinetes of Babesia spp. (9/549) were only detected in samples (blood and ticks, respectively) originated from calves. PCR-based methods using primers for specific detection of B. bigemina revealed 100% infection in both calves and cows, regardless the genetic group. Tick infection was detected by nested-PCR amplifications showing that the frequency of B. bigemina was higher (P0.05).

  14. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in beef cattle of different genetic groups in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M C S; Alencar, M M; Chagas, A C S; Giglioti, R; Oliveira, H N

    2009-12-23

    Resistance to natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes was compared in 67 female calves of the following genetic groups: Nelore (NX); 1/2 Senepol+1/2 Nelore (SN); and 1/2 Aberdeen Angus+1/2 Nelore (AN). The NX (n=26), SN (n=23) and AN (n=18) animals were monitored for 14 months, during which they remained without treatment, allowed to graze in a tropical environment. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG), coprocultures and packed cell volume (PCV) were carried out monthly. No significant effects of the interaction between the genetic groups and month/year of collection and the genetic group on the EPG were found, but there was a significant influence of the month of collection (Px Bos indicus crossbreeds can be a good strategy to reduce the use of chemical control in Brazil.

  15. Brain Size, IQ, and Racial-Group Differences: Evidence from Musculoskeletal Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Rushton, Elizabeth W.

    2003-01-01

    Correlated brain size differences with 37 musculoskeletal variables shown in evolutionary textbooks to change with brain size. Findings from a sample of more than 6,000 U.S. military personnel indicate that racial differences in brain size are securely established and are the most likely biological mediators of race differences in intelligence.…

  16. Testing Latent Mean Differences between Observed and Unobserved Groups Using Multilevel Factor Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allua, Shane; Stapleton, Laura M.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2008-01-01

    When assessing latent mean differences, researchers frequently do not explore possible heterogeneity within their data sets. Sources of differences may be functions of a nested data structure or heterogeneity in the form of unobserved classes of observations defined by a difference in factor means. In this study, the use of multilevel structural…

  17. Differences of serum parathyroid hormone levels and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study,the differences of serum parathyroid hormone(PTH)and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas were investigated.Methods Inhabitants over the age of 16 years old in Inner Mongolia,Qinghai and Xinjiang were investigated.The questionnaire survey included basic information,dietary survey

  18. Power of the muscular group's taekwondokas of the different qualification in steady-state mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saienko Vladimir Grigor'evich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Data are given meaningful totals display of force the muscle groups in athletes in the static mode. Displaying characteristics of muscle groups, hands (7, legs (5, trunk (2.The experiment involved 110 athletes (1-5 years experience training, age - 14-25 years old. Quantitative indicators, which reflect the individual level of informative power trained athletes. The optimum parameters of power qualities of athletes. Recommended use in training of special methods of strength training (isometric, concentric, eccentric, plyometric, isokinetic. In training must take into account the resistance, speed, joint angles, number of repetitions of the same approach.

  19. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  20. Oral health and dental behaviour in 11-year-old children of different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was first, to assess the oral health of 11-year-old children in four ethnic groups in Amsterdam; second, to assess their dental behaviour and third, to identify potential determinants of frequency of toothbrushing. Representative samples of 97 Surinamese, 209 Moroccan, 128 Turkish

  1. Cultural Differences in how an Engagement-Seeking Robot should Approach a Group of People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel; Poppe, Ronald; Lohse, Manja; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by “being there”. Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man’s use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot’s approaching groups of peop

  2. Cultural differences in how an engagement-seeking robot should approach a group of people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel P.; Poppe, Ronald; Lohse, Manja; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by "being there". Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man's use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot's approaching groups of peop

  3. Printing properties of the red reactive dyes with different number sulfonate groups on cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Li, Min; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-30

    Cellulose fabric is an important printing substrate. Four red azo reactive dyes based on 1-naphthol-8-amino-3,6-disulfonic acid for cotton fabric printing were designed. Their UV-Vis spectra and printing properties for cotton were investigated. The relationship between the chemical structures of the dyes and their printing properties on cotton fabric was discussed. The results show that the color yield (K/S) values of the printed fabrics decreased with the increase of sulfonate groups, but the fixation and penetration of the reactive dyes on cotton fabric increased. The reactive dyes with fewer number sulfonate groups were sensitive to alkaline and urea. Whereas, the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups were not sensitive to urea and had good leveling properties, penetration uniformity, and good wet fastness for cotton fabric. Surface wettability of all cotton fabrics printed with four dyes was excellent. It is possible to print cotton fabric urea-free using the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups.

  4. The Effect of Group Differences among Church-Related Youth in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the influence of nationality, ethnicity, language, and beliefs on priority concerns among church related college students in Indonesia (N=122), Malaysia and Singapore (N=341). Results confirm the importance of traditional values with less agreement between groups about peers and adults. Implications for counselors are discussed. (JAC)

  5. Group Projects Using Clients versus Not Using Clients: Do Students Perceive Any Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Amy L.; Lepkowska-White, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Today's educators are faced with the challenge of preparing undergraduate students to be productive employees who can communicate effectively, work well in teams, and solve problems, as well as demonstrate content knowledge. Group projects are one tool that educators can use to help students develop these key skills. Educators may be tempted to…

  6. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18–60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012–3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097–2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466–0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205–0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532–0.932) were protective (p mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers.

  7. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A nationwi

  8. Differences in outcomes between GOLD groups in patients with COPD in the TIOSPIR® trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusser, Daniel; Wise, Robert A; Dahl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification could predict mortality risk factors and whether baseline treatment intensity would relate to mortality within each group, using data from TIOSPIR(®), the largest...

  9. Perceived barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in older women of different racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, K C; Brown, D R; Blanton, C J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether barriers to exercise differ among racial/ethnic groups at the same stage of exercise adoption and adjacent stages within racial/ethnic groups. Questions about stage of exercise adoption and perceived barriers to exercise were administered to a cross sectional sample of 745 African American, 660 Hispanic, 738 Native American/Native Alaskan, and 769 Caucasian U.S. women aged 40 years and older. Correlations between rankings of barriers among racial/ethnic groups within the same stage ranged from .43 to .89. For each racial/ethnic group, significant differences existed between adjacent stages in the percentage of women reporting barriers to interfere with exercise (p < .10). Barriers were not similar enough among racial/ethnic groups to recommend that the same barriers be addressed for all races/ethnicities.

  10. Obstetrical outcome valuations by patients, professionals, and laypersons: differences within and between groups using three valuation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijlenga Denise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making can be based on treatment preferences of the patient, the doctor, or by guidelines based on lay people's preferences. We compared valuations assigned by three groups: patients, obstetrical care professionals, and laypersons, for health states involving both mother and (unborn child. Our aim was to compare the valuations of different groups using different valuation methods and complex obstetric health outcome vignettes that involve both maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods Patients (n = 24, professionals (n = 30, and laypersons (n = 27 valued the vignettes using three valuation methods: visual analogue scale (VAS, time trade-off (TTO, and discrete choice experimentation (DCE. Each vignette covered five health attributes: maternal health ante partum, time between diagnosis and delivery, process of delivery, maternal outcome, and neonatal outcome. We used feasibility questionnaires, Generalization theory, test-retest reliability and within-group reliability to compare the valuation patterns between groups and methods. We assessed relative weights from each valuation method to test for consistency across groups. Results Test-retest reliability was equal across groups, but different across methods: highest for VAS (ICC = 0.61-0.73, intermediate for TTO (ICC = 0.24-0.74 and lowest for DCE (kappa = 0.15-0.37. Within-group reliability was highest in all groups with VAS (ICC = 0.70-0.73, intermediate with DCE (kappa = 0.56-0.76 and lowest with TTO (ICC = 0.20-0.66. Effects of groups were smaller than effects of methods. Differences between groups were largest for severe health states. Conclusion Based on our results, decision making among laypersons should use TTO or DCE; patients should use VAS or TTO.

  11. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573) PMID:26020392

  12. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573).

  13. Constructing "behavioral" comparison groups: A difference-in-difference analysis of the effect of copayment based on the patient's price elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chaohsin; Hsu, Shuofen

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that the differences-in-differences (DD) estimator is based on the assumption that in the absence of treatment, the average outcomes for the treated group and the control group will follow a common trend over time. That can be problematic, especially when the selection for the treatment is influenced by the individual's unobserved behavior correlating with the medical utilization. The aim of this study was to develop an index for controlling a patient's unobserved heterogeneous response to reform, in order to improve the comparability of treatment assignment. This study showed that a DD estimator of the reform effects can be decomposed into effects induced by moral hazard and by changes in health risk within the same treated/untreated group. This article also presented evidence that the constructed index of the price elasticity of the adjusted clinical group has good statistical properties for identifying the impact of reform.

  14. A Filifactor alocis-centered co-occurrence group associates with periodontitis across different oral habitats

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent polymicrobial disease worldwide, yet the synergistic pattern of the multiple oral pathogens involved is still poorly characterized. Here, saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque samples from periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy volunteers were collected and profiled with 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Different oral habitats harbored significantly different microbiota, and segregation of microbiota composition between periodontitis and healt...

  15. Disparities in survival of stomach cancer among different socioeconomic groups in North-East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Ester J. M.; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Mulder, Nanno H.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Survival differences in stomach cancer are depended on patient, tumour and treatment factors. Some populations are more prone to develop stomach cancer, such as people with low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this population based study was to assess whether differences in socioec

  16. Yersinia ruckeri biotype 2 isolates from mainland Europe and the UK likely represent different clonal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wheeler, Richard W.; Davies, Robert L.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2009-01-01

    different pulsotypes, suggesting that they represented different clones that may have emerged separately. Danish biotype 2 isolates recovered since 1995 were indistinguishable by PFGE from the dominant biotype 1 clone responsible for the majority of outbreaks in Denmark and the rest of mainland Europe...

  17. Differences in Intracellular Fate of Two Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia in Macrophage-Like Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Curto; Isaura Simoes; Riley, Sean P; Juan Jose Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (Rickettsia conorii) and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii). Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickett...

  18. GPU-Acceleration of Parallel Unconditionally Stable Group Explicit Finite Difference Method

    OpenAIRE

    Parand, K.; Zafarvahedian, Saeed; Hossayni, Sayyed A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are high performance co-processors originally intended to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Once, researchers and practitioners noticed the potential of using GPU for general purposes, GPUs applications have been extended from graphics applications to other fields. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in solution of the transient diffusion type equation by parallel and stable group explicit finite...

  19. Digital divide: Use of electronic personal health record by different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Hun; Kim, Yongmin

    2010-01-01

    Personal Health Record (PHR) has been increasingly recognized and actively promoted by the federal government, experts and industry as an important tool for improving healthcare in the U.S. However, the PHR use by patients and its utility have not been studied well. We have evaluated a web-based PHR in multiple locations covering diverse population groups. The study sites included a surgical specialty clinic, a medical specialty clinic, and a mental health clinic at the University of Washington, and a low-income elderly housing facility near Seattle in the state of Washington. The PHR use by the low-income elderly was limited due to poor technical skills and low physical/cognitive abilities. On the other hand, the younger and affluent populations used the web-based PHR much easily and efficiently compared to the older and low-income group. They regarded managing personal health information easy while the older group struggled. As more computer literate individuals age, the next-generation elderly are certain to be more technically skilled than the current generation. Although the reduced physical/cognitive abilities due to aging would still be a challenge, more elderly people will be able to not only use a PHR system but also use it to the full extent to get the maximum benefit.

  20. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, C.D.; White, T.; Ikram, M.A.; Vernooij, M.W.; Niessen, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significan

  1. Comparison of the Standard and Reliability of the Assessments of Practical Scientific Skills Using Groups of Different Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J. I.; Seddon, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates differences in marking standard and reliability when experienced teachers carried out assessments of the performance on practical exercises. The results showed that there was no difference between the assessments from the groups containing 5 and 20 students. (Author/YP)

  2. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Hayat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious health problem in the developing countries including Pakistan. Various risk factors are responsible for the spread of this infectious disease. Prevalence of HBV infection in apparently suspected individual of Punjab province of Pakistan was analyzed during January 2008 to December 2010. Current study was aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of HBV infection. Methodology Four thousand eight hundred and ninety patients suffering from chronic liver disease were screened for the presence of HBV DNA using qualitative Real Time PCR methodology to confirm their status of infection. A predesigned standard questionnaire was filled for all the patients that included information about the possible risk factors. Results A total of 4890 ELISA positive patients were screened for Hepatitis B virus infection. Of these 3143 were positive for HBV, includes 68.15% males and 31.85% females. Male were observed to be more frequently infected as compared to the female with a positivity ratio of 2.14: 1. The rate of infection increases with the passage of time in the course of three years. Highest frequency of infection was found in the age of 21-30 was 34.93% followed by 23.83% in 31-40. Only (13.39% were belonging to the age group 11-20 year. The rate of infection declines with increasing age as shown by age groups 41-50 (16.13% and 51-60 (7.09%. While children aged 0-10 and very old >60 age groups were very less frequently 1.49% and 1.65% infected respectively. Important risk factors contributing to HBV spread include barber risk (23.60%, blood transfusion (4.04%, History of injection 26.19%, Reuse of syringes 26.60%, dental risk (11.20% and surgical procedure (4.26%. Among the entire respondents trend sharing personal items was very common. History of injection, barber risk, surgery and dental procedure and reuse of syringes appear as major risk factors for the transmission

  3. Analysis of the melanin distribution in different ethnic groups by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, C.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Astner, S.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSM) is able to visualize differences in melanin content and distribution in different Skin Phototypes. The investigations were carried out on six healthy volunteers with Skin Phototypes II, IV, and VI. Representative skin samples of Skin Phototypes II, V, and VI were obtained for histological analysis from remaining tissue of skin grafts and were used for LSM-pathologic correlation. LSM evaluation showed significant differences in melanin distribution in Skin Phototypes II, IV, and VI, respectively. Based on the differences in overall reflectivity and image brightness, a visual evaluation scheme showed increasing brightness of the basal and suprabasal layers with increasing Skin Phototypes. The findings correlated well with histological analysis. The results demonstrate that LSM may serve as a promising adjunctive tool for real time assessment of melanin content and distribution in human skin, with numerous clinical applications and therapeutic and preventive implications.

  4. Genetic and environmental contributions to population group differences on the Raven's Progressive Matrices estimated from twins reared together and apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann; Vernon, Philip A; Cvorović, Jelena

    2007-07-22

    We carried out two studies to test the hypothesis that genetic and environmental influences explain population group differences in general mental ability just as they do individual differences within a group. We estimated the heritability and environmentality of scores on the diagrammatic puzzles of the Raven's Coloured and/or Standard Progressive Matrices (CPM/SPM) from two independent twin samples and correlated these estimates with group differences on the same items. In Study 1, 199 pairs of 5- to 7-year-old monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins reared together provided estimates of heritability and environmentality for 36 puzzles from the CPM. These estimates correlated with the differences between the twins and 94 Serbian Roma (both rs=0.32; Ns=36; psadult MZ and DZ twins reared apart provided estimates of heritability and environmentality for 58 puzzles from the SPM. These estimates correlated with the differences among 11 diverse samples including (i) the reared-apart twins, (ii) another sample of Serbian Roma, and (iii) East Asian, White, South Asian, Coloured and Black high school and university students in South Africa. In 55 comparisons, group differences were more pronounced on the more heritable and on the more environmental items (mean rs=0.40 and 0.47, respectively; Ns=58; ps<0.05). After controlling for measurement reliability and variance in item pass rates, the heritabilities still correlated with the group differences, although the environmentalities did not. Puzzles found relatively difficult (or easy) by the twins were those found relatively difficult (or easy) by the others (mean r=0.87). These results suggest that population group differences are part of the normal variation expected within a universal human cognition.

  5. Mortality forecast from gastroduodenal ulcer disease for different gender and age population groups in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzhiy I.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 2030 the ulcer mortality will have a growing trend as estimated by the World Health Organization. Detection of countries and population groups with high risks for the ulcer mortality is possible using forecast method. The authors made a forecast of mortality rate from complicated ulcer disease in males and females and their age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-54, 55-74, over 75, 15 - over 75 in our country. The study included data of the World Health Organization Database from 1991 to 2012. The work analyzed absolute all-Ukrainian numbers of persons of both genders died from the ulcer causes (К25-К27 coded by the 10th International Diseases Classification. The relative mortality per 100 000 of alive persons of the same age was calculated de novo. The analysis of distribution laws and their estimation presents a trend of growth of the relative mortality. A remarkable increase of deaths from the ulcer disease is observed in males and females of the age after 55 years old. After the age of 75 years this trend is more expressed.

  6. Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.

  7. Solubility studies of inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Ober, Christopher; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists. Electronic supplementary

  8. Compressive sensing of foot-gait signals by enhancing group block-sparse structure on the first-order difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jeevan K; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2016-08-01

    A new technique for improving the signal reconstruction performance for compressive sensing of gait signals is proposed. The algorithm is based on the minimization of a pseudo-norm which promotes group-block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal. Signal blocks in foot gait signals occur as groups, and the locations of the group are estimated based on the regularization promoting block-sparse structure. The group locations are used for minimizing the pseudonorm for promoting group-block-sparse structure. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique yields upto 0.76dB improvement in the reconstruction performance for foot-gait signals relative to the algorithms promoting block-sparse structure.

  9. Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among nonrevascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual anti-platelet treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated for most patients after myocardial infarction. We examined the risk/benefit relationship of dual anti-platelet treatment according to age in a nationwide cohort of 30,532 myocardial infarction patients without...... revascularization. METHODS: Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all...... included (mean age 67.02 (±13.8) years and 64.7% males). Use of dual anti-platelet treatment decreased with age: 80% (79 years). We found a reduced risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in users

  10. Event-related potentials can reveal differences between two decision-making groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, T R; Muckert, T D

    1998-02-01

    Previous research has shown that a complex decision is dependent on an underlying utility metric that is used by decision making processes to accumulate preference for one alternative. This study postulated that a state of indecision may arise if this underlying metric is poorly organized. The underlying metric was examined with a paired comparison task while measuring event-related potentials (ERP) for subjects classified as 'career decided' and 'career undecided'. Stimuli for comparison were presented either sequentially or simultaneously. The simultaneous condition produced results consistent with the hypothesis that undecided subjects have a poorly organized value metric as revealed in both the behavioral data and the P3 component. A relationship between P3 amplitude and word distance on the underlying metric was found only for the decided group. This was interpreted in terms of the previously documented relationship between P3 and the constructs of decision confidence and task difficulty.

  11. Differences in cancer incidence and mortality among socio-economic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Brug, J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: In this article studies on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk for cancer at different sites are reviewed. Methods: The review is restricted to studies conducted in affluent societies, after 1970. Only studies using income, education and/or occupation as SES indic

  12. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  13. Intersectional Political Consciousness: Appreciation for Intragroup Differences and Solidarity in Diverse Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Ronni Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces an intersectional approach to political consciousness and presents data to demonstrate its importance for predicting solidarity in diverse social change organizations. Women activists (N = 174) completed measures of political consciousness, diversity, and solidarity. As expected, women differed in the degree to which their…

  14. [Antipsychotics of different clinical/pharmacological groups in treatment of negative disorders in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, D S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using different anti psychotics in treatment of negative disorders in schizophrenia is considered. Mechanisms of the development of "antinegative" effect during treatment with typical neuroleptics, atypical neuroleptics with dopamine-serotonin activity and atypical neuroleptics (partial dopamine receptor agonists) are analyzed. Their efficacy is discussed in the comparative context. In conclusion, a differential approach to schizophrenia treatment is suggested.

  15. Individualisation of Migration from the East? Comparison of Different Socio-Demographic Groups and their Migration Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarja Saar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on Eastern European migration argue that moving for self-development reasons is becoming increasingly common among this group. Furthermore, it is suggested that migration from the East is becoming individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Nevertheless, most such results rely on interviews conducted among certain social groups, such as the young and highly skilled. Hence, the comparison between different social groups and their motivations is rarely provided and, therefore, the claims about increased individualisation might be premature. This article uses the Estonian Household Module Survey, including responses from 620 Estonians intending to migrate, to evaluate if migration flows are indeed becoming more individualised and less dependent on social surroundings. Using cluster analysis, three different groups — self-development, economic and life quality migrants — are formed, which are then tested using regression analysis to check for the influence of socio-demographic variables. The article concludes that socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, ethnicity, family status and socio-economic status are still relevant for migration intentions. Indeed, a new group of Eastern European migrants, mainly oriented towards self-development, is emerging; however, it is small and consists mostly of young, Estonian-speaking females. The results complicate the notions of free mobility and liquid migration from Eastern Europe and illustrate that there is a need to pay attention to the increasing group differences in these societies

  16. OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF ACU-MOXIBUSTION OF DIFFERENT ACUPOINT GROUPS IN STROKE PATIENTS IN CONVALESCENCE STAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Bai-ying; ZHOU En-hua; SU Sheng-yong; LI Yang-fan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe and compare clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture and moxibustion at different acupoint groups in stroke patients in the convalescence stage. Methods: Sixty stroke patients were evenly randomized into yin-meridian group and yang-meridian group. On the basis of the treatment with Chinese and Western medicines, these stroke patients of two groups were treated mainly by acupuncture of acupoints of yin meridians such as Jiquan (极泉HT 1), Tongli (通里HT 5), Neiguan (内关PC 6), etc., and those of yang meridians as Jianyu (肩NFDA1 LI 15), Quchi (曲池 LI 11), Shousanli (手三里LI 10), etc. Respectively. After 30 days' treatment, the therapeutic effect was evaluated by using American National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Hamilton Depression (HAMD) Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Barthel Index and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale. Results: Following treatment, the therapeutic effect of yin-meridian group was significantly superior to that of yang-meridian group in improving stroke patients' neurological deficits [Level B: 50% (15/30) vs 20% (6/30)] and ADL [Level Ⅱ: 40% (12/30) vs 13.3% (4/30)]. No significant difference was found between two groups in the neurological impairment domains. Conclusion: Acu-moxibustion of acupoints of yin meridians is superior to acupoints of yang meridians in improving stroke patients' neurological impairment and daily living activities.

  17. Sex differences in general intelligence: a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Savage-McGlynn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Approved hardbound copy has subtitle "a psychometric investigation of group differences in mean and variability as measured by the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus" Researchers and the general public alike continue to debate ‘which is the smarter sex?’ Research to date suggests that males outperform females, females outperform males, while others find no differences in mean or variance. These inconsistent results are thought to occur for two reasons. First, studies rely on opport...

  18. Lower limb examinations for muscular tension estimation methods for each muscle group based on functionally different effective muscle theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishii, Taiki; Komada, Satoshi; Yashiro, Daisuke; Hirai, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Conventional estimation methods distribute tension to muscles by solving optimization problems, because the system is redundant. The theory of functionally different effective muscle, based on 3 antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in limbs, has enabled to calculate the maximum joint torque of each pair, i.e. functionally different effective muscle force. Based on this theory, a method to estimate muscular tension has been proposed, where joint torque of each muscle group is derived by multiplying functionally different effective muscle force, the muscular activity of muscular activity pattern for direction of tip force, and ratio of tip force to maximum output force. The estimation of this method is as good as Crowninshield's method, moreover this method also reduce the computation time if the estimation concerns a selected muscle group.

  19. Transition in velocity and grouping of arc spot on different nanostructured tungsten electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogyun Hwangbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of arc spots was investigated in detail using a nanostructured tungsten specimen with different thicknesses of the nanostructured layer. From the observation using a fast framing camera, it was found that the velocity of the arc spots significantly altered as passing the boundary of the two layers. The changes in spot velocity and spot width were discussed theoretically using the ecton model. The fractal dimension of the arc trail evaluated by using a box-counting method was significantly changed. Also, the width of arc trail was increased with the nanostructured layer thickness. From the SEM analysis of the specimen, the amount of tungsten eroded by arcing for two different thickness cases was estimated, and the erosion rates were discussed.

  20. Constraining anisotropy of the universe from different groups of type-Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zhe; Lin, Hai-Nan; Wang, Sai

    2014-01-01

    Recent released Planck data and other astronomical observations show that the universe may be anisotropic on large scales. Inspired by this, anisotropic cosmological models have been proposed. We note that the Finsler-Randers spacetime provides an appropriate framework for the anisotropic cosmology. By adding an arbitrary 1-form to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) line element, a privileged axis in the universe is picked out. The distance-redshift relation is modified to be direction-dependent. We wish that the anisotropic cosmological model may be tested crossly by independent observations. Type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) calibrated from four different light curve fitters are used to constrain possible anisotropy of the universe. The magnitudes of anisotropy are all between 2% --- 5%, but the systematic uncertainty cannot be excluded. The directions of privileged axis seem to differ from each other. The statistical significance is not high enough to make a convincing conclusion. Nevertheless, the $1\\sigma$ c...

  1. Transition in velocity and grouping of arc spot on different nanostructured tungsten electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Dogyun Hwangbo; Shin Kajita; Sergey A. Barengolts; Mikhail M. Tsventoukh; Noriyasu Ohno

    2014-01-01

    Behavior of arc spots was investigated in detail using a nanostructured tungsten specimen with different thicknesses of the nanostructured layer. From the observation using a fast framing camera, it was found that the velocity of the arc spots significantly altered as passing the boundary of the two layers. The changes in spot velocity and spot width were discussed theoretically using the ecton model. The fractal dimension of the arc trail evaluated by using a box-counting method was signific...

  2. Prevalence of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) disliking among different ethnocultural groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mauer Lilli; El-Sohemy Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cilantro, the leaf of the Coriandrum sativum plant, is an herb that is widely consumed globally and has purported health benefits ranging from antibacterial to anticancer activities. Some individuals report an extreme dislike for cilantro, and this may explain the different cilantro consumption habits between populations. However, the prevalence of cilantro dislike has not previously been reported in any population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalen...

  3. Management in non-traumatic arm, neck and shoulder complaints: differences between diagnostic groups

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    textabstractArm, neck and/or shoulder complaints are common in western societies. In the Netherlands, general practice guidelines are issued on shoulder pain and epicondylitis only. Little is known about actual management of the total range of diagnoses. The objectives of the study are: to determine management in patients consulting the GP with a new episode of non-traumatic arm neck and shoulder complaints up to 6 months after the first consultation. To evaluate differences in management bet...

  4. Level of Education and Health Status of the Different Social Groups: Case Study Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchevska, Lenche; Donev, Doncho; Mojsoska, Snezhana

    2008-01-01

    The educational level is an important indicator within the socioeconomical status for health evaluation and a powerful instrument in promotion of population’s health. In 2000 a study conducted in R. Macedonia, in 15 municipalities with different gross national product per capita, encompassing 1129 examinees older than 18 years. The results of the conducted research showed statistically significant association of the educational level with the morbidity. Higher morbidity emerges in persons tha...

  5. Accurate ab initio spin densities

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Legeza, Örs; Reiher, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CA...

  6. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  7. Ethnic differences in lipid metabolism in two groups of obese South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadeera, C; van der Merwe, M T; Crowther, N J; Toman, M; Schlaphoff, G P; Gray, I P

    2001-05-01

    There is a higher prevalence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in South African white than black women. The objective of this study was to determine biochemical explanations for this prevalence. The study group contained 15 obese black women (OBW) and 14 obese white women (OWW), all premenopausal, who were examined after an overnight fast. Anthropometric measurements and blood concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), catecholamines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, C-peptide, proinsulin, lipograms, cortisol, growth hormone, and post-heparin lipoprotein lipase activity were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and subcutaneous and visceral fat mass were assessed with CT-scans. Visceral fat area was higher in OWW (139.7 +/- 10.7 cm(2)) than in OBW (72.3 +/- 3.9 cm(2)) (P Fasting cortisol (266 +/- 24 vs. 197 +/- 19 nmol/l; P < 0.05) was higher in OWW than in OBW. These data demonstrate that OWW have higher visceral fat mass than OBW, which may lead to a more atherogenic fasting and postprandial lipid profile. The higher cortisol levels of the OWW may promote visceral fat deposition.

  8. Phosphor Dysprosium-Doped Layered Double Hydroxides Exchanged with Different Organic Functional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ricardo Martínez Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were doped with Dy3+ cations. Among some compositions, the Zn2+ : Al3+ : Dy3+ molar ratio equal to 30 : 9 : 1 presented a single crystalline phase. Organic anions with carboxylic, amino, sulfate, or phosphate functional groups were intercalated as single layers between LDH layers as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of the nitrate intercalated LDH showed a wide emission band with strong intensity in the yellow region (around 574 nm, originated due to symmetry distortion of the octahedral coordination in dysprosium centers. Moreover, a broad red band emission was also detected apparently due to the presence of zinc oxide. The distorted symmetry of the dysprosium coordination environment, also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, was modified after the intercalation with phenyl phosphonate (PP, aspartate (Asp, adipate (Adip, and serinate (Ser anions; the emission as measured from PL spectra of these LDH was more intense in the blue region (ca. 486 nm, thus indicating an increase in symmetry of dysprosium octahedrons. The red emission band from zinc oxide kept the same intensity after intercalation of dodecyl sulfate (DDS. An additional emission of unknown origin at λ = 767 nm was present in all LDHs.

  9. Welfare Balance of Different Interest Groups During Rural-urban Land Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Kaili; Zhang Peng; Zhang Anlu

    2009-01-01

    Rural-urban land conversion is currently a common social economic phenomenon during the process of economic development and rural urbanization in China.Rural-urban land conversion is positively effective as far as social and economic benefits are concerned (Yang,2002),but its negative effect is also evident,resulting in such problems as low efficiency of rural land configuration and loss of social welfare.Consequently,farmers should also have an equal chance to enjoy the social welfare enhanced by land conversion.Based on the theories of welfare economy,this paper puts forward policy suggestions by discussing the welfare changes of various interest groups,builds the model of welfare distribution,and analyzes the conditions of maximizing social welfare.The absolute and opposite value of social welfare is closely related with the speed of rural-urban land conversion,and governments should give farmers and collectives fair compensation to make up for the utility loss caused by land expropriation,which are conclusions drawn from this paper.This study aims to provide a theoretical basis for regulating targets and evaluation criteria,realizing the mechanism and implementation of public polices during rural-urban land conversion.

  10. Volumetric behaviour of amino acids and their group contributions in aqueous lactose solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem@sify.co [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India); Chauhan, Nalin [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Densities, {rho}, for glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine [(0.05 to 0.30) m] in aqueous lactose solutions ranging from pure water to 6 mass% lactose were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The density was used to compute apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi}}, partial molar volume at infinite dilution, V{sub {phi}}{sup o}, and experimental slope, S{sub V} were obtained and interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. These data were used to calculate the ({partial_derivative}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} values. The partial molar volume of transfer, {Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} from water to aqueous lactose solutions at infinite dilution has also been calculated. In addition to this, the linear correlation of V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids was utilized to determine the respective contributions of NH{sub 3}{sup +}COO{sup -}, and CH{sub 2} groups to V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}.

  11. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  12. Variations in resistance of viruses from different groups to chemico-physical decontamination methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.

    1979-01-01

    The resistance of a total of 13 different viruses to some important chemico-physical influences was studied under uniform experimental conditions. Stability in tape water, thermostability and sensitivity to anodic oxidation, gamma radiation, some virucidal substances and several commercial disinfectants were tested. In evaluating the results, an attempt is made to rank the viruses investigated according to their sensitivity. On average a bovine parvovirus, and also a reovirus and three enteroviruses, proved most stable. These were followed by infectious canine hepatitis (adenoviruses). Newcastle disease (paramyxoviruses) and vaccinia (poxviruses) demonstrating less resistance. In all the tests an orthomyxovirus (influenza A), a rhabdovirus (pseudorabies) and a togavirus (sindbis) proved to have relatively low resistance.

  13. Climatic and Catchment-Scale Predictors of Chinese Stream Insect Richness Differ between Taxonomic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Jonathan D; Shah, Deep Narayan; Kuemmerlen, Mathias; Li, Fengqing; Cai, Qinghua; Haase, Peter; Jähnig, Sonja C

    2015-01-01

    Little work has been done on large-scale patterns of stream insect richness in China. We explored the influence of climatic and catchment-scale factors on stream insect (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera; EPT) richness across mid-latitude China. We assessed the predictive ability of climatic, catchment land cover and physical structure variables on genus richness of EPT, both individually and combined, in 80 mid-latitude Chinese streams, spanning a 3899-m altitudinal gradient. We performed analyses using boosted regression trees and explored the nature of their influence on richness patterns. The relative importance of climate, land cover, and physical factors on stream insect richness varied considerably between the three orders, and while important for Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, latitude did not improve model fit for any of the groups. EPT richness was linked with areas comprising high forest cover, elevation and slope, large catchments and low temperatures. Ephemeroptera favoured areas with high forest cover, medium-to-large catchment sizes, high temperature seasonality, and low potential evapotranspiration. Plecoptera richness was linked with low temperature seasonality and annual mean, and high slope, elevation and warm-season rainfall. Finally, Trichoptera favoured high elevation areas, with high forest cover, and low mean annual temperature, seasonality and aridity. Our findings highlight the variable role that catchment land cover, physical properties and climatic influences have on stream insect richness. This is one of the first studies of its kind in Chinese streams, thus we set the scene for more in-depth assessments of stream insect richness across broader spatial scales in China, but stress the importance of improving data availability and consistency through time.

  14. Vitamin D intakes by children and adults in the United States differ among ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolyn E; Murphy, Mary M; Holick, Michael F

    2005-10-01

    Concerns about vitamin D status in the United States have resurfaced due to increasing reports of insufficiency and deficiency. Few foods contain vitamin D naturally, and currently few foods are fortified in the United States. Intakes of vitamin D in the United States from food and food plus supplements by age, sex, and race/ethnicity group were estimated. Individuals > or = 1 y old who participated in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2000) were included in the analysis. Vitamin D intake by non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and all individuals in the United States was estimated and compared with recommended levels. Vitamin D intakes were highest among children and teenagers, and lowest in the oldest age categories. Among children age 1-8 y, adequate intake (AI) levels for vitamin D from food were met or exceeded by 69% of Mexican American, 59% of NH white, and 48% of NH black subpopulations. Among adults > or = 51 y old, only 4% met or exceeded the AI from food alone. Few women 19-50 y old or men and women > or = 51 y old were estimated to consume recommended vitamin D levels from food. Mean dietary intakes of vitamin D from food plus supplements were consistently highest among NH white populations, although only small proportions of all those > or = 51 y old had intakes above the recommended levels. The large discrepancy between vitamin D intake by older individuals from food plus supplements and recommended levels, especially for NH black and Mexican American adults, warrants intervention.

  15. [Search of heavy metals biosorbents among yeasts of different taxonomic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovaia, O G; Kasatkina, T P; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2004-01-01

    The use of microbial cells as heavy metal biosorbents is a potential alternative for the existing methods of the environment treatment for pollution by these metals. Yeast may be successfully used in the metals sorption. An agar-plate screening method was used for rapid isolation of metal-accumulating strains of yeast and preliminary estimation of their biosorption capacity. The capacity to accumulate heavy metals, such as copper, zinc, lead, chrome and cobalt was estimated in 68 pigmented and pigmentless yeast strains isolated from different sources. The best capacity of copper and zinc accumulation was shown by pink-coloured Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula aurantiaca, Rhodotorula glutinis and pigmentless strains of the yeast Candida krusei, Williopsis california.

  16. Potential pathogenic role of aggregative-adhering Corynebacterium diphtheriae of different clonal groups in endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata Jr, R; Pereira, G A; Filardy, A A; Gomes, D L R; Damasco, P V; Rosa, A C P; Nagao, P E; Pimenta, F P; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L

    2008-11-01

    Invasive diseases caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae have been described increasingly. Several reports indicate the destructive feature of endocarditis attributable to nontoxigenic strains. However, few reports have dealt with the pathogenicity of invasive strains. The present investigation demonstrates a phenotypic trait that may be used to identify potentially invasive strains. The study also draws attention to clinical and microbiological aspects observed in 5 cases of endocarditis due to C. diphtheriae that occurred outside Europe. Four cases occurred in female school-age children (7-14 years) treated at different hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All patients developed other complications including septicemia, renal failure and/or arthritis. Surgical treatment was performed on 2 patients for valve replacement. Lethality was observed in 40% of the cases. Microorganisms isolated from 5 blood samples and identified as C. diphtheriae subsp mitis (N = 4) and C. diphtheriae subsp gravis (N = 1) displayed an aggregative adherence pattern to HEp-2 cells and identical one-dimensional SDS-PAGE protein profiles. Aggregative-adhering invasive strains of C. diphtheriae showed 5 distinct RAPD profiles. Despite the clonal diversity, all 5 C. diphtheriae invasive isolates seemed to display special bacterial adhesive properties that may favor blood-barrier disruption and systemic dissemination of bacteria. In conclusion, blood isolates from patients with endocarditis exhibited a unique adhering pattern, suggesting a pathogenic role of aggregative-adhering C. diphtheriae of different clones in endocarditis. Accordingly, the aggregative-adherence pattern may be used as an indication of some invasive potential of C. diphtheriae strains.

  17. Potential pathogenic role of aggregative- adhering Corynebacterium diphtheriae of different clonal groups in endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hirata Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive diseases caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae have been described increasingly. Several reports indicate the destructive feature of endocarditis attributable to nontoxigenic strains. However, few reports have dealt with the pathogenicity of invasive strains. The present investigation demonstrates a phenotypic trait that may be used to identify potentially invasive strains. The study also draws attention to clinical and microbiological aspects observed in 5 cases of endocarditis due to C. diphtheriae that occurred outside Europe. Four cases occurred in female school-age children (7-14 years treated at different hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All patients developed other complications including septicemia, renal failure and/or arthritis. Surgical treatment was performed on 2 patients for valve replacement. Lethality was observed in 40% of the cases. Microorganisms isolated from 5 blood samples and identified as C. diphtheriae subsp mitis (N = 4 and C. diphtheriae subsp gravis (N = 1 displayed an aggregative adherence pattern to HEp-2 cells and identical one-dimensional SDS-PAGE protein profiles. Aggregative-adhering invasive strains of C. diphtheriae showed 5 distinct RAPD profiles. Despite the clonal diversity, all 5 C. diphtheriae invasive isolates seemed to display special bacterial adhesive properties that may favor blood-barrier disruption and systemic dissemination of bacteria. In conclusion, blood isolates from patients with endocarditis exhibited a unique adhering pattern, suggesting a pathogenic role of aggregative-adhering C. diphtheriae of different clones in endocarditis. Accordingly, the aggregative-adherence pattern may be used as an indication of some invasive potential of C. diphtheriae strains.

  18. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict.Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data.Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  19. Investigation of Brand Name-Country of Origin Preference in Four Different Product Groups with Respect to Conspicuous Consumption Tendency

    OpenAIRE

    Volkan Doğan; Behçet Yalın Özkara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine different preferences for brand name–country of origin shaped in line with levels of conspicuous consumption tendency and to determine Turkish consumers’ preferences for brand name–country of origin combinations in different product groups. The study was conducted in Eskisehir (Turkey) with a sample of 413 people chosen through convenience sampling. The study data were collected with a questionnaire and face-face-to interviews. The participants’ preferences...

  20. Changing emergence of Shigella sero-groups in Bangladesh: observation from four different diarrheal disease hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon Kumar Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity. METHODS: Data were extracted from data archive of four diarrheal disease surveillance systems. A 2% sub sample from urban Dhaka Hospital (2008-2011; n = 10,650, and 10% from urban Mirpur Treatment Centre (2009-2011; n = 3,585, were enrolled systematically; whereas, all patients coming from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System area in rural Matlab (2008-2011; n = 6,399 and rural Mirzapur (2010-2011; n = 2,812 were included irrespective of age, sex, and disease severity. A fresh stool specimen was collected for identification of Shigella spp. Of them, 315 (3% were positive for Shigella in Dhaka, 490 (8% from Matlab, 109 (3% from Mirpur and 369 (13% from Mirzapur and considered as analyzable sample size. RESULTS: Among all Shigella isolates regardless of age, significant decreases in percentage of S. flexneri over time was observed in Mirpur (55→29%; p value of χ(2-for trend = 0.019 and Mirzapur (59→47%; p = 0.025. A non-significant decrease was also seen in Dhaka (58→48%, while in Matlab there was a non-significant increase (73→81%. Similar patterns were observed among under-5 children at all sites. Emergence of S. sonnei was found in Dhaka (8→25%; p<0.001 and Mirpur (10→33%; p = 0.015, whereas it decreased in Mirzapur (32→23%; p = 0.056. The emergence of S. boydii was seen in all ages in Mirzapur [(3→28%; p<0.001; (3→27%; p<0.001]. On the other hand, we saw non-significant percent reductions in S. boydii in Dhaka [overall (25→16%; under-5 (16→9%]. Decreasing rates of Shigella dysenteriae were observed in Matlab, Mirpur and Mirzapur; whereas, in Dhaka it remained unchanged. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Emergence of S. sonnei and S. boydii as important infectious

  1. Composition, concentration and deprivation: exploring their association with social cohesion among different ethnic groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Stafford, Mai; Laurence, James; Nazroo, James

    2011-01-01

    Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK. Results of the multilevel regression models show that, after adjusting for area deprivation, increased levels of social cohesion are found in areas of greater ethnic residential heterogeneity. Although different patterns emerge across ethnic groups and the measure of social cohesion used, findings consistently show that it is area deprivation, and not ethnic residential heterogeneity, which erodes social cohesion in the UK.

  2. Nutrition and fatty acid composition in different botanical groups of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea. L in ICRISAT mini core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapati Mukri , ,Shridevi Jakkeral and H.L Nadaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for enhanced nutritional quality is need of the hour. India not only needs increased quantity of food to feed the growing population but also quality food to mitigate hidden hunger. Oil is the major energy source of the Indian diet. Chemical composition of oil decides its edible nature. Even in edible oil fatty acid composition in general and ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid of the oil plays major role in deciding its quality. In India, availability of breeding line to improve groundnut oil quality is limited. Screening of different botanical group may give some idea about choice of material for further crop improvement program. In present study botanical group hypogaea, found to have higher amount of oleic acid and fastigiata group recorded high protein and oil content. Growing season also matters in the expression of different fatty acid. Rainy season is found to have better for the better expression of all studied traits.

  3. Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated risk factors in rural and urban populations of different ethnic groups in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.

    2009-01-01

    intolerance among the rural ethnic groups. High BMI, WC, AFA, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, low fitness and physical activity, frequent alcohol consumption, and urban residence were associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT among different Kenyan......Objective: To assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional study included an opportunity...... sample of Luo, Kamba, Maasai, and an ethnically mixed group from rural and urban Kenya. Diabetes and IGT were diagnosed using a standard OGTT. BMI, WC, AFA, AMA and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat thicknesses, physical activity and fitness were measured. Questionnaires were used to determine...

  4. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  5. Promoting Awareness of Learner Diversity in Prospective Teachers: Signaling Individual and Group Differences within Virtual Classroom Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roxana; Abercrombie, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two methods to promote prospective teachers' awareness of learner diversity and application of teaching principles using a problem-based learning environment. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of presenting a conceptual framework about learners' individual and group differences either before or after instruction on teaching…

  6. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  7. The Factorial Validity of The Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey in Representative Samples of Eight Different Occupational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Falkum, Erik; Innstrand, Siw Tone; Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow

    2006-01-01

    The Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey (MBI-GS) is designed to measure the three subdimensions (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) of burnout in a wide range of occupations. This article examines the factorial validity of the MBI-GS across eight different occupational groups in Norway: lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers,…

  8. Evaluating Language Group Differences in the Subskills of Reading Using a Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling and Differential Skill Functioning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli

    2011-01-01

    Using a sequential mixed-methods design, this study examined the differences between two native language groups--those with an East Asian language background and those with a Romance language background--in regard to reading subskills as represented in the Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) reading test, so as to provide…

  9. Using Cochran's Z Statistic to Test the Kernel-Smoothed Item Response Function Differences between Focal and Reference Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…

  10. The alignment of parties and interest groups in EU legislative politics: A tale of two different worlds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyers, J.; De Bruycker, I.; Baller, I.

    2015-01-01

    Political science research on European Union (EU) interest groups and parties represents two separate study fields and both literatures convey a somewhat different image of EU legislative policy-making. While most scholars of party politics endorse the notion that parties politicize EU legislative p

  11. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  12. PSYCHOLOGICAL AMORTIZATION FACTORS FOR MEDIA IMPACT IN DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Makhovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to analyze the domestic and foreign psychological researches on influence of TV-programs on social, cognitive and emotional development of children. Methods. Methods involve a comparative historical and psychological analysis of papers, manuscripts and archival records of television companies. Results. The present study demonstrates that educational television, subsequently on-line resources for children, affect operative cognitive functions, increase cognitive motivation, and contribute to the formation of other important cognitive and social skills. However, the impact on children on-screen resources depends on the status and education level of the family. Scientific novelty. Much attention is given to the fact that it is the first attempt to provide historical and psychological analysis of world-wide studies of the effects of children’s television, from the main countries-producers of TV and video programs for children of different age – Russia, USA, Germany, France, Israel, etc. Criteria and matrix for comparison of heterogeneous researches, the domestic theory of child development, cultural-historical approach, the theory of stage formation of mental actions, activity theory had been chosen. Practical significance of the research is that these criteria can be used to assess any of the videos, their educational potential. Psychologists involved in the process of television production, this article will help to simulate the learning process taking into account the age of the children and their socio-cultural origin. 

  13. Dento-alveolar and maxillofacial injuries among different ethnic groups in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Sela, Galit; Haik, Josef; Bigman, Galya; Peleg, Kobi

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation of dental and maxillofacial trauma in a level 1 trauma center in Israel was carried out to assess the causes of trauma and the relationship between the injuries to the patient's age, gender and ethnicity. Analysis was based on data from the Israel Trauma Registry. Patients hospitalized in a level 1 trauma center from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2005 were analyzed according to age, gender, time, place, ethnicity and cause of injury. Files of 22 558 trauma patients were reviewed. Maxillofacial and tooth injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Maxillofacial or dental injuries were observed in 1668 (7.4%) of the trauma patients, caused by motor vehicle accidents (39.2%), falls (30.9%), and intentional injuries (21.2%). Most occurred on the street/road (46.5%), at home (18.8%), and in public buildings (12.4%). Arab patients suffered more from vehicle accidents while Jewish patients presented more intentional injuries. Men were hospitalized three times more than women, and young people were at greater risk. The most frequent age of trauma was 19-28 years (27.6%). Ethnic differences were particularly noticeable for intentional injuries and vehicle accidents. This emphasizes that a larger percentage of the Arab population suffered from dental and maxillofacial injuries. Further dental health education and training for primary caregivers are warranted.

  14. Amount of cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Shadlinskaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the amount of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube in women of different age. The transverse sections of one-third of each part of uterine tube from 116 women (from newborn to senile age were studied. The sections were colored by gematoksilin-eosin, by van Gizon, by Brashe, azur-2-eosine, by Qrimelius. The amount of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube increased till the age of 16-20 and remained at high level further on till the age of 35. The quantity of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube changed according to the age and localization throughout the organ. The presence of diffused lymphoid tissue of uterine tube depended on the state of reproductive function of female organism. In the phase of desquamation there was minimal quantity of lymphoid tissue and in the phase of secretion there was maximal quantity of lymphoid tissue

  15. Microsporogenesis in Paspalum conspersum Schrad. (Virgata group) with different ploidy levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, L; Souza, F H D; Valls, J F M; Pagliarini, M S

    2013-10-24

    Knowledge about the cytology and reproductive behavior of a species is indispensable for hybridization programs. This is especially true for species belonging to the genus Paspalum, among which apomixis and a wide range of ploidy levels are frequently found. Paspalum conspersum Schrad. is a robust and warm-season perennial bunchgrass native to South America. Previous studies have indicated that both tetraploid and hexaploid races exist in this species; however, only information related to tetraploids has been applied to another taxon. In this study, a cytological investigation in two Brazilian accessions collected in different regions revealed tetraploidy in the accession BRA-012823 (2n = 4x = 40), with chromosome pairing in bivalents and normal meiosis and tetrad formation, and pentaploidy (2n = 5x = 50) in the accession BRA-022748, which presented total asynapsis. In this latter accession, 50 univalents could be scored at diakinesis. After alignment at the metaphase plate, sister chromatids segregated to the poles. Only one meiotic division (equational) occurred, and after cytokinesis, 100% of the dyads that formed had 2n microspores. The meiotic behavior during microsporogenesis, which showed 10 delayed univalents to reach the metaphase plate, suggests that this accession is a recent natural hybrid constituted by a parental genome with 40 chromosomes and another with 10 chromosomes. The potential usage of these accessions in Paspalum breeding has been discussed.

  16. Who directs group movement? Leader effort versus follower preference in stickleback fish of different personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Harcourt, Jennifer L; Johnstone, Rufus A; Manica, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    During collective movement, bolder individuals often emerge as leaders. Here, we investigate whether this reflects a greater propensity of bold individuals to initiate movement, or a preference for shy individuals to follow a bolder leader. We set up trios of stickleback fish comprising a focal individual who was either bold or shy, and one other individual of each personality. We then recorded the movements of all individuals in and out of cover in a foraging context to determine how assiduously the focal fish followed the movements of each other partner. We found that a shy focal fish preferred to follow a leader whose personality matched its own, but we did not detect such a difference in bold fish. Despite this preference, however, the greater propensity of bold individuals to initiate movements out of cover meant that they successfully led more joint trips. Thus, when offered a choice of leaders, sticklebacks prefer to follow individuals whose personality matches their own, but bolder individuals may, nevertheless, be able to impose their leadership, even among shy followers, simply through greater effort.

  17. Motivation and learner variables: Group differences in college foreign language learners' motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Yin Sung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers surveyed 130 language learners enrolled in first-year foreign language classrooms in a public university in Utah, United States. This study intended to address the following research questions: (1 What motivational factors are found among learners enrolled in first-year foreign language courses at the university level in the United States?, (2 Do first-year language learners' motivations differ based on the following learner variables: (a gender, (b language being learned, (c major, and (d religion? and (3 What motivational factors predict learners' interest in continuing foreign language learning? Factor analysis, MANOVA, and multiple regressions were run to answer the questions. The factor analysis results found seven motivational factors: positive learning attitudes/experience and intended efforts, interest in culture, travel, and people, interest in contemporary cultural media, milieu, instrumentality, language requirement, and religion. The MANOVA results showed that major and religion had significant effects on motivation. The results of the multiple regression test indicated that two motivational factors, positive learning attitudes/experience and intended efforts, and interest in culture, travel, and people, predicted the participants' interest in future L2 study.

  18. Conformational differences between the methoxy groups of QA and QB site ubisemiquinones in bacterial reaction centers: a key role for methoxy group orientation in modulating ubiquinone redox potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Alexander T; O'Malley, Patrick J; Wraight, Colin A; Dikanov, Sergei A

    2013-07-09

    Ubiquinone is an almost universal, membrane-associated redox mediator. Its ability to accept either one or two electrons allows it to function in critical roles in biological electron transport. The redox properties of ubiquinone in vivo are determined by its environment in the binding sites of proteins and by the dihedral angle of each methoxy group relative to the ring plane. This is an attribute unique to ubiquinone among natural quinones and could account for its widespread function with many different redox complexes. In this work, we use the photosynthetic reaction center as a model system for understanding the role of methoxy conformations in determining the redox potential of the ubiquinone/semiquinone couple. Despite the abundance of X-ray crystal structures for the reaction center, quinone site resolution has thus far been too low to provide a reliable measure of the methoxy dihedral angles of the primary and secondary quinones, QA and QB. We performed 2D ESEEM (HYSCORE) on isolated reaction centers with ubiquinones (13)C-labeled at the headgroup methyl and methoxy substituents, and have measured the (13)C isotropic and anisotropic components of the hyperfine tensors. Hyperfine couplings were compared to those derived by DFT calculations as a function of methoxy torsional angle allowing estimation of the methoxy dihedral angles for the semiquinones in the QA and QB sites. Based on this analysis, the orientation of the 2-methoxy groups are distinct in the two sites, with QB more out of plane by 20-25°. This corresponds to an ≈50 meV larger electron affinity for the QB quinone, indicating a substantial contribution to the experimental difference in redox potentials (60-75 mV) of the two quinones. The methods developed here can be readily extended to ubiquinone-binding sites in other protein complexes.

  19. Conformational differences between the methoxy groups of QA and QB site ubisemiquinones in bacterial reaction centers: a key role for methoxy group orientation in modulating ubiquinone redox potential†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Alexander T.; O'Malley, Patrick J.; Wraight, Colin A.; Dikanov, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquinone is an almost universal, membrane-associated redox mediator. Its ability to accept either one or two electrons allows it to function in critical roles in biological electron transport. The redox properties of ubiquinone in vivo are determined by its environment in the binding sites of proteins and by the dihedral angle of each methoxy group relative to the ring plane. This is an attribute unique to ubiquinone among natural quinones and could account for its widespread function with many different redox complexes. In this work, we use the photosynthetic reaction center as a model system for understanding the role of methoxy conformations in determining the redox potential of the ubiquinone/semiquinone couple. Despite the abundance of X-ray crystal structures for the reaction center, quinone site resolution has thus far been too low to provide a reliable measure of the methoxy dihedral angles of the primary and secondary quinones, QA and QB. We performed 2D ESEEM (HYSCORE) on isolated reaction centers with ubiquinones 13C-labeled at the headgroup methyl and methoxy substituents, and have measured the 13C isotropic and anisotropic components of the hyperfine tensors. Hyperfine couplings were compared to those derived by DFT calculations as a function of methoxy torsional angle allowing estimation of the methoxy dihedral angles for the semiquinones in the QA and QB sites. Based on this analysis, the orientation of the 2-methoxy groups are distinct in the two sites, with QB more out of plane by 20-30°. This corresponds to an ≈50 meV larger electron affinity for the QB quinone, indicating a substantial contribution to the experimental difference in redox potentials (60-75 mV) of the two quinones. The methods developed here can be readily extended to ubiquinone-binding sites in other protein complexes. PMID:23745576

  20. Simultaneous introduction of distinct HIV-1 subtypes into different risk groups in Russia, Byelorussia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashov, V V; Cornelissen, M T; Goudsmit, J; Papuashvilli, M N; Rytik, P G; Khaitov, R M; Karamov, E V; de Wolf, F

    1995-05-01

    HIV-1 variants show a relatively high level of genomic and antigenic diversity. This heterogeneity is particularly high in the V3 domain of envelope glycoprotein gp120, which is implicated in a number of biological properties of HIV-1, including cell tropism, infectivity, and cytopathogenicity; it is also a target for both humoral and cellular immune response. At least nine subtypes of HIV-1 have been identified. Subtypes A-H are phylogenetically equidistant and shown to be geographically associated with different subcontinents. Subtype B is most prevalent in North and South America and western Europe. Subtypes A, C, D, G, and H are found frequently in sub-Saharan countries, while subtype C is also found in India. Subtype E sequences have been found in patients from Thailand and Central Africa, and subtype F has been described in Romania and Brazil. This study reports findings from an investigation of genotypes and serotypes of HIV-1 variants in Russia, Byelorussia, and Lithuania. Sera from 15 HIV-1-infected men and 5 HIV-1-infected females were tested by ELISA with 19 V3 synthetic peptides with amplified and sequenced serum HIV-1 V3 RNA. Sequence comparison of the envelope V3 region among specimens tested revealed a 2-29% range of nucleotide divergence, with a mean of 19%. Distinct variants of HIV-1 were found in Russia, Byelorussia, and Lithuania, which were introduced simultaneously in the mid-1980s. The diversity was shown to be associated with the route of transmission. Homosexual men appeared to be infected with subtype B compared to heterosexually infected individuals with subtype C HIV-1 variants. HIV-1 subtypes A, C, D, and G were found among parenterally-infected individuals. These findings are based upon the three peptide reactivity patterns identified by ELISA. Serum samples from six out of seven homosexual men showed reactivity to peptides p108 or p110 representing V3 amino-acid sequences found in US/West European HIV-1 isolates. Serum samples from six

  1. The impact of global warming on the range distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güizado-Rodríguez, Martha Anahí; Ballesteros-Barrera, Claudia; Casas-Andreu, Gustavo; Barradas-Miranda, Victor Luis; Téllez-Valdés, Oswaldo; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazarmabeth

    2012-12-01

    The ectothermic nature of reptiles makes them especially sensitive to global warming. Although climate change and its implications are a frequent topic of detailed studies, most of these studies are carried out without making a distinction between populations. Here we present the first study of an Aspidoscelis species that evaluates the effects of global warming on its distribution using ecological niche modeling. The aims of our study were (1) to understand whether predicted warmer climatic conditions affect the geographic potential distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata and (2) to identify potential altitudinal changes of these groups under global warming. We used the maximum entropy species distribution model (MaxEnt) to project the potential distributions expected for the years 2020, 2050, and 2080 under a single simulated climatic scenario. Our analysis suggests that some climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata will exhibit reductions and in others expansions in their distribution, with potential upward shifts toward higher elevation in response to climate warming. Different climatic groups were revealed in our analysis that subsequently showed heterogeneous responses to climatic change illustrating the complex nature of species geographic responses to environmental change and the importance of modeling climatic or geographic groups and/or populations instead of the entire species' range treated as a homogeneous entity.

  2. Age-related differences in functional nodes of the brain cortex - a high model order group ICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Littow

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so called resting state networks (RSN of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. 168 healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 yrs, 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6yrs , and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 yrs, all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70 were calculated and dual regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN’s spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN’s reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs.

  3. Neutron to proton mass difference, parton distribution functions and baryon resonances from dynamics on the Lie group u(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole

    PiMinus invariant mass in B decays. We give a controversial prediction of the relative neutron to proton mass difference 0.138 % as originating in period doublings of certain parametric states. The group space dynamics communicates with real space via the exterior derivative which projects out quark and gluon...... fields from the allospatial state. The allostate in turn is excited from space by the momentum operators which act as toroidal generators on the group manifold. Such generators can be used to trace out parton distribution functions and examples are shown to mimic the valence quark content of the proton....

  4. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr; Tchounwou, Paul B; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-03-29

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O₃). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts.

  5. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kr. Gorai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3. The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts.

  6. The Influencing Factors and Inter-Group Differences for Urban Residents’ Behavior of Consuming Edible Vegetable Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi WU; Wenjie MA

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the determinant factors and inter-group differences of Chinese urban residents’ edible vegetable oil consuming behavior is very important for us to understand their consumption features of edible vegetable oil,so as to guide their consuming behavior and improve China’s vegetable oil industry security.In this article,urban residents of China’s three traditional vegetable oil main production areas have been chosen as study objects,and multiple linear regression and one-way ANOVA have been used to do empirical analysis on the determinant factors and inter-group differences of their edible vegetable oil consuming behavior.The results indicate that the edible vegetable oil consuming behavior of urban residents from China’s three traditional vegetable oil main production areas show a trend of diversification;" publicity measures"," preference evaluation"," personal characteristics" and " family characteristics" remarkably affect urban residents’ edible vegetable oil consuming behavior and show obvious provincial characteristics.In addition,urban residents from different groups show differences in terms of " publicity measures" and " preference evaluation".

  7. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  8. Tracing sources of suspended sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a Bayesian model: Testing different groups of fingerprinting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Lobb, David; Koiter, Alexander; Reiffarth, Dominic; Barthod, Louise; Liu, Kui; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support catchment management strategies, to control soil erosion processes, and to preserve water quality and ecological status. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly recognised as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within a catchment. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognised as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection has to be addressed. Do the different properties give similar results? Can we combine different groups of tracers? This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian mixing model using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We are employing fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex) and geochemical elements as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters and compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural catchment located in south-central Manitoba in Canada. We present preliminary results to evaluate the use of different statistical procedures to increase the accuracy of fingerprinting outputs and establish protocols for the selection of appropriate fingerprint properties.

  9. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  10. Different variations of tissue B-group vitamin concentrations in short- and long-term starved rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sano, Mitsue; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged starvation changes energy metabolism; therefore, the metabolic response to starvation is divided into three phases according to changes in glucose, lipid and protein utilisation. B-group vitamins are involved in energy metabolism via metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids. To determine how changes in energy metabolism alter B-group vitamin concentrations during starvation, we measured the concentration of eight kinds of B-group vitamins daily in rat blood, urine and in nine tissues including cerebrum, heart, lung, stomach, kidney, liver, spleen, testis and skeletal muscle during 8 d of starvation. Vitamin B1, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, folate and biotin concentrations in the blood reduced after 6 or 8 d of starvation, and other vitamins did not change. Urinary excretion was decreased during starvation for all B-group vitamins except pantothenic acid and biotin. Less variation in B-group vitamin concentrations was found in the cerebrum and spleen. Concentrations of vitamin B1, vitamin B6, nicotinamide and pantothenic acid increased in the liver. The skeletal muscle and stomach showed reduced concentrations of five vitamins including vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and folate. Concentrations of two or three vitamins decreased in the kidney, testis and heart, and these changes showed different patterns in each tissue and for each vitamin. The concentration of pantothenic acid rapidly decreased in the heart, stomach, kidney and testis, whereas concentrations of nicotinamide were stable in all tissues except the liver. Different variations in B-group vitamin concentrations in the tissues of starved rats were found. The present findings will lead to a suitable supplementation of vitamins for the prevention of the re-feeding syndrome.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF BRAND NAME-COUNTRY OF ORIGIN PREFERENCE IN FOUR DIFFERENT PRODUCT GROUPS WITH RESPECT TO CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine different preferences for brand name–country of origin shaped in line with levels of conspicuous consumption tendency and to determine Turkish consumers’ preferences for brand name–country of origin combinations in different product groups. The study was conducted in Eskisehir (Turkey with a sample of 413 people chosen through convenience sampling. The study data were collected with a questionnaire and face-face-to interviews. The participants’ preferences for brand name-country of origin combinations were determined separately based on four different product groups(hedonic, utilitarian, durable and non-durable. The study showed that, for all the four product groups, the participants preferred the products with a Turkish brand name and Turkey as the country of origin most, followed by the products with a French brand name and France as the country of origin. This finding suggests that, with respect to the four product groups in the study, Turkish consumers preferred domestic products over foreign products. Also, the participants who preferred French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product were found to have highest tendency of conspicuous consumption in the corresponding product groups. In other words, as the level of conspicuous consumption increased, the participants tended to prefer French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product.

  12. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  13. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation.

  14. [Differences in food consumption associated with ethnic group and acculturation in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela

    2009-12-01

    In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches.

  15. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  16. What Makes a Difference for Disadvantaged Girls? Investigating the Interplay between Group Composition and Positive Youth Development in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Schaillée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.

  17. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach's transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants' perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts.

  18. Clinical features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in Taiwan: differences between young and senior age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Lan; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2009-12-01

    BPPV is a common cause of vertigo. Several treatment procedures can facilitate recovery. In this study, we aimed to identify the demographic features, resolution and recurrence rates and impacts on daily activities in BPPV patient between young and senior age groups in Taiwan. This retrospective study recruited 218 patients of BPPV. Medical history, canal involvement, treatment required for complete resolution, symptom free period and recurrence rates were evaluated between the two age groups. Up to 80.7% of patients were successfully treated by a single treatment. For patients aged more than 65 years, the recurrence rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the younger age group (p = 0.07). The symptom-free period before recurrence was nearly 2.2 times longer in the senior age group (p = 0.03). Work-related activities were influenced more by BPPV in the younger age group (p = 0.03). We conclude that BPPV is prone to occur and recur in people of senior age. Clinicians should have the knowledge to diagnose different types of BPPV and treat it accordingly to prevent further complications.

  19. EBSD imaging of orientation relationships and variant groupings in different martensitic alloys and Widmanstätten iron meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayron, Cyril, E-mail: cyril.cayron@cea.fr

    2014-08-15

    An automatic method to colorize and quantify the classical Pitsch, Kurdjumov–Sachs, Greninger–Troiano and Nishiyama–Wasserman orientation relationships in the electron backscatter diffraction maps of martensitic/bainitic steels is detailed. Automatic analysis of variant grouping is also presented. The method was applied to low and high carbon steels, and to iron–nickel Widmanstätten meteorites. Many results of recent literature are confirmed. In low carbon steels the individual laths exhibit continuous orientation gradients between the classical orientation relationships, and the laths tend to be grouped by close-packed plane (morphological) packets. A crystallographic scenario describing the formation of the packets is proposed on the base of the one-step model. When the carbon content increases, the orientation spreading is reduced; and martensite tends to form plate groups and burst configurations. In iron–nickel meteorites, the centimeter long Widmanstätten laths do not exhibit continuous orientation gradients but are constituted of subgrains with uniform orientation relationship; the kamacite grains in the plessite regions are grouped into Bain zones, probably due to a recrystallization during the slow cooling of the meteorites. - Highlights: • Analysis of different low and high carbon steels and Widmanstätten meteorites • Automatic color mapping of the classical orientation relationships in EBSD maps • Quantification of variant pairing and grouping tendencies • Crystallographic scenario for the formation of morphological packets.

  20. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  1. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo; Ostlin, Piroska

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted life years (DALY). The material is based on relative risks obtained from various international studies, smoking prevalence (SP) data and the number of DALY based on data available for Sweden. The results show that if smoking would have been eliminated (attributable fraction, AF), the inequality between the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size of the relative risk used may have a significant impact, leading to substantial biases and therefore should be taken into serious consideration in HIA.

  2. Climate Change and Water Use Partitioning by Different Plant Functional Groups in a Grassland on the Tibetan Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is predicted to experience increases in air temperature, increases in snowfall, and decreases in monsoon rains; however, there is currently a paucity of data that examine the ecological responses to such climate changes. In this study, we examined the effects of increased air temperature and snowfall on: 1) water use partitioning by different plant functional groups, and 2) ecosystem CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season. At the individual plant scale, we used stab...

  3. Clinical Study of Respiratory Function and Difference in Pneumonia History between Alzheimer’s Disease and Vascular Dementia Groups

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared respiratory function and differences in pneumonia history between Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia groups. [Subjects] Fifty-eight inpatients in the dementia treatment ward in a psychiatric facility were enrolled. [Methods] Patients underwent respiratory function testing twice using an 80-cm party horn. The Mini-Mental State Examination was also performed and motor functions were evaluated. Patient characteristics were obtained from medical records. [Resu...

  4. Attitudes About Sexual Activity Among Postmenopausal Women in Different Ethnic Groups: A Cross-sectional Study in Jahrom, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Parnian, Razieh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function is affected by personal and interpersonal factors, familial and social traditions, culture, religion, menopause, and aging. So, ethnicity is a determining factor in sexual function. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and attitudes towards sexuality in postmenopausal women among three different ethnic groups in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women between 50 and 89 years who refe...

  5. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Sayın; Birsen Gökyiğit; Pelin Kaynak; Duygu Tüzün Sayın; Ahmet Demirok; Serpil Akar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years) were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly wit...

  6. Age, gender, mileage and the DBQ: The validity of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire in different driver groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa; Møller, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring selfreported driving behaviors. Despite the popularity of the DBQ, the applicability of the DBQ in different driver groups has remained mostly unexamined. The present study measured aberrant driving...... behavior using the original DBQ (Reason, J.T., Manstead, A., Stradling, S.G., Baxter, J., Campbell, K., 1990. Errors and violations on the road – a real distinction. Ergonomics, 33 (10/11), 1315–1332) to test the factorial validity and reliability of the instrument across different subgroups of Danish...

  7. Investigation on interaction of DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups by spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and viscosity technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Zhaohong; Song, Youtao; Liu, Shuo; Gao, Wei; Qiao, Heng; Guo, Lili; Wang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the interaction between DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups such as ethyl hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (EHDAB), hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HDBAC), and cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) were investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and viscosity technologies. The results show that these cationic surfactants can interact with DNA and major binding modes are electrostatic and hydrophobic. Also, CPB and HDBAC molecules interact with DNA by partial intercalation, and CPB has slightly stronger intercalation than HDBAC, while EHDAB interacts with DNA by non-intercalation. The different head groups of the surfactant molecules can influence the interaction strength. CPB has the stronger interaction with DNA than the others. Moreover, surfactant concentration, the ratio of DNA and fluorescence probe, ionic strength can influence the interaction. The surfactants may interact with DNA by the competition reactions with BR for DNA-BR. The increase of ionic strength may favor the surface binding between DNA and surfactants to some extent. This work provides deep mechanistic insight on the toxicity of cationic surfactants with different head groups to DNA molecules.

  8. Use of an Innovative Personality-Mindset Profiling Tool to Guide Culture-Change Strategies among Different Healthcare Worker Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lindsay Grayson

    Full Text Available Important culture-change initiatives (e.g. improving hand hygiene compliance are frequently associated with variable uptake among different healthcare worker (HCW categories. Inherent personality differences between these groups may explain change uptake and help improve future intervention design.We used an innovative personality-profiling tool (ColourGrid® to assess personality differences among standard HCW categories at five large Australian hospitals using two data sources (HCW participant surveys [PS] and generic institution-wide human resource [HR] data to: a compare the relative accuracy of these two sources; b identify differences between HCW groups and c use the observed profiles to guide design strategies to improve uptake of three clinically-important initiatives (improved hand hygiene, antimicrobial stewardship and isolation procedure adherence.Results from 34,243 HCWs (HR data and 1045 survey participants (PS data suggest that HCWs were different from the general population, displaying more individualism, lower power distance, less uncertainty avoidance and greater cynicism about advertising messages. HR and PS data were highly concordant in identifying differences between the three key HCW categories (doctors, nursing/allied-health, support services and predicting appropriate implementation strategies. Among doctors, the data suggest that key messaging should differ between full-time vs part-time (visiting senior medical officers (SMO, VMO and junior hospital medical officers (HMO, with SMO messaging focused on evidence-based compliance, VMO initiatives emphasising structured mandatory controls and prestige loss for non-adherence, and for HMOs focusing on leadership opportunity and future career risk for non-adherence.Compared to current standardised approaches, targeted interventions based on personality differences between HCW categories should result in improved infection control-related culture-change uptake. Personality

  9. The modulating role of group stability on fitness effects of group size is different in females and males of a communally rearing rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Correa, Loreto A; León, Cecilia; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; Abades, Sebastian; Villegas, Álvaro; Hayes, Loren D

    2016-11-01

    Group size may influence fitness benefits and costs that emerge from cooperative and competitive interactions in social species. However, evidence from plural breeding mammals indicates that group size is insufficient to explain variation in direct fitness, implying other attributes of social groups were overlooked. We studied the natural population of a social rodent during 5 years to test the hypothesis that social stability - in terms of group composition - modulates the effects of increasing number of breeding females (a proxy of communal rearing) and males on the number of offspring weaned (sired) and on the number of offspring weaned (sired) surviving to breeding age (two proxies of direct fitness). We quantified the effects of social stability (measured as changes in female or male group members between mating and the onset of lactation) on these fitness measures. We used live trapping, telemetry and DNA markers to determine social and fitness measures. Social stability in degus was variable in terms of the number of changes in group composition across groups. Low stability was mostly due to mortality and emigration of group members. Results supported a modulating role of social stability on the relationship between group size and the number of offspring weaned (sired). Stability in female and male group composition were both modulators of fitness to females and males. The modulatory role of stability was sex specific, where high social stability was often fitness beneficial to the females. Instead, low social stability was fitness enhancing to the males.

  10. Ordered self-assembled monolayers terminated with different chemical functional groups direct neural stem cell linage behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; He, Jin; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Ying; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2015-12-23

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been a promising candidate for stem cell-based nerve tissue regeneration. Therefore, the design of idea biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to control stem cell fate is currently a crucial issue that depends on a profound understanding of the interactions between NSCs with the surrounding micro-environment. In this work, self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold with different chemical groups, including hydroxyl (-OH), amino (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH) and methyl (-CH3), were used as a simple model to study the effects of surface chemistry on NSC fate decisions. Contact angle measurement and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) examination implied that all types of alkanethiols self-assembled on gold into a close-packed phase structure with similar molecular densities. In this study, we evaluated NSC adhesion, migration and differentiation in response to different chemical functional groups cultured under serum-free conditions. Our studies showed that NSCs exhibited certain phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to surface chemical groups. Compared with other functional groups, the SAMs with hydroxyl end-groups provided the best micro-environment in promoting NSC migration and maintaining an undifferentiated or neuronal differentiation state.  -NH2 surfaces directed neural stem cells into astrocytic lineages, while NSCs on  -COOH and  -CH3 surfaces had a similar potency to differentiate into three nerve lineages. To further investigate the possible signaling pathway, the gene expression of integrin β1 and β4 were examined. The results indicated that a high expression of β1 integrin would probably have a tight correlation with the expression of nestin, which implied the stemness of NSCs, while β4 integrin seemed to correspond to the differentiated NSCs. The results presented here give useful information for the future design of biomaterials to regulate the preservation, proliferation and

  11. Quality of diabetes care in Dutch care groups: no differences between diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R de Bruin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between presence and nature of co-morbidity and quality of care for diabetes patients enrolled in diabetes disease management programmes provided by care groups.Methods: We performed an observational study within eight Dutch diabetes care groups. Data from patient record systems of care groups and patient questionnaires were used to determine quality of care. Quality of care was measured as provision of the recommended diabetes care, patients’ achievement of recommended clinical outcomes and patients’ perception of coordination and integration of care.Results: 527 diabetes patients without and 1187 diabetes patients with co-morbidity were included. Of the co-morbid patients, 7.8% had concordant co-morbid conditions only, 63.8% had discordant co-morbid diseases only and 28.4% had both types of conditions. Hardly any differences were observed between patients with and without co-morbidity in terms of provided care, achievement of clinical outcomes and perceived coordination and integration of care.Conclusions: Our study implies that care groups are able to provide similar quality of diabetes care for diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity. Considering the expected developments regarding additional disease management programmes in care groups, it is of importance to monitor quality of care, including patient experiences, for all chronic diseases. It will then become clear whether accountable provider-led organisations such as care groups are able to ensure quality of care for the increasing number of patients with multiple chronic conditions.

  12. Design and validation of a qPCR assay for accurate detection and initial serogrouping of Legionella pneumophila in clinical specimens by the ESCMID Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentasti, M; Kese, D; Echahidi, F; Uldum, S A; Afshar, B; David, S; Mrazek, J; De Mendonça, R; Harrison, T G; Chalker, V J

    2015-07-01

    Prompt detection of Legionella pneumophila is essential for rapid investigation of legionellosis. Furthermore, as the majority of L. pneumophila infections are caused by serogroup 1 (sg1) strains, rapid identification of such strains can be critical in both routine and outbreak scenarios. The ESCMID Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI) was established in 2012 and immediately identified as a priority the validation of a reliable, easy to perform and interpret, cost-effective qPCR assay to standardise the detection of L. pneumophila DNA amongst members. A novel L. pneumophila assay targeting the mip gene was designed and combined with previously published methodologies amplifying the sg1 marker (wzm) and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) internal process control. The resulting triplex assay was validated internationally on the three qPCR platforms used by the majority of European Legionella reference laboratories: ABI 7500 (Life Technologies), LightCycler 480 Instrument II (Roche) and Rotor-Gene Q (Qiagen). Clinical and EQA specimens were tested together with a large panel of strains (251 in total) to validate the assay. The assay proved to be 100% specific for L. pneumophila and sg1 DNA both in silico and in vitro. Efficiency values for mip and wzm assays ranged between 91.97 and 97.69%. Limit of detection values estimated with 95% confidence were adopted for mip and wzm assays on all three qPCR platforms. Inhibition was not observed. This study describes a robust assay that could be widely implemented to standardise the molecular detection of L. pneumophila among ESGLI laboratories and beyond.

  13. HIV-1 group O integrase displays lower susceptibility to raltegravir and has a different mutational pathway for resistance than HIV-1 group M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Depatureaux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-1 group O (HIV-O is a rare HIV-1 variant characterized by a high number of polymorphisms, especially in the integrase gene, e.g. positions L74I, S153A, G163Q and T206S. As HIV-O integrase enzymes have not previously been studied, our aim was to assess the impact of HIV-O integrase polymorphisms on susceptibility to integrase inhibitors and emergence of resistance associated mutations. Viruses and Methods: We cloned and purified integrase proteins from each of HIV-1 Group O clades A (HIV-O/A and B (HIV-O/B, a HIV-O divergent strain (HIV-O/Div, and HIV-1 group M (subtype B, HIV-M/B and characterized these enzymes for susceptibility to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs in cell-free assays and in tissue culture, in the absence or presence of varying concentrations of several INSTIs. The inhibition constant (Ki and IC50 were calculated and compared for HIV-M and HIV-O integrases. Selections for resistance-related mutations were performed using cord blood mononuclear cells and increasing concentration of INSTIs. Results: HIV-O integrase and viruses were more susceptible to raltegravir (RAL in competitive inhibition assays and in tissue culture than were HIV-M enzymes and viruses, respectively. During selection, we observed different pathways of resistance depending on the drug and clade. Mutations selected in HIV-O can be classified as follows: (1 mutations described for HIV-M such as T97A, Q148R, V151A/I (RAL, T66I, E92Q, E157Q (EVG and M50I, R263K (DTG and (2 signature mutations for HIV-O (i.e. not described in HIV-M F121C (HIV-O/B for RAL, V75I (HIV-O/A for RAL and S153V (HIV-O/A for DTG. Only the HIV-O/Div selected the Q148R mutation for RAL and R263K+M50I for DTG, as previously described for HIV-M. None of the HIV-O viruses selected either N155H or Y143C. The selection of the specific S153V mutation could be explained at the nucleotide level: HIV-O at this position contains an alanine and substitution of alanine to

  14. RR Lyrae Luminosity Differences between Oosterhoff Group I and II Cluster Systems and the Origin of the Oosterhoff Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Carney, Bruce W.

    1999-09-01

    We present a comparative study of the Oosterhoff II cluster M2 and the Oosterhoff I cluster M3. Both have similar metallicities, [Fe/H]=-1.62 for M2 and -1.66 for M3, but very different horizontal-branch (HB) morphologies (B-R)/(B+V+R)=0.92 for M2 and 0.08 for M3. A period shift analysis and main-sequence fitting show that RRab variables in M2 are about 0.2 mag brighter than those in M3. Comparisons of the M2 period shift with Oosterhoff I clusters NGC 3201 and NGC 7006 also yield similar results, while a comparison between M2 and the Oosterhoff II cluster NGC 5986 reveals that the RR Lyrae luminosities are very similar. The luminosity difference is thought to be due to the evolutionary effect described in 1990 by Lee, Demarque, & Zinn: the M2 RRab variables have evolved away from the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB), while most M3 RRab variables lie near the ZAHB. A comparison of the mean period change rates of two clusters supports this hypothesis. Our relative age estimation using the difference in color between the base of giant branch and turn-off point shows that M2 is about 2 Gyr older than M3. Our result strongly suggests that the Oosterhoff dichotomy is due to age differences between Oosterhoff group I and II. This is consistent with the idea that the global second parameter is age. We discuss the kinematic differences between Oosterhoff group I and II clusters. Our result shows that the Oosterhoff group I clusters have zero or retrograde rotation with =-68+/-56 km s^-1 and sigma_los=131+/-28 km s^-1, while the Oosterhoff group II clusters have prograde rotation with =+94+/-47 km s^-1 and sigma_los=115+/-29 km s^-1, confirming a similar conclusion of van den Bergh. The difference in kinematics and ages between Oosterhoff group I and II clusters suggests that they may have different origins: The Oosterhoff II clusters were formed very early in the proto-Galaxy while the Oosterhoff I clusters were formed at different locations and at a later time, and were

  15. Who are lonely? Loneliness in different age groups (18-81 years old), using two measures of loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    This study asks if the prevalence of loneliness in the population varies depending on the measures used, with special focus on loneliness among the elderly. The study compares loneliness in different age groups between 18 and 81 years old (N = 14,743) using two measures of loneliness: the (indirect) six-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and a single-item, direct question about loneliness. Data are from the Norwegian LOGG (Life Course, Generation, and Gender) study. We compare the findings on loneliness according to age, gender, health, and partner status. Overall, the two loneliness measures indicate a similar prevalence of loneliness, but attribute loneliness to somewhat different people. When using a direct measure, loneliness is more prevalent among women; when using the (indirect) De Jong Gierveld Scale, loneliness is more prevalent among men. Also, the association between age and loneliness differed when using the direct and the indirect measure.

  16. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL GROUP-CONTAINING ORGANICS ON MORPHOLOGY-CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L. Wang; H.B. Yin; M. Ren; X.N. Cheng; Q.F. Zhou; X.F. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with average particles sizes ranging from 2 to 131nm were manipulatively synthesized starting from silver nitrate using different functional group-containing organic modifiers at room temperature. The effects of the organic modifiers on the morphology of the resulting silver nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the intrinsic properties of the functional groups and the reducibility of the reductant. Numerous ether bonds (-O-) present in polyethylene glycol and Tween-80 were beneficial to the formation of silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of several nanometers in a narrow size distribution in both weak and strong reducing environments.Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide induced the formation of nanosized silver triangle plates in a weak reducing environment. The crystal growth of the silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of more than 10nm was postulated through an adhesion process of small-sized particles followed by a subsequent coalescence process under the present reaction conditions.

  17. [Structural and functional changes of external and intracranial arteries in elderly patients of different ethnic groups with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorets, V N; Abramov, E A; Bartosh-Zelenaia, S Iu; Naĭden, T V

    2014-01-01

    The present article discusses the problem of structural and functional changes in extra-and intracranial arteries in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease (CHD) belonging to different ethnic groups before the upcoming coronary arteriography research and planned operative intervention. We examined 120 elderly patients with ischemic heart disease, including 50 patients of Korean nationality and 70 patients of Slavic ethnicity. Average values of IMT of the right and left CCA patients of South Asian group were significantly lower than those of Slavic ethnicity. Elderly patients with CHD the violation of cerebral circulation were due to atherosclerotic lesions of the extracranial vessels and local hemodynamic disturbances in their area of pathological tortuosity. Korean ethnicity elderly patients with CHD were observed more pronounced signs of stenosis and deformation of the main arteries of the neck, as well as lower collateral reserve of cerebral circulation.

  18. Water content differences have stronger effects than plant functional groups on soil bacteria in a steppe ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China. We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem.

  19. Autogenic training and cognitive self-hypnosis for the treatment of recurrent headaches in three different subject groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, M M; Spinhoven, P; Linssen, A C; Zitman, F G; Van Dyck, R; Rooijmans, H G

    1994-09-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of autogenic training (AT) and cognitive self-hypnosis training (CSH) for the treatment of chronic headaches in comparison with a waiting-list control (WLC) condition, (b) investigate the influence of subject recruitment on treatment outcome and (c) explore whether the level of hypnotizability is related to therapy outcome. Three different subjects groups (group 1, patients (n = 58) who were referred by a neurological outpatient clinic; group 2, members (n = 48) of the community who responded to an advertisement in a newspaper; and group 3, students (n = 40) who responded to an advertisement in a university newspaper) were allocated at random to a therapy or WLC condition. During treatment, there was a significant reduction in the Headache Index scores of the subjects in contrast with the controls. At post-treatment and follow-up almost no significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment conditions or the 3 referral sources regarding the Headache Index, psychological distress (SCL-90) scores and medication use. Follow-up measurements indicated that therapeutic improvement was maintained. In both treatment conditions, the high-hypnotizable subjects achieved a greater reduction in headache pain at post-treatment and follow-up than did the low-hypnotizable subjects. It is concluded that a relatively simple and highly structured relaxation technique for the treatment of chronic headache subjects may be preferable to more complex cognitive hypnotherapeutic procedures, irrespective of the source of recruitment. The level of hypnotic susceptibility seems to be a subject characteristic which is associated with a more favourable outcome in subjects treated with AT or CSH.

  20. Nitrogen Uptake During Fall, Winter and Spring Differs Among Plant Functional Groups in a Subarctic Heath Ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven;

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical resource for plant growth in tundra ecosystems, and species differences in the timing of N uptake may be an important feature regulating community composition and ecosystem productivity. We added 15N-labelled glycine to a subarctic heath tundra dominated by dwarf shrubs...... to 37 ± 7% by April indicating significant microbial N turnover prior to spring thaw. Only the evergreen dwarf shrubs showed active 15N acquisition before early May indicating that they had the highest potential of all functional groups for acquiring nutrients that became available in early spring...

  1. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.

  2. The effects of walking on golf drive performance in two groups of golfers with different skill levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Green

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although walking is a fundamental part of the game of golf, the effects of walking on the golf shots outcome are largely overlooked. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a hole-to-hole distance walk on the golf drive performance as well as possible physiological contributory factors were evaluated. Twenty-one volunteer golfers were recruited and divided into two groups based on their average round scores: More competitive Golfer (McG ≤88 (n=13 and Irregular Social Golfer (ISG ≥89 (n=8. Drive distance was directly measured. Balance and hand-eye coordination were assessed using a modified stork test and a customized three dimension- al maze. Participants hit 10 golf balls and then walked 500m before repeating the tests. Heart rates of golfers before driving weren’t different between groups, but were elevated within the groups following walking. The McG had longer drives following the walk (p=0.018. The change in the distance was correlated to the change in right leg balance with eyes closed (r=- 0.619 p=0.003. Biomechanical changes were correlated to the change in drive distance (r=0.867 p=0.025. This study shows that an aerobic warm-up prior to a round or small amounts of walking early in a round may be beneficial to golfers of better ability.

  3. Detecting local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region of different lipidic phases using modified fluorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.; Zahid, N. Idayu; Khyasudeen, M. Faisal; Giera, David S.; Thimm, Julian C.; Hashim, Rauzah

    2015-01-01

    Local heterogeneity in lipid self-assembly is important for executing the cellular membrane functions. In this work, we chemically modified 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and attached a C8 alkyl chain in two different locations to probe the microscopic environment of four lipidic phases of dodecyl β-maltoside. The fluorescence change in HBO and the new probes (HBO-1 and HBO-2) shows that in all phases (micellar, hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) three HBO tautomeric species (solvated syn-enol, anionic, and closed syn-keto) are stable. The formation of multi tautomers reflects the heterogeneity of the lipidic phases. The results indicate that HBO and HBO-1 reside in a similar location within the head group region, whereas HBO-2 is slightly pushed away from the sugar-dominated area. The stability of the solvated syn-enol tautomer is due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the OH group of the HBO moiety and an adjacent oxygen atom of a sugar unit. The detected HBO anions was proposed to be a consequence of this solvation effect where a hydrogen ion abstraction by the sugar units is enhanced. Our results point to a degree of local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region as a consequence of the sugar amphoterism. PMID:25731606

  4. Age, gender, mileage and the DBQ: The validity of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire in different driver groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa; Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring selfreported driving behaviors. Despite the popularity of the DBQ, the applicability of the DBQ in different driver groups has remained mostly unexamined. The present study measured aberrant driving...... behavior using the original DBQ (Reason, J.T., Manstead, A., Stradling, S.G., Baxter, J., Campbell, K., 1990. Errors and violations on the road – a real distinction. Ergonomics, 33 (10/11), 1315–1332) to test the factorial validity and reliability of the instrument across different subgroups of Danish...... drivers. The survey was conducted among 11,004 Danish driving license holders of whom 2250 male and 2190 female drivers completed the questionnaire containing background variables and the DBQ. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original three-factor solution, a four...

  5. Relationship between Ratio of Second and Fourth Digit and Obesity Traits among Different Ethnic Groups in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Fatai OYEYEMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. There are contradicting reports on its relationship with ethnicity/race, whereas convincing studies show it is related to obesity. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to demystify ethnic difference in 2D:4D ratio and to analyze its relationship with obesity among adults in Ilorin Nigeria. The cross-sectional study included 701 individuals. Finger lengths were measured with electronic calipers and other anthropometric traits were measured with standard procedure. Student t test and one-way ANOVA were used to detect differences among groups and relationship was computed with Pearson correlation. The receiver operator characteristic curves were used to detect the diagnostic effect of 2D:4D for obesity. The obtained results showed sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D ratio and other anthropometrics at p < 0.01. Obesity was associated with significantly higher mean of 2D:4D in both genders (female 0.9814 ± 0.012:0.9700 ± 0.012; male 0.9700 ± 0.010:0.9592 ± 0.010 at p < 0.001. The area under the curve was 0.753 (95% CI 0.677-0.829, p < 0.01 and 0.798 (95% CI 0.756-0.804, p < 0.01 in female and male R2D:4D respectively for obesity, implying that 2D:4D might be a surrogate marker for obesity in future.  No significant difference was found in 2D:4D among different ethnic groups studied (p >0.05; this result proved that there was no ethnic specificity in 2D:4D ratio among study’ participants. Thus, it can be reported that the digit ratio was related to high 2D:4D, but this cannot be said for different ethnic groups. The results imply that 2D:4D might be a good surrogate indicator for obesity, but not ethnicity.

  6. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  7. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  8. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  9. Fourth order accurate compact scheme with group velocity control (GVC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Yanwen

    2001-01-01

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W. , Boksenberg, A. , Clv absorption in an unbiased sample of 33 QSOs: evidence for the inter-vening galaxy hypothesis, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1982, 48: 455.[24]Zitelli, V., Mignoli, M., Zarano, B. et al., A spectroscopically complete sample of quasars with Bj ≤ 22.0, MNRAS,1992, 256: 349.[25]Hazard, C. , Morton, D. C., Terlevich, R. et al. , Nine new quasi-stellar objects with borad absorption lines, Astrophys.J. , 1984, 282: 33.[26]Osmer, P. S. , Q0353-383: The best case yet for abundance anomalies in quasars, Astrophys. J. , 1980, 237, 666.[27]Hamann, F. , Zuo, L., Tytler, D. , Broad Ne VIII λ774 emission from quasars in the HST-Fos snapshot survey (ABSNAP),Astrophys. J., 1995, 444: L69.[28]Laor, A. , Bahcall, J. N., Jannuzi, B. T. , The ultraviolet emission properties of five low-redshift active galactic unclei at high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution, Astrophys. J., 1994, 420: 110.[29]Barthel, P. D., Tytler, D. 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  10. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  11. Effects of working memory capacity on metacognitive monitoring: A study of group differences using a listening span test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eKomori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment. The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high versus low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants’ memory capacity. In addition, irreverent information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that inference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.

  12. Comparison of the density-matrix renormalization group method applied to fractional quantum Hall systems in different geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zi-Xiang, E-mail: zihu@princeton.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Physics, ChongQing University, ChongQing 400044 (China); Papić, Z.; Johri, S.; Bhatt, R.N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Schmitteckert, Peter [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-06-18

    We report a systematic study of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) using the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method on two different geometries: the sphere and the cylinder. We provide convergence benchmarks based on model Hamiltonians known to possess exact zero-energy ground states, as well as an analysis of the number of sweeps and basis elements that need to be kept in order to achieve the desired accuracy. The ground state energies of the Coulomb Hamiltonian at ν=1/3 and ν=5/2 filling are extracted and compared with the results obtained by previous DMRG implementations in the literature. A remarkably rapid convergence in the cylinder geometry is noted and suggests that this boundary condition is particularly suited for the application of the DMRG method to the FQHE. -- Highlights: ► FQHE is a two-dimensional physics. ► Density-matrix renormalization group method applied to FQH systems. ► Benchmark study both on sphere and cylinder geometry.

  13. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  14. Study of On-Ramp PI Controller Based on Dural Group QPSO with Different Well Centers Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm, dual-group QPSO with different well centers (DWC-QPSO algorithm, is proposed by constructing the master-slave subswarms. The new algorithm was applied in the parameter optimization of on-ramp traffic PI controller combining with nonlinear feedback theory. With the critical information contained in the searching space and results of the basic QPSO algorithm, this algorithm avoids the rapid disappearance of swarm diversity and enhances the global searching ability through collaboration between subswarms. Experiment results on an on-ramp traffic control simulation show that DWC-QPSO can be well applied in the study of on-ramp traffic PI controller and the comparison results illustrate that DWC-QPSO outperforms other evolutionary algorithms with enhancement in both adaptability and stability.

  15. The Norwegian Educational System, the Linguistic Diversity in the Country and the Education of Different Minority Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity has always been and still is one of the current issues in the Norwegian educational system. Norwegian is the official language of the country, but, there have been several distinct dialects and two official written Norwegian languages in the country since 1885. One of them is Bokmål and the other is Nynorsk. There has also been an indigenous Sami people with three different Sami languages in the country: Northern Sami, Lulesami and Southern Sami in the country. At the same time there are two national minority groups, Kvens and the Roma people, who have their own languages. In addition about 200 languages are represented among linguistic minority children with immigrant parents/grandparents. This linguistic diversity means that almost 15% of Norway’s population of 5 million has another first language than Norwegian. This paper gives a brief account of policies and challenges related to multilingualism and multilingual education in the Norwegian educational system.

  16. Repair Effect of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Different Contents of Sulfate Group and Molecular Weights on Damaged HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bhadja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure–activity relationships and repair mechanism of six low-molecular-weight seaweed polysaccharides (SPSs on oxalate-induced damaged human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 were investigated. These SPSs included Laminaria japonica polysaccharide, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide, degraded Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide, degraded Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide, Eucheuma gelatinae polysaccharide, and degraded Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide. These SPSs have a narrow difference of molecular weight (from 1968 to 4020 Da after degradation by controlling H2O2 concentration. The sulfate group (–SO3H content of the six SPSs was 21.7%, 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, 7.0%, and 5.5%, respectively, and the –COOH contents varied between 1.0% to 1.7%. After degradation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of characteristic –SO3H and –COOH groups of polysaccharides. The repair effect of polysaccharides was determined using cell-viability test by CCK-8 assay and cell-morphology test by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results revealed that these SPSs within 0.1–100 μg/mL did not express cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells, and each polysaccharide had a repair effect on oxalate-induced damaged HK-2 cells. Simultaneously, the content of polysaccharide –SO3H was positively correlated with repair ability. Furthermore, the low-molecular-weight degraded polysaccharides showed better repair activity on damaged HK-2 cells than their undegraded counterpart. Our results can provide reference for inhibiting the formation of kidney stones and for developing original anti-stone polysaccharide drugs.

  17. 不同颜色类群芒果的ISSR分析%ISSR analysis of different color groups in mango

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 唐志鹏; 高兴; 杨培丽; 范琪祺; 黄国弟

    2014-01-01

    为给芒果新品种的定向选育提供理论依据,以具有不同果皮颜色的8个芒果品种的叶片为试材,采用ISSR标记技术,筛选出了特异性引物,找到了与芒果果皮颜色性状相关的特异性谱带,并运用NTsys2.10软件进行了聚类分析。结果表明,利用引物UBC-864,可寻找出红色芒果品种群的特有谱带;用引物UBC-840、UBC-857、UBC-864、UBC-868和UBC-890对供试的8份芒果品种资源进行聚类分析,以相似系数0.52为标准,可将供试材料分为2类,台农1号、金煌芒、金穗芒、四季蜜芒、桂热82号聚为一类,凯特芒、爱文芒和红芒6号聚为一类。ISSR标记可用于芒果果皮颜色性状分子标记辅助育种。%In order to provide a theoretical basis for breeding new cultivars of mango, taking eight mango cultivars with different peel colors as materials, some speciifc primers were selected out, some speciifc bands related with fruit color traits were ifnd out by using ISSR marker techniques, and the clustering analysis was conducted with NTsys2.10 software. The results show that some speciifc spectrum bands of the red mango cultivar group can be ifnd out by using primer UBC-864. The eight mango cultivars are cluster into two groups by the primers of UBC-840, UBC-857, UBC-864, UBC-868, UBC-890, taking similarity coefficient 0.52 as a standard. Tainong No.1, Jinhuang, Jinsui, Sijimi, Guire No.82 belong to one group, Keitt, Aiwen and Zill belong to anther group. ISSR markers can be used for molecular marker-assisted breeding for fruit peel color in mango.

  18. Effects of smoking on the Lipoprotein levels among Mauritian of different ethnic groups and their preponderance to cardiovascular threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dhunnoo Yuvrajsing

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease progression and initiation has since long been known to be influenced by smoking and also genetic variability, owing to ethnic differences. Past studies conducted among Mauritian, have reported certain genetic preponderance to diseases. In the current study, effect of smoking on various cardiovascular parameters in two different ethnic groups of Mauritius was studied. Smokers and non-smokers volunteers were recruited from ethnic Asian and African population and blood sample collected by venipuncture. Myeloperoxidase, APOA1, OxLDL, HDL, TG, LDL, and cholesterol were assessed The level of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, myeloperoxidase, APO A1, and OxLDL was 5.56±1.09, 2.13±1.70, 0.67±0.11, 4.07±0.93, 145.90±9.59, 0.42±0.13 and 74.55±13.73 mmol/L respectively in Asian smokers. Corresponding values in African smokers were respectively 4.65±0.88, 1.17±0.78, 1.18±0.42, 2.33±0.67, 172.50±15.55, 0.47±0.88 and 65.11±7.38. Results of our study indicate a significant difference (p<0.05 in cardiovascular parameters between Asian and African smokers. Furthermore, Asians were also observed to be prone to dyslipidaemia. On the other hand, smoking did not seem to influence cardiovascular parameters among African smokers, but rather seemed to have an underlying genetic protective effect against the deleterious effects of smoking.

  19. Stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO₂ in different plant groups: underrated factors for predicting leaf photosynthesis responses to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexas, Jaume; Carriquí, Marc; Coopman, Rafael E; Gago, Jorge; Galmés, Jeroni; Martorell, Sebastià; Morales, Fermín; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The climate change conditions predicted for the end of the current century are expected to have an impact on the performance of plants under natural conditions. The variables which are foreseen to have a larger effect are increased CO2 concentration and temperature. Although it is generally considered CO2 assimilation rate could be increased by the increasing levels of CO2, it has been reported in previous studies that acclimation to high CO2 results in reductions of physiological parameters involved in photosynthesis, like the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc,max), stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance to CO2 (gm). On the one hand, most of the previous modeling efforts have neglected the potential role played by the acclimation of gm to high CO2 and temperature. On the other hand, the effect of climate change on plant clades other than angiosperms, like ferns, has received little attention, and there are no studies evaluating the potential impact of increasing CO2 and temperature on these species. In this study we predicted responses of several representative species among angiosperms, gymnosperms and ferns to increasing CO2 and temperature. Our results show that species with lower photosynthetic capacity - such as some ferns and gymnosperms - would be proportionally more favored under these foreseen environmental conditions. The main reason for this difference is the lower diffusion limitation imposed by gs and gm in plants having high capacity for photosynthesis among the angiosperms, which reduces the positive effect of increasing CO2. However, this apparent advantage of low-diffusion species would be canceled if the two conductances - gs and gm - acclimate and are down regulated to high CO2, which is basically unknown, especially for gymnosperms and ferns. Hence, for a better understanding of different plant responses to future climate, studies are urged in which the actual photosynthetic response/acclimation to increased CO2 and temperature of

  20. A group decision-making tool for the application of membrane technologies in different water reuse scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, S M K; Saroj, D P; Kouchaki, S; Ilemobade, A A; Ouki, S K

    2015-06-01

    A global challenge of increasing concern is diminishing fresh water resources. A growing practice in many communities to supplement diminishing fresh water availability has been the reuse of water. Novel methods of treating polluted waters, such as membrane assisted technologies, have recently been developed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of membrane assisted technologies available, the current challenge is how to select a reliable alternative among numerous technologies for appropriate water reuse. In this research, a fuzzy logic based multi-criteria, group decision making tool has been developed. This tool has been employed in the selection of appropriate membrane treatment technologies for several non-potable and potable reuse scenarios. Robust criteria, covering technical, environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects, were selected, while 10 different membrane assisted technologies were assessed in the tool. The results show this approach capable of facilitating systematic and rigorous analysis in the comparison and selection of membrane assisted technologies for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse.

  1. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Sara; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance. Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated papers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions according to the method described by WHO. Number of take-offs were counted during 15 minutes of exposure time. Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group. Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended. PMID:27308276

  2. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  3. Comparison of fractal characteristics of species richness patterns among different plant taxonomic groups along an altitudinal gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Haibao; ZHANG Linyan; MA Keping

    2007-01-01

    This study was done using the non brown fractal model to quantify and compare the variations in the species richness of trees,shrubs,herbs and all plants along an altitudinal gradient and to characterize the dominating ecological processes that determine the variations.Two transects were sampled far away from any anthropogenic disturbances along the shady slopes of the Dongling mountains in Beijing,China.Both transects were continuous and 2 m wide,and every individual tree and shrub was recorded in each of them.Discrete quadrats of 1m × 1m were located along the transects A and B for estimation of the herb species richness along the altitudinal gradients.The level interval between the quadrats was 10m and 25m respectively.In this study,transects A and B were combined into one transect AB,and 40 m was selected as the optimal quadrat length along the altitudinal gradients for measuring the plant species richness patterns.Species richness in each quadrat was calculated using a program written in Matlab 6.0.Direct gradient analysis was used to describe the overall trends in the species richness of trees,shrubs,herbs and other plants with change in altitude,while the non-brown ffactal model was used to detect more accurately their variations at various scales along the gradient.The model assumed that each class of ecological processes affecting the distribution of a variable could be represented by an independent spatial random function.Generally,ecological phenomena are determined not by a single ecological process but by multiple ones.These processes act on ecological patterns within their own spatial scales.In the non-brown fractal model,the spatial random functions are nested within a larger range of spatial scales.The relative contribution of the spatial random functions to the spatial variation of a variable is indicated by a weighting parameter that has to be greater than or equal to zero.In this paper,we reached the following results and conclusions

  4. Accurate Enthalpies of Formation of Astromolecules: Energy, Stability and Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Etim, Emmanuel E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate enthalpies of formation are reported for known and potential astromolecules using high level ab initio quantum chemical calculations. A total of 130 molecules comprising of 31 isomeric groups and 24 cyanide/isocyanide pairs with atoms ranging from 3 to 12 have been considered. The results show an interesting, surprisingly not well explored, relationship between energy, stability and abundance (ESA) existing among these molecules. Among the isomeric species, isomers with lower enthalpies of formation are more easily observed in the interstellar medium compared to their counterparts with higher enthalpies of formation. Available data in literature confirm the high abundance of the most stable isomer over other isomers in the different groups considered. Potential for interstellar hydrogen bonding accounts for the few exceptions observed. Thus, in general, it suffices to say that the interstellar abundances of related species are directly proportional to their stabilities. The immediate consequences of ...

  5. Responses to invasion and invader removal differ between native and exotic plant groups in a coastal dune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, Susan M; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Cushman, J Hall

    2013-12-01

    The spread of exotic, invasive species is a global phenomenon that is recognized as a major source of environmental change. Although many studies have addressed the effects of exotic plants on the communities they invade, few have quantified the effects of invader removal on plant communities, or considered the degree to which different plant groups vary in response to invasion and invader removal. We evaluated the effects of an exotic succulent, iceplant (Carpobrotus edulis), on a coastal dune plant community in northern California, as well as the community responses to its removal. To assess possible mechanisms by which iceplant affects other plants, we also evaluated its above- and belowground influences on the germination and growth of a dominant exotic annual grass, Bromus diandrus. We found that iceplant invasion was associated with reduced native plant cover as well as increased cover and density of some exotic plants-especially exotic annual grasses. However, iceplant removal did not necessarily lead to a reversal of these effects: removal increased the cover and density of both native and exotic species. We also found that B. diandrus grown in iceplant patches, or in soil where iceplant had been removed, had poorer germination and growth than B. diandrus grown in soil not influenced by iceplant. This suggests that the influence of iceplant on this dune plant community occurs, at least in part, due to belowground effects, and that these effects remain after iceplant has been removed. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering how exotic invasive plants affect not only native species, but also co-occurring exotic taxa. It also shows that combining observational studies with removal experiments can lead to important insights into the influence of invaders and the mechanisms of their effects.

  6. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIFFERENT MOLECULAR FORMS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN A AND RECOMBINANT DERIVATIVES POLYPEPTIDES OF BAC RECEPTOR PROTEINS FROM GROUP B STREPTOCOCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Korzhueva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article concerns interactions between immunoglobulin A and recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides, designed on the basis of externally localized Bac protein of the Group B streptococci, possessing IgA-binding activity.There is a current demand for immunochemical reagents that are strictly specific for IgA, in order to develop antigenic standards for detection of IgA levels in biological fluids, as well as for affinity purification of IgA and its fragments.To analyze an opportunity of the abovementioned application ways for these proteins, a special study was performed to assay an interaction capability of recombinant P6, P7, P8 polypeptides binding to Fc regions of different IgA forms (serum IgA, secretory IgA, subclasses of serum IgA – IgA1, IgA2. Selectivity of ligand binding was specially confirmed.It was found out that, among three presented polypeptides, the structure of recombinant P6 derivative proved to be optimal for IgA-binding ability of Bac protein.Structural features of IgA-binding fragments of Bac protein, i.e., binding site position on the IgA molecule (proximity to epitopes for three monoclonal antibodies, variability of the site structure, as well as resistance of binding site for P6, P7, P8 in IgA molecule against partial disulfide bonds reduction. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 4-5, pp 327-336.

  7. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  8. Climate change and water use partitioning by different plant functional groups in a grassland on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP is predicted to experience increases in air temperature, increases in snowfall, and decreases in monsoon rains; however, there is currently a paucity of data that examine the ecological responses to such climate changes. In this study, we examined the effects of increased air temperature and snowfall on: 1 water use partitioning by different plant functional groups, and 2 ecosystem CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season. At the individual plant scale, we used stable hydrogen isotopes (δD to partition water use between shallow- and deep-rooted species. Prior to the arrival of summer precipitation (typically mid-July, snowmelt was the main water source in the soils. During this time, shallow and deep-rooted species partitioned water use by accessing water from shallow and deep soils, respectively. However, once the monsoon rains arrived, all plants used rainwater from the upper soils as the main water source. Snow addition did not result in increased snowmelt use throughout the growing season; instead, snowmelt water was pushed down into deeper soils when the rains arrived. At the larger plot scale, CO2 flux measurements demonstrated that rain was the main driver for net ecosystem productivity (NEP. NEP rates were low during June and July and reached a maximum during the monsoon season in August. Warming decreased NEP through a reduction in gross primary productivity (GPP, and snow additions did not mitigate the negative effects of warming by increasing NEP or GPP. Both the isotope and CO2 flux results suggest that rain drives productivity in the Nam Tso region on the TP. This also suggests that the effects of warming-induced drought on the TP may not be mitigated by increased snowfall. Further decreases in summer monsoon rains may affect ecosystem productivity, with large implications for livestock-based livelihoods.

  9. Do Differences in GPA Impact Attitudes about Group Work? A Comparison of Business and Non-Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzimek, Volker; Marks, Melanie Beth; Kinnamon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data the authors investigate the impact of grade point average (GPA) on students' preferences for classroom group work and its structure. Topics range from general attitudes and beliefs (benefits to grades, impact on mastery of material, professors' motives) to administration (group composition, grading, peer reviews, group…

  10. Distribution of causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana; a descriptive study

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    Musinguzi Geofrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana's maternal mortality ratio remains high despite efforts made to meet Millennium Development Goal 5. A number of studies have been conducted on maternal mortality in Ghana; however, little is known about how the causes of maternal mortality are distributed in different socio-demographic subgroups. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess and analyse the causes of maternal mortality according to socio-demographic factors in Ghana. Methods The causes of maternal deaths were assessed with respect to age, educational level, rural/urban residence status and marital status. Data from a five year retrospective survey was used. The data was obtained from Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007 acquired from the database of Ghana Statistical Service. A total of 605 maternal deaths within the age group 12-49 years were analysed using frequency tables, cross-tabulations and logistic regression. Results Haemorrhage was the highest cause of maternal mortality (22.8%. Married women had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage, compared with single women (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2-5.7. On the contrary, married women showed a significantly reduced risk of dying from abortion compared to single women (adjusted OR = 0.2, 95%CI = 0.1-0.4. Women aged 35-39years had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage (aOR 2.6, 95%CI = 1.4-4.9, whereas they were at a lower risk of dying from abortion (aOR 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.7 compared to their younger counterparts. The risk of maternal death from infectious diseases decreased with increasing maternal age, whereas the risk of dying from miscellaneous causes increased with increasing age. Conclusions The study shows evidence of variations in the causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic subgroups in Ghana that should not be overlooked. It is therefore recommended that interventions aimed at combating the high maternal mortality in Ghana should be both

  11. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

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    Pijika Timsuksai

    Full Text Available Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  12. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  13. Universality: Accurate Checks in Dyson's Hierarchical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina, J. J.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2003-06-01

    In this talk we present high-accuracy calculations of the susceptibility near βc for Dyson's hierarchical model in D = 3. Using linear fitting, we estimate the leading (γ) and subleading (Δ) exponents. Independent estimates are obtained by calculating the first two eigenvalues of the linearized renormalization group transformation. We found γ = 1.29914073 ± 10 -8 and, Δ = 0.4259469 ± 10-7 independently of the choice of local integration measure (Ising or Landau-Ginzburg). After a suitable rescaling, the approximate fixed points for a large class of local measure coincide accurately with a fixed point constructed by Koch and Wittwer.

  14. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo;

    2004-01-01

    the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size...... methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted...... life years (DALY). The material is based on relative risks obtained from various international studies, smoking prevalence (SP) data and the number of DALY based on data available for Sweden. The results show that if smoking would have been eliminated (attributable fraction, AF), the inequality between...

  15. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  16. eggNOG v3.0: orthologous groups covering 1133 organisms at 41 different taxonomic ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sean; Szklarczyk, Damian; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Kuhn, Michael; Muller, Jean; Arnold, Roland; Rattei, Thomas; Letunic, Ivica; Doerks, Tobias; Jensen, Lars J; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Orthologous relationships form the basis of most comparative genomic and metagenomic studies and are essential for proper phylogenetic and functional analyses. The third version of the eggNOG database (http://eggnog.embl.de) contains non-supervised orthologous groups constructed from 1133 organisms, doubling the number of genes with orthology assignment compared to eggNOG v2. The new release is the result of a number of improvements and expansions: (i) the underlying homology searches are now based on the SIMAP database; (ii) the orthologous groups have been extended to 41 levels of selected taxonomic ranges enabling much more fine-grained orthology assignments; and (iii) the newly designed web page is considerably faster with more functionality. In total, eggNOG v3 contains 721,801 orthologous groups, encompassing a total of 4,396,591 genes. Additionally, we updated 4873 and 4850 original COGs and KOGs, respectively, to include all 1133 organisms. At the universal level, covering all three domains of life, 101,208 orthologous groups are available, while the others are applicable at 40 more limited taxonomic ranges. Each group is amended by multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees and broad functional descriptions are provided for 450,904 orthologous groups (62.5%).

  17. Effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in men and women and different age groups: pooled analysis of randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Øyvind; Schoen, Robert E; Senore, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Hoff, Geir; Løberg, Magnus; Bretthauer, Michael; Adami, Hans-Olov; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy in screening for colorectal cancer by patient sex and age. Design Pooled analysis of randomised trials (the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial (PLCO), the Italian Screening for Colon and Rectum trial (SCORE), and the Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention trial (NORCCAP)). Data sources Aggregated data were pooled from each randomised trial on incidence of colorectal cancer and mortality stratified by sex, age at screening, and colon subsite (distal v proximal). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Invited individuals aged 55-74 (PLCO), 55-64 (SCORE), and 50-64 (NORCCAP). Individuals were randomised to receive flexible sigmoidoscopy screening once only (SCORE and NORCCAP) or twice (PLCO), or receive usual care (no intervention). Results 287 928 individuals were included in the pooled analysis; 115 139 randomised to screening and 172 789 to usual care. Compliance rates were 58%, 63%, and 87% in SCORE, NORCCAP, and PLCO, respectively. Median follow-up was 10.5 to 12.1 years. Screening reduced the incidence of colorectal cancer in men (relative risk 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.83) and women (0.83; 0.75 to 0.92). No difference in the effect of screening was seen between men younger than 60 and those older than 60. Screening reduced the incidence of colorectal cancer in women younger than 60 (relative risk 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.84), but not significantly in those aged 60 or older (0.90; 0.80 to 1.02). Colorectal cancer mortality was significantly reduced in both younger and older men, and in women younger than 60. Screening reduced colorectal cancer incidence to a similar extent in the distal colon in men and women, but there was no effect of screening in the proximal colon in older women with a significant interaction between sex and age group (P=0.04). Conclusion Flexible sigmoidoscopy is an effective tool for colorectal cancer

  18. Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131 000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, π-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum

  19. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  20. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  1. PCDD/F and PCB in human serum of differently exposed population groups of an Italian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, Luigi; Abate, Vittorio; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Carasi, Sergio; Casella, Marialuisa; Iacovella, Nicola; Indelicato, Annamaria; La Rocca, Cinzia; Scarcella, Carmelo; Alivernini, Silvia

    2008-08-01

    A chemical plant located in Brescia, an industrial city in North-Western Italy, produced polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) during a 30-50 year period, causing widespread pollution of the surrounding agricultural area. This area contains several small farms, which principally produce veal meat for private consumption of the farmers' families. The pollution went undiscovered for many years, during which period contaminated food was regularly consumed. This paper reports the polychlorodibenzodioxin (PCDD), polychlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) and PCB levels of a serum sample pooled from the consumers of contaminated food, compared to six population groups of the city of Brescia. Four of these groups were selected in order to represent, respectively, the local general population and the residents of three zones of the polluted area, while the last two groups represented, respectively, the present and the former workers of the plant. One human milk sample from one of the consumers of contaminated food was also analyzed. Results show that the consumers of the contaminated food and the former workers of the plant display considerably higher levels than all other groups. The levels of general population and of all other groups were generally similar both to each other and to the range of literature values for unexposed populations. The respective contribution of PCDDs, PCDFs, mono-ortho and non-ortho PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) to (Toxicity Equivalents) TEQ of the population groups of this study were also compared to literature data: the two groups with a high contamination level, together with the human milk sample, displayed a higher incidence of mono-ortho PCBs and a lower contribution of PCDD, possibly correlated with the source of contamination.

  2. Virulence profile of different phylogenetic groups of locally isolated community acquired uropathogenic E. coli from Faisalabad region of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Saira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC are among major pathogens causing urinary tract infections. Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. This study was planned to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and cytotoxic effects of UPEC isolates with reference to phylogenetic groups (B2, B1, D and A to understand the presence and impact of virulence factors in the severity of infection in Faisalabad region of Pakistan. Methods In this study phylogenetic analysis, virulence gene identification and cytotoxicity of 59 uropathogenic E.coli isolates obtained from non-hospitalized patients was studied. Results Among 59 isolates, phylogenetic group B2 (50% was most dominant followed by groups A, B1 (19% each and D (12%. Isolates present in group D showed highest presence of virulence genes. The prevalence hlyA (37% was highest followed by sfaDE (27%, papC (24%, cnf1 (20%, eaeA (19% and afaBC3 (14%. Highly hemolytic and highly verotoxic isolates mainly belonged to group D and B2. We also found two isolates with simultaneous presence of three fimbrial adhesin genes present on pap, afa, and sfa operons. This has not been reported before and underlines the dynamic nature of these UPEC isolates. Conclusions It was concluded that in local UPEC isolates from non-hospitalized patients, group B2 was more prevalent. However, group D isolates were most versatile as all were equipped with virulence genes and showed highest level of cytotoxicity.

  3. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in a Large Scale Study of different cities and ethnicities in Khuzestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Torabizade maatoghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed ethnicity-related prevalence. Overall, the blood group O had the highest prevalence and AB the lowest percentage among the ethnicities, indicating a significant difference with studies in other parts of the world.

  4. Within-group Ethnic Differences of Black Male STEM Majors and Factors Affecting Their Persistence in College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Y. Williamson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined how familial and institutional factors interact with the academic experiences of a diverse group of Black males enrolled as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at one university. Ogbu’s (1998 Cultural-Ecological Theory of Minority School Performance, a theoretical framework, posits that the manner by which a group achieves minority status, coupled with community and family educational values, impacts academic achievement. Immigrants, voluntary minorities, perform better academically than involuntary minorities (nonimmigrants because they are more accepting of and more likely to adapt to the White middle-class norms upon which schools in the United States are based (Ogbu, 1994, 2004. While the data overall are positive for the sample, when viewed by ethnic group, it was evident the African and Caribbean students are more academically integrated to campus than African American students. The African students, more so than any other ethnic group, are connecting, interacting, and forming relationships with faculty outside of the classroom; conversely, African American students in this study reported having the least amount of effective connections with faculty. This research study found that for the Black male STEM students in this project (a their families are a pivotal force, (b academic experiences vary across ethnicities, (c faculty mediate student success, and (d there is a lack of interactions between ethnic groups (Black Distance on campus.

  5. Eating attitudes and weight concern among Chinese middle-age women: A comparison between different age and BMI groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few studies have been conducted to explore eating behavior and weight concern among middle-aged women. Methods: Participants were a sample of 236 Chinese women aged 30-52. Outcome measures were various symptoms related to eating disorders, the weight concern and psychological characteristics subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 questionnaire (EDI-2. Independent variables were age, education level and BMI. ANOVA-Test and Linear Regression were performed. Results: A group of women (N = 132, 78% with normal weight (19 < BMI < 24 showed dissatisfaction with their weight and wanted to reduce it. Overweight and obese women scored significantly higher on the subscale Body Dissatisfaction on the EDI-2 than women with lower BMI. In comparison to the older group (50-59, the younger group (30-39 and middle-aged group (40-49 expressed the desire to lose weight with a lower BMI. Conclusions: In comparison to age, the BMI had a stronger impact on the psychological and behavioral traits related to the eating disorders among a group of middle-aged Chinese women.

  6. Accurate guitar tuning by cochlear implant musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lu

    Full Text Available Modern cochlear implant (CI users understand speech but find difficulty in music appreciation due to poor pitch perception. Still, some deaf musicians continue to perform with their CI. Here we show unexpected results that CI musicians can reliably tune a guitar by CI alone and, under controlled conditions, match simultaneously presented tones to <0.5 Hz. One subject had normal contralateral hearing and produced more accurate tuning with CI than his normal ear. To understand these counterintuitive findings, we presented tones sequentially and found that tuning error was larger at ∼ 30 Hz for both subjects. A third subject, a non-musician CI user with normal contralateral hearing, showed similar trends in performance between CI and normal hearing ears but with less precision. This difference, along with electric analysis, showed that accurate tuning was achieved by listening to beats rather than discriminating pitch, effectively turning a spectral task into a temporal discrimination task.

  7. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  8. Comparison of the effects of stimulating groups of static gamma axons with different conduction velocity ranges on cat spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonet-Dénand, F; Laporte, Y; Petit, J

    2001-07-01

    In cat peroneus tertius muscles, static gamma axons were prepared in groups of three to four according to the conduction velocity of their axons (fast, intermediate, or slow). Effects of stimulating these groups (at 20, 30, and 50 Hz) on spindle ensemble discharges during sinusoidal stretch (peak-to-peak amplitude, 0.5 mm; frequency linearly increasing from 0.5 to 8 Hz in 10 s) were compared. Ensemble discharges were obtained by digital treatment of the discharges in afferent fibers from all the spindles in peroneus tertius as recorded from the muscle nerve. Stimulation of each group prevented ensemble discharges from falling to very low levels during shortening phases. However, this effect was clearly larger when the group of fast-conducting axons was stimulated. In view of the known effects of the activation of bag(2) and chain fibers (either separately or together) on single primary ending discharges during comparable sinusoidal stretches, this stronger effect supports the view that static gamma axons with faster conduction velocities are more likely to supply more bag(2) fibers than slower ones. Possibly the proportions of bag(2) and chain fibers activated during motor activity are determined by a recruitment of static gamma motoneurons related to their size.

  9. How Male, Female, and Mixed-Gender Groups Regard Interaction and Leadership Differences in the Business Communication Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Janet K.; Neal, Joan C.; Waner, Karen K.

    2001-01-01

    Offers five recommendations for teachers or facilitators of team communication: (1) students should avoid groupthink; (2) offer students methods for reaching agreement in a timely manner; (3) vary subjects of group writing assignments; (4) encourage all students to be active participants; and (5) emphasize the importance of good writing skills to…

  10. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    ) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...

  11. Use of illicit substances in a psychosis incidence cohort : a comparison among different ethnic groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, N; Selten, JP; Hoek, HW; Feller, W; van der Graaf, Y; Kahn, R

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Use of illicit substances has been suggested as an explanation for the increased incidence of psychosis among some immigrant groups. The aim of the present study is to compare the rates of illicit substance use among immigrants with a first psychosis with that among non-migrants. Method:

  12. Ethnic differences in total and HDL cholesterol among Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujcic-Voortman, J.K.; Bos, G.; Baan, C.A.; Uitenbroek, D.G.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background High total cholesterol and low HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are important determinants of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about dyslipidemia among Turkish and Moroccan migrants, two of the largest ethnic minority groups in several European countries. This study exami

  13. Differences in Perceptions between Afro-American and Anglo-American Males and Females in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, John A.; Conwell, Catherine R.

    The effects of cooperative learning on students' perceptions of themselves and their roles in academic settings are explored. A group of 28 students from seven intermediate classrooms in an urban school system were selected to be videotaped while participating in a cooperative problem-solving lesson and were subsequently interviewed. The students…

  14. Associations of NF-kappaB and Bax with Apoptosis in Varicose Veins of Women of Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Evi Simovart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at detecting apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs together with determining expression of NF-kappaB (p105/p50 and Bax in varicose vein walls. Women (n=35 undergoing the excision of varicose veins were divided into 3 groups: younger than 35 years (I, 36–50 years (II, and older than 50 years (III. Apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL method, NF-kappaB and Bax expression by immunohistochemistry. The percentage of apoptotic ECs and SMCs in the layers of varicose vein wall increased in groups II and III. NF-kappaB expression had the lowest level in Group II with particularly low level in the media. Contrariwise, Bax expression levels in Group II were increased. The study revealed that in varicose veins ECs and SMCs apoptosis increased with advancing age. If increase in apoptosis during earlier stages of varicosities is probably regulated by intrinsic pathway, then in older patients other signaling pathways may be involved.

  15. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  16. OCA1 in different ethnic groups of india is primarily due to founder mutations in the tyrosinase gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaki, M.; Sengupta, M.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Subba Rao, I.; Majumder, P.P.; Das, M.; Samanta, S.; Ray, K.

    2006-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by an abnormally low amount of melanin in the eyes, skin and hair, and associated with common developmental abnormalities of the eye. Defects in the tyrosinase gene (TYR) cause a common type of OCA,

  17. New Zealand = Maori, New Zealand = Bicultural: Ethnic Group Differences in a National Sample of Maori and Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jessica F.; Sibley, Chris G.; Robertson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) Europeans show a unique implicit bicultural effect, with research using the Implicit Association Test consistently showing that they associate Maori (the Indigenous peoples) and their own (dominant/advantaged majority) group as equally representative of the nation. We replicated and extended this NZ = bicultural effect in a small…

  18. Urban district identity as a common ingroup identity : The different role of ingroup prototypicality for minority and majority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, Elze G.; Otten, Sabine; Van der Zee, Karen I.; Giebels, Ellen; Dovidio, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined how identification with urban districts as a common ingroup identity and perceived ingroup prototypicality influence the attitudes of residents toward other ethnic groups in their neighborhood. The overall conclusion of two field studies (N?=?214 and N?=?98) is that for ma

  19. Urban district identity as a common ingroup identity: The different role of ingroup prototypicality for minority and majority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, E.G.; Otten, S.; Zee, van der K. I.; Giebels, E.; Dovidio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examined how identification with urban districts as a common ingroup identity and perceived ingroup prototypicality influence the attitudes of residents toward other ethnic groups in their neighborhood. The overall conclusion of two field studies (N = 214 and N = 98) is that for ma

  20. Different paths to consensus? The impact of need for closure on model-supported group conflict management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, L.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence on how cognitive factors impact the effectiveness of model-supported group decision making is lacking. This study reports on an experiment on the effects of need for closure, defined as a desire for definite knowledge on some issue and the eschewal of ambiguity. The study was cond