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Sample records for accurate group difference

  1. Accurate Finite Difference Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, John W.

    1996-01-01

    Two families of finite difference algorithms for computational aeroacoustics are presented and compared. All of the algorithms are single step explicit methods, they have the same order of accuracy in both space and time, with examples up to eleventh order, and they have multidimensional extensions. One of the algorithm families has spectral like high resolution. Propagation with high order and high resolution algorithms can produce accurate results after O(10(exp 6)) periods of propagation with eight grid points per wavelength.

  2. Accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We investigate accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector between ν-oscillation and seesaw energy scales. We consider decoupling effects of top quark and Higgs boson on the renormalization group equations of light neutrino mass matrix. Since the decoupling effects are given in the standard model scale and independent of high energy physics, our method can basically apply to any models beyond the standard model. We find that the decoupling effects of Higgs boson are negligible, while those of top quark are not. Particularly, the decoupling effects of top quark affect neutrino mass eigenvalues, which are important for analyzing predictions such as mass squared differences and neutrinoless double beta decay in an underlying theory existing at high energy scale.

  3. Accurate Finite Difference Methods for Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Stock options are priced numerically using space- and time-adaptive finite difference methods. European options on one and several underlying assets are considered. These are priced with adaptive numerical algorithms including a second order method and a more accurate method. For American options we use the adaptive technique to price options on one stock with and without stochastic volatility. In all these methods emphasis is put on the control of errors to fulfill predefined tolerance level...

  4. Accurate finite difference methods for time-harmonic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Isaac; Turkel, Eli

    1994-01-01

    Finite difference methods for solving problems of time-harmonic acoustics are developed and analyzed. Multidimensional inhomogeneous problems with variable, possibly discontinuous, coefficients are considered, accounting for the effects of employing nonuniform grids. A weighted-average representation is less sensitive to transition in wave resolution (due to variable wave numbers or nonuniform grids) than the standard pointwise representation. Further enhancement in method performance is obtained by basing the stencils on generalizations of Pade approximation, or generalized definitions of the derivative, reducing spurious dispersion, anisotropy and reflection, and by improving the representation of source terms. The resulting schemes have fourth-order accurate local truncation error on uniform grids and third order in the nonuniform case. Guidelines for discretization pertaining to grid orientation and resolution are presented.

  5. Accurate characterization of OPVs: Device masking and different solar simulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Søndergaard, Roar R.;

    2013-01-01

    One of the prime objects of organic solar cell research has been to improve the power conversion efficiency. Unfortunately, the accurate determination of this property is not straight forward and has led to the recommendation that record devices be tested and certified at a few accredited...... laboratories following rigorous ASTM and IEC standards. This work tries to address some of the issues confronting the standard laboratory in this regard. Solar simulator lamps are investigated for their light field homogeneity and direct versus diffuse components, as well as the correct device area...

  6. Accurate measurement of interferometer group delay using field-compensated scanning white light interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2010-10-10

    Interferometers are key elements in radial velocity (RV) experiments in astronomy observations, and accurate calibration of the group delay of an interferometer is required for high precision measurements. A novel field-compensated white light scanning Michelson interferometer is introduced as an interferometer calibration tool. The optical path difference (OPD) scanning was achieved by translating a compensation prism, such that even if the light source were in low spatial coherence, the interference stays spatially phase coherent over a large interferometer scanning range. In the wavelength region of 500-560 nm, a multimode fiber-coupled LED was used as the light source, and high optical efficiency was essential in elevating the signal-to-noise ratio of the interferogram signal. The achromatic OPD scanning required a one-time calibration, and two methods using dual-laser wavelength references and an iodine absorption spectrum reference were employed and cross-verified. In an experiment measuring the group delay of a fixed Michelson interferometer, Fourier analysis was employed to process the interferogram data. The group delay was determined at an accuracy of 1×10(-5), and the phase angle precision was typically 2.5×10(-6) over the wide wavelength region.

  7. Group Process and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Lynn Sandra

    1984-01-01

    Investigated theme development and role types in eight same-sex, self-analytic groups with male or female leadership, through the use of The General Inquirer, a computerized program of content analysis. All groups, male and female, showed a significant increase in the use of AFFILIATION words over time. (BH)

  8. Consistent Multigroup Theory Enabling Accurate Course-Group Simulation of Gen IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnema, Farzad; Haghighat, Alireza; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2013-11-29

    The objective of this proposal is the development of a consistent multi-group theory that accurately accounts for the energy-angle coupling associated with collapsed-group cross sections. This will allow for coarse-group transport and diffusion theory calculations that exhibit continuous energy accuracy and implicitly treat cross- section resonances. This is of particular importance when considering the highly heterogeneous and optically thin reactor designs within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) framework. In such reactors, ignoring the influence of anisotropy in the angular flux on the collapsed cross section, especially at the interface between core and reflector near which control rods are located, results in inaccurate estimates of the rod worth, a serious safety concern. The scope of this project will include the development and verification of a new multi-group theory enabling high-fidelity transport and diffusion calculations in coarse groups, as well as a methodology for the implementation of this method in existing codes. This will allow for a higher accuracy solution of reactor problems while using fewer groups and will reduce the computational expense. The proposed research represents a fundamental advancement in the understanding and improvement of multi- group theory for reactor analysis.

  9. Social class differences produce social group preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Suzanne R; Shutts, Kristin; Olson, Kristina R

    2014-11-01

    Some social groups are higher in socioeconomic status than others and the former tend to be favored over the latter. The present research investigated whether observing group differences in wealth alone can directly cause children to prefer wealthier groups. In Experiment 1, 4-5-year-old children developed a preference for a wealthy novel group over a less wealthy group. In Experiment 2, children did not develop preferences when groups differed by another kind of positive/negative attribute (i.e. living in brightly colored houses vs. drab houses), suggesting that wealth is a particularly meaningful group distinction. Lastly, in Experiment 3, the effect of favoring novel wealthy groups was moderated by group membership: Children assigned to a wealthy group showed ingroup favoritism, but those assigned to a less wealthy group did not. These experiments shed light on why children tend to be biased in favor of social groups that are higher in socioeconomic status. PMID:24702971

  10. High-order accurate monotone difference schemes for solving gasdynamic problems by Godunov's method with antidiffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, N. Ya.

    2011-04-01

    An approach to the construction of high-order accurate monotone difference schemes for solving gasdynamic problems by Godunov's method with antidiffusion is proposed. Godunov's theorem on monotone schemes is used to construct a new antidiffusion flux limiter in high-order accurate difference schemes as applied to linear advection equations with constant coefficients. The efficiency of the approach is demonstrated by solving linear advection equations with constant coefficients and one-dimensional gasdynamic equations.

  11. On the Definitions of Difference Galois Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzidakis, Zoé; Hardouin, Charlotte; Singer, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the Galois group of a linear difference equation that have arisen in algebra, analysis and model theory and show, that these groups are isomorphic over suitable fields. In addition, we study properties of Picard-Vessiot extensions over fields with not necessarily algebraically closed subfields of constants.

  12. Lie group computation of finite difference schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoarau, Emma; David, Claire

    2006-01-01

    nombre de pages 10 A Mathematica based program has been elaborated in order to determine the symmetry group of a finite difference equation, by means of its differential representation. The package provides functions which enable us to solve the determining equations of the related Lie group

  13. Construction of Difference Equations Using Lie Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    The theory of prolongations of the generators of groups of point transformations to the grid point values of dependent variables and grid spacings is developed and applied to the construction of group invariant numerical algorithms. The concepts of invariant difference operators and generalized discrete sources are introduced for the discretization of systems of inhomogeneous differential equations and shown to produce exact difference equations. Invariant numerical flux functions are constructed from the general solutions of first order partial differential equations that come out of the evaluation of the Lie derivatives of conservation forms of difference schemes. It is demonstrated that invariant numerical flux functions with invariant flux or slope limiters can be determined to yield high resolution difference schemes. The introduction of an invariant flux or slope limiter can be done so as not to break the symmetry properties of a numerical flux-function.

  14. SYMPTOMATOLOGY OF DEPRESSION IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodkumar M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The “typical” depression presentation in primary care is dominated by physical (somatic complaints as opposed to psychological complaints. More than 50% of patients with depression report somatic complaints only and at least 60% of these somatic complaints are pain related. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the symptomatology of depression in different age groups. 2. To compare the symptomatology of depression found in each age groups. MATERALS & METHODS: Patients who have attended out-patient psychiatric department of tertiary general hospital in urban area and diagnosed as having depression were divided in four age groups (60years and were evaluated for depressive symptomatology. The SYMPTOMATOLOGY part was assessed by using two scales, (1 Inventory of depressive symptomatology scale (IDS-30 and (2 Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS-17. RESULTS: There is high frequency of somatic symptoms (both general and gastrointestinal spontaneously as well as on systemic evaluation across all age groups amongst which most disturbing was headache followed by fatigue in all age groups. In all age groups who have reported primary depressive features like sadness and loss of pleasure, most of them had history of previous affective episodes so that they might have some insight into their depression. CONCLUSION: Our patients cannot voice their complaints spontaneously as there is a more of somatic symptoms presentation and striking rarity of spontaneously expressed depressed mood but it is invariably present on systemic interview across all age groups

  15. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  16. Direct Calculation of Permeability by High-Accurate Finite Difference and Numerical Integration Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yi

    2016-07-21

    Velocity of fluid flow in underground porous media is 6~12 orders of magnitudes lower than that in pipelines. If numerical errors are not carefully controlled in this kind of simulations, high distortion of the final results may occur [1-4]. To fit the high accuracy demands of fluid flow simulations in porous media, traditional finite difference methods and numerical integration methods are discussed and corresponding high-accurate methods are developed. When applied to the direct calculation of full-tensor permeability for underground flow, the high-accurate finite difference method is confirmed to have numerical error as low as 10-5% while the high-accurate numerical integration method has numerical error around 0%. Thus, the approach combining the high-accurate finite difference and numerical integration methods is a reliable way to efficiently determine the characteristics of general full-tensor permeability such as maximum and minimum permeability components, principal direction and anisotropic ratio. Copyright © Global-Science Press 2016.

  17. What Is a Group? Young Children's Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Plötner

    Full Text Available To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children's general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends, a task group (people who are collaborating, a social category (people who look alike, and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop. In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a 'real group.' In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior.

  18. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Li, Xueping; Chen, Weixin; Chen, Jianye; Lu, Wangjin; Chen, Lei; Fu, Danwen

    2012-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s) validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1) and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2) genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2), 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental conditions.

  19. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  20. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  1. Direct Simulations of Transition and Turbulence Using High-Order Accurate Finite-Difference Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to compute flows associated with geometrically complex configurations. However, success in terms of accuracy and reliability has been limited to cases where the effects of turbulence and transition could be modeled in a straightforward manner. Even in simple flows, the accurate computation of skin friction and heat transfer using existing turbulence models has proved to be a difficult task, one that has required extensive fine-tuning of the turbulence models used. In more complex flows (for example, in turbomachinery flows in which vortices and wakes impinge on airfoil surfaces causing periodic transitions from laminar to turbulent flow) the development of a model that accounts for all scales of turbulence and predicts the onset of transition may prove to be impractical. Fortunately, current trends in computing suggest that it may be possible to perform direct simulations of turbulence and transition at moderate Reynolds numbers in some complex cases in the near future. This seminar will focus on direct simulations of transition and turbulence using high-order accurate finite-difference methods. The advantage of the finite-difference approach over spectral methods is that complex geometries can be treated in a straightforward manner. Additionally, finite-difference techniques are the prevailing methods in existing application codes. In this seminar high-order-accurate finite-difference methods for the compressible and incompressible formulations of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations and their applications to direct simulations of turbulence and transition will be presented.

  2. Gender Differences in Honesty: Groups Versus Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlheusser, Gerd; Roider, Andreas; Wallmeier, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    Extending the die rolling experiment of Fischbacher and Föllmi-Heusi (2013), we compare gender effects with respect to unethical behavior by individuals and by two-person groups. In contrast to individual decisions, gender matters strongly under group decisions. We find more lying in male groups and mixed groups than in female groups.

  3. Accurate potential energy curves for the group 12 dimers Zn-2, Cd-2, and Hg-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl, Elke; Figgen, Detlev; Borschevsky, Anastasia; Peterson, Kirk A.; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Potential energy curves of the electronic ground states of the group 12 dimers Zn-2 and Cd-2 were computed at the CCSD(T) level of theory, including full triple corrections Delta T in the coupled-cluster procedure, and spin-orbit (SO) contributions from four-component coupled-cluster calculations, e

  4. Accurate measurements and design standards: consistency of design and the travel of 'facts' between heterogeneous groups

    OpenAIRE

    Velkar, Aashish

    2007-01-01

    Design standards are carriers and creators of facts, enabling facts about product value to travel between groups, and assisting in the creation of product value by establishing a reference or comparison against which product attributes are compared. However, when design standards are not consistent, facts about product value may not travel well, even when designs can be expressed or measured with a high degree of precision. Examining the evidence from British iron and steel industry in the ni...

  5. Accurate variational electronic structure calculations with the density matrix renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) has become increasingly important for ab initio quantum chemistry. The underlying matrix product state (MPS) ansatz is a low-rank decomposition of the full configuration interaction tensor. The virtual dimension of the MPS controls the size of the corner of the many-body Hilbert space that can be reached. Whereas the MPS ansatz will only yield an efficient description for noncritical one-dimensional systems, it can still be used as a variational ansatz for other finite-size systems. Rather large virtual dimensions are then required. The two most important aspects to reduce the corresponding computational cost are a proper choice and ordering of the active space orbitals, and the exploitation of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. By taking care of both aspects, DMRG becomes an efficient replacement for exact diagonalization in quantum chemistry. DMRG and Hartree-Fock theory have an analogous structure. The former can be interpreted a...

  6. Prognosticators and Risk Grouping in Patients with Lung Metastasis from Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A more accurate and appropriate assessment of prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung metastases arising from nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) have a relatively favourable prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify the prognostic factors and to establish a risk grouping in patients with lung metastases from NPC. A total of 198 patients who developed lung metastases from NPC after primary therapy were retrospectively recruited from January 1982 to December 2000. Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical variables were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Actuarial survival rates were plotted against time using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank testing was used to compare the differences between the curves. The median overall survival (OS) period and the lung metastasis survival (LMS) period were 51.5 and 20.9 months, respectively. After univariate and multivariate analyses of the clinical variables, age, T classification, N classification, site of metastases, secondary metastases and disease-free interval (DFI) correlated with OS, whereas age, VCA-IgA titre, number of metastases and secondary metastases were related to LMS. The prognoses of the low- (score 0-1), intermediate- (score 2-3) and high-risk (score 4-8) subsets based on these factors were significantly different. The 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates of the low-, intermediate- and high-risk subsets, respectively (P < 0.001) were as follows: 77.3%, 60% and 59%; 52.3%, 30% and 27.8%; and 20.5%, 7% and 0%. In this study, clinical variables provided prognostic indicators of survival in NPC patients with lung metastases. Risk subsets would help in a more accurate assessment of a patient's prognosis in the clinical setting and could facilitate the establishment of patient-tailored medical strategies and supports

  7. Accurate Measurement of the Relative Abundance of Different DNA Species in Complex DNA Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sangkyun; Yu, Hyunjoo; Pfeifer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    A molecular tool that can compare the abundances of different DNA sequences is necessary for comparing intergenic or interspecific gene expression. We devised and verified such a tool using a quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction approach. For this approach, we adapted a competitor array, an artificially made plasmid DNA in which all the competitor templates for the target DNAs are arranged with a defined ratio, and melting analysis for allele quantitation for accurate quantitation of the fractional ratios of competitively amplified DNAs. Assays on two sets of DNA mixtures with explicitly known compositional structures of the test sequences were performed. The resultant average relative errors of 0.059 and 0.021 emphasize the highly accurate nature of this method. Furthermore, the method's capability of obtaining biological data is demonstrated by the fact that it can illustrate the tissue-specific quantitative expression signatures of the three housekeeping genes G6pdx, Ubc, and Rps27 by using the forms of the relative abundances of their transcripts, and the differential preferences of Igf2 enhancers for each of the multiple Igf2 promoters for the transcription. PMID:22334570

  8. Accurate and automatic extrinsic calibration method for blade measurement system integrated by different optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wantao; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Shi, Yusheng; Zhao, Can; Cheng, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Fast and precise 3D inspection system is in great demand in modern manufacturing processes. At present, the available sensors have their own pros and cons, and hardly exist an omnipotent sensor to handle the complex inspection task in an accurate and effective way. The prevailing solution is integrating multiple sensors and taking advantages of their strengths. For obtaining a holistic 3D profile, the data from different sensors should be registrated into a coherent coordinate system. However, some complex shape objects own thin wall feather such as blades, the ICP registration method would become unstable. Therefore, it is very important to calibrate the extrinsic parameters of each sensor in the integrated measurement system. This paper proposed an accurate and automatic extrinsic parameter calibration method for blade measurement system integrated by different optical sensors. In this system, fringe projection sensor (FPS) and conoscopic holography sensor (CHS) is integrated into a multi-axis motion platform, and the sensors can be optimally move to any desired position at the object's surface. In order to simple the calibration process, a special calibration artifact is designed according to the characteristics of the two sensors. An automatic registration procedure based on correlation and segmentation is used to realize the artifact datasets obtaining by FPS and CHS rough alignment without any manual operation and data pro-processing, and then the Generalized Gauss-Markoff model is used to estimate the optimization transformation parameters. The experiments show the measurement result of a blade, where several sampled patches are merged into one point cloud, and it verifies the performance of the proposed method.

  9. Hypertranscendance et Groupes de Galois aux differences

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with criteria of algebraic independence for the derivatives of solutions of rank one difference equations. The key idea consists in deriving from the commutativity of the differentiation and difference operators a sequence of iterated extensions of the original difference module, thereby setting the problem in the framework of difference Galois theory and finally reducing it to an exercise in linear algebra. The involved tannakian categories are neutral over non necessarily a...

  10. Reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in citrus genotypes under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Mafra

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR has emerged as an accurate and widely used technique for expression profiling of selected genes. However, obtaining reliable measurements depends on the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. The aim of this work was to assess the expression stability of 15 candidate genes to determine which set of reference genes is best suited for transcript normalization in citrus in different tissues and organs and leaves challenged with five pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora parasitica, Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. We tested traditional genes used for transcript normalization in citrus and orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes described as superior reference genes based on transcriptome data. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to find the best reference genes to normalize all samples and conditions tested. Additionally, each biotic stress was individually analyzed by geNorm. In general, FBOX (encoding a member of the F-box family and GAPC2 (GAPDH was the most stable candidate gene set assessed under the different conditions and subsets tested, while CYP (cyclophilin, TUB (tubulin and CtP (cathepsin were the least stably expressed genes found. Validation of the best suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression level of the WRKY70 transcription factor in leaves infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus showed that arbitrary use of reference genes without previous testing could lead to misinterpretation of data. Our results revealed FBOX, SAND (a SAND family protein, GAPC2 and UPL7 (ubiquitin protein ligase 7 to be superior reference genes, and we recommend their use in studies of gene expression in citrus species and relatives. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in different citrus organs and under biotic stress.

  11. Some Critical Differences between Self-Help and Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Richard J.; Beggs, Marilyn S.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a scheme for addressing differences between self-help groups and therapy groups, characterizing a list of group work parameters according to emphasis placed on each in therapy groups in contrast with self-help groups. Distinguishes between support groups, started by professional helping organizations or individuals, and self-help groups,…

  12. Different collecting methods reveal different ecological groups of centipedes (Chilopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Hadrián Tuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil invertebrates are studied by a number of methods. Here we used zoological methods (soil sampling, pitfall trapping, litter sifting, and hand collecting to sample centipede communities in four floodplain forests (Czech Republic, Europe and compared the efficiency of these methods. Heat-extraction from soil samples was the most effective, followed by pitfall trapping. The centipedes found by us can be divided into five ecological groups: 1 larger, abundant lithobiomorphs, 2 larger, scarcer lithobiomorphs, 3 smaller, soil lithobiomorphs, 4 abundant geophilomorphs, and 5 scarcer geophilomorphs.

  13. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  14. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners' success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners' language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals' exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization task

  15. How accurate is patients' anatomical knowledge: a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of six patient groups and a general public sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinman John

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older studies have shown that patients often do not understand the terms used by doctors and many do not even have a rudimentary understanding of anatomy. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of anatomical knowledge of different patient groups and the general public in order to see whether this has improved over time and whether patients with a specific organ pathology (e.g. liver disease have a relatively better understanding of the location of that organ. Methods Level of anatomical knowledge was assessed on a multiple-choice questionnaire, in a sample of 722 participants, comprising approximately 100 patients in each of 6 different diagnostic groups and 133 in the general population, using a between-groups, cross-sectional design. Comparisons of relative accuracy of anatomical knowledge between the present and earlier results, and across the clinical and general public groups were evaluated using Chi square tests. Associations with age and education were assessed with the Pearson correlation test and one-way analysis of variance, respectively. Results Across groups knowledge of the location of body organs was poor and has not significantly improved since an earlier equivalent study over 30 years ago (χ2 = 0.04, df = 1, ns. Diagnostic groups did not differ in their overall scores but those with liver disease and diabetes were more accurate regarding the location of their respective affected organs (χ2 = 18.10, p 2 = 10.75, p Conclusion Many patients and general public do not know the location of key body organs, even those in which their medical problem is located, which could have important consequences for doctor-patient communication. These results indicate that healthcare professionals still need to take care in providing organ specific information to patients and should not assume that patients have this information, even for those organs in which their medical problem is located.

  16. Disambiguating past events: Accurate source memory for time and context depends on different retrieval processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bjorn M; Ainge, James A; O'Connor, Akira R

    2016-07-01

    Current animal models of episodic memory are usually based on demonstrating integrated memory for what happened, where it happened, and when an event took place. These models aim to capture the testable features of the definition of human episodic memory which stresses the temporal component of the memory as a unique piece of source information that allows us to disambiguate one memory from another. Recently though, it has been suggested that a more accurate model of human episodic memory would include contextual rather than temporal source information, as humans' memory for time is relatively poor. Here, two experiments were carried out investigating human memory for temporal and contextual source information, along with the underlying dual process retrieval processes, using an immersive virtual environment paired with a 'Remember-Know' memory task. Experiment 1 (n=28) showed that contextual information could only be retrieved accurately using recollection, while temporal information could be retrieved using either recollection or familiarity. Experiment 2 (n=24), which used a more difficult task, resulting in reduced item recognition rates and therefore less potential for contamination by ceiling effects, replicated the pattern of results from Experiment 1. Dual process theory predicts that it should only be possible to retrieve source context from an event using recollection, and our results are consistent with this prediction. That temporal information can be retrieved using familiarity alone suggests that it may be incorrect to view temporal context as analogous to other typically used source contexts. This latter finding supports the alternative proposal that time since presentation may simply be reflected in the strength of memory trace at retrieval - a measure ideally suited to trace strength interrogation using familiarity, as is typically conceptualised within the dual process framework. PMID:27174312

  17. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  18. Accurate finite difference beam propagation method for complex integrated optical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    A simple and effective finite-difference beam propagation method in a z-varying nonuniform mesh is developed. The accuracy and computation time for this method are compared with a standard finite-difference method for both the 3-D and 2-D versions......A simple and effective finite-difference beam propagation method in a z-varying nonuniform mesh is developed. The accuracy and computation time for this method are compared with a standard finite-difference method for both the 3-D and 2-D versions...

  19. AN ACCURATE SOLUTION OF THE POISSON EQUATION BY THE FINITE DIFFERENCE-CHEBYSHEV-TAU METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hani I. Siyyam

    2001-01-01

    A new finite difference-Chebyshev-Tau method for the solution of the twodimensional Poisson equation is presented. Some of the numerical results are also presented which indicate that the method is satisfactory and compatible to other methods.

  20. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2012-08-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in identity enactment processes--self-esteem, belonging, and efficacy--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with flatmates (an interpersonal network group), whereas motives involved in identity definition processes--meaning, self-esteem, and distinctiveness--significantly predicted within-person changes in identification with halls of residence (an abstract social category). This article discusses implications for research into identity motives and social identity.

  1. Different groups, different motives: identity motives underlying changes in identification with novel groups

    OpenAIRE

    Easterbrook, Matt; Vignoles, Vivian L.

    2012-01-01

    Social identification is known to have wide-reaching implications, but theorists disagree about the underlying motives. Integrating motivated identity construction theory with recent social identity research, the authors predicted which motives underlie identification with two types of groups: interpersonal networks and social categories. In a five-wave longitudinal study of social identity processes among 268 new university residents, multilevel analyses showed that motives involved in ident...

  2. Efficiency of High-Order Accurate Difference Schemes for the Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuta Poochinapan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two numerical models to obtain the solution of the KdV equation are proposed. Numerical tools, compact fourth-order and standard fourth-order finite difference techniques, are applied to the KdV equation. The fundamental conservative properties of the equation are preserved by the finite difference methods. Linear stability analysis of two methods is presented by the Von Neumann analysis. The new methods give second- and fourth-order accuracy in time and space, respectively. The numerical experiments show that the proposed methods improve the accuracy of the solution significantly.

  3. Pulmonary capacities of different groups of sportsmen in India.

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Ghosh; Ahuja, A; Khanna, G L

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary functional capacities, vital capacity (VC) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), forced expiratory volume in 1 second and FEV 1.0 (per cent VC) of 168 sportsmen belonging to different sports activities and of 10 sedentary individuals have been studied. It was observed that all these pulmonary functional capacities of different groups of sportsmen were higher than those of the sedentary group. The mean VC of the basketball, boxing, cricket, football, hockey and the table tennis groups...

  4. Executive function in different groups of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Prosen, Simona; Smrtnik Vitulić, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyses the executive function (EF) skills of 369 students of primary education (n = 116), preschool education (n = 72), social pedagogy (n = 54), and biology (n = 128). It explores how the different groups of students use selected executive skills and whether there are any differences between the groups in this respect. Eleven EF skills were self-assessed using the Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students (Dawson & Guare, 2010). All of the groups of students experien...

  5. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  6. Wind effect on PV module temperature: Analysis of different techniques for an accurate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Clemens; Petitta, Marcello; Ernst Wagner, Jochen; Belluardo, Giorgio; Moser, David; Castelli, Mariapina; Zebisch, Marc; Tetzlaff, Anke

    2013-04-01

    In this abstract a study on the influence of wind to model the PV module temperature is presented. This study is carried out in the framework of the PV-Alps INTERREG project in which the potential of different photovoltaic technologies is analysed for alpine regions. The PV module temperature depends on different parameters, such as ambient temperature, irradiance, wind speed and PV technology [1]. In most models, a very simple approach is used, where the PV module temperature is calculated from NOCT (nominal operating cell temperature), ambient temperature and irradiance alone [2]. In this study the influence of wind speed on the PV module temperature was investigated. First, different approaches suggested by various authors were tested [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. For our analysis, temperature, irradiance and wind data from a PV test facility at the airport Bolzano (South Tyrol, Italy) from the EURAC Institute of Renewable Energies were used. The PV module temperature was calculated with different models and compared to the measured PV module temperature at the single panels. The best results were achieved with the approach suggested by Skoplaki et al. [1]. Preliminary results indicate that for all PV technologies which were tested (monocrystalline, amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline silicon and cadmium telluride), modelled and measured PV module temperatures show a higher agreement (RMSE about 3-4 K) compared to standard approaches in which wind is not considered. For further investigation the in-situ measured wind velocities were replaced with wind data from numerical weather forecast models (ECMWF, reanalysis fields). Our results show that the PV module temperature calculated with wind data from ECMWF is still in very good agreement with the measured one (R² > 0.9 for all technologies). Compared to the previous analysis, we find comparable mean values and an increasing standard deviation. These results open a promising approach for PV module

  7. High-order accurate difference schemes for solving gasdynamic equations by the Godunov method with antidiffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, N. Ya.; Silant'eva, I. Yu.

    2009-05-01

    A technique is proposed for improving the accuracy of the Godunov method as applied to gasdynamic simulations in one dimension. The underlying idea is the reconstruction of fluxes arsoss cell boundaries (“large” values) by using antidiffusion corrections, which are obtained by analyzing the differential approximation of the schemes. In contrast to other approaches, the reconstructed values are not the initial data but rather large values calculated by solving the Riemann problem. The approach is efficient and yields higher accuracy difference schemes with a high resolution.

  8. SPARC: Accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory. Part I: Isolated clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swarnava

    2016-01-01

    As the first component of SPARC (Simulation Package for Ab-initio Real-space Calculations), we present an accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for isolated clusters. Specifically, utilizing a local reformulation of the electrostatics, the Chebyshev polynomial filtered self-consistent field iteration, and a reformulation of the non-local component of the force, we develop a framework using the finite-difference representation that enables the efficient evaluation of energies and atomic forces to within chemical accuracies. Through selected examples consisting of a variety of elements, we demonstrate that SPARC obtains exponential convergence in energy and forces with domain size; systematic convergence in the energy and forces with mesh-size to reference plane-wave result at comparably high rates; forces that are consistent with the energy, both free from any noticeable `egg-box' effect; and accurate ground-state properties includin...

  9. SPARC: Accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory. Part II: Periodic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swarnava

    2016-01-01

    As the second component of SPARC (Simulation Package for Ab-initio Real-space Calculations), we present an accurate and efficient finite-difference formulation and parallel implementation of Density Functional Theory (DFT) for periodic systems. Specifically, employing a local formulation of the electrostatics, the Chebyshev polynomial filtered self-consistent field iteration, and a reformulation of the non-local force component, we develop a finite-difference framework wherein both the energy and atomic forces can be efficiently calculated to within chemical accuracies. We demonstrate using a wide variety of materials systems that SPARC obtains high convergence rates in energy and forces with respect to spatial discretization to reference plane-wave result; energies and forces that are consistent and display negligible `egg-box' effect; and accurate ground-state properties. We also demonstrate that the weak and strong scaling behavior of SPARC is similar to well-established and optimized plane-wave implementa...

  10. Approximate Lie Group Analysis of Finite-difference Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Latypov, Azat M.

    1995-01-01

    Approximate group analysis technique, that is, the technique combining the methodology of group analysis and theory of small perturbations, is applied to finite-difference equations approximating ordinary differential equations. Finite-difference equations are viewed as a system of algebraic equations with a small parameter, introduced through the definitions of finite-difference derivatives. It is shown that application of the approximate invariance criterion to this algebraic system results...

  11. Accurate calculation of well-type detector geometrical efficiency using sources with different shapes and geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The well-type detectors are widely used to determine the low level activity in small samples, thus the absolute detector efficiency is required. The calculation of the absolute efficiency of well-type HPGe or NaI(Tl) detectors depends mainly on the value of the geometrical efficiency. The geometrical efficiency depends on the solid angle subtended by various sources situated at different locations from the detector surface. The present work is essentially concerned to introduce a numerical simulation method (NSM) to calculate the geometrical efficiency and give the ability to use it in the theoretical calibration process of γ-ray well-type detectors for using isotropic radiating γ-ray (point, disk or volumetric) sources. The results are compared with some published data to show the approach validity and shows how much this work is important in the efficiency calibration process for the complicated γ-ray detection system

  12. Automatic and Accurate Conflation of Different Road-Network Vector Data towards Multi-Modal Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid improvement of geospatial data acquisition and processing techniques, a variety of geospatial databases from public or private organizations have become available. Quite often, one dataset may be superior to other datasets in one, but not all aspects. In Germany, for instance, there were three major road network vector data, viz. Tele Atlas (which is now “TOMTOM”, NAVTEQ (which is now “here”, and ATKIS. However, none of them was qualified for the purpose of multi-modal navigation (e.g., driving + walking: Tele Atlas and NAVTEQ consist of comprehensive routing-relevant information, but many pedestrian ways are missing; ATKIS covers more pedestrian areas but the road objects are not fully attributed. To satisfy the requirements of multi-modal navigation, an automatic approach has been proposed to conflate different road networks together, which involves five routines: (a road-network matching between datasets; (b identification of the pedestrian ways; (c geometric transformation to eliminate geometric inconsistency; (d topologic remodeling of the conflated road network; and (e error checking and correction. The proposed approach demonstrates high performance in a number of large test areas and therefore has been successfully utilized for the real-world data production in the whole region of Germany. As a result, the conflated road network allows the multi-modal navigation of “driving + walking”.

  13. Behavioral Characteristics of Weaned Piglets Mixed in Different Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Su; Lee, Jae-Kang; Eom, Tae-Kyung; Son, Seung-Hun; Hong, Joon-Ki; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Rhim, Shin-Jae

    2016-07-01

    With regard to animal welfare concerns, behavioral information of weaned and mixed piglets is great interest in swine production. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in behavior of weaned piglets over time in two different groups (littermates and piglets from different litters) after mixing. Two weaned groups of piglets (72 individuals in all) housed either with littermates or with foreign piglets (6 individuals in 1.8 m×1.4 m pens, 28°C±1°C temperature) were observed with the aid of video technology for 9 consecutive hours on days 1, 2, and 3 after mixing. The behaviors of the weaned piglets in the control and treatment groups were significantly different among the days after mixing. Piglets were, however, more active and aggressive in the groups with foreign piglets. This study reveals a lower level of agonistic behavior in groups of piglets that came from the same litter. PMID:26954152

  14. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  15. Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Sayim

    Full Text Available Crowding is the impairment of peripheral target perception by nearby flankers. A number of recent studies have shown that crowding shares many features with grouping. Here, we investigate whether effects of crowding and grouping on target perception are related by asking whether they operate over the same spatial scale. A target letter T had two sets of flanking Ts of varying orientations. The first set was presented close to the target, yielding strong crowding. The second set was either close enough to cause crowding on their own or too far to cause crowding on their own. The Ts of the second set had the same orientation that either matched the target's orientation (Grouped condition or not (Ungrouped condition. In Experiment 1, the Grouped flankers reduced crowding independently of their distance from the target, suggesting that grouping operated over larger distances than crowding. In Experiments 2 and 3 we found that grouping did not affect sensitivity but produced a strong bias to report that the grouped orientation was present at the target location whether or not it was. Finally, we investigated whether this bias was a response or perceptual bias, rejecting the former in favor of a perceptual grouping explanation. We suggest that the effect of grouping is to assimilate the target to the identity of surrounding flankers when they are all the same, and that this shape assimilation effect differs in its spatial scale from the integration effect of crowding.

  16. Reliability of the identification of functional ankle instability (Idfai scale across different age groups in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma S Gurav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional ankle instability (FAI is the tendency of the foot to ′give way′. Identification of Functional Ankle Instability questionnaire (IdFAI is a newly developed questionnaire to detect whether individuals meet the minimum criteria necessary for inclusion in an FAI population. However, the reliability of the questionnaire was studied only in a restricted age group. Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the reliability of IdFAI across different age groups in adults. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty participants in the age group of 20-60 years consisting of 30 individuals in each age group were asked to complete the IdFAI on two occasions. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1 . Results: The study revealed that IdFAI has excellent test-retest reliability when studied across different age groups. The ICC 2,1 in the age groups 20-30 years, 30-40 years, 40-50 years and 50-60 years was 0.978, 0.975, 0.961 and 0.922, respectively with Cronbach′s alpha >0.9 in all the age groups. Conclusion: The IdFAI can accurately predict if an individual meets the minimum criterion for FAI across different age groups in adults. Thus, the questionnaire can be applied over different age groups in clinical and research set-ups.

  17. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    decades, studies have regularly explored associations between enrolment in specific academic majors and scores on the Big Five personality traits; Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The present review examines this research systematically, summarises group...... differences consistently found across academic majors, assesses the magnitude of the reported differences, and provides suggestions for future research. A systematic literature search identified 12 studies exploring Big Five personality differences among academic majors (aggregated N = 13,389). Significant...... group differences in the Big Five personality traits were generally found in the included studies. None of the included studies reported effect sizes, though, so the magnitude of the obtained differences was not estimated. Consequently, effect sizes were calculated using means and standard deviations...

  18. Cultural differences in use of an electronic discussion group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Fiona M; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert; Gustafson, David

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how 121 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer used a computer mediated discussion group to cope with their diagnosis. These data are part of a larger data set from a randomized clinical trial assessing the impact of a computer-based system called CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) on health outcomes. The larger study found significant improvement in health outcomes for those in the experimental group (those receiving CHESS), especially for women of color. Since discussion group is by far the most heavily used service of CHESS, one might conclude that these benefits (both overall and greater for women of color) should be attributed to amount of discussion group use. This study looks at how women of color and Caucasian women used the CHESS discussion group over the period of the study. Content analysis of messages in the discussion group showed that women of color used the discussion group differently from Caucasian women-they used it less frequently but their messages were more focused on breast cancer, suggesting they used discussion group more instrumentally. PMID:22113904

  19. Specialty group differences over tonsillectomy: pediatricians versus otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, S

    1998-01-01

    How physicians in different specialties explain their positions on tonsillectomy is explored using data based on in-depth interviews with 53 physicians. Justifications for and against particular indications, assessments of efficacy, and explanations of tonsillar function and pathology are presented. Clear specialty-specific differences exist, especially between pediatricians and otolaryngologists. Opposing specialty views rest upon radically different versions of cost/benefit assessment, whereas evaluations of efficacy are based primarily on conceptual reasoning and anecdotal accounts. Physicians' opinion of clinical trial results are specialty-dependent and are used to sustain specialty viewpoints. The implications of such specialty group differences for public policy are discussed. PMID:10558327

  20. INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RAILWAYS OPERATORS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaeva V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of some individual psychological characteristics of the drivers of rail transport in the age groups 25–34 and 35–45 years. We have identified a number of differences between the two age groups associated with both features individually-psychological sphere, and in the psycho-physiological features. Features of age-related psychological differences can be explained by the age characteristics of the representatives of each group; psycho-physiological features of age differences may reflect developed in the course of a long professional activity features. We have also developed adaptive strategies, consciously or unconsciously selected during the long-running monotonous activities and in small social groups (teams of drivers allow, on the one hand, higher quality performance of their professional duties, on the other — to avoid the harmful effects of stressful situations at work. It can be assumed that the composition of drivers age group 35– 45 years is the result of natural selection, when those who did not cope with this type of activity is simply dismissed or transferred to other kinds of professions

  1. Public opinion on doping in cycling: Differences among population groups

    OpenAIRE

    Van Reeth, Daam; Lagae, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Despite the vast amount of literature available on doping in sports, little is known about how the general public actually thinks about doping. It is even more unclear how public opinion on doping differs within the population. Our questionnaire-based study for Flanders (Belgium), with a focus on doping in cycling, shows a strong disapproval of doping use by all respondents. There are statistically significant differences, though, among the population groups. Cycling fans tend to be less nega...

  2. Epistemic Impact on Group Problem Solving for Different Science Majors

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of cognitive apprenticeship in an introductory physics lab group problem solving exercise may be mitigated by epistemic views toward physics of non-physics science majors. Quantitative pre-post data of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS) of 39 students of a first-semester algebra-based introductory physics course, while describing typical results for a traditional-format course overall (g = +0.14), suggest differences in epistemic views between health science majors and life science majors which may correlate with differences in pre-post conceptual understanding. Audiovisual data of student lab groups working on a context-rich problem and students' written reflections described each group's typical dynamics and invoked epistemic games. We examined the effects of framework-based orientation (favored by biology majors) and performance-based orientation (favored by computer science, chemistry, and health science majors) on pre-post attitud...

  3. AGING COEFFICIENT IN DIFFERENT RELIGIOUS GROUPS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Farhud

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging Coefficient (AC, or aged–child ratio, is the number of individuals aged 65 years and over, divided by the number of individuals aged 0-14, multiplied by 100. In this point–descriptive study, the aging coefficient has been calculated for the followers of four different religions, for the past four respective decades, according to sex and locality. Overall age composition in different religious groups, in a decreasing order is: Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians showed a slight decrease in the 80’s and a higher increase afterward. Moslems show a more consistent mode, but with a slight increase in the last decade; but in all cases AC has been lower than 15, presenting a higher proportion of a young population or lower aged group. The increase of AC in each group can be caused by the old age survival, i.e. increasing life expectancy, or decreasing birth rate

  4. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  5. Properties of graphene inks stabilized by different functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di; Li, Hongwei; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Niu, Li; Yang, Huafeng; Bower, Chris; Andrew, Piers; Ryhänen, Tapani

    2011-06-01

    Different graphene inks have been synthesized by chemical methods. These uniform dispersions were stabilized by various functional groups such as room temperature ionic liquid, polyaniline, polyelectrolyte (poly[2,5-bis(3-sulfonatopropoxy)-1,4-ethynylphenylene-alt-1,4-ethynylphenylene] sodium salt) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The dispersions can be easily cast into high-quality, free-standing films but with very different physiochemical properties such as surface tension and adhesion. SEM and AFM methods have been applied to have a detailed study of the properties of the inks. It is found that graphenes modified by p-type polyaniline show the highest surface tension. Diverse surface adhesive properties to the substrate are also found with various functional groups. The different viscoelasticities of graphene inks were related to the microscopic structure of their coating layer and subsequently related to the configuration, chemistry and molecular dimensions of the modifying molecules to establish the property-structure relationship. Modifications of graphene inks made from chemical reduction cannot only enable cost-effective processing for printable electronics but also extend the applications into, for example, self-assembly of graphene via bottom-up nano-architecture and surface energy engineering of the graphenes. To fabricate useful devices, understanding the surface properties of graphene inks is very important. It is the first paper of this kind to study the surface tension and adhesion of graphene influenced by different functional groups.

  6. Modelling fuel demand for different socio-economic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel demand literature provides a range of estimates of the long and short-run price and income elasticities of gasoline demand for different countries and states. These estimates can be very useful in predicting the overall impacts of policy approaches designed to reduce fuel consumption and to address concerns of carbon emissions or energy security. However, analysis of policy options based on elasticities that are homogenous across income groups provides no information about the relative distributional burden that may be faced by different sectors of the population. Different responses to the same change in price or income are likely to occur, dependent on both travel needs and income levels. This paper estimates gasoline demand elasticities for different income quintiles in the United States to test for heterogeneity in demand response. Group wise summary consumer expenditure data for 20 years is used to derive the elasticity estimates. The results show that the elasticities do vary across groups and follow a U-pattern from the lowest to the highest income quintile. The lowest income quintile is found to have the largest price elasticity. The lowest and the highest income quintiles appear to be statistically insensitive to any changes in income. The rebound effect also follows the U-pattern, with the highest rebound observed among the wealthiest households. Rural households appear to have lower price elasticity than households in urban areas. (author)

  7. Properties of graphene inks stabilized by different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Di; Li Hongwei; Bower, Chris; Andrew, Piers; Ryhaenen, Tapani [Nokia Research Centre, Broers Building, 21 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Han Dongxue; Zhang Qixian; Niu Li; Yang Huafeng, E-mail: di.wei@nokia.com, E-mail: lniu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun City 130022, Jilin Province (China)

    2011-06-17

    Different graphene inks have been synthesized by chemical methods. These uniform dispersions were stabilized by various functional groups such as room temperature ionic liquid, polyaniline, polyelectrolyte (poly[2,5-bis(3-sulfonatopropoxy)-1,4-ethynylphenylene-alt-1, 4-ethynylphenylene] sodium salt) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The dispersions can be easily cast into high-quality, free-standing films but with very different physiochemical properties such as surface tension and adhesion. SEM and AFM methods have been applied to have a detailed study of the properties of the inks. It is found that graphenes modified by p-type polyaniline show the highest surface tension. Diverse surface adhesive properties to the substrate are also found with various functional groups. The different viscoelasticities of graphene inks were related to the microscopic structure of their coating layer and subsequently related to the configuration, chemistry and molecular dimensions of the modifying molecules to establish the property-structure relationship. Modifications of graphene inks made from chemical reduction cannot only enable cost-effective processing for printable electronics but also extend the applications into, for example, self-assembly of graphene via bottom-up nano-architecture and surface energy engineering of the graphenes. To fabricate useful devices, understanding the surface properties of graphene inks is very important. It is the first paper of this kind to study the surface tension and adhesion of graphene influenced by different functional groups.

  8. Discordance Rates Between AMH and FSH in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Selcuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the discordance rates between anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH levels according to different age groups in a cohort of Turkish women. Material and Method: This retrospective study was conducted at infertility clinics of Zeynep Kamil Training and Research Hospital. Patients were divided into 4 groups as %u2264 30 years, 31-35 years, 36-39 years, and %u2265 40 years to evaluate the discordance between AMH and FSH in terms of age. Discordance rates, and median level of AMH and of FSH were determined for each age group. Results: 467 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. 35.1% (n=164, 28.3% (n=132, 22.7%(n=106, and 13.9% (n=65 of patients were %u2264 30 years, 31-35 years, 36-39 years, and %u2265 40 years, respectively. The discordance rates in terms of normal AMH but abnormal FSH level were 4.2%, 6.7%, 11.0%, 17.9% in the %u2264 30, 31-35, 36-39, %u226540 years age groups, respectively, whereas the discordance rates in terms of normal FSH but abnormal AMH levels were 6.2%, 8.5%, 16.7%, 17.9% in the same age groups, respectively. Discussion: Discordance rates steadily increased with advancing age both for concerning AMH-reassuring FSH and concerning FSH-reassuring AMH. Data from our study and the literature lead us to conclude that age-based AMH and FSH levels and also that discordance between these parameters may vary among different ethnic groups.

  9. Epistemic Impact on Group Problem Solving for Different Science Majors

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of cognitive apprenticeship in an introductory physics lab group problem solving exercise may be mitigated by epistemic views toward physics of non-physics science majors. Quantitative pre-post data of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS) of 39 students of a first-semester algebra-based introductory physics course, while describing typical results for a traditional-format course overall (g = +0.14), suggest differences i...

  10. Microscopic study of human spleen in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizamma Alex

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The microscopic structure of spleen is variable depending on the developmental stage of the organ, and the age and immune status of the individual. The aim of the investigation was to study the microscopic structure of human spleen in different age groups, starting from a six month old foetus up to the eighth decade of life. Methods: Seventy formalin fixed human spleens obtained postmortem, were included in the study. They were classified into different age groups, in both sexes, for a detailed study of the microscopic details. Results: The white pulp of spleen showed peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheath (PALS and lymphatic follicles. The corona or mantle zone and the germinal centre were discernible in many of the Malpighian bodies. The marginal zone separating the red pulp from the white pulp also could be clearly demarcated. The marginal sinus and peri-follicular zone could be seen in some sections only. The capsule thickness, trabecular network, cellularity of white pulp and red pulp, the connective tissue framework seen in the red pulp etc., showed variations in the different age groups. Conclusion: The microscopic structure of spleen varies in different age groups, with the PALS and the white pulp showing scanty cellularity in the six month foetus, and almost uniform cellularity in all areas of spleen at full term. Thereafter the follicles showed increase in its cellularity up to the third decade, and then seemed becoming progressively atrophic. Further studies are required on age related changes in the cellular architecture of this organ correlating with its functions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1701-1706

  11. Gamma-Ray Burst Groups Observed by Different Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, István; Veres, Péter

    2009-01-01

    Two classes of gamma-ray bursts have been identified in the BATSE catalogs characterized by durations shorter and longer than about 2 seconds. There are, however, some indications for the existence of a third one. Swift satellite detectors have different spectral sensitivity than pre-Swift ones for gamma-ray bursts. Therefore it is worth to reanalyze the durations and their distribution and also the classification of GRBs. In this paper we are going to analyze the bursts' duration distribution and also the duration-hardness bivariate distribution, published in The First BAT Catalog, whether it contains two, three or maybe more groups. Similarly to the BATSE data, to explain the BAT GRBs duration distribution three components are needed. Although, the relative frequencies of the groups are different than they were in the BATSE GRB sample, the difference in the instrument spectral sensitivities can explain this bias in a natural way. This means theoretical models may have to explain three different type of gamm...

  12. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes. METHODS: Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001. CONCLUSION: The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  13. Sexual identity group differences in child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; Hughes, Tonda L; Kristjanson, Arlinda F; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2013-07-01

    Childhood abuse and neglect are pervasive problems among girls and young women that have numerous health consequences. Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and neglect, but little is known about which sexual minority women are at greatest risk for these early adverse experiences. Using data from a pooled sample of women in a national probability study and in a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study's methodology (pooled n = 953), we investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women from five sexual identity groups. As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse and neglect than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. We found considerable variability across the sexual minority subgroups, including severity of abuse, highlighting the need for research that distinguishes among these groups. To the extent that differences reported by women in the sample reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity group differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications.

  14. Prevalence of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum disliking among different ethnocultural groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauer Lilli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cilantro, the leaf of the Coriandrum sativum plant, is an herb that is widely consumed globally and has purported health benefits ranging from antibacterial to anticancer activities. Some individuals report an extreme dislike for cilantro, and this may explain the different cilantro consumption habits between populations. However, the prevalence of cilantro dislike has not previously been reported in any population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cilantro dislike among different ethnocultural groups from a population of young adults living in Canada. Subjects (n = 1,639 between the ages of 20 and 29 years were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Individuals rated their preference for cilantro on a 9-point scale from ‘dislike extremely’ to ‘like extremely’. Subjects also had the option to select ‘have not tried’ or ‘would not try’. Subjects who selected 1 to 4 were classified as disliking cilantro. Results The prevalence of dislike ranged from 3 to 21%. The proportion of subjects classified as disliking cilantro was 21% for East Asians, 17% for Caucasians, 14% for those of African descent, 7% for South Asians, 4% for Hispanics, and 3% for Middle Eastern subjects. Conclusions These findings show that the prevalence of cilantro dislike differs widely between various ethnocultural groups.

  15. Comparison between different reactions of group IV hydride with H

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Shaolong; ZHANG; Xuqiang; ZHANG; Qinggang; ZHANG; Yici

    2006-01-01

    The four-dimensional time-dependent quantum dynamics calculations for reactions of group IV hydride with H are carried out by employing the semirigid vibrating rotor target model and the time-dependent wave packet method. The reaction possibility, cross section and rate constants for reactions (H+SiH4 and H+GeH4) in different initial vibrational and rotational states are obtained. The common feature for such kind of reaction process is summarized. The theoretical result is consistent with available measurement, which indicates the credibility of this theory and the potential energy surface.

  16. Characterization of condenser microphones under different environmental conditions for accurate speed of sound measurements with acoustic resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas.

  17. Characterization of condenser microphones under different environmental conditions for accurate speed of sound measurements with acoustic resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guianvarc'h, Cécile; Gavioso, Roberto M; Benedetto, Giuliana; Pitre, Laurent; Bruneau, Michel

    2009-07-01

    Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas. PMID:19655971

  18. Application of the energy reassignment method to measure accurate Rayleigh and Love wave group velocities from ambient seismic noise cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, M.; Kang, T. S.; van der Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    We have collected three-component data from 122 Korean accelerometer stations for the month of December in 2014. We apply similar techniques described by Zha et al. (2013) to retrieve accurate station orientation angles, in order to rotate the horizontal component data into the radial and transverse frame of reference, and for subsequent measurement of Love wave group velocity dispersion. We simultaneously normalize all three components of a daily noise record via the frequency-time normalization (FTN) method. Each component is divided by the average signal envelope in an effort to retain relative amplitude information between all three components. Station orientations are found by a grid search for the orientation azimuth which maximizes the coherency between the radial-vertical cross-correlation and the Hilbert transformed vertical-vertical cross-correlation. After measuring orientation angles, we cross-correlate and rotate the data. Typically, the group velocity dispersion curves are measured using the frequency time analysis technique (FTAN), effectively producing spectrograms with significant uncertainty in the time-frequency plane. The spectrogram approach retains only the amplitude information of the short-time Fourier transform (STFT). However, Kodera et al (1976) show that by taking into account the phase information, the concepts of instantaneous frequency and group-time delay can be used to compute the first moment of the signal power in the frequency and time domains. During energy reassignment, the signal power calculated using the STFT at a point (t0,f0t_0, f_0) is reassigned to the location of the first moment (t^g,f^ihat{t}_g,hat{f}_i), where t^ghat{t}_g is the group-time delay and f^ihat{f}_i is the instantaneous frequency. We apply the method of energy reassignment to produce precise Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity measurements in the frequency range 0.1 - 1.0 Hz. Tests on synthetic data show more accurate retrieval of group velocities at

  19. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  20. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Selcuk; Frattini, Antonio; Onal, Bulent;

    2013-01-01

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Without age being a limiting risk factor, recent reports have shown that almost any version of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) can be safely applied in children. As there has been...... no standardisation in the age categorisation of children, there are inconsistencies among the age subgroups in the current literature. To achieve a standard terminology and thus a common language, the World Health Organization age classification criterion was used in the present study. Based on the findings, we can...... suggest that PCNL can be applied safely and effectively in children in different age groups. OBJECTIVES: •  To present the overall results of paediatric percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared with adults. •  To present the indications, complications and outcomes of patients treated...

  1. Understanding of Adultery in Families Belonging to Different Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmadeeva E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a pilot study aimed at identifying and analyzing understanding of adultery in ethnically homogeneous families who are representatives of the Bashkir, Russian and Tatar of ethnic groups are presented. Within the framework of the psychological approach, family is regarded as the space of joint life activity, within which the specific needs of the people connected by ties of blood are satisfied. To achieve this goal, E. V. Akhmadeeva designed the inventory “My attitude to adultery”, in which respondents were asked to give the definition of adultery and to mention the reasons, based on which adultery may occur. Also, a modified version of the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS was used, allowing determining the spouses’ dominant values of a series of terminal and instrumental values. Marital satisfaction was detected with use of the marriage satisfaction questionnaire by V. V. Stolin, G. P. Butenko, T. L. Romanova. On the base of respondents’ answers in the questionnaire in order to define the level of satisfaction by marriage there have been distinguished three categories of people who consider their marriage to be successful, less successful and unsuccessful. Gender and age differences in understanding the adultery have been revealed. Having analyzed the works of outstanding psychologists there have been found out the psychological sense and meaning of “ethnic group”, “ethnic culture”, “sexual culture”, “adultery”. Identified dominant values of the spouses. The reasons of adultery commitment and non-commitment as respondents understand it have been found. As can be seen from this study, none ethnic group encourages adultery. However, the possibility of committing adultery is allowed, and there are differences in explaining the reasons for committing this action.

  2. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  3. Small Group Learning: Do Group Members' Implicit Theories of Ability Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E.; Minbashian, Amirali; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of members' implicit theories of ability on group learning and the mediating role of several group process variables, such as goal-setting, effort attributions, and efficacy beliefs. Comparisons were between 15 groups with a strong incremental view on ability (high incremental theory groups), and 15 groups with a weak…

  4. Gender Similarities and Differences in Preadolescent Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongling; Shi, Bing

    2009-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Mapping procedure was used to identify peer social groups in 26 fifth-grade classrooms from six elementary schools in a northeastern urban school district. Four group structural features were examined: size, the number of subcliques, cohesion, and salience hierarchy. Ethnic diversity index was calculated for each group. An…

  5. Entrepreneurial networking differences: An ethnic in-group and out-group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Researching entrepreneurship using a network perspective is important, as social networks are assets for small business owners struggling to survive in competitive markets.Research purpose: The research question of this study has focused on what we can learn about entrepreneurial networking, considering that there is an under-explored and unarticulated set of networking principles and practices which have not been previously analysed in terms of a multiethnic country context.Motivation for the study: Often the lack of network use is reported as a feature of entrepreneurs, who have less opportunity to utilise formal social capital features. Social networks provided by extended family, community-based or organisational relationships are often theorised to supplement the effects of education, experience and financial capital.Research design, approach and method: Based on hypothesised differences in networking ties, network assistance and support relationships, a survey was used to collect data on quantitative measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the hypotheses.Main findings: Results indicate that entrepreneurial networking is largely independent on group composition. Generally at least some aspects of networking are generic and as a consequence, a more integrated view of networking can be adopted.Practical/managerial implications: The practical value of the present study points to several areas of interest to entrepreneurs, policy makers and educators, through demonstrating the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurial networks for different groups and their explanatory potential in understanding networking.Contribution/value-add: Despite the importance of entrepreneurial networking, little empirical or theoretical research has examined the dynamics of networking in a developing country context such as South Africa, which has lower than expected total entrepreneurship activity.

  6. [Differences in doll play of four-year old children of different ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowski, Katja; Joraschky, Peter; Juen, Florian; Benecke, Cord; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In its psychological development, the child learns social-emotional competences in order to be able to cope with conflicts. Since ethnic diversity increases due to globalization, the influence of the ethnic background on the social competence children development must be investigated furthermore. The present study examines the differences of the social-emotional competences of children of various ethnic groups. To track the social-emotional competence in play, 84 Asian-American, Latin-American and African-American kindergarteners (age = 4) were tested with the Mac Arthur Story Stem Battery and the attachment representation using the Attachment Doll Play manual. There were significant differences in the avoidance of conflict, empathic and moral themes in problem-solving among the ethnic groups. Furthermore, according to ethnic background the children significantly differed in the dimensions of attachment representation, freezing/blocking, constriction and controlling. Since ethnically specific social competence, attachment dimensions and their inter-correlation were found, the children started Kindergarten with differing qualifications. There are indications that the differences in attachment accentuations in children call for ethnic differences in social competence and interpretations of social situations in adults and children. PMID:19485097

  7. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Batan Alith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years. Methods: From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. Results: The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012; "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001; "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008. In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups, whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups. Conclusions: In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  8. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    OpenAIRE

    Juen Florian; Arnold Lisa; Meissner Dominik; Nolte Tobias; Buchheim Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attach...

  9. Features of Chronic Bronchitis in Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina L. Ignatova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung diseases are assuming greater relevance and importance today. Chronic bronchitis is a self-nosology, which may precede the development of COPD, the importance of which can hardly be overestimated. The main problem in this disease is caused by late diagnosis and treatment due to the delay by patients in seeking medical help. The aim of the work was to study the distribution and exposure to tobacco smoke, especially chronic bronchitis, depending on various factors, including age. Methods: We examined 1779 persons, including 855 men and 924 women. The mean age of the population was 35.83±8.3 years. We conducted surveys and spirometry. The outcome was assessed after a bronchodilation test was performed with salbutamol 400 mcg. We performed all statistical analysis using software package Statistica 10. Results: We identified chronic bronchitis in 9.2% of the cases in the group of younger individuals and in 14.9% of the cases in the group of older individuals, during the active detection of chronic bronchitis using questionnaires. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was slightly higher among the younger (39.5% than the older persons (33.6%; the frequency of smoking in a group of chronic bronchitis was reliably higher. Also, in this group, the performance spirometry reliably decreased. Conclusions: Outpatient survey is an effective method of identifying chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a major risk factor in the group of young respondents and the prevalence of smoking is inversely related to the education level of the respondents, regardless of age. As the decline in the Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC is the main criterion diagnosis of COPD, it revealed significant declines in the FEV1 of the younger smoking individuals, which may help to predict the development of COPD in the older age group.

  10. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  11. [Lactase polymorphism in representatives of different ethnic-territorial groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A I; Sheremet'eva, V A; Kondik, V M

    1992-01-01

    Lactase polymorphism was studied in the native population of West Siberia and also in Buryatia. LAC*R frequency observed is-Khants- 0.8367, Mansi - 0.8660, Nenets - 0.8944, Buryats - 0.6883. The data obtained are considered to be the result of natural selection under traditional historical economical-cultural environment of the ethnic groups in question.

  12. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  13. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  14. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  15. Accurate measurement of sample conductivity in a diamond anvil cell with axis symmetrical electrodes and finite difference calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a relatively precise method of conductivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell with axis symmetrical electrodes and finite difference calculation. The axis symmetrical electrodes are composed of two parts: one is a round thin-film electrode deposited on diamond facet and the other is the inside wall of metal gasket. Due to the asymmetrical configuration of the two electrodes, finite difference method can be applied to calculate the conductivity of sample, which can reduce the measurement error.

  16. Generational Differences among a Small Group of Hmong Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Pa Der

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the differences in culture, language, and educational attainments among generations of Hmong in the United States since the beginning of their immigration to the United States. This study of 195 Hmong participants examines the effects of generational status on Hmong immigrants across several factors including marriage…

  17. Testing Group Mean Differences of Latent Variables in Multilevel Data Using Multiple-Group Multilevel CFA and Multilevel MIMIC Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Cao, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    Considering that group comparisons are common in social science, we examined two latent group mean testing methods when groups of interest were either at the between or within level of multilevel data: multiple-group multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MG ML CFA) and multilevel multiple-indicators multiple-causes modeling (ML MIMIC). The performance of these methods were investigated through three Monte Carlo studies. In Studies 1 and 2, either factor variances or residual variances were manipulated to be heterogeneous between groups. In Study 3, which focused on within-level multiple-group analysis, six different model specifications were considered depending on how to model the intra-class group correlation (i.e., correlation between random effect factors for groups within cluster). The results of simulations generally supported the adequacy of MG ML CFA and ML MIMIC for multiple-group analysis with multilevel data. The two methods did not show any notable difference in the latent group mean testing across three studies. Finally, a demonstration with real data and guidelines in selecting an appropriate approach to multilevel multiple-group analysis are provided.

  18. Accurate convergent finite difference approximations for viscosity solutions of the elliptic Monge-Amp\\`ere partial differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Froese, Brittany D

    2012-01-01

    The theory of viscosity solutions has been effective for representing and approximating weak solutions to fully nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) such as the elliptic Monge-Amp\\`ere equation. The approximation theory of Barles-Souganidis [Barles and Souganidis, Asymptotic Anal., 4 (1999) 271-283] requires that numerical schemes be monotone (or elliptic in the sense of [Oberman, SIAM J. Numer. Anal, 44 (2006) 879-895]. But such schemes have limited accuracy. In this article, we establish a convergence result for nearly monotone schemes. This allows us to construct finite difference discretizations of arbitrarily high-order. We demonstrate that the higher accuracy is achieved when solutions are sufficiently smooth. In addition, the filtered scheme provides a natural detection principle for singularities. We employ this framework to construct a formally second-order scheme for the Monge-Amp\\`ere equation and present computational results on smooth and singular solutions.

  19. Do different groups have different risk factors for dieting and exercise as body management strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim – Body change strategies are activities that could be potentially harmful. Individuals may use different methods for achieving advertised ideal body. Some of demographic and psychosocial contributing factors could be affect decision regarding body management activities. In Iran there is a few research about this matter, therefore the aim of this study was exploring risk factors in body management. Materials and Methods – In this cross sectional study, 400 people participated that including general population, university students and body building clubs attainders. The self administrated questionnaire based on reliable sources of body image that evaluated its validity and validity. Statistical analysis was done by using central indexes and distribution and logistic regression. Data analysis was done by software of SPSS 16. Results – Marital status, education, economic status, age and BMI had no relation with body management strategies. Birthplace effects on choose of diet and exercise. Gender is only had effect on exercise choosing. Use of Western TV had effect on doing exercise. Pressure of relatives was an important factor in decision about dieting. Self steam and compare of appearance with others affected choosing of dieting. There were no differences between selected groups. Conclusion – In spite of similarities between body dissatisfaction and its management strategies with other studies in Iran, there is necessity for future studies.

  20. Diversification strategies in family and non-family groups: main differences according non-family group type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández Trasobares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the interest for the study of ownership structure as a determinant of diversification arises. However, there is a lack of researches that analyze the influence of the nature of the ultimate owner in the level and type of diversification. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the diversification strategies used by the main Spanish business groups whose parent company is listed on the stock markets, and to study the differences between family and non-family business groups, considering in these last, the type of ultimate owner. In the study a sample of ninety-nine listed companies is used, where companies that constitute the business group are identified. In the paper are used as econometric methodologies the binomial logistic models and panel data models. The results show that family nature of business group positively influences in specialization and related diversification and negatively on unrelated diversification. Family groups differ most form those non-family groups where there is not a reference shareholder than can exercise effective control and ownership dispersion is higher, the groups referred as “non effective control”. The research allows further analysis of differences between family and non-family groups, considering the nature of the ultimate owner for non-family groups.

  1. Platelet serotonin levels in pervasive developmental disorders and mental retardation : Diagnostic group differences, within-group distribution, and behavioral correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJ; Anderson, GM; Kema, IP; de Bildt, A; van Lang, NDJ; den Boer, JA; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, wi

  2. Platelet Serotonin Levels in Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Mental Retardation: Diagnostic Group Differences, Within-Group Distribution, and Behavioral Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Erik J.; Anderson, George M.; Kema, Ido P.; De Bildt, Annelies; Van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Den Boer, Johan A.; Minderaa Ruud B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, with PDD (autism, Asperger's and PDD-not otherwise…

  3. A reliable and accurate portable device for rapid quantitative estimation of iodine content in different types of edible salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous monitoring of salt iodization to ensure the success of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI program can be significantly strengthened by the use of a simple, safe, and rapid method of salt iodine estimation. This study assessed the validity of a new portable device, iCheck Iodine developed by the BioAnalyt GmbH to estimate the iodine content in salt. Materials and Methods: Validation of the device was conducted in the laboratory of the South Asia regional office of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD. The validity of the device was assessed using device specific indicators, comparison of iCheck Iodine device with the iodometric titration, and comparison between iodine estimation using 1 g and 10 g salt by iCheck Iodine using 116 salt samples procured from various small-, medium-, and large-scale salt processors across India. Results: The intra- and interassay imprecision for 10 parts per million (ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm concentrations of iodized salt were 2.8%, 6.1%, and 3.1%, and 2.4%, 2.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Interoperator imprecision was 6.2%, 6.3%, and 4.6% for the salt with iodine concentrations of 10 ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm respectively. The correlation coefficient between measurements by the two methods was 0.934 and the correlation coefficient between measurements using 1 g of iodized salt and 10 g of iodized salt by the iCheck Iodine device was 0.983. Conclusions: The iCheck Iodine device is reliable and provides a valid method for the quantitative estimation of the iodine content of iodized salt fortified with potassium iodate in the field setting and in different types of salt.

  4. Relationship between Duffy blood groups genotypes and malaria infection in different ethnic groups of Choco- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, Lina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The negative homozygous condition for the Duffy blood group (Fy-/Fy- confers natural resistance to Plasmodium vivax infection. In this direction, studies carried out in Colombia are scarce.Objective: To describe the relationship between Duffy genotypes in three ethnic communities in La Italia (Chocó and malaria infection.Methodology: a descriptive, cross-sectional study in symptomatic and asymptomatic malaria subjects. Sample size : AfroAmerican, 73; Amerindian (Emberá, 74 and Mestizo, 171. Presence of Plasmodium infection was assessed by thick smear and the status of the Duffy gene by PCR and RFLP in order to identify the substitutions T-46C y A131G which origin the genotypes T/T, T/C , C/C y G/G, G/A, A/A.Results: Infection by Plasmodium was detected in 17% with 62% due to P. falciparum and 27% to P. vivax. Duffy genotypes were significantly associated to ethnicity (p=0,003. Individuals with the C/C, A/A diplotype were exclusively infected by P. falciparum, whereas other diplotypes were infected with either species. In the Amerindian and Mestizo populations, the frequency of the T-46 allele was 0,90-1,00, among Afrocolombians this was 0,50, equal to the C allele and with absence of heterozygous At locus 131, the highest frequency of the G allele was 0,30 in Amerindians and the A allele was 0,69 in Afrocolombians. Conclusions: In the Amerindian and mestizo populations studied, a predominance of the allele T-46 (FY+ was observed, but P. vivax was not the most common. Infection by P. vivax was out ruled in all FY- individuals.

  5. The Difference Between Clusters and Groups: A Journey from Cluster Cores to their Outskirts and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, R G; Bower, Richard G.; Balogh, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    In this review, we take the reader on a journey. We start by looking at the properties of galaxies in the cores of rich clusters. We have focused on the overall picture: star formation in clusters is strongly suppressed relative to field galaxies at the same redshift. We will argue that the increasing activity and blue populations of clusters with redshift results from a greater level of activity in field galaxies rather than a change in the transformation imposed by the cluster environment. With this in mind, we travel out from the cluster focussing firstly on the properties of galaxies in the outskirts of clusters and then on galaxies in isolated groups. At low redshift, we are able to efficiently probe these environments using the Sloan and 2DF redshift surveys. These allow an accurate comparison of galaxy star formation rates in different regions. The current results show a strong suppression of star formation above a critical threshold in local density. The threshold seems similar regardless of the overa...

  6. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  7. Optimisation of isolation methods for the azaspiracid group of marine biotoxins and the development of accurate and precise methods of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyle, J.

    2015-01-01

    The two main groups of biotoxins which affect the Irish shellfish industry are azaspiracids (AZAs) and the okadaic acid (OA) group (OA, DTX2, DTX1 and their esters) toxins. Since AZAs were first identified in 1998, well over 30 analogues have been reported. Structural and toxicological data have been described for AZA1–5 (isolated from shellfish). LC-MS/MS is the EU reference method for detection of the AZAs (AZA1, -2 and -3) and the OA group toxins in raw shellfish with the regulatory limit ...

  8. Optimisation of Isolation Methods for the AZA Group of Marine Biotoxins and the Development of Accurate and Precise Methods of Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcoyne, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The two main groups of biotoxins which affect the Irish shellfish industry are azaspiracids (AZAs) and the okadaic acid (OA) group (OA, DTX2, DTX1 and their esters) toxins. Since AZAs were first identified in 1998, well over 30 analogues have been reported. Structural and toxicological data have been described for AZA1–5 (isolated from shellfish). LC-MS/MS is the EU reference method for detection of the AZAs (AZA1, -2 and -3) and the OA group toxins in raw shellfish with the regulatory limit ...

  9. Socioeconomic and Gender Group Differences in Early Literacy Skills: A Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…

  10. On the properties of compact groups identified in different photometric bands

    CERN Document Server

    Taverna, Antonela; Zandivarez, Ariel; Joray, Francisco; Kanagusuku, Maria Jose

    2016-01-01

    Historically, compact group catalogues vary not only in their identification algorithms and selection functions, but also in their photometric bands. Differences between compact group catalogues have been reported. However, it is difficult to assess the impact of the photometric band in these differences given the variety of identification algorithms. We used the mock lightcone built by Henriques et al. (2012) to identify and compare compact groups in three different photometric bands: $K$, $r$, and $u$. We applied the same selection functions in the three bands, and found that compact groups in the u-band look the smallest in projection, the difference between the two brightest galaxies is the largest in the K-band, while compact groups in the r-band present the lowest compactness. We also investigated the differences between samples when galaxies are selected only in one particular band (pure compact groups) and those that exist regardless the band in which galaxies were observed (common compact groups). We...

  11. Aptitude Treatment Effects of Laboratory Grouping Method for Students of Differing Reasoning Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Frances

    1985-01-01

    Determined: (1) if elementary education majors (N=91) from different levels of reasoning ability learned more science concepts under different grouping methods in an inquiry/learning cycle-based physical science class; and (2) if these students became able to reason more effectively under the different grouping methods. (JN)

  12. Evaluating EIV, OLS, and SEM Estimators of Group Slope Differences in the Presence of Measurement Error: The Single-Indicator Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Steven Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Measurement error significantly biases interaction effects and distorts researchers' inferences regarding interactive hypotheses. This article focuses on the single-indicator case and shows how to accurately estimate group slope differences by disattenuating interaction effects with errors-in-variables (EIV) regression. New analytic findings were…

  13. ICM cooling, AGN feedback and BCG properties of galaxy groups-Five properties where groups differ from clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bharadwaj, V; Schellenberger, G; Eckmiller, H J; Mittal, R; Israel, H

    2014-01-01

    Using Chandra data for a sample of 26 galaxy groups, we constrained the central cooling times (CCTs) of the ICM and classified the groups as strong cool-core (SCC), weak cool-core (WCC) and non-cool-core (NCC) based on their CCTs. The total radio luminosity of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) was obtained using radio catalog data and literature, which was compared to the CCT to understand the link between gas cooling and radio output. We determined K-band luminosities of the BCG with 2MASS data, and used it to constrain the masses of the SMBH, which were then compared to the radio output. We also tested for correlations between the BCG luminosity and the overall X-ray luminosity and mass of the group. The observed cool-core/non-cool-core fractions for groups are comparable to those of clusters. However, notable differences are seen. For clusters, all SCCs have a central temperature drop, but for groups, this is not the case as some SCCs have centrally rising temperature profiles. While for the cluster sampl...

  14. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility

  15. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin, E-mail: kqzhang@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Jun [Testing and Analysis Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  16. Do different groups have different risk factors for dieting and exercise as body management strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Behshid Garrusi; Mohammad Reza Baneshi; Fatemeh Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Aim – Body change strategies are activities that could be potentially harmful. Individuals may use different methods for achieving advertised ideal body. Some of demographic and psychosocial contributing factors could be affect decision regarding body management activities. In Iran there is a few research about this matter, therefore the aim of this study was exploring risk factors in body management. Materials and Methods – In this cross sectional study, 400 people participated that includin...

  17. A study on biochemical differences among five different groups of rice striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zibaee

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of biodiversity in different rice striped stem borer (Chilo supprressalis populations is very important to adopt suitable integrated pest management procedures. Larvae were collected from five different regions in north of Iran including Gourabzarmikh (Go, Sheikhmahaleh (Sh, Rasht (Ra, Amol (Am and Babol (Ba. Activity levels of five enzymes including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-amylase were evaluated in 4th instar larvae. In addition, five non-enzymatic compounds such as glucose, cholesterol, total protein, uric acid and urea were also measured. Amount of measured compounds showed significant differences in all groups except for alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering under UPGMA model demonstrated that Ba population had the most genetic distance and was separated from other groups. In the second group, Go population had the most genetic distance from others and two groups of Ra and Sh had the least genetic distances.

  18. Cooperative learning in higher education: differences in the perception of the contribution to the group

    OpenAIRE

    Jareño Cebrián, Francisco; Jiménez Moreno, Juan José; Lagos Rodríguez, Maria Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This document analyses cooperative learning in a working group using a problem-based learning methodology. We also evaluate if the perception that each member of the group has of his/her contribution to cooperative learning is greater or lesser than that observed by his/her team-mates. Different elements of the work carried out in the group are analysed, such as the effective effort made, their participation, the organisation of the group, cohesion, communication, and the overall perceptio...

  19. Different leaders : emergent organizational and intellectual leadership in children’s collaborative learning groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, E; Higgins, S; da Costa, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two studies that examine emergent leadership in children’s collaborative learning groups. Building on research that finds that leadership moves are distributed among group members during learning activities, we examined whether there were patterns in the distribution of moves, resulting in different types of emergent leaders in groups. Study one examines individual groups working with a teacher, on the same task either with paper or multi-touch tables. Study two examines g...

  20. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in different age groups in a community.

    OpenAIRE

    Leistevuo, T; Leistevuo, J; Osterblad, M; Arvola, T. (Timo); Toivonen, P; Klaukka, T; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    We measured the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli by age in community subjects. For none of the eight antimicrobial agents studied were there any statistically significant differences in the carriage rates of resistance in different age groups. Bacterial resistance was common in all age groups, including the children, and occurred for all antimicrobial agents tested.

  2. Job and organisations: explaining group level differences in job satisfaction in the banking sector

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Cambré; Evelien Kippers; Marc van Veldhoven; Hans De Witte

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of group level differences in job satisfaction. Specifically, the authors seek to understand the shared variance in job satisfaction at the group level of jobs within organisations, in a particular industrial sector. To explain differences in job satisfaction between groups, the authors examine the role of job characteristics, particularly as these are defined within the job‐demand‐control‐support model. Design/methodology/approach ...

  3. Clinical presentation of infective endocarditis caused by different groups of non-beta haemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, B; Olaison, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-02-01

    Streptococci are common causes of infective endocarditis (IE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has provided a practical tool for their species determination. We aimed to investigate if particular groups of non-beta heamolytic streptococci were associated with IE or to specific presentations thereof. The Swedish Registry of Infective Endocarditis was used to identify cases of IE caused by streptococci and a local database to identify cases of streptococcal bacteremia. The bacteria were grouped using MALDI-TOF MS and the clinical characteristics of IE caused by different groups were compared. We identified a group of 201 streptococcal IE isolates: 18 isolates belonged to the anginosus, 19 to the bovis, 140 to the mitis, 17 to the mutans, and seven to the salivarius groups. The mitis and mutans groups were significantly more common and the anginosus group less common among IE cases as compared to all cause bacteremia. Patients infected with the bovis group isolates were older, had more cardiac devices, and had more commonly prosthetic valve IE compared to IE caused by streptococci of the other groups. Twenty-one percent of patients needed surgery, and in-hospital mortality was 8% with no significant differences between the groups. Grouping of non-beta haemolytic streptococci using MALDI-TOF MS can provide a basis for decision-making in streptococcal bacteremia. IE caused by bovis group isolates have clinical characteristics distinguishing them from IE caused by other groups of Streptococcus. PMID:26610338

  4. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  5. The influence of climatic seasonality on the diversity of different tropical pollinator groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Abrahamczyk

    Full Text Available Tropical South America is rich in different groups of pollinators, but the biotic and abiotic factors determining the geographical distribution of their species richness are poorly understood. We analyzed the species richness of three groups of pollinators (bees and wasps, butterflies, hummingbirds in six tropical forests in the Bolivian lowlands along a gradient of climatic seasonality and precipitation ranging from 410 mm to 6250 mm. At each site, we sampled the three pollinator groups and their food plants twice for 16 days in both the dry and rainy seasons. The richness of the pollinator groups was related to climatic factors by linear regressions. Differences in species numbers between pollinator groups were analyzed by Wilcoxon tests for matched pairs and the proportion in species numbers between pollinator groups by correlation analyses. Species richness of hummingbirds was most closely correlated to the continuous availability of food, that of bees and wasps to the number of food plant species and flowers, and that of butterflies to air temperature. Only the species number of butterflies differed significantly between seasons. We were not able to find shifts in the proportion of species numbers of the different groups of pollinators along the study gradient. Thus, we conclude that the diversity of pollinator guilds is determined by group-specific factors and that the constant proportions in species numbers of the different pollinator groups constitute a general pattern.

  6. Differences in Conative Characteristics and Perceived Group Cohesion of the Basketball Players Playing in Different Positions in the Team

    OpenAIRE

    Sindik, Joško; Nazor, Damir

    2011-01-01

    Identification of differences in individual conative characteristics and in perceived group cohesion of the basketball players playing in different positions in the team could provide guidelines for a better selection of basketball players and better coaching work. The aim of our study was to determine the differences in relation to the positions of guards and forwards/ centres, and the four major positions in the team. The final sample of subjects (74 basketball players) is selected...

  7. Gender-Stereotyping and Cognitive Sex Differences in Mixed- and Same-Sex Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hirnstein, Marco; Andrews, Lisa Coloma; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognit...

  8. Bumblebee workers from different sire groups vary in susceptibility to parasite infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2003-01-01

    is so far only supported indirectly. Here we tested this crucial assumption using data from a study on the bumblebee Bombus terrestris L. with queens inseminated with sperm of either one or several males that originated from different sire groups (i.e. groups of brothers). We found that, under field...... conditions, workers from different sire groups, forming a patriline within a given colony, indeed differ in their susceptibility to the common intestinal parasite, Crithidia bombi, and do so independently of queen mating frequency....

  9. PredictSNP2: A Unified Platform for Accurately Evaluating SNP Effects by Exploiting the Different Characteristics of Variants in Distinct Genomic Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jaroslav; Musil, Miloš; Štourač, Jan; Zendulka, Jaroslav; Damborský, Jiří; Brezovský, Jan

    2016-05-01

    An important message taken from human genome sequencing projects is that the human population exhibits approximately 99.9% genetic similarity. Variations in the remaining parts of the genome determine our identity, trace our history and reveal our heritage. The precise delineation of phenotypically causal variants plays a key role in providing accurate personalized diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of inherited diseases. Several computational methods for achieving such delineation have been reported recently. However, their ability to pinpoint potentially deleterious variants is limited by the fact that their mechanisms of prediction do not account for the existence of different categories of variants. Consequently, their output is biased towards the variant categories that are most strongly represented in the variant databases. Moreover, most such methods provide numeric scores but not binary predictions of the deleteriousness of variants or confidence scores that would be more easily understood by users. We have constructed three datasets covering different types of disease-related variants, which were divided across five categories: (i) regulatory, (ii) splicing, (iii) missense, (iv) synonymous, and (v) nonsense variants. These datasets were used to develop category-optimal decision thresholds and to evaluate six tools for variant prioritization: CADD, DANN, FATHMM, FitCons, FunSeq2 and GWAVA. This evaluation revealed some important advantages of the category-based approach. The results obtained with the five best-performing tools were then combined into a consensus score. Additional comparative analyses showed that in the case of missense variations, protein-based predictors perform better than DNA sequence-based predictors. A user-friendly web interface was developed that provides easy access to the five tools' predictions, and their consensus scores, in a user-understandable format tailored to the specific features of different categories of variations. To

  10. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. PMID:26453053

  11. Cause and Causality in Daycare Research: An Investigation of Group Differences in Swedish Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Holger; Lamb, Michael E.; Hwang, Carl-Philip

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates problems facing researchers trying to demonstrate causal relationships between types of nonparental care and differences between groups of Swedish children. Argues that efforts must be made to validate and interpret differences that are found. Indicates ways to avoid misinterpretation of differences that are attributable to…

  12. Relationships between different sets involving group and Drazin projectors and nonnegativity

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Debón, Alicia; Ramirez, Francisco J.; Thome, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with nonnegativity of matrices and their group or Drazin inverses. Firstly, the nonnegativity of a square matrix A, its group inverse A# and its group projector AA# is used to define different sets for which relationships and characterizations are given. Next, an extension of the previous results for index greater than 1 is presented. Similar sets are introduced and studied for Drazin inverses and Drazin projectors considering the core-nilpotent decomposition. In addition,...

  13. The causes of difficult tracheal intubation and preoperative assessments in different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Hyoung-Yong; Baek, Chong Wha; Kim, Jin-Seo; Koo, Gill Hoi; Kim, Jin-Yun; Woo, Young-Cheol; Jung, Yong Hun; Kang, Hyun; Shin, Hwa-Yong; Yang, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the differences in airway assessment factors among old, middle, and young age groups, and evaluated the frequency and causes of difficult intubation among these groups. Methods Patients were divided into young (< 40 yr, n = 75 ), middle (40-59 yr, n = 83), and old (≥ 60 yr, n = 89) group. Airway assessment factors such as head and neck movement, thyromental distance, interincisor gap, dentition, Mallampati score, and Arné score were assessed. After muscle relaxation, cer...

  14. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  15. An accurate determination of human grawth hormone content in different pituitary extracts, using a radioimmunoassay with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a bound-free separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human growth hormone was extracted and purified according to the method of Roos et al. A first control of its purification and integrity was performed through molecular weight determination by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and on plyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Its biological activity was confirmed by the growth promoted in non-hypophysectomized rats at plateau. The main object, however, was the setting up of an accurate, reproducible method that could furnish the more absolute and comparable value of rafioimmunoassayable HGH content in perfect agreement with the results obtained by other laboratories. This was accomplished through a radioimmunoassay system that uses HGH labelled with 125I, where the separation of the bound from the free antigen is achieved on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, by a modification introduced in the original method of Davis. The resulting values, extremely close to that stated by the KABI-Laboratories (Stockolm), through obtained in quite different conditions of incubation, antibody concentration and with no use of second antibody, represent a confident approach to a comparable measure of this hormone in extract, which can also be applied to plasma determinations

  16. Stable, high-order SBP-SAT finite difference operators to enable accurate simulation of compressible turbulent flows on curvilinear grids, with application to predicting turbulent jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jaeseung; Bodony, Daniel; Pantano, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Improved order-of-accuracy discretizations often require careful consideration of their numerical stability. We report on new high-order finite difference schemes using Summation-By-Parts (SBP) operators along with the Simultaneous-Approximation-Terms (SAT) boundary condition treatment for first and second-order spatial derivatives with variable coefficients. In particular, we present a highly accurate operator for SBP-SAT-based approximations of second-order derivatives with variable coefficients for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. These terms are responsible for approximating the physical dissipation of kinetic and thermal energy in a simulation, and contain grid metrics when the grid is curvilinear. Analysis using the Laplace transform method shows that strong stability is ensured with Dirichlet boundary conditions while weaker stability is obtained for Neumann boundary conditions. Furthermore, the benefits of the scheme is shown in the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a Mach 1.5 compressible turbulent supersonic jet using curvilinear grids and skew-symmetric discretization. Particularly, we show that the improved methods allow minimization of the numerical filter often employed in these simulations and we discuss the qualities of the simulation.

  17. Aptitude treatment effects of laboratory grouping method for students of differing reasoning ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Munch, Theodore W.

    This study examines aptitude treatment effects in an inquiry/learning cycle based physical science class for elementary education majors. The aptitude was formal reasoning ability and the students were arranged into three groups: high, middle, and low ability reasoners. The treatment was method of forming groups to work in the laboratory. Students in each of three classes were grouped according to reasoning ability. In one class the laboratory groups were homogeneous, i.e., students of similar reasoning ability were grouped together. In the second class the students were grouped heterogeneously, i.e., students of different reasoning ability were grouped together. In the third class, the student choice pattern, the students chose their own partners. The findings were that there were no aptitude treatment interaction for achievement or for gain in formal reasoning ability, that grouping students of similar cognitive ability together for laboratory work in the class was more effective in terms of science achievement than grouping students of differing cognitive ability together or than allowing students to choose their own partners, and that students at different levels of reasoning ability experienced differential gains in that ability over the semester.

  18. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  19. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  20. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  1. What Could Critical Mathematics Education Mean for Different Groups of Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    In this article I consider what critical mathematics education could mean for different groups of students. Much discussion and research has addressed students at social risk. My point, however, is that critical mathematics education concerns other groups as well: for example, students in comfortable positions, blind students, elderly students,…

  2. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Worby

    2015-12-01

    While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5–17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute to reducing the epidemic's impact in the whole community.

  3. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes. 

  4. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  5. Diversification of birthplace groups in Australia: how did Turkish immigrants differ from the others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icduygu, A

    1991-01-01

    24,529 Turkish-born immigrants were identified as Australian residents in the 1986 country census. This is the 23rd largest of 30 immigrant birthplace groups of population greater than 18,000. Of the total Australian and foreign-born population, however, this group represents only less than 2/1,000 residents. This study compares social, economic, demographic, and cultural characteristics of Turkish-born immigrants with immigrants born in Lebanon, Vietnam, Greece, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. Members of this birthplace group shared structural socioeconomic disadvantage with immigrants born in Lebanon and Vietnam. Specifically, relatively high proportions of these groups were without professional qualifications, unemployment was high, income was low, high dependence was observed upon government social benefits, a relatively high proportion resided in Housing Commission flats, a low incidence of Australian citizenship prevailed, English language proficiency was low, and intermarriage between ethnic groups was low. These factors did not work independently in producing structural disadvantage. Greek- and Italian-born were related in another different group, while the English and Irish were similar to native-born Australians. Generally speaking, immigrants in Australia were found to differ considerably on all fronts from both the native population and each other. Similarities also exist between groups with different characteristics and experiences of various immigrant groups are most complex, and require a multidimensional approach in their study. PMID:12284779

  6. Clinical-anthropometric characteristics of COPD outpatients belonging to the different groups and having different severity of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with COPD, which differ in the degree of airways obstruction and belong to groups A, B, C, D in accordance with GOLD, 2011 classification. A total of 112 ambulatory COPD patients in remission made the study sample. Anthropometric data, body mass index, medical history, dyspnea by mMRC scale, and spirometry was performed for all patients. There was confirmed that outpatients with COPD is a heterogeneous group, in which the majority are those with moderate (48.22 % and severe (30.36 %, airway obstruction. Despite the vast majority of men among outpatients, the percentage of women among patients with mild to moderate obstruction (22.58±5.31 % was significantly higher (p=0.002 as compared with those with severe or very severe limitation of airflow (6.00±3.36 %. Patients with severe and very severe obstruction were of significantly older age (p = 0.024. At the same time, the distribution of patients according to the GOLD, 2011 classification, demonstrate that all groups did not differ on any of the anthropometric indicators, including gender and age (p > 0.050. Distribution of patients by groups with different risk for future exacerbations is not a mirror image of gradation in accordance with the degree of airway obstruction. Every second (50.00±4.43 % of cases patient is included in group C and every tenth (10.20±4.32 % belongs to the group D not due to degree of bronchial obstruction, but due to the number of exa­cerbations in the past year. Therefore, in future studies it is advisable to use both principles of patients’ classification.

  7. Students of Different Subjects Have Different Levels of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Learn English: Two Different Groups of EFL Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran; Fujita, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Here is documented investigation to assess the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese, first-year, dental-university students taking part in compulsory EFL classes and to compare those motivational drivers with an investigation into the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese IT students. There was a clear difference between extrinsic and…

  8. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C. Houtenbos, M. Ehlers, E. & Waard, D. de

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. The main research questions concerned age differences in the self-reported use of elec

  9. The Nature-Nurture Controversy Revisited: Divorce and Gender as Factors in Children's Racial Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Guidubaldi, John

    1997-01-01

    Examined divorce and gender as factors in racial differences in performance of elementary age children on Hahnemann Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test, Vineland Teachers Questionnaire, and an interview. Found more racial group differences within the divorced…

  10. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldenbeld, C.; Houtenbos, M.; Ehlers, E.; De Waard, D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. Method: The main research questions concerned age differences in the sel

  11. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  12. Understanding Disproportionate Representation in Special Education by Examining Group Differences in Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christina D.; Kranzler, John H.; Algina, James; Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior-Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used…

  13. The association of physical inactivity with Type 2 diabetes among different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Admiraal; I.G.M. Valkengoed; J.S. de Munter; K. Stronks; J.B.L. Hoekstra; F. Holleman

    2011-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims  To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods  We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged 35-

  14. Glioma cell line proliferation controlled by different chemical functional groups in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ju XU; Fu-Zhai CUI; Xiao-Long YU; Xiang-Dong KONG

    2013-01-01

    Glioma cell line C6 cultured on silicon surfaces modified by different chemical functional groups, including mercapto (-SH), carboxyl (-COOH), amino (-NH2), hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) groups, was studied here to investigate the influence of surface chemistry on the cell proliferation, adhesion and apoptosis. AFM confirmed the similar characteristic of different functional groups occupation. The adhering C6 exhibited morphological changes in response to different chemical functional groups. The C6 adhered to -COOH, -NH2, -OH and -CH3 surfaces and flattened morphology, while those on -SH surface exhibited the smallest contact area with mostly rounded morphology, which led to the death of cancer cells. The results of MTT assay showed that the -COOH and -NH2 groups promoted ceil proliferation, while the -SH significantly inhibited the proliferation. Compared with other chemical functional groups, the -SH group exhibited its unique effect on the fate of cancer cells, which might provide means for the design of biomaterials to prevent and treat glioma.

  15. Big Five personality group differences across academic majors: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, a number of studies have explored personality group differences in the Big Five personality traits among students in different academic majors. To date, though, this research has not been reviewed systematically. This was the aim of the present review. A systematic...... literature search identified twelve eligible studies yielding an aggregated sample size of 13,389. Eleven studies reported significant group differences in one or multiple Big Five personality traits. Consistent findings across studies were that students of arts/humanities and psychology scored high...... on Conscientiousness. Effect sizes were calculated to estimate the magnitude of the personality group differences. These effect sizes were consistent across studies comparing similar pairs of academic majors. For all Big Five personality traits medium effect sizes were found frequently, and for Openness even large...

  16. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  17. Occupational differences in work engagement: A longitudinal study among eight occupational groups in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore occupational differences in the experience of engagement both with regard to differences in the level of work engagement as well as in the predicting value of different antecedent variables. Multigroup latent mean analysis was performed on eight different occupational groups in Norway (lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers, church ministers, bus drivers, and people working in advertising and information technology; N = 3,475). Tests for factorial invariance supported the use of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory scale across occupational groups and that the latent means were comparable across the groups. Results indicated significant occupational differences in the experience of vigor and dedication. The lawyers reported the most vigor and the church ministers the most dedication. Least vigor was reported among the teachers and the advertising group reported to be least dedicated. Cross-lagged multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis suggested there are different processes behind the development of engagement across occupations. Visualization of how some occupations cluster or differ from each other is important as it might engender theory building and further hypotheses testing.

  18. Dynamics of hormonal status in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murzabaeva R.Т.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the hormonal parameters in women of different age groups in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Materials and methods: We have studied the content of cortisol, thyrotropic hormone (TTH, triiodothyro-nine (T3, free thyroxin (FT4, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin in blood serum of 62 women with moderate (33 and severe (29 HFRS forms age (17-62. They were divided into 2 groups: the first group (33 patients women with the normal menstrual cycle, the second group (29 women consisted of patients in climacteric period. Results: TTH secretion increase, T3 and FT4 — decrease with their normalization to the recovery period were registered in the thyroid system of the compared groups. Blood cortisol level was high during the illness. Gonadotropic hypophysis function study demonstrated that LH and blood prolactin concentrations were increased since oliguria period; FSH was authentic reduced. The indices of these hormones were restored to the normal level by the reconvalescence period. LH and FSH contents were authentic higher in women of the second group in comparison with the first group. The hyperprolactinemia was observed in both women groups during the whole period of disease. The increased progesterone and testosterone concentrations have been manifested in blood serum. The estradiol concentration had different direction tendencies. Conclusion: Thus, the complex study of hypophysic- thyreoid and gonadotropic hormone state of adrenal system and the sexual hormone levels in women of different age groups in HFRS revealed the hormone status indces changes due to the period and severity of the disease, connected with the virus action, intoxication, the general inflammation reactions and their age.

  19. Sex differences in the emergence of leadership during competitions within and between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Mark; Spisak, Brian R

    2008-09-01

    This experiment investigated potential gender biases in the emergence of leadership in groups. Teams played a public-goods game under conditions of intra- or intergroup competition. We predicted and found a strong preference for female leaders during intragroup competition and male leaders during intergroup competition. Furthermore, during intragroup competition, a female leader was more instrumental than a male leader in raising group investments, but this pattern was reversed during intergroup competition. These findings suggest that particular group threats elicit specific gender-biased leader prototypes. We speculate about the evolutionary and cultural origins of these sex differences in the emergence of leadership.

  20. [Specific individual characteristics of aviation specialists of small professional groups with different levels of psychological compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tret'iakov, N V

    1990-01-01

    Professional interaction of members of small groups of aviation operators was subject to psychophysiological analysis. Using the study of professional interaction of operators and the theory of operational mediation of personality relations, the major parameters characterizing psychological compatibility were determined. The practical application of these characteristics helped select small groups of aviation specialists, who differed largely in their psychological compatibility, compare them in terms of a great number of personality parameters, and define their various combinations. The list of variants presented may help better describe and predict psychological compatibility of members of small professional groups.

  1. Parameter identification and synchronization for uncertain network group with different structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengren; Lü, Ling; Sun, Ying; Wang, Ying; Wang, Wenjun; Sun, Ao

    2016-09-01

    We design a novel synchronization technique to research the synchronization of network group constituted of uncertain networks with different structures. Based on Lyapunov theorem, the selection principles of the control inputs and the parameter identification laws of the networks are determined, and synchronization conditions of the network group are obtained. Some numerical simulations are provided to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the synchronization technique. We find that the network number, the number of network nodes and network connections indeed will not affect the stability of synchronization of network group.

  2. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  3. Catalytical Activities of Reconstructed Hemoglobin with Different Central Ions in Prosthetic Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-yu; SUN Bao-wei; LI Yuan-zong; CHANG Wen-bao

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin(Hb) was de-prosthetized, which was then reconstructed with the prosthetic groups with different central metal ions including Fe(Ⅲ), Co(Ⅱ) and Mn(Ⅱ). The spectral properties along with the catalase and peroxidase activities of the reconstructed hemoglobin were compared with those of Hb and prosthetic groups with different ions. When the central ion is iron, the reconstituted Hb(rHb) has the highest catalase and peroxidase activities. Maybe it is the reason that iron is chosen as the central ion in the prosthetic groups of natural hemoproteins. Different from peroxidase activity, the catalase activity of hemin cannot be enhanced by the microenvironment of apoHb. This result shows that the structure of apoHb is more similar to that of apoHRP than that of apocatalase.

  4. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  5. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population. PMID:26253858

  6. Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, R; Athanasiadou, M; Nahar, N; Mamun, M I R; Mosihuzzaman, M; Bergman, A

    2009-01-01

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/Sigma DDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the Sigma DDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400 ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30 ng g(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  7. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  8. Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.

  9. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  10. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenbeld, C. & Houtenbos, M.

    2012-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. The main research questions concerned age differences in the self-reported use of electronic devices while cycling, self-reported crash involvement and risk, and self-reported compensatory behaviour. Teen cyclists (12-17 years) and young adult cyclists (18-34 years) were more freque...

  11. Sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    V.B. Shadlinsky; B.M. Guseynov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups. The lymphoid apparatus of trachea and bronchi has been studied. taken from 58 humans of different age and both sexes, died or perished in accidents without pathologies of respiratory and immune systems was studied via microscopical methods. The trachea and bronchi principalis were fixated in 10% solution of formalin and in water Karnua. The lo...

  12. Personality, sensation seeking and motivation differences between high and low risk volunteer groups

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Volunteers fill a large variety of important roles in society, roles which differ substantially depending on the nature of the job. The majority of current literature focuses on the personality traits and motivations that serve to distinguish volunteers as a whole from the general population. Acknowledging this, the present study examines differences within the volunteer population, comparing two volunteer groups with roles deemed either high or low personal risk, on measures o...

  13. Structural and functional changes of face and neck skin in women of different age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2008-01-01

    To define structural and functional changes of skin in women of different age groups and their relationships in this work intraoperational biopsy material of skin of 100 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face and neck skin correction, was investigated. Skin material of cheek face region, temple region of head and anterior neck region was morphologically processed. To define parameters of microvessels and derm...

  14. The Effects of Social Misdirection on Magic Tricks: How Deceived and Undeceived Groups Differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Tachibana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of perception and cognition in our daily lives can be elucidated through studying misdirection, a technique used by magicians to manipulate attention. Recent findings on the effects of social misdirection induced by joint attention have been disputed, and differences between deceived (failed to detect the magic trick and undeceived (detected the magic trick groups remain unclear. To examine how social misdirection affects deceived and undeceived groups, we showed participants movie clips of the “cups & balls,” a classic magic trick, and measured participants' eye positions (i.e. where participants looked while viewing the clips using an eye tracker. We found that the undeceived group looked less at the magician's face than the deceived group. These results indicate that deceived individuals have difficulty trying not to allocate attention to the face. We conclude that social misdirection captures attention, influencing the emergence of deception.

  15. Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

  16. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  17. Adsorbate-adsorbate interactions and chemisorption at different coverage studied by accurate {\\em ab initio} calculations: CO on transition metal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Sara E.; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    We use density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and our first-principles extrapolation method for accurate chemisorption energies {[Mason {\\em et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 69}, 161401R (2004)]} to calculate the chemisorption energy for CO on a variety of transition metal surfaces for various adsorbate densities and patterns. We identify adsorbate through-space repulsion, bonding competition, and substrate-mediated electron delocalization as key factors d...

  18. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d

  19. Self-Compassion among College Counseling Center Clients: An Examination of Clinical Norms and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Neff, Kristin; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation,…

  20. Job Search and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Minority-Majority Group Differences in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.; Taris, Toon W.; van der Flier, Henk

    2004-01-01

    The labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of ''non-traditional'' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority-majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). Data were…

  1. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  2. Diagnostic Group Differences in Parent and Teacher Ratings on the BRIEF and Conners' Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Riccio, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral rating scales are common instruments used in evaluations of ADHD and executive function. It is important to explore how different diagnostic groups perform on these measures, as this information can be used to provide criterion-related validity evidence for the measures. Method: Data from 92 children and adolescents were used…

  3. Learning Mathematics with Technology: The Influence of Virtual Manipulatives on Different Achievement Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer-Packenham, Patricia; Suh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of virtual manipulatives on different achievement groups during a teaching experiment in four fifth-grade classrooms. During a two-week unit focusing on two rational number concepts (fraction equivalence and fraction addition with unlike denominators) one low achieving, two average achieving, and one high…

  4. [Features of arterial blood pressure in elderly persons of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Iu P; Tatarinova, O V; Neustroeva, V N; Shcherbakova, L V; Sidorov, A S

    2013-01-01

    The differences in arterial blood pressure in the sample of population in the age of 60 and older of different ethnic groups in Yakutsk, as well as its connection with the other cardiovascular diseases risk factors have been analyzed. It was shown that the average values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subsample of the Yakuts appeared to be lower than in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of systolic arterial blood pressure both in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids were detected higher than normal values in all age-dependent subgroups. The average values of diastolic blood pressure in both ethnic groups were within the limits of high normal level. From 60 to 90 years and older the decrease in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure was detected; it was more marked in Caucasoid gerontic persons. The average values of pulse pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids appeared to be higher than the existing standard and didn't have any differences in ethnic groups. In both ethnical subsamples, pulse pressure values increase was observed in persons of 60-89 years old and its decrease after 90. Persons with overweight, obesity, central (abdominal) obesity, dyslypoproteidemias irrespective of belonging to ethnical group were characterized as having higher levels of arterial blood pressure. Statistically significant differences in the levels of arterial blood pressure in the Yakuts and in the Caucasoids depending on hyperglycemia, smoking, the presence of burdened anamnesis, educational level, marital status was not detected.

  5. Group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of nature development plans : A multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, AE; Vlek, CAJ; Coeterier, JF

    1998-01-01

    The study presented here addresses theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the issue of group differences in the aesthetic evaluation of natural landscapes. Beauty ratings of an agrarian landscape and five computer simulations of nature development plans in this landscape were collected

  6. Radio vs. Television: Their Cognitive Impact on Children of Different Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Patricia; Beagles-Roos, Jessica

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies which compared the impact of radio and television on children from different social classes and ethnic groups. Found that radio was more stimulating than television to the imagination (especially among white children) and that television led to greater overall recall of information. (ARH)

  7. Cultural Orientations in the United States: (Re)Examining Differences among Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Heather M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in individualism and collectivism between the U.S.'s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans). Surveys of Michigan college students indicated that Asian Americans and African Americans but not Hispanic Americans scored higher in collectivism that did…

  8. Multicultural Contacts in Education: A Case Study of an Exchange Project between Different Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel

    2011-01-01

    One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…

  9. Towards Better Group Work: Seeing the Difference between Cooperation and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that being unaware of the differences between cooperation and collaboration impedes teachers from organizing group work as effectively as possible. True collaboration is simply too valuable not to take advantage of because it provides students with a significant opportunity to learn from one another, negotiate meaning, and…

  10. Job search and the theory of planned behavior: Minority – majority group differences in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of 'non-traditional' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority – majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using

  11. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  12. Accurate determination of the anisotropy factors and the phase differences of Raman polarizabilities in some uniaxial crystals: the case of lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiedeu, N; Mohamadou, B; Bourson, P; Aillerie, M

    2009-01-01

    The present study highlights self-consistently helpful improvements dedicated to overcoming the difficulty resulting from the fitting procedure of integrated Raman intensities recorded according to the rotation crystal method described earlier. To this end, the anisotropy factors of Raman polarizabilities and the corresponding relative phases are determined within the framework of the exact mathematical derivation of the phase factors. These are the relevant parameters of the Raman efficiency relations which are numerically difficult to obtain from the fitting of the integrated areas. The present theoretical approach is then applied to the modes of the A(1) and Ey symmetry species of the lithium niobate (LN) crystal point group. All the expressions of the Raman absolute intensities of the A(1) and Ey irreducible representations initially imply three parameters to be determined from the fitting computations. However, from the derived analytical expressions of the phase differences, the number of parameters involved in the fitting procedure is reduced from 3 to 2, thus improving the statistics of the numerical treatment.

  13. Lie group invariant finite difference schemes for the neutron diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegers, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    Finite difference techniques are used to solve a variety of differential equations. For the neutron diffusion equation, the typical local truncation error for standard finite difference approximation is on the order of the mesh spacing squared. To improve the accuracy of the finite difference approximation of the diffusion equation, the invariance properties of the original differential equation have been incorporated into the finite difference equations. Using the concept of an invariant difference operator, the invariant difference approximations of the multi-group neutron diffusion equation were determined in one-dimensional slab and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, for multiple region problems. These invariant difference equations were defined to lie upon a cell edged mesh as opposed to the standard difference equations, which lie upon a cell centered mesh. Results for a variety of source approximations showed that the invariant difference equations were able to determine the eigenvalue with greater accuracy, for a given mesh spacing, than the standard difference approximation. The local truncation errors for these invariant difference schemes were found to be highly dependent upon the source approximation used, and the type of source distribution played a greater role in determining the accuracy of the invariant difference scheme than the local truncation error.

  14. Could the peer group explain school differences in pupil smoking rates? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katrina; West, Patrick; Gordon, Jacki; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen

    2006-05-01

    Schools differ in the proportion of their pupils who smoke. Such differences transcend pupil intake characteristics and relate to the internal life of the school. Although adolescents' smoking behaviour has been associated with that of their peers, little consideration has been given to whether peer structures and processes contribute to school differences in pupil smoking rates. In two relatively deprived Scottish schools, one with a higher and one with a lower rate of pupil smoking, 13 and 15 year-olds were surveyed. Sociometric data and information on pupils' smoking behaviour and views were gathered. Twenty-five single-sex discussion groups were then held with a sub-sample of the 13 year-olds in order to explore in detail their views on smoking, smokers and fellow pupils. Findings showed that in the higher smoking school, pupils were more often in groups, smokers were identified as popular, and attitudes (especially among non-smoking females) were more pro-smoking. In the lower smoking school, by contrast, there were more isolates and dyads, there were no popular smokers and attitudes (especially among non-smoking females) were much less pro-smoking. Thus, evidence suggests peer group structures and related influences could be one explanation for school differences in smoking, and that the popularity of smokers together with the views of non-smoking females may be particularly important in creating such differences. PMID:16364527

  15. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  16. Comparison of Y-STR polymorphisms in three different Slovak population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrejcíková, Eva; Siváková, Daniela; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan; Rebała, Krzysztof; Boronová, Iveta; Bôziková, Alexandra; Sovicová, Adriana; Gabriková, Dana; Maceková, Sona; Svícková, Petra; Carnogurská, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Eleven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci included in the Powerplex Y multiplex kit were analyzed in different Slovak population samples: Habans (n = 39), Romanies (n = 100) and Slovak Caucasian (n = 148) individuals, respectively, from different regions of Slovakia. The analysis of molecular variance between populations indicated that 89.27% of the haplotypic variations were found within populations and only 10.72% between populations (Fst = 0.1027; p = 0.0000). The haplotype diversities were ranging from 0.9258 to 0.9978, and indicated a high potential for differentiating between male individuals. The study reports differences in allele frequencies between the Romanies, Habans and Slovak Caucasian men. Selected loci showed that both the Romany and Haban population belonged to endogamous and relatively small founder population groups, which developed in relatively reproductive isolated groups surrounded by the Slovak Caucasian population.

  17. [Cellulase and xylanase activities of Fusarium Lk:Fr. genus fungi of different trophic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Zhdanova, N M; Iarynchyn, A M; Iovenko, O M

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellulase and xylanase activities of 26 fungal strains of phytopathogenic, saprophytic and endophytic Fusarium species has been realized using the qualitative reactions. The rare of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethyl cellulose or xylane has been studied. It was shown that the fungi of genus Fusarium belonging to different trophic groups possessed low activities of investigated enzymes as a whole, but in endophytic strains their levels were lower than in phytopathogenic ones. At the same time the distinct strain dependence of cellulase and xylanase activities was fixed in the fungi of different trophic groups. As far as the cellulase and xylanase activities in phytopathogenic isolates varied from complete absence to high levels, and since the activity maximum for each of the investigated strains was observed in different growth terms the conclusion was made that the cellulase and xylanase activities could not be considered as possible markers of the fungal isolate pathogenicity on the strain level.

  18. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  19. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  20. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Suryaputra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The samples were 40 teenage from Santa Agnes seniorhigh school Surabaya (age 15-17 that was taken by simple random sampling, that divers to 20 obese and 20 non obese teenage group. The data were analysed by Mann Whitney test for nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fast food’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, consumption level of energy, carbohydrat, protein, and fat, physical activity and parental fatness. The result of the statistic test showed that variables significant difference are nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fastfood’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, energy consumption level, carbohydrate consumption level, protein consumption level, fat consumption level, physical activity and parental fatness between obese and non obese teenage group. The conlusion is that significant differences are food pattern and physical activity between obese and non obese teenage group. Recommendation is necessary to provide information and education to teenage about healthy food and adequate physical activity to prevent obesity

  1. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Moura Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. Objective: To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. Methods: A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years. Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. Results: The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years. Conclusion: Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumfer- ences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group.

  2. Identifying target groups for environmentally sustainable transport: assessment of different segmentation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Hunecke, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should b...... and behavioural segmentations are compared regarding marketing criteria. Although none of the different approaches can claim absolute superiority, attitudinal approaches show advantages in providing startingpoints for interventions to reduce car use.......Recently, the use of attitude-based market segmentation to promote environmentally sustainable transport has significantly increased. The segmentation of the population into meaningful groups sharing similar attitudes and preferences provides valuable information about how green measures should...

  3. Geochemical characteristics of different maceral groups in the Huangxian Coal,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zhen-yu; WANG Jin-xi; JIN Yu-jie; ZHANG Hong-jian; JIN Kan-kun

    2004-01-01

    In order to research how lignite is utilized, two coal samples of seams 2 and 4were taken from the Huangxian Basin, China. The samples were separated into vitrinite,sporinite, and resinite. Geo-chemical and pyrolysis methods were used to analyse three maceral groups and two seam samples. The results indicate that the resinite and sporinite groups have higher extract yields, S1, S2, HI values, and pyrolysis compounds.These differences may shed light on the usage of the Huangxian lignite. Seam 2 produces more gas and oil than seam 4 does because seam 2 contains more resinite and sporinite macerals.

  4. Differences in nutrient requirements imply a non-linear emergence of leaders in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Sueur

    Full Text Available Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones - protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability.

  5. Grain yield of coffee conilon different maturity groups by REML / BLUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Machado de Oliveira Moulin Carias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate the grain yield clones coffee Conilon three maturity groups by REML / BLUP. We studied 20 clones of coffee Conilon early ripening, maturation 20 intermediate and 20 late maturing for the characteristic grain yield. For each group, represented by different times of ripening of fruits installed an experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications, plots with five plants spaced 3.0 m X 1.2 m with 2777 plantas/ha-1e evaluations were made in the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, during harvest, conducted and ceded by the Institute Capixaba Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (Incaper. The average heritability (0.28, 0.38 and the value of accuracy (0.68, 0.69 of clone selection were higher for the group of early and intermediate maturity, respectively. In the late group, the experimental accuracy was not satisfactory and therefore, a low accuracy in inference about the mean genotypic, reflecting the difficulty of selection. Clones 14 and 17 of the early group and 20, 14 and 17 of the intermediate group occupied the first places in the middle of the feature and productivity were also allocated in the same positions for MHVG (Genetic Stability of Values, PRVG (Adaptability of Genetic Values and MHPRVG (Stability and Adaptability of Genetic Values, indicating a high yield, stability and adaptability to variations in four crops for these genotypes. The interaction clones x crops was significant for the three maturity groups, characterizing a complex type of interaction, which is problematic for the breeder due to inconsistency of the superiority of clones against variations of crops. The combined results showed superiority of the group over the intermediate early and late.

  6. A rapid, accurate and robust particle-based assay for the simultaneous screening of plasma samples for the presence of five different anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Larsen, Rune;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish and validate a rapid, cost-effective and accurate screening assay for the simultaneous testing of human naturally occurring anti-cytokine autoantibodies (c-aAb) targeting interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), granulocyte-macrophage colony...... METHODS: The microsphere-based Luminex platform was used. Recombinant forms of human IL-1α, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, and IFNα were gently coupled to MAG-PLEX beads. Plasma IgG binding was measured with phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled secondary antibodies. Previously confirmed c-aAb positive and negative donor...

  7. The effect of hydroxyl group on the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirmand, M.

    2016-09-01

    A single hydroxyl group is functionalized on both sides of one ring of several carbon nanotubes (CNT) as CNT-OH. The electronic structure and chemical bonding parameters are studied with the help of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Anionic states of the CNT-O as deprotonated hydroxyl are studied in order to get insight into the nature of CNT-OH species, considering frozen and relaxed geometries of CNT-O compounds. The results show a significant difference between inside or outside substituted hydroxyl groups; and also complicated behavior of the CNT's diameter, and it can be concluded that hydroxyl group can be used to tune the CNT's properties, effectively, in interesting application of these nanostructures.

  8. Concurrent crack and powder cocaine users from Sao Paulo: Do they represent a different group?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breen Gerome

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine abuse is a serious and socially damaging illegal drug problem. Different routes of administration are associated with a specific progression of use, different degrees of abuse liability, propensity for dependence and treatment response. There have been relatively few studies comparing different cocaine users groups and no studies into the characterization of the group of individuals reporting concurrent use of powder cocaine and crack cocaine. Methods Six hundred and ninety-nine cocaine users were assessed during the period August 1997 to October 1998 in one outpatient and six inpatient clinics located in the São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire schedule in Portuguese, designed specifically for the Brazilian population. The statistical analyses were performed using either ANOVA or a chi-squared test and focusing on their preferred form of use/route of administration and other variables. Results For 83% of the variables tested in this study, the Dual Users subgroup (using both powder and crack cocaine demonstrated statistical differences from the single drug user subgroups. Those differences include the initiation of cocaine, the abuse of other illicit drugs, and rates of criminal history. Conclusion These data suggest cocaine-dependent individuals who report use of both powder and crack cocaine are an at least partially, distinct subgroup. However, further studies will be necessary to confirm this and to determine if they also show a different treatment response.

  9. Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundza, Sandra; Quartly, Caroline; Kim, Jasmine M; Dunnett, James; Dobrinsky, Jill; Loots, Iris; Choy, Kim; Chow, Brayley; Hampshire, Alexis; Temple, Viviene A

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Given the importance of physical activity in maintaining health and wellness, an improved understanding of physical activity patterns across different clinical populations is required. This study examines the facilitators for, and barriers to, participation in physical activity across multiple contexts for three clinical groups with chronic lower limb spasticity (individuals with stroke, multiple sclerosis and incomplete spinal cord injury). Method This cross-sectional study employed quantitative measures for spasticity, ankle range of motion, pain, falls, cognition, mobility, and physical activity as well as qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results There were similar impairments in body functions and structures and limitations in activities across the clinical groups. These impairments and limitations negatively impacted participation in physical activity, which was low. Environmental and personal factors exacerbated or mitigated the limiting effects of body functions and structures and activities on physical activity in many areas of life. Conclusions In this population, participation in physical activity includes activities such as housework which are different than what is typically considered as physical activity. Further, the presence of similar barriers and facilitators across the groups suggests that support and services to promote valued forms of physical activity could be organised and delivered based on limitations in mobility and functioning rather than clinical diagnosis. Implications for rehabilitation Physical activity is of utmost importance in maintaining health and wellness in clinical populations. This research highlights the desired and actual physical activity for these populations can look different than what may traditionally be considered as physical activity (e.g. housework is not typically considered participation physical activity). Therefore, rehabilitation interventions need to be directly designed to enhance clients

  10. Hard ewe's milk cheese manufactured from milk of three different groups of somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, J J; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Berger, Y M; Johnson, M E; McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Wendorff, W L

    2003-10-01

    As ovine milk production increases in the United States, somatic cell count (SCC) is increasingly used in routine ovine milk testing procedures as an indicator of flock health. Ovine milk was collected from 72 East Friesian-crossbred ewes that were machine milked twice daily. The milk was segregated and categorized into three different SCC groups: 1,000,000 cells/ ml (group III). Milk was stored frozen at -19 degrees C for 4 mo. Milk was then thawed at 7 degrees C over a 3-d period before pasteurization and cheese making. Casein (CN) content and CN-to-true protein ratio decreased with increasing SCC group 3.99, 3.97, to 3.72% CN, and 81.43, 79.72, and 79.32% CN to true protein ratio, respectively. Milk fat varied from 5.49, 5.67, and 4.86% in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Hard ewe's milk cheese was made from each of the three different SCC groups using a Manchego cheese manufacturing protocol. As the level of SCC increased, the time required for visual flocculation increased, and it took longer to reach the desired firmness for cutting the coagulum. The fat and moisture contents were lower in the highest SCC cheeses. After 3 mo, total free fatty acids (FFA) contents were significantly higher in the highest SCC cheeses. Butyric and caprylic acids levels were significantly higher in group III cheeses at all stages of ripening. Cheese graders noted rancid or lipase flavor in the highest SCC level cheeses at each of the sampling points, and they also deducted points for more body and textural defects in these cheeses at 6 and 9 mo. PMID:14594225

  11. Perspective Taking Explains Gender Differences in Late Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin Tucker; Shepperd, James A; Miller, Wendi A; Graber, Julia A

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents' attitudes toward disadvantaged groups are surprisingly understudied. What we know from these few studies is that adolescents' attitudes tend to become more favorable over time and that adolescent girls display more favorable attitudes than do adolescent boys. However, researchers have not offered explanations for why these effects occur. We proposed that changes in social-cognitive abilities that accompany adolescent development increase perspective taking and that the increased perspective taking facilitates more favorable attitudes toward disadvantaged groups. Because girls develop social-cognitive abilities earlier than boys, girls should show greater perspective taking and thus more positive attitudes toward disadvantaged groups than should boys. Importantly, we propose that these more positive attitudes are explained better by perspective taking than by gender. Participants were late adolescents (n = 803, 53.3 % female, ages 15-19) from high schools in north-central Florida (United States) participating in an ongoing, multi-wave study. Participants completed a measure of perspective-taking and reported their attitudes toward three disadvantaged groups (Black, gay, and poor people) during their third year of high school and, again, 6 months later during their fourth year of high school. Our findings provided strong support for our theorizing. Girls generally reported warmer attitudes than did boys toward disadvantaged groups, with the gender differences in warmth tending to diminish across time. Similarly, girls were higher than boys in perspective-taking abilities at both time points, although boys increased over time whereas girls did not. Crucially, perspective taking mediated observed gender differences in attitudes, suggesting that perspective taking is a mechanism for improving attitudes toward disadvantaged groups during late adolescence. PMID:26519366

  12. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  13. Differences in Clinical and Laboratory Findings between Group D and Non-Group D Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Gastroenteritis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Heung Keun; Rhie, Kyuyol; Yeom, Jung Sook; Park, Ji Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Ki Ryeon; Park, Jung Je

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in clinical features and laboratory findings between group D and non-group D non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) gastroenteritis in children. Methods A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with NTS confirmed by culture study was performed. The clinical features and laboratory findings of group D and non-group D NTS were compared. Results From 2003 to 2012, 75 cases were diagnosed as NTS at our center. The number of group D and non-group D patients...

  14. Behavior and performance of pigs grouped by three different methods at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, T H; Knabe, D A; Tanksley, T D

    1983-12-01

    Crossbred pigs (384) used in three trials were assigned to one of three grouping treatments when moved to 1.4 X 1.6 m nursery pens 4 h postweaning at 28 d of age. Treatments included eight pigs from the same litter (8-1), four pigs from each of two different litters (4-2) and one pig from each of eight different litters (1-8). A commercial odor masking agent (OMA) commonly used to reduce tail biting and fighting was sprayed on one-half of the replicates of each treatment 20 min after (trial 1) or immediately before (trials 2 and 3) the pigs were moved to the nursery. Agonistic behavior was quantified (trials 2 and 3) by direct observation for the first 3 h and again for 2 h at 24 and 48 h post-grouping. Application of OMA 20 min post-mixing caused only a temporary (3 to 5 min) cessation of fighting. A slight increase in fighting in all three grouping treatments was observed when OMA was applied before mixing. Average daily gain for 0 to 4 and 0 to 28 d and feed intake for 0 to 7 and 0 to 28 d were not influenced by OMA or grouping treatments. Combining alien pigs resulted in a significant increase in fighting but did not affect long term performance. PMID:6674280

  15. In vitro behavior of neural stem cells in response to different chemical functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong-Juan; Zhang, Han; Huang, Hua; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Zhou, Zi-You; Cui, Fu-Zhai; An, Yi-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) cultured on glass surfaces modified by different chemical groups, including hydroxyl (-OH), sulfonic (-SO3H), amino (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH), mercapto (-SH) and methyl (-CH3) groups, are shown here to commit to phonotypes with extreme sensitivity to surface chemical groups. The adhering NSCs at the level of single cells exhibited morphological changes in response to different chemical groups. NSCs on -SO(3)H surfaces had the largest contact area and the most flattened morphology, while those on -CH(3) surfaces exhibited the smallest contact area and the most rounded morphology. After 5 days of culture, the migration of NSCs from their original aggregates onto these test surfaces followed the trend: -NH2>-COOH=-SH>-SO3H>-CH3>-OH. The expression of specific markers, including nestin, beta-Tubulin-III, glial fibrillary acidic protein and O4, were used to examine NSCs lineage specification. The -SO3H surfaces favored NSCs differentiation into oligodendrocytes, while NSCs in contact with -COOH, -NH2, -SH and -CH3 had the ability to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Compared to -COOH surfaces, -NH2 seemed to promote neuronal differentiation. These chemically modified surfaces exhibited regulation of NSCs on adhesion, migration and differentiation potential, providing chemical means for the design of biomaterials to direct NSCs lineage specification for neural tissue engineering. PMID:19026444

  16. Ultrasensitive optical microfiber coupler based sensors operating near the turning point of effective group index difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiwei; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Guigen; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Mengying; Wei, Lei

    2016-09-01

    We propose and study an optical microfiber coupler (OMC) sensor working near the turning point of effective group index difference between the even supermode and odd supermode to achieve high refractive index (RI) sensitivity. Theoretical calculations reveal that infinite sensitivity can be obtained when the measured RI is close to the turning point value. This diameter-dependent turning point corresponds to the condition that the effective group index difference equals zero. To validate our proposed sensing mechanism, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrahigh sensitivity of 39541.7 nm/RIU at a low ambient RI of 1.3334 based on an OMC with the diameter of 1.4 μm. An even higher sensitivity can be achieved by carrying out the measurements at RI closer to the turning point. The resulting ultrasensitive RI sensing platform offers a substantial impact on a variety of applications from high performance trace analyte detection to small molecule sensing.

  17. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  18. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Sheila

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  19. Prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the rural areas of Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmathota Arlappa; Meshram, Indrapal I; Nagalla Balakrishna; Rachkula Harikumar; Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao; Avula Laxmaiah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Anaemia continues to be a major public health nutritional problem in India, and has adverse health and economic implications. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the state of Maharashtra. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage stratified random sampling procedure was carried out in rural Maharashtra. Information of socio-demographic particulars was collected with p...

  20. Job search and the theory of planned behavior: Minority – majority group differences in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, Edwin; Born, Marise; Taris, Toon; Flier, Henk

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe labor market in many Western countries increasingly diversifies. However, little is known about job search behavior of 'non-traditional' applicants such as ethnic minorities. This study investigated minority – majority group differences in the predictors of job search behavior, using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985). Data were collected in a two-wave longitudinal design among 697 temporary employees in The Netherlands. Results showed that the ethnic minorities’ per...

  1. The Seroepidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) in Different Age Groups in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Sharifi Sekyneh Emadi Ghanjin

    2005-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles, can cause severe systemic infections of the CNS and the respiratory tract in immunocompetent individuals as well as in immunocompromized patients. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of antibody Varicella zoster virus in different age groups. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to assess the presence of anti -VZV antibody. A total of 635 serum sample...

  2. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M.M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional workload, autonomy, social support from colleagues and social support from supervisors) and three mental health outcomes (work-related fatigue, stress and burnout) were assessed. Associations between...

  3. Differences in morphological properties between the olivine group minerals formed in natural and industrial processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dević S.; Marčeta L.

    2007-01-01

    Olivines are a large isomorphic series of minerals, belonging to silicates group. Regardless of their chemical composition, any of these minerals can be formed both in natural and industrial processes. The aim of this work is to describe these minerals and differences of morphological properties between the olivines formed in nature, and those formed as byproducts of some industrial processes , as Process Metalurgy-Ironmaking. The olivines whose formation is tied to rock masses (natural proce...

  4. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika Suryaputra; Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The ...

  5. Influence of Surface Preparation for Different Groups of A2B6 Mixed Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Maliński, M.; Strzałkowski, K.; Firszt, F.; Łęgowski, S.; Męczyńska, H.

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric photothermal spectroscopy has been used for measurements of the optical and thermal parameters of semiconductors. The investigated crystals were grown by the high-pressure Bridgman method under argon overpressure. The obtained photoacoustic (PA) spectra show the complexity of the effects observed for the different groups of selected A2B6 crystals. These effects comprise ideal samples and samples with damaged surfaces. The spectra show the influence of the surface treatment on the PA amplitude and phase spectra.

  6. The Therapeutic role of Magnesium in different depressive syndromes of the male population comprising of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Bano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic and fundamental role of Mg as being the second most abundant intercellular cation is established in various studies. It is identified as a divalent metal cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. The biological function is identified in neuromuscular excitability. Mg ion regulates calcium ion flow in neuronal channels, helping to regulate neuronal Nitric Oxide production1. Mg deficiency causes NMDA coupled Calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury & neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression. The present study confirms a reduction in the symptoms of depression found in the male population comprising of different age group by Mg treatment. CSF Mg has been found low in treatment resistant suicidal depression. Brain Mg is also low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy2. A 2009 randomized clinical trial shows that Mg therapy was an effective as TCAs in depressed diabetics. Increase in brain Mg enhances both short term synaptic facilitation and long term potentiation and improves learning and memory function3 The present study is based on findings that male subjects diagnosed as depressed showed a marked reduction in behavioral and somatic features of the disease after administration of Magnesium supplement. Physiological and somatic anxiety was also alleviated in a certain age group which displayed recovery from Insomnia and agitation. Suicidal tendency was also negative in all age groups. This study focuses on the behavioral and somatic responses pertaining to brain biochemical changes induced by Magnesium therapy.

  7. Perception of teachers' behaviour, motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning in different adolescent age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Puklek Levpušček

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study we compared learning motivation, perception of learning self-efficacy and use of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies in different age groups of adolescents. The aim of the study was also to find out if there are any differences in the perception of teachers' behaviour in classroom related to adolescents' age. We assumed that school represents an important microsystem, which influences the establishment of adolescent's learning self-regulation. Six groups of adolescents between age 13 and 18 (N=593 took part in the study. Adolescents filled in the questionnaire of motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning and the scales of teachers' behaviour. The results showed higher learning self-efficacy in younger than older adolescents, less use of learning strategies in older than younger male adolescents, lower perception of teachers' support in older than younger female adolescents and less teachers' tolerance for autonomous decision making in classroom in older than younger adolescent groups. The adolescents of different age who perceived more opportunities for autonomy in class work showed more intrinsic interest for learning.

  8. Genetic parameters for EUROP carcass traits within different groups of cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J M; Keane, M G; Kenny, D A; Cromie, A R; Veerkamp, R F

    2007-02-01

    The first objective of this study was to test the ability of systems of weighing and classifying bovine carcasses used in commercial abattoirs in Ireland to provide information that can be used for the purposes of genetic evaluation of carcass weight, carcass fatness class, and carcass conformation class. Secondly, the study aimed to test whether genetic and phenotypic variances differed by breed of sire. Variance components for carcass traits were estimated for crosses between dairy cows and 8 breeds of sire commonly found in the Irish cattle population. These 8 breeds were Aberdeen Angus, Belgian Blue, Charolais, Friesian, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, and Simmental. A multivariate animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters within the Holstein sire breed group. Univariate analyses were used to estimate variance components for the remaining 7 sire breed groups. Multivariate sire models were used to formally test differences in genetic variances in sire breed groups. Field data on 64,443 animals, which were slaughtered in commercial abattoirs between the ages of 300 and 875 d, were analyzed in 8 analyses. Carcass fat class and carcass conformation class were measured using the European Union beef carcass classification system (EUROP) scale. For all 3 traits, the sire breed group with the greatest genetic variance had a value of more than 8 times the sire breed group with least genetic variance. Heritabilities ranged from zero to moderate for carcass fatness class (0.00 to 0.40), from low to moderate for carcass conformation class (0.04 to 0.36), and from low to high for carcass weight (0.06 to 0.65). Carcass weight was the most heritable (0.26) of the 3 traits. Carcass conformation class and carcass fatness class were equally heritable (0.17). Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive in the Holstein sire breed group. The genetic correlations varied from 0.11 for the relationship between carcass weight and carcass fatness class to 0.44 for the

  9. Rapid and accurate identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and common non-tuberculous mycobacteria by multiplex real-time PCR targeting different housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria isolates from primary culture is important due to timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Conventional methods for identification of Mycobacterium species based on biochemical tests needs several weeks and may remain inconclusive. In this study, a novel multiplex real-time PCR was developed for rapid identification of Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and the most common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria species including M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and the M. gordonae in three reaction tubes but under same PCR condition. Genetic targets for primer designing included the 16S rDNA gene, the dnaJ gene, the gyrB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Multiplex real-time PCR was setup with reference Mycobacterium strains and was subsequently tested with 66 clinical isolates. Results of multiplex real-time PCR were analyzed with melting curves and melting temperature (T (m)) of Mycobacterium genus, MTC, and each of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species were determined. Multiplex real-time PCR results were compared with amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA ITS for identification of Mycobacterium species. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primers were each 100 % for MTC, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primer for genus Mycobacterium was 96 and 100 %, respectively. According to the obtained results, we conclude that this multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and these novel primers can be used for rapid and accurate identification of genus Mycobacterium, MTC, and the most common non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species.

  10. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  11. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05). This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  12. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  13. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  14. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  15. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  16. [Detection of influenza B virus antibodies in different age groups using hemagglutination inhibition tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonuvar, S; Kocabeyoğlu, O; Emekdaş

    1991-01-01

    Antibody levels against influenza B virus were investigated by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HA-I) tests in 402 sera obtained from different age groups. Hemagglutination antigens were obtained by production of influenza B virus (B/Singapur/LLC 6201) in trypsinized Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell cultured and they were used in tests. In 355 out of 402 sera (88.3%) antibodies against influenza B virus were detected at titers varying between 1/20 and 1/1280. However in 47 sera (11.7%) no antibodies were detected at 1/20 titer. High titers of antibody (1/640-1/1280) were not detected in none of the sera obtained from an age group between 1 and 14. However high titer antibodies were detected in 15.6% of the sera from an age group between 26 and 35, in the 17.3% of the sera from a group above 50 years of age. Our findings suggest that the increase in the rates of seropositivity against influenza B virus depends on getting older and, that the infections by this virus may be widely seen in our country.

  17. Mapping biodiversity value worldwide: combining higher-taxon richness from different groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. H.; Gaston, K. J.; Humphries, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Maps of large-scale biodiversity are urgently needed to guide conservation, and yet complete enumeration of organisms is impractical at present. One indirect approach is to measure richness at higher taxonomic ranks, such as families. The difficulty is how to combine information from different groups on numbers of higher taxa, when these taxa may in effect have been defined in different ways, particularly for more distantly related major groups. In this paper, the regional family richness of terrestrial and freshwater seed plants, amphibians, reptiles and mammals is mapped worldwide by combining: (i) absolute family richness; (ii) proportional family richness; and (iii) proportional family richness weighted for the total species richness in each major group. The assumptions of the three methods and their effects on the results are discussed, although for these data the broad pattern is surprisingly robust with respect to the method of combination. Scores from each of the methods of combining families are used to rank the top five richness hotspots and complementary areas, and hotspots of endemism are mapped by unweighted combination of range-size rarity scores.

  18. Substituted Septithiophenes with End Groups of Different Size: Packing and Frustration in Bulk and Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jeu, Wim H; Rahimi, Khosrow; Ziener, Ulrich; Vill, Roman; Herzig, Eva M; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Möller, Martin; Mourran, Ahmed

    2016-02-16

    We report on three different liquid crystalline compounds with a central septithiophene core and alkylated end groups of strongly increasing bulkiness. In principle, the thiophene cores prefer to pack parallel to optimize their π-π interactions, which becomes sterically impossible for the bulkier end groups. Using X-ray diffraction, we find that the way out of this packing dilemma is toward liquid-crystal phases of higher dimensionality in the order smectic → columnar ↔ bicontinuous cubic. For the smectic phase, packing in a monolayer is no problem; for the other ones packing considerations become more stringent in films due to the boundaries. Surface X-ray techniques and atomic force microscopy indicate an appreciable difference between monolayer and three-layer films, in which the monolayers appear to escape from packing frustration by generating superstructures. We propose a basic structure of columns parallel to the substrate that provides a compromise between preserving some π-π interactions and packing the bulky alkyl groups. PMID:26807677

  19. Duration distributions for different softness groups of gamma-ray bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUPTA; A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) are divided into two classes according to their durations.We investigate if the softness of bursts plays a role in the conventional classification of the objects.We employ the BATSE(Burst and Transient Source Experiment) catalog and analyze the duration distributions of different groups of GRBs associated with distinct softness.Our analysis reveals that the conventional classification of GRBs with the duration of bursts is influenced by the softness of the objects.There exists a bimodality in the duration distribution of GRBs for each group of bursts and the time position of the dip in the bimodality histogram shifts with the softness parameter.Our findings suggest that the conventional classification scheme should be modified by separating the two well-known populations in different softness groups,which would be more reasonable than doing so with a single sample.According to the relation between the dip position and the softness parameter,we get an empirical function that can roughly set apart the short-hard and long-soft bursts:SP =(0.100 ± 0.028) T-(0.85 0.18) 90,± where SP is the softness parameter adopted in this paper.

  20. Food intake of individuals with and without diabetes across different countries and ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthlings, U; Boeing, H; Maskarinec, G; Sluik, D; Teucher, B; Kaaks, R; Tjønneland, A; Halkjaer, J; Dethlefsen, C; Overvad, K; Amiano, P; Toledo, E; Bendinelli, B; Grioni, S; Tumino, R; Sacerdote, C; Mattiello, A; Beulens, JWJ; Iestra, JA; Spijkerman, AMW; van der A, DL; Nilsson, P; Sonestedt, E; Rolandsson, O; Franks, PW; Vergnaud, A-C; Romaguera, D; Norat, T; Kolonel, LN

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives Given the importance of nutrition therapy in diabetes management, we hypothesized that food intake differs between individuals with and without diabetes. We investigated this hypothesis in two large prospective studies including different countries and ethnic groups. Methods Study populations were the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Study and the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). Dietary intake was assessed via food frequency questionnaires, and calibrated using 24h-recall information for the EPIC-Study. Only confirmed self-reports of diabetes at cohort entry were included: 6192 diabetes patients in EPIC and 13 776 in the MEC. For the cross-sectional comparison of food intake and lifestyle variables at baseline, individuals with and without diabetes were matched 1:1 on sex, age in five year categories, BMI in 2.5 kg/m2 categories, and country. Results Higher intake of softdrinks (by 13 and 44% in the EPIC and MEC), and lower consumption of sweets, juice, wine, and beer (>10% difference) were observed in participants with diabetes compared to those without. Consumption of vegetables, fish and meat was slightly higher in individuals with diabetes in both studies, but the differences were less than 10%. Findings were more consistent across different ethnic groups than countries, but generally showed largely similar patterns. Conclusions Although diabetes patients are expected to undergo nutritional education, we found only small differences in dietary behavior in comparison to cohort members without diabetes. These findings suggest that emphasis on education is needed to improve the current behaviors in order to assist in the prevention of complications. PMID:21346715

  1. Examination of health status measurement along different dimensions and comparability across population groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    preventive, curative and rehabilitative interventions. Different aspects of health are relevant to measure, for example mortality, morbidity, functional limitations and quality of life dimensions. The complexity of measuring health is further reflected in various modes of assessment, for example self......An increasing interest in assessing the state of health of population groups and whole nations is seen these years. The main idea is to estimate the extent to which societies are burdened by diseases and illnesses, and to use the acquired knowledge as the basis for optimal resource allocation for......-reported health, physician assessed health and tested health. This thesis uses data on health status from Denmark, Greenland and USA to discuss burden of disease issues, summary measures of population health and problems in comparing health across populations and groups....

  2. Raynaud's phenomenon in different groups of workers using hand-held vibrating tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazin, B; Langauer-Lewowicka, H

    1996-05-01

    The dose-effect relationship showed in the Annex A of the ISO standard 5349-1986 can be used for preventing vibration-induced white fingers (VWF) because it allows to calculate the latent period for the lowest risk of VWF. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VWF in three different occupational groups of workers whose members operated the same vibrating power tools and the same industrial processes throughout the workday. Each occupational group was employed in two foundries and they were considered to be very stable with a low turnover rate. The mean frequency-weighted acceleration magnitudes measured from pneumatic rammers (25.3 +/- 3.3 ms-2) where three times higher than from chipping hammers (8.4 +/- 3.8 ms-2) and six times higher than from grinders (3.8 +/- 1.1 ms-2). Medical examinations were carried out in 102 men consisting of 22 chippers, 42 rammers and 38 grinders. The results of this study showed that the relationship between lifetime exposure to hand-arm vibration and the vascular disorders can be predicted quite well using the Annex A of ISO standard only in one occupational group, that is, in chippers. Thirty-six percent of chippers reported blanching symptoms, but only five percent of the rammers and three percent of the grinders had these vascular disturbances. Our results may be explained by the fact that vibration received by an operator depends on the manner in which the tool is used. In a foundry three following work processes are performed: preparing forms in ramming mix, cleaning and grinding of castings during which different forces are used by operators. It seems very likely that the energy absorbtion in the hands and arms of chippers must be stronger than in other studied groups. PMID:8996728

  3. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  4. Identification of copy number variants defining genomic differences among major human groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Armengol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic contribution to phenotype variation of human groups is necessary to elucidate differences in disease predisposition and response to pharmaceutical treatments in different human populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the genome-wide profile of structural variation on pooled samples from the three populations studied in the HapMap project by comparative genome hybridization (CGH in different array platforms. We have identified and experimentally validated 33 genomic loci that show significant copy number differences from one population to the other. Interestingly, we found an enrichment of genes related to environment adaptation (immune response, lipid metabolism and extracellular space within these regions and the study of expression data revealed that more than half of the copy number variants (CNVs translate into gene-expression differences among populations, suggesting that they could have functional consequences. In addition, the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are in linkage disequilibrium with the copy number alleles allowed us to detect evidences of population differentiation and recent selection at the nucleotide variation level. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results provide a comprehensive view of relevant copy number changes that might play a role in phenotypic differences among major human populations, and generate a list of interesting candidates for future studies.

  5. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng Hsin Street, Pai-Tou District, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  6. Statistical group differences in anatomical shape analysis using Hotelling T2 metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek; Xu, Shun; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Gerig, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Shape analysis has become of increasing interest to the neuroimaging community due to its potential to precisely locate morphological changes between healthy and pathological structures. This manuscript presents a comprehensive set of tools for the computation of 3D structural statistical shape analysis. It has been applied in several studies on brain morphometry, but can potentially be employed in other 3D shape problems. Its main limitations is the necessity of spherical topology. The input of the proposed shape analysis is a set of binary segmentation of a single brain structure, such as the hippocampus or caudate. These segmentations are converted into a corresponding spherical harmonic description (SPHARM), which is then sampled into a triangulated surfaces (SPHARM-PDM). After alignment, differences between groups of surfaces are computed using the Hotelling T2 two sample metric. Statistical p-values, both raw and corrected for multiple comparisons, result in significance maps. Additional visualization of the group tests are provided via mean difference magnitude and vector maps, as well as maps of the group covariance information. The correction for multiple comparisons is performed via two separate methods that each have a distinct view of the problem. The first one aims to control the family-wise error rate (FWER) or false-positives via the extrema histogram of non-parametric permutations. The second method controls the false discovery rate and results in a less conservative estimate of the false-negatives. Prior versions of this shape analysis framework have been applied already to clinical studies on hippocampus and lateral ventricle shape in adult schizophrenics. The novelty of this submission is the use of the Hotelling T2 two-sample group difference metric for the computation of a template free statistical shape analysis. Template free group testing allowed this framework to become independent of any template choice, as well as it improved the

  7. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhelst Rita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics, followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. Methods A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA, group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA (Granada Medium and chromID Strepto B agar (CA, with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. Results The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100% was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%, but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%. Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95% detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%. One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. Conclusions In

  8. [Human tolerance to Coriolis acceleration during exertion of different muscle groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aĭzikov, G S; Emel'ianov, M D; Ovechkin, V G

    1975-01-01

    The effect of an arbitrary loading of different muscle groups (shoulder, back, legs) and motor acts on the tolerance to Coriolis accelerations was investigated in 140 experiments in which 40 test subjects participated. The accelerations were cumulated and simulated by the Bryanov scheme. Muscle tension was accompanied by a less expressed vestibulo-vegetative reaction and shortening of the recovery period after the development of motion sickness symptoms. The greatest changes were observed during the performance of complex motor acts and tension of shoulder muscles. Possible mechanisms of these effects are discussed.

  9. Validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in strawberry fruits using different cultivars and osmotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Vanessa; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Labonde, Julia; Pereira, Ivan dos Santos; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2015-01-10

    The increasing demand of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) fruits is associated mainly with their sensorial characteristics and the content of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the strawberry production has been hampered due to its sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms highlighting stress response is of great importance to enable genetic engineering approaches aiming to improve strawberry tolerance. However, the study of expression of genes in strawberry requires the use of suitable reference genes. In the present study, seven traditional and novel candidate reference genes were evaluated for transcript normalization in fruits of ten strawberry cultivars and two abiotic stresses, using RefFinder, which integrates the four major currently available software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The candidate reference gene DBP (DNA binding protein) was considered the most suitable to normalize expression data in samples of strawberry cultivars and under drought stress condition, and the candidate reference gene HISTH4 (histone H4) was the most stable under osmotic stresses and salt stress. The traditional genes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 18S (18S ribosomal RNA) were considered the most unstable genes in all conditions. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene may induce erroneous results. This study is the first survey on the stability of reference genes in strawberry cultivars and osmotic stresses and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results for future breeding efforts.

  10. The Seroepidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) in Different Age Groups in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Emadi Ghanjin, Sekyneh

    2005-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles, can cause severe systemic infections of the CNS and the respiratory tract in immunocompetent individuals as well as in immunocompromized patients.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of antibody Varicella zoster virus in different age groups.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to assess the presence of anti -VZV antibody.A total of 635 serum samples were collected. Age specific prevalence of IgG antibody to VZV showed a progressive increase with age in both males and females. The overall seroprevalence rate was 83.6%. Prevalence of antibodies was 59.7% in the age group of less than 10 years, 60.4 % in 10-14 years, 87.5 % in 15-19 years, 88 % in 20-24 years, 89.4 % in 25-29 years and 87.9 % in 30-39 years.The data show that children should be considered as a target group for prevention programs against VZV infection. PMID:17301429

  11. The Effect of the Ammonium Group on the Different Annealing Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ammonium group can play an essential role in the different annealing processes of neutron-irradiated ammonium compounds. Some details of this effect were investigated. To give a more complete picture of this subject first some typical results, already published, are briefly discussed, concerning the thermal, radiation, photochemical and ultra-sonic annealing of ammonium and potassium sulphate as well as of ammonium and potassium dichromate. Afterwards new experimental data are reported showing the influence of the ammonium group on the thermal, radiation and ultra-sonic annealing of mono-, di- and triammonium phosphates. It was established that under the conditions of neutron irradiation in the pile the ammonium group in a compound can be transformed into certain metastabile recoil fragments, which can lead to the formation of reducing substances, e. g. hydrazine. The yield of hydrazine increases by the subsequent treatment of the neutron-irradiated solid samples with gamma-rays, ultra sound etc. Simultaneously with the increase in the hydrazine yield a strong change of the retention occurs. (author)

  12. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals.

  13. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

  14. Single Alternating Group Explicit (SAGE) Method for Electrochemical Finite Difference Digital Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Zhao-Xiang(邓兆祥); LIN,Xiang-Qin(林祥钦); TONG,Zhong-Hua(童中华)

    2002-01-01

    The four different schemes of Group Explicit Method (GEM): GER, GEL, SAGE and DAGE have been claimed to be unstable when employed for electrochemical digital simulations with large model diffusion coefficient DM@ However, in this investigation, in spite of the conditional stability of GER and GEL, the SAGE scheme, which is a combination of GEL and GER, was found to be unconditionally stable when used for simulations of electrochemical reaction-diffusions and had a performance comparable with or even better than the Fast Quasi Explicit Finite Difference Method (FQEFD) in srme aspects. Corresponding differential equations of SAGE scheme for digital simulations of various electrochemical mechanisms with both uniform and exponentially expanded space units were established. The effectiveness of the SAGE method was further demonstrated by the simulations of an EC and a catalytic mechanism with very large homogoneous rate constants.

  15. Extending the cereus group genomics to putative food-bornepathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron,Nathalie; Segurens, Beatrice; Dossat, Carole; Land, Miriam L.; Broussole,Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis,Vincent; Nguen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, Paul; Winker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S.Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2006-08-24

    The cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteriacontaining pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic foodpoisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presencein natural samples of these bacteria of about thirty clonal complexes.Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due tothe major interest for representatives closely related to B. anthracis.Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined,existing dataindicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetictree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomesdiscussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of thecereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severefood-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain must be arepresentative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacilluscytotoxis is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared toother cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma Bfactor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, notdetected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonalcomplex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B.cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B.anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge fromclinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4,is a typical psychrotrophe characteristic to unbiased soil communities.Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group interms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence ofextra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account forthis phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmidin this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicityspread from the psychrotrophic strain community. The results of thisgenomic work and ecological compartments of different strains incite

  16. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Auger, Sandrine [Genetique Microbienne; Galleron, Nathalie [Genetique Microbienne; Segurens, Beatrice [Center National Sequencage, F-91057 Evry, France; Simon, Jorg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Dossat, Carole [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Broussolle, Veronique [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Brillard, Julien [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Sanchis, Vincent [Genetique Microbienne; Nguen-the, Christophe [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Lereclus, Didier [Genetique Microbienne; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wincker, Patrick [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Weissenbach, Jean [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Ehrlich, Dusko [Genetique Microbienne; Sorokin, Alexei [Genetique Microbienne

    2008-01-01

    work and ecological compartments of different strains incite to consider a necessity of creating prophylactic vaccines against bacteria closely related to NVH391-98 and F837/76. Presumably developing of such vaccines can be based on the properties of non-pathogenic strains such as KBAB4 or ATCC14579 reported here or earlier. By comparing the protein coding genes of strains being sequenced in this project to others we estimate the shared proteome, or core genome, in the B. cereus group to be 3000 200 genes and the total proteome, or pan-genome, to be 20 25,000 genes.

  17. Accurate and efficient radiation transport in optically thick media -- by means of the Symbolic Implicit Monte Carlo method in the difference formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szoke, A; Brooks, E D; McKinley, M; Daffin, F

    2005-03-30

    The equations of radiation transport for thermal photons are notoriously difficult to solve in thick media without resorting to asymptotic approximations such as the diffusion limit. One source of this difficulty is that in thick, absorbing media thermal emission is almost completely balanced by strong absorption. In a previous publication [SB03], the photon transport equation was written in terms of the deviation of the specific intensity from the local equilibrium field. We called the new form of the equations the difference formulation. The difference formulation is rigorously equivalent to the original transport equation. It is particularly advantageous in thick media, where the radiation field approaches local equilibrium and the deviations from the Planck distribution are small. The difference formulation for photon transport also clarifies the diffusion limit. In this paper, the transport equation is solved by the Symbolic Implicit Monte Carlo (SIMC) method and a comparison is made between the standard formulation and the difference formulation. The SIMC method is easily adapted to the derivative source terms of the difference formulation, and a remarkable reduction in noise is obtained when the difference formulation is applied to problems involving thick media.

  18. Prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the rural areas of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimmathota Arlappa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anaemia continues to be a major public health nutritional problem in India, and has adverse health and economic implications. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among different physiological groups in the state of Maharashtra. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage stratified random sampling procedure was carried out in rural Maharashtra. Information of socio-demographic particulars was collected with pretested questionnaire. A finger prick blood sample of 20 µL was collected from the subjects. Haemoglobin was estimated using cyanmethemoglobin method. Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia was 59%, 61%, 76% and 73% among pre-school children, adolescent girls, pregnant women and lactating mothers, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of anaemia was two times higher among pregnant and lactating women and among the subjects belonged to scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities. Conclusion: Anaemia is a severe public health problem among pre-school children and women of different physiological groups in rural Maharashtra. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen the existing national nutritional anaemia control programme and the community is encouraged to consume iron rich foods through health and nutrition education and information, education and communication (IEC activities.

  19. Different genetic algorithms and the evolution of specialization: a study with groups of simulated neural robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauto, Tomassino; Parisi, Domenico; Di Stefano, Gabriele; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that live in groups, from microbial symbionts to social insects and schooling fish, exhibit a number of highly efficient cooperative behaviors, often based on role taking and specialization. These behaviors are relevant not only for the biologist but also for the engineer interested in decentralized collective robotics. We address these phenomena by carrying out experiments with groups of two simulated robots controlled by neural networks whose connection weights are evolved by using genetic algorithms. These algorithms and controllers are well suited to autonomously find solutions for decentralized collective robotic tasks based on principles of self-organization. The article first presents a taxonomy of role-taking and specialization mechanisms related to evolved neural network controllers. Then it introduces two cooperation tasks, which can be accomplished by either role taking or specialization, and uses these tasks to compare four different genetic algorithms to evaluate their capacity to evolve a suitable behavioral strategy, which depends on the task demands. Interestingly, only one of the four algorithms, which appears to have more biological plausibility, is capable of evolving role taking or specialization when they are needed. The results are relevant for both collective robotics and biology, as they can provide useful hints on the different processes that can lead to the emergence of specialization in robots and organisms. PMID:23514239

  20. The comparison of recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Pala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different Regions. In this respect, 227 children from Southeastern part of Turkey and 262 children from Marmara region of Turkey participated in this study in a volunteered way.The questionnaire adapted from previous studies was implemented on these participants. Afterwards, the data were analyzed in terms of frequency, percentage and independent group of t-test statistics. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS 15.0 and the significance rate was determined 0,05. Consequently, significantly different result were found (p0,05.According to the findings of this research, 37,9 % of the participant from Southeastern part of Turkey chose “sports” option of the item of “what they do in their leisure time”, 53,3 % of participant within same region chose “football” option of the item of “which recreative activities they regularly deal with”. 51,5 % of the participant from Marmara region chose “sports” option of the former question: Additionally , 25,6 % of item chose “football”, 21,5 % of them chose “badminton” and 12,8 % of them chose “basketball” options of the latter question.

  1. WMS-III performance in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: group differences and individual classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, N; Strauss, E; Chelune, G J; Loring, D W; Martin, R C; Hermann, B P; Sherman, E; Hunter, M

    2001-11-01

    The utility of the WMS-III in detecting lateralized impairment was examined in a large sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods of analysis included evaluation of group means on the various indexes and subtest scores, the use of ROC curves, and an examination of Auditory-Visual Index discrepancy scores. In addition, performance on immediate and delayed indexes in the auditory and the visual modality was compared within each group. Of the WMS-III scores, the Auditory-Visual Delayed Index difference score appeared most sensitive to side of temporal dysfunction, although patient classification rates were not within an acceptable range to have clinical utility. The ability to predict laterality based on statistically significant index score differences was particularly weak for those with left temporal dysfunction. The use of unusually large discrepancies led to improved prediction, however, the rarity of such scores in this population limits their usefulness. Although the utility of the WMS-III in detecting laterality may be limited in preoperative cases, the WMS-III may still hold considerable promise as a measure of memory in documenting baseline performance and in detecting those that may be at risk following surgery.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF AGE HENS ON THE INTENSITY LOAD CAPACITY FROM DIFFERENT WEIGHT GROUPS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pandurević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of hens on the intensity of load from different weight groups eggs. This paper presents the correlation connection, meaning and significance of differences connection for two weight classes (M - 53 to 63g and L – 63g to 73g, which make up the largest part of the total number of eggs produced during the entire production cycle, as well as for all of the eggs produced, as compared to age-laying hens. Between age and intensity of load to 53 weeks of age hens (SN53/34, there is a strong positive, medium and slight correlation coefficients determined and phenotypic correlation are statistically confirmed at the level of P <0.01 and P <0.05. From 53 weeks of age until the end of exploitation of laying hens (SN72/53 the correlation strength of the association was weaker and weaker, and in the last eight weeks passed in the negative, ie. Fortified negative phenotypic correlation coefficients, but were not statistically significant (P> 0.05. Between the age of hens and intensity of load hardest groups (classes eggs (L there is a complete and very strong connections and established correlation coefficients were statistically significant at P <0.001.

  3. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...... of 3124 participants: 1042 students (719 females, 323 males, mean age 20.6, age range 17-40), 1075 workers (146 females, 929 males, mean age 40.4, age range 21-67) and 1007 blood donors (484 females, 523 males, mean age 34.1, age range 18-64). We used a semi-structured, validated face-to-face...... interview. RESULTS: The age-adjusted one-year prevalence of migraine in females was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in students (41.9%) than in workers (19.2%) and blood donors (18.7%). Age-adjusted prevalence of migraine among males did not differ among the three groups: 4.5% in students, 4.9% in workers...

  4. Evaluation of Public E-Services and Information Technology Accessibility in Different Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an approach based on the social quality evaluation square model for evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. Componential view to the accessibility of e-services including IT means providing the possibility to research the influences of different life conditions to usage of the public e-services. The task of this empirical study is directed towards revealing the differences of e-inclusion and e-services accessibility for social groups of citizens of Lithuania, and to compare this accessibility data with other EU countries.Design/methodology/approach—the approach is based on the square model of social quality evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. The social division square model includes an assessment of quality according to the evaluation of socioeconomic security, social inclusion, social cohesion, and empowerment. Empowerment can be defined as consisting of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life.Findings—the results are demonstrated by the accessibility of public e-services data, which are evaluated by the quality of social group development according to IT applications. The hypothesis was confirmed that the e-government activities can be realized by properly selecting and installing technologies, and using technology facilities. E-services influence the capabilities of state officials to apply modern technology and increase the availability of e-services for social groups. Results consist of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life, to implementation of effective information technologies in the e-government activities and using of e-services. An important indicator is the implementation of e-services in the activity of citizens. It is submitted as the index of e-participation in dealing with the activities of citizens and the possibilities of authorities directly related with providing services

  5. Evaluation of Public E-Services and Information Technology Accessibility in Different Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an approach based on the social quality evaluation square model for evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. Componential view to the accessibility of e-services including IT means providing the possibility to research the influences of different life conditions to usage of the public e-services. The task of this empirical study is directed towards revealing the differences of e-inclusion and e-services accessibility for social groups of citizens of Lithuania, and to compare this accessibility data with other EU countries. Design/methodology/approach—the approach is based on the square model of social quality evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. The social division square model includes an assessment of quality according to the evaluation of socioeconomic security, social inclusion, social cohesion, and empowerment. Empowerment can be defined as consisting of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life. Findings—the results are demonstrated by the accessibility of public e-services data, which are evaluated by the quality of social group development according to IT applications. The hypothesis was confirmed that the e-government activities can be realized by properly selecting and installing technologies, and using technology facilities. E-services influence the capabilities of state officials to apply modern technology and increase the availability of e-services for social groups. Results consist of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life, to implementation of effective information technologies in the e-government activities and using of e-services. An important indicator is the implementation of e-services in the activity of citizens. It is submitted as the index of e-participation in dealing with the activities of citizens and the possibilities of authorities directly related with providing

  6. Morphological differences between three groups of Luciogobius guttatus on the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Gi; Kim, Maeng-Jin; Han, Kyung-Nam

    2016-03-01

    Three ecological and geographical forms of Luciogobius guttatus from the western and eastern coasts of the Korean Peninsula as well as the coasts of, Jeju Island which is located to the south of the peninsula are described and compared based on morphological characteristics. The environments of these three coastal areas are different, and the morphometrics show a clear pattern of differentiation and reveal the discreteness of the western, eastern and Jeju groups. In addition, a discriminant analysis (DA), a principal component analysis (PCA) of morphometric characteristics, and a t-test for meristic characteristics all show that the three populations of L. guttatus differ from each other. Three divergent lineages of L. guttatus are described with the possibility of niche differentiation between the western, eastern and Jeju coastal habitats. The standard length of eastern populations was greater than that of western and Jeju populations, and those with morphometric characteristics had a longer body. In addition, eastern populations had a higher number of vertebrae. We speculate that the characteristics of eastern populations evolved through the difference in tide level and gravel density, whereas the difference between western and Jeju populations is due to geographical distance.

  7. The comparison of recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Pala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the recreative activities of 11-15 age group depending on different Regions. In this respect, 227 children from Southeastern part of Turkey and 262 children from Marmara region of Turkey participated in this study in a volunteered way. The questionnaire adapted from previous studies was implemented on these participants. Afterwards, the data were analyzed in terms of frequency, percentage and independent group of t-test statistics. Data were analyzed with the help of SPSS 15.0 and the significance rate was determined 0,05. Consequently, significantly different result were found (p<0,05 among participant from different regions, in their responses to the questions of “what they do in their leisure time, which recreative activities they regularly deal with, and which social and cultural activities they have joined in the past six months”. While the results found by the questions of “where they go to spend their spare time out of their school life and how many hour they allocate to recreative activities including sport” were completely insignificant (p>0,05. According to the findings of this research, 37,9 % of the participant from Southeastern part of Turkey chose “sports” option of the item of “what they do in their leisure time”, 53,3 % of participant within same region chose “football” option of the item of “which recreative activities they regularly deal with”. 51,5 % of the participant from Marmara region chose “sports” option of the former question: Additionally , 25,6 % of item chose “football”, 21,5 % of them chose “badminton” and 12,8 % of them chose “basketball”  options of the latter question.

  8. Small-Group Leader Assignment: Effects Across Different Degrees of Task Interdependence

    OpenAIRE

    Basik, Kevin J.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of teams and work groups in organizations has become increasingly more popular in the last decade. Within each of these groups, a leadership role must be filled in order for the team to achieve its task. This study posited that the method by which the leader comes into this role may have a direct impact on the group's performance and its perceptions of the group's interpersonal processes and efficiency, satisfaction with the group, satisfaction with the group output, a...

  9. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  10. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  11. Sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Shadlinsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the sexual peculiarities of lymphoid formations in trachea and bronchi of individuals of different age groups. The lymphoid apparatus of trachea and bronchi has been studied. taken from 58 humans of different age and both sexes, died or perished in accidents without pathologies of respiratory and immune systems was studied via microscopical methods. The trachea and bronchi principalis were fixated in 10% solution of formalin and in water Karnua. The longitudinal and transverse pieces were taken from cartilaginous and membranaceus walls of the upper, middle and lower one-third of the trachea and each bronchi principalis. These cuts 5-7 urn in thickness were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, azure-2-eosin, with hematoxylin-picrofucsin by Van-Gizon technique, with methyl green-pironin by Brashe technique (after fixation in water Karnua and reaction by Grymelius. The results of the research showed that during postnatal ontogenesis the sex related differences are observed in cell composition of the trachea and bronchi princiapalis' lymphoid structures. In adolescent, juvenile and 1-st mature period in females the percentage of small and big lymphocytes, cells with mitosis, plasma cells is more, but the percentage of medium lymphocytes and cells with degeneration is less than in males

  12. Difference between the attitudes towards minority groups among parents and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićević Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to establish if there are differences between discrimination attitudes of parents and their children towards various marginal groups (the Chinese, Roma, the rich, the poor, persons of different sex, disabled persons. 849 persons were examined in this research: 310 of children and 539 of parents. The questionnaire of identical form for parents and their children was used to examine these discrimination attitudes. The questionnaire contains the open-type questions and it is the part of questionnaire used in the investigation project of wider range. Independent estimators in the scale from 1 to 6 quantified these qualitative results obtained on the basis of open-type questions, by determine the intensity of these attitudes (in negative direction. So-called Canonical discrimination analysis was used, out of statistical methods. The obtained results show that parents and their children statistically differ significantly in discrimination attitudes towards the Chinese, male persons and disabled persons. Children express discrimination attitudes towards male sex and towards disabled persons, but do not have considerable discrimination attitudes towards the Chinese, but parents express discrimination attitudes towards the Chinese, but do not have considerable discrimination attitudes towards the male sex and towards disabled persons.

  13. Visual acuity and refraction by age for children of three different ethnic groups in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Janine Carter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.

  14. Analysis of Feed for Digestibility Bali Cow in Group "Simantri" Program in Bali on Different Topographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Nyoman Sudita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the availability of feed ingredients, types and diversity as well as the proportion, relation to digestibility, VFA production and N-NH3 for Bali cow holding in the group "Simantri" program  in Bali on the different topography. Retrieving data using the method of observation at 27 group "Simantri", at 3 altitude / topography (lowland, medium and high. Variables measured: feed amount given, type and diversity of feed ingredients and proportions, sampling of feed materials, and take the liquid contents rumen. Sampling feed material to determine the nutrient content and digestibility of the ration, while knowing VFA rumen fluid contents (total and partial and N-NH3.  The results showed the higher the percentage of a natural grass in the lower ration. This condition causes the higher topography and diversity of the types of feed materials more and more.  The proportion of shrub legume Gliricidia leaves of trees, especially in the diet is relatively small (6.6%, while the potential of Gliricidia leaves pretty much at all altitude. Judging from the fulfillment of nutrients, Bali cow rations at all topographic meet the needs/head/day in the range of 6.10 to 8.14 kgDM, protein (CP ± of 750,2g  and energy ± 12 526 kcal ME.  In the test VFA rumen fluid obtained from 71.68 to 85.07 mMol in the category enough, while N-NH3: 5,21-6,11mMol still relatively low .  From this study we can conclude supply of feed for Bali cow in the group "Simantri" program in Bali nutrient content rations have to meet the needs.  The higher the proportion of legume shrub tree (Gliricidia leaves the digestibility, VFA production and N-NH3 getting better.

  15. Explaining the link between objective and perceived differences in groups: The role of the belonging and distinctiveness motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, Margaret E

    2016-02-01

    Group diversity research often focuses on objective diversity, or the actual compositional attributes of the group (e.g., differences in sex or functional background), and its impact on group processes and performance. More recently, diversity researchers have called for consideration of group members' perceptions of diversity, or their subjective understanding of differences within their group, because these perceptions have important effects on group outcomes. In fact, research has indicated only a modest correlation between objective and perceived diversity. Although the subjective nature of group diversity has important implications for group outcomes, we are still unclear about why and when perceived diversity diverges from objective diversity. In this article, I examine the role of identity motives, or motives that guide self-definition, in shaping member's perceptions of themselves and their group's composition. I argue that group members want to balance their needs for belonging and distinctiveness, but high levels of objective differences make them feel too distinct whereas low levels of objective differences makes them feel too deindividuated. Individual differences in the need to belong and be distinct further influence the degree to which these motives are satisfied. In turn, when these motives are unsatisfied, they will affect members' perceptions of differences. The presented theory helps to explain the discrepancy between objective differences and members' perceptions of differences, and ultimately helps integrate opposing findings in the diversity literature.

  16. The morphology of synovial grooves (Fossae synoviales) in joints of cattle of different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, K. M.; Heje, N. I.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    1993-01-01

    The joint cartilage of the head of the radius, the metacarpal bone, the tibial cochlea, the proximal trochlea of the talus and the metatarsal bone of 26 cattle in the age groups fetuses, 0 days, 2-5 weeks, 2-5 months, 7-13 months, 2-3.5 years, and 5-7 years were examined macroscopically and histo...... animals aged from 3 weeks to 13 months dyschondroplastic (osteochondrotic) lesions were observed in the joint cartilage both inside and outside the groove areas on one or more joint surfaces.......The joint cartilage of the head of the radius, the metacarpal bone, the tibial cochlea, the proximal trochlea of the talus and the metatarsal bone of 26 cattle in the age groups fetuses, 0 days, 2-5 weeks, 2-5 months, 7-13 months, 2-3.5 years, and 5-7 years were examined macroscopically...... and histologically. Synovial grooves developed on all joint surfaces examined, but at different times. At some locations the development of the grooves began prenatally. During the groove development the same features were in principle observed on all joint surfaces: Degeneration and progressive thinning...

  17. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23866213

  18. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  19. Doing Anger Differently: two controlled trials of percussion group psychotherapy for adolescent reactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of 'Doing Anger Differently' (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1, but also followed up controls at 6 months. In study 1 (N = 54) the treatment resulted in lowered trait anger (Cohen's d = -1.3), aggression-reports (d = -1.0) and depression (d = -0.6), and increased self-esteem (d = 0.6), all maintained at six months. In study 2 (N = 65), aggression-reports fell to one fifth of pre-treatment levels at nine months follow-up (d = -1.2), with lowered trait anger (d = -0.4) and anger expression (d = -0.3) post-treatment.

  20. Adolescent Substance Use Groups: Antecedent and Concurrent Personality Differences in a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, E. M.; Keyes, M.; Iacono, W. G.;

    2012-01-01

    personality and age-18 substance use in a community sample of 1,298 twins (96% Caucasian, 49% male). Personality measures at ages 11 and 18 assessed positive emotionality (agentic and communal), negative emotionality, and constraint. Substance use groupsabstainers, experimenters, and problem userswere created......This study attempted to extend Shedler and Block's () influential study, which found that adolescent drug experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning compared to abstainers and frequent users. Using a prospective design, we examined the relationship between antecedent and concurrent...... with the notion that experimenters had the healthiest personality functioning and instead suggest different strengths and weaknesses for each group. Future studies should examine agentic and communal positive emotionality separately....

  1. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  2. Facial resemblance to emotions: group differences, impression effects, and race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Kikuchi, Masako; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2010-02-01

    The authors used connectionist modeling to extend previous research on emotion overgeneralization effects. Study 1 demonstrated that neutral expression male faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than female faces do, female faces objectively resemble surprise expressions more than male faces do, White faces objectively resemble angry expressions more than Black or Korean faces do, and Black faces objectively resemble happy and surprise expressions more than White faces do. Study 2 demonstrated that objective resemblance to emotion expressions influences trait impressions even when statistically controlling possible confounding influences of attractiveness and babyfaceness. It further demonstrated that emotion overgeneralization is moderated by face race and that racial differences in emotion resemblance contribute to White perceivers' stereotypes of Blacks and Asians. These results suggest that intergroup relations may be strained not only by cultural stereotypes but also by adaptive responses to emotion expressions that are overgeneralized to groups whose faces subtly resemble particular emotions.

  3. Laboratory Tests for Group and Individual Exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille Slugs to Different Molluscicide Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Stojnić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983 and Wiktor (1989. The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% relative air humidity, no air stream, diffuse daylight. Smaller(15.5 x 15.5 x 7 cm and larger (28 x 17.5 x 7 cm arenas were used, depending on slug numbers, and different rates of food and bait were administered. Plastic boxes with perforated coverage, lined with multi-ply paper moistened on a daily basis, were used as arenas. The slugs were fed on fresh salad daily, while baits were administered in open 35 mm petri dishes once for the duration of experiment. The first trial involved single-slug exposures to bait in 20 arenas per each of four treatments with two replicates and a total of 160 slugs. The second trial, group exposure, involved four treatments of five slugs per arena in six replicates with a total of 120 slugs. The products Arion and Pužomor demonstrated the highest efficacy (77.5% in the single-slug trial. The average efficacy of the product Carakol after seven days of exposure was 60.0%. Regarding group exposure, Pužomor pellets achieved 79.3% efficacy after three days and this efficacy rate remained for the rest of the experiment. On the seventh day ofexposure, Arion and Carakol had 33.3% and 40.0% efficacy, respectively.

  4. Structural and functional changes of face and neck skin in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarchuk O.I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To define structural and functional changes of skin in women of different age groups and their relationships in this work intraoperational biopsy material of skin of 100 women at the age from 19 to 73 years, that was taken during standard surgery instrumentations for different defects of face and neck skin correction, was investigated. Skin material of cheek face region, temple region of head and anterior neck region was morphologically processed. To define parameters of microvessels and dermal fibroblasts, thickness of epidermis, serial sections was investigated with the help of morphometry. The range of skin hydratation was investigated with the help of Doppler and ultrasound techniques. It was determined, that involution dynamic of microvessel condition in papillary layer of derma coincides with grade reduction of relative volume of microvesseles bed, that was observed in greatest part in cheek region of face. There is growth of relative microvesseles volume in reticular layer of derma in women of older age groups. Microcirculation age changes include structural disorders of intrapapillary capillary loops, disorganization of arterioles in papillary and reticular layers of derma, disorders of venules because of the changes in microenvironmental fibrillar network. Essential structural and functional changes observed in skin of cheek region in women of 33-40 years and in temple region of head and anterior neck region in women of 41-50 years. It accompanied with thinning of epidermis and emergence of keratinocytes with defective tinctorial properties and also grade reduction in quantitative density of fibroblasts and limitation of their functional activity. There is essential correlation between quantitative parameters of microcirculation and marks of age dynamic of epidermis condition and range of skin hydratation.

  5. DIFFERENCES IN ASSESSMENT OF RISK AMONG TWO GROUPS OF INSTITUTIONAL TREATMENT BENEFICIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Jeđud

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a determination of differences between examinees, according to areas of risks and total risk of the assessmentinstrument Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI, Hoge, Andrews, Leschield, 2002, within youth offenders,placed according to the Act on Juvenile Court and those placed in institution according to the Family Act and the Social Welfare Act.The study has been carried out on a sample of 418 examinees from 14 welfare and treatment institutions for children with behaviordisorders in the Republic of Croatia. Through analysis of variance and discriminatory analysis statistically signifi cant differences onrisk scores have been identifi ed between examinees with social welfare and family measures and those with juvenile court measure.Youth with juvenile court measures have been estimated with higher scores concerning risk factors. This paper establishes differencesbetween these two groups of examinees relating areas of risk assessed by the instrument used in the research. Gained results could bea good foundation for the differentiation of the treatment based on the assessment of specifi c risks and needs of youth-at-risk.

  6. An Exploration of Hyperion Hyperspectral Imagery Combined with Different Supervised Classification Approaches Towards Obtaining More Accurate Land Use/Cover Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igityan, Nune

    2014-05-01

    Land use and land cover (LULC) constitutes a key variable of the Earth's system that has in general shown a close correlation with human activities and the physical environment. Describing the pattern and the spatial distribution of LULC is traditionally based on remote sensing data analysis and, evidently, one of the most commonly techniques applied has been image classification. The main objective of the present study has been to evaluate the combined use of Hyperion hyperspectral imagery with a range of supervised classification algorithms widely available today for discriminating LULC classes in a typical Mediterranean setting. Accuracy assessment of the derived thematic maps was based on the analysis of the classification confusion matrix statistics computed for each classification map, using for consistency the same set of validation points. Those were selected on the basis of photo-interpretation of high resolution aerial imagery and of panchromatic imagery available for the studied region at the time of the Hyperion overpass. Results indicated close classification accuracy between the different classifiers with the SVMs outperforming the other classification approaches. The higher classification accuracy by SVMs was attributed principally to the ability of this classifier to identify an optimal separating hyperplane for classes' separation which allows a low generalisation error, thus producing the best possible classes' separation. Although all classifiers produced close results, SVMs generally appeared most useful in describing the spatial distribution and the cover density of each land cover category. All in all, this study demonstrated that, provided that a Hyperion hyperspectral imagery can be made available at regular time intervals over a given region, when combined with SVMs classifiers, can potentially enable a wider approach in land use/cover mapping. This can be of particular importance, especially for regions like in the Mediterranean basin

  7. Influenza C virus high seroprevalence rates observed in 3 different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Nicolas; Mélade, Julien; Pascalis, Hervé; Aherfi, Sarah; Dellagi, Koussay; Charrel, Rémi N; Carrat, Fabrice; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    The epidemiology of Influenza C virus (FLUCV) infections remains poorly characterised. Here, we have examined the age- and location-specific seroprevalence of antibodies against FLUCV in 1441 sera from metropolitan continental France (Marseille), South-West Indian Ocean French territories (Reunion Island) and United-Kingdom (Edinburgh) using a combination of haemagglutination inhibition, virus neutralisation and ELISA assays. Our results show that immunity to FLUCV is common in all locations studied (global seroprevalence values >50%) and that the first immunising contacts generally occur early in life (i.e., in the 0-4 year-old age group). The latter item is further supported by the detection of FLUCV RNA by RT-PCR in naso-pharyngeal samples collected in patient attending the Emergency Room of the Public hospitals of Marseille, France with a large majority of children under 10 years-old: 17 (60.7%) in children ≤3 yo, 10 (35.7%) in the 4-10 yo age group and 1 (3.6%) in an adult (49yo). The temporal distribution of cases was atypical with regard to influenza (a large proportion of cases occurred in spring and summer) and the clinical presentation was diverse, including but being not limited to classical Influenza-like-Ilnesses. Altogether, our results indicate an intense circulation of FLUCV in the different study areas and an early occurrence of infection in human life. Flu C appears to be a widely under-diagnosed and under-studied human paediatric disease that obviously deserves further clinical and epidemiological characterisation.

  8. Temporal Variation of Different Categories Sunspot Groups since 1996: Their Relation with Geomagnetic Ap and Dst Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcik, Ali; Ozguc, Atila; Rozelot, Jean Pierre; Donmez, Burcin; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2016-07-01

    We studied the temporal variation of the number of sunspot groups and sunspot counts in these groups in four categories as small (A, B), medium (C), large (D, E, F) and final (H modified Zurich classes) since 1996. Then we compared these data sets with geomagnetic Ap and Dst indices. In results of our analysis we found followings: 1) different categories sunspot groups and sunspot counts in these groups behave differently during a solar cycle. ii) Response of geomagnetic indices to these data sets are also different.

  9. Self-Reported Differences in Empowerment Between Lurkers and Posters in Online Patient Support Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van Cornelia F.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; Seydel, Erwin R.; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients who visit online support groups benefit in various ways. Results of our earlier study indicated that participation in online support groups had a profound effect on the participants’ feelings of “being empowered.” However, most studies of online patient support groups have focus

  10. Electrochemical metallization switching with a platinum group metal in different oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongrui; Jiang, Hao; Hyung Jang, Moon; Lin, Peng; Ribbe, Alexander; Xia, Qiangfei; Yang, J. Joshua

    2016-07-01

    In a normal electrochemical metallization (ECM) switch, electrochemically active metals, such as Ag and Cu are used to provide mobile ions for the conducting filament. In both ECM and valence change memory (VCM) devices, platinum group metals, such as Pt and Pd, are typically used as the counter electrode and assumed to be chemically and physically inert. In this study, we explore whether the so-called inert metal itself can form a conducting filament and result in repeatable resistance switching. Pd and different oxide host matrices are used for this purpose. We have observed that the transport of oxygen anions dominates over Pd metal cations in ALD deposited AlOx and HfOx. However, in sputtered SiOx, Pd cation transport was revealed, accompanied by the formation of nano-crystalline Pd filament(s) in the junctions. Based on these observations, memristors with reversible and repeatable switching were obtained by using Pd doped SiOx as the switching material.In a normal electrochemical metallization (ECM) switch, electrochemically active metals, such as Ag and Cu are used to provide mobile ions for the conducting filament. In both ECM and valence change memory (VCM) devices, platinum group metals, such as Pt and Pd, are typically used as the counter electrode and assumed to be chemically and physically inert. In this study, we explore whether the so-called inert metal itself can form a conducting filament and result in repeatable resistance switching. Pd and different oxide host matrices are used for this purpose. We have observed that the transport of oxygen anions dominates over Pd metal cations in ALD deposited AlOx and HfOx. However, in sputtered SiOx, Pd cation transport was revealed, accompanied by the formation of nano-crystalline Pd filament(s) in the junctions. Based on these observations, memristors with reversible and repeatable switching were obtained by using Pd doped SiOx as the switching material. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  11. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  12. Enteric neuromuscular junctions: comparison of ultrastructural features in different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasy, K; Benedeczky, I; Fekete, E; Tóth, L; Gábriel, R

    1988-04-01

    The enteric neuromuscular junctions of snail (Helix pomatia), locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides), cockroach (Periplaneta americana), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca) were studied by means of different light and electron microscopic methods. The nitroblue tetrazolium staining revealed that the myenteric plexuses of the above species are composed of nerve cells, a network of varicose nerves and nerve bundles. Instead of highly organized ganglia, single neurons or small groups of 2-4 cells are characteristic of the invertebrates and fish studied. Catecholaminergic fluorescence induced by glyoxylic acid was detected in the muscular layer of the entire alimentary tract in snail and the hindgut of tench. Fluorescent nerves and perikarya were frequent in the snail gut, while only nerves and no perikarya were found in tench. A close contact between enteric muscles and nerves is the most common form of enteric neuromuscular junction in both the smooth (i.e. the molluscan and fish gut) and the striated (i.e. the insect gut) musculature. The striated musculature (i.e. the insect gut, the oesophagus of carp, and the oesophagus, stomach and the midgut of tench) also receives a synaptic input. Cytochemical evidence is provided of the cholinergic character of fish motor endplates. The ultrastructural appearance and vesicle population of certain nerve terminals suggest a universal role of aminergic and peptidergic control in gut motility. PMID:3393275

  13. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  14. Antioxidant and haematological biomarkers in different groups of horses supplemented with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélo, S K M; Diniz, A I A; de Lira, V L; de Oliveira Muniz, S K; da Silva, G R; Manso, H E C da C C; Manso Filho, H C

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been correlated with pathologies that impair the performance of athlete horses. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of supplementation with a mixture of polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E on the antioxidant and haematological biomarkers of horses. Horses under maintenance care (n = 6) and horses in training (n = 10) received 100 and 300 ml of the oil mixture respectively. Supplementation was provided for a period of 8 weeks, together with isocaloric inclusion. Blood samples were collected at three time periods (pretest, after 4 weeks and after 8 weeks) to analyse the following: the red blood cell count (RBCc); haemoglobin (Hb); haematocrit (HT); leucocytes; lymphocytes; platelets; the mean corpuscular volume (MCV); the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC); the standard deviation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD); the coefficient of variation of the red blood cell distribution width (RDW-CV); glutathione peroxidase (GPx); superoxide dismutase (SOD); uric acid (UrAc); total plasma proteins (TPP); and creatine kinase (CK). After the 8 weeks of supplementation, animals under maintenance care exhibited significant increases in SOD, UrAc, the white blood cell count (WBCc), the RDW-SD and the RDW-CV (p supplementation with polyunsaturated oil and vitamin E increases blood antioxidants among animals under maintenance and in training, with different trends, while contributing to the fight against oxidative stress in each group analysed.

  15. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community. PMID:21562693

  16. Size of government and entrepreneurship. Analysis of three groups of countries with different economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Díaz Casero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the "size of government" in entrepreneurial activity for countries with different levels of economical development. It has been used the variables "size of government" of the economic freedom indices released by the Economic Freedom Network (2000-2009 and by The Heritage Foundation (2000-2011, and the variables of "entrepreneurship" released by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Furthermore, the same analysis has been carried out grouping the countries by development level, following the classification elaborated by the World Economic Forum. Statistical analyses of correlations have shown that the “size of government” is related to entrepreneurship. The variables "Size of Government: Expenditures, Taxes and Enterprises" and " Government Size” have revealed a positive correlation with the total, opportunity and necessity entrepreneurial activity indices for the economies based on efficiency and innovation, thus less taxes on income and lower government spending, increase the entrepreneurship of the country. In “factor driven economies”, there is no relationship between the size of government and entrepreneurship

  17. Detecting the Subtle Shape Differences in Hemodynamic Responses at the Group Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the hemodynamic response (HDR is still not fully understood due to the multifaceted processes involved. Aside from the overall amplitude, the response may vary across cognitive states, tasks, brain regions, and subjects with respect to characteristics such as rise and fall speed, peak duration, undershoot shape, and overall duration. Here we demonstrate that the fixed-shape or adjusted-shape methods may fail to detect some shape subtleties. In contrast, the estimated-shape method (ESM through multiple basis functions can provide the opportunity to identify some subtle shape differences and achieve higher statistical power at both individual and group levels. Previously, some dimension reduction approaches focused on the peak magnitude, or made inferences based on the area under the curve or interaction, which can lead to potential misidentifications. By adopting a generic framework of multivariate modeling (MVM, we showcase a hybrid approach that is validated by simulations and real data. Unlike the few analyses that were limited to main effect, two- or three-way interactions, we extend the approach to an inclusive platform that is more adaptable than the conventional GLM, achieving a practical equipoise among representation, false positive control, statistical power, and modeling flexibility.

  18. Comparison of the serum sensitivity of uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli isolated from different diagnostic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vraneš,

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The bactericidal activity of serum caused by complement system is an important defence mechanism protecting the host organism against infection. The capacity to resist bactericidal activity of normal human serum contributes to the virulence of many gram-negative pathogens. Serum resistance in bacteria has been attributed to their surface components, but exact mechanism of resistance which most likely involves multiple factors is not well understood. In this study, the capacity of Escherichia coli to resist the bactericidal action of serum was examined in 85 clinical isolates obtained from patients with acute pyelonephritis (n=23, acute cystitis (n=22, chronic pyelonephritis (n=22 and asymptomatic bacteriuria (n=18. Serum sensitivity was also examined in relation to the serogroup specificity and expression of the different adhesins of the strains.Bacterial susceptibility to serum killing was measured by assessing regrowth after incubation in serum according to Schiller and Hatch method. The adhesins of E. coli were determined by hemagglutination and inhibition of hemagglutiation, and serotyping was performed on glass slides and confirmed using a mechanized microtechnique.The significant correlation between serum resistance of uropathogenic strains of E. coli and expression of P-fimbriae and O6 serogroup was observed.Theincidence of serum-resistant E. coli strains was significantly higher in strains isolated from urine of patients with acute pyelonephritis, as compared to strains isolated in other diagnostic groups, which is in accordance with higher virulence and invasive potential of these strains.

  19. Parameterized generic Galois groups for q-difference equations, followed by the appendix "The Galois D-groupoid of a q-difference system" by Anne Granier

    CERN Document Server

    Di Vizio, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the parameterized generic Galois group of a q-difference module, that is a differential group in the sense of Kolchin. It is associated to the smallest differential tannakian category generated by the q-difference module, equipped with the forgetful functor. Our previous results on the Grothendieck conjecture for q-difference equations lead to an adelic description of the parameterized generic Galois group, in the spirit of the Grothendieck-Katz's conjecture on p-curvatures. Using this description, we show that the Malgrange-Granier D-groupoid of a nonlinear q-difference system coincides, in the linear case, with the parameterized generic Galois group introduced here. The paper is followed by an appendix by A. Granier, that provides a quick introduction to the D-groupoid of a non-linear q-difference equation.

  20. A social work study on emotional intelligence among different groups of people how are addicted to drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction has become serious problem among many developing countries. Many young people become addicted to different toxicated materials and as a result, they cannot contribute to their society. They lose any employment opportunity, cannot continue their education and lose their healthcare. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure emotional intelligence among different groups of people who were addicted to drugs. The study distributes a questionnaire among three groups consists of 117 questions and 15 scales. The first group of the survey is under community-based treatment, the second group includes the people who are members of a community with unknown identification and the third group covers outpatient patient who receive medication. The results of our survey indicate the level of emotional intelligence among the first group of our study is much more than the other groups.

  1. Do structured arrangements for multidisciplinary peer group supervision make a difference for allied health professional outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pim Kuipers,1,2 Susan Pager,1 Karen Bell,3 Fiona Hall,4 Melissa Kendall2,5,6 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Community Science, School of Human Services, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 3Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Queensland, Australia; 4Allied Health Professions Office of Queensland, Health Service and Innovation Division, Queensland, Australia; 5Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6Transitional Rehabilitation Programme, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Peer group supervision, particularly in multidisciplinary formats, presents a potential means of providing professional support, and specifically clinical supervision, for allied health professionals. Debate exists regarding the extent to which the activities of these groups should be formalized. Results drawn from an evaluation of a large-scale peer group supervision initiative are described. Analysis of 192 responses from professionals involved in peer groups indicates that participants in groups that used formal documentation – which adopted the tools provided in training, and particularly those that used formal evaluation of their groups – rated their groups as having better processes and greater impact. Interestingly, multidisciplinary peer groups were rated as having similar impacts, processes, and purposes as the more homogenous single-discipline groups. It is concluded that the implementation of formal arrangements enhances the processes and outcomes of peer groups implemented for professional support and clinical supervision. Multidisciplinary membership of such groups is perceived as equally beneficial as single-discipline groups. Keywords: allied health, professional supervision, clinical supervision, professional support, multidisciplinary

  2. Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant groups in the use of primary medical care: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Foets Marleen; Devillé Walter; Uiters Ellen; Spreeuwenberg Peter; Groenewegen Peter P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on differences between immigrant and non-immigrant groups in health care utilization vary with respect to the extent and direction of differences in use. Therefore, our study aimed to provide a systematic overview of the existing research on differences in primary care utilization between immigrant groups and the majority population. Methods For this review PubMed, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Sociofile, Web of Science and Current Contents were consulted. Study selection and ...

  3. Speaking Fluently And Accurately

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    Even after many years of study,students make frequent mistakes in English. In addition, many students still need a long time to think of what they want to say. For some reason, in spite of all the studying, students are still not quite fluent.When I teach, I use one technique that helps students not only speak more accurately, but also more fluently. That technique is dictations.

  4. Age Difference and Face-Saving in an Inter-Generational Problem-Based Learning Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate whether learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) group was influenced by student demographic diversity. Data comprised observations, in the form of video footage, of one first-year PBL group carried out over the period of an academic year, along with student interviews. Using the…

  5. Differences in intracellular fate of two spotted fever group Rickettsia in macrophage-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Curto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group (SFG rickettsiae are recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide, such as Mediterranean spotted fever (R. conorii and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R. rickettsii. Recent studies in several animal models have provided evidence of non-endothelial parasitism by pathogenic SFG Rickettsia species, suggesting that the interaction of rickettsiae with cells other than the endothelium may play an important role in pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. These studies raise the hypothesis that the role of macrophages in rickettsial pathogenesis may have been underappreciated. Herein, we evaluated the ability of two SFG rickettsial species, R. conorii (a recognized human pathogen and R. montanensis (a non-virulent member of SFG to proliferate in THP-1 macrophage-like cells, or within non-phagocytic cell lines. Our results demonstrate that R. conorii was able to survive and proliferate in both phagocytic and epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, R. montanensis was able to grow in non-phagocytic cells, but was drastically compromised in the ability to proliferate within both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Interestingly, association assays revealed that R. montanensis was defective in binding to THP-1-derived macrophages; however, the invasion of the bacteria that are able to adhere did not appear to be affected. We have also demonstrated that R. montanensis which entered into THP-1-derived macrophages were rapidly destroyed and partially co-localized with LAMP-2 and cathepsin D, two markers of lysosomal compartments. In contrast, R. conorii was present as intact bacteria and free in the cytoplasm in both cell types. These findings suggest that a phenotypic difference between a non-pathogenic and a pathogenic SFG member lies in their respective ability to proliferate in macrophage-like cells, and may provide an explanation as to why certain SFG rickettsial species are not associated with

  6. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

  7. Effect of Cu toxicity at different salinity on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU You-jun; LI Jia-er; CAI Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Effects of copper toxicity and salinity shock on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus were investigated. The fish were exposed to different Cu2+ concentrations of 0 (blank), 0.02 (C1), 0.05 (C2), 0.10 (C3), and 0.15 mg·L-1 (C4) at a salinity of 10‰ or 40‰ for 96 h, with the salinity of 29‰ as the control. The results showed that the effects of the acute salinity stimulation to survival rates of pompano between control (29‰) and lower or higher salinity for 96 h were not significant (p>0.05). However, the survival rates in each treatment were decreased with the increase of Cu2+concentration. The dominant factor influencing body moisture of the fish was salinity, and there was no sign that body moisture was correlated with exposure to Cu2+. The gill lamellas in high level of Cu2+concentration (C4 treatments) were abnormal under the salinity of 40‰ and extremely curly under the salinity of 10‰. Hemorrhage in gill was observed in the two C4 treatments. Under transmission electron microscope, pillar cells in gill lamellas appeared deformed and ruptured in some areas of the epithelia in the higher concentration of Cu2+, resulting in the death of the fish due to the destruction of gill tissue, elevation of the arithmetic mean distance from water to blood, the decrease of oxygen diffusion capacity, and other physiological functions. These findings indicate that the pompano might suffer much more pressure when encountered with Cu2+ pollution and low salinity.

  8. The crossroads of anxiety: distinct neurophysiological maps for different symptomatic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerez M

    2016-01-01

    sample size for statistical analysis.Results: The nonparametric analysis correctly classified 81% of the sample. Dysrhythmic patterns, decreased delta, and increased beta differentiated AD from controls. Shorter ERP latencies were found in several individual patients, mostly from the OCD group. Hyperactivities were found at the right frontorbital-striatal network in OCD and at the panic circuit in PD.Conclusions: Our findings support diffuse cortical instability in AD in general, with individual differences in information processing deficits and regional hyperactivities in OCD and PD. Study limitations and the rationale behind the variable selection and combination strategy will be discussed before addressing the therapeutic implications of our findings. Keywords: anxiety disorders, dysrhythmic, epileptiform, ERP, EEG, LORETA

  9. Differences in anticipated interaction drive own group biases in face memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wilson

    Full Text Available According to much research, the Own Group Bias (OGB in face memory occurs as a consequence of social categorization - ingroup members are more likely than outgroup members to be encoded as individuals and remembered well. The current work is an examination of the role of anticipated future interaction in the OGB. We conducted two studies showing that anticipated interaction influences group-based face memory. In Study 1, we provided correlational evidence that beliefs about the amount and importance of future interaction one will have with racial outgroup members is associated with the OGB, such that people expecting more interaction with outgroup members show a reduced OGB. In Study 2, we manipulated expectations about future interactions with lab-created groups and observed that high levels of anticipated future interaction with the outgroup eliminated the OGB. Thus, social group categorization drives face memory biases to the extent that group membership affords the expectation of interpersonal interaction.

  10. Study on physico-chemical properties of dialdehyde yam starch with different aldehyde group contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialdehyde yam starches (DASs) are prepared and characterized. Compared with native starch, viscosity average molecular weight of DASs decreases, and the extent of degradation depends on content of the aldehyde groups. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the characteristic peak for C=O group at 1732 cm-1 is enhanced with the increasing of content of the aldehyde groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show that the surface of starch granules becomes wrinkled. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate that their crystallinity decreases with the increasing content of the aldehyde groups before they become amorphous at higher oxidation states. The experimental results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that DASs have poor stability as compared to native starch. With the increase in content of the aldehyde groups, the thermal stability of DAS declines gradually. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gelatinization temperature (To and Tp) of DASs are increased, whereas the gelatinization enthalpy decreased.

  11. Differences in mortality between different groups of older migrants and non-migrants in Belgium, 2001 to 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus-Pons, Matias; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Janssen, Fanny; Kibele, Eva U.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: European societies are rapidly ageing and becoming multicultural, and Belgium is part of the countries ahead in this transition. Differences in mortality between migrants and non-migrants in Europe have been shown to depend on age, sex, socio-economic status, migrant background and count

  12. Selective incivility: immigrant groups experience subtle workplace discrimination at different rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Franciska; Johnston, Claire; Binggeli, Steve; Maggiori, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Immigrants play an increasingly important role in local labor markets. Not only do they grow steadily in number but also in cultural, educational, and skill diversity, underlining the necessity to distinguish between immigrant groups when studying discrimination against immigrants. We examined immigrant employees' subtle discrimination experiences in a representative sample in Switzerland, controlling for dispositional influences. Results showed that mainly members of highly competitive immigrant groups, from immediate neighbor countries, experienced workplace incivility and that these incivility experiences were related to higher likelihoods of perceived discrimination at work. This research confirms recent accounts that successful but disliked groups are particularly likely to experience subtle interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25133409

  13. Developing an innovative cross-cultural strategy to promote HIV/AIDS prevention in different ethnic cultural groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Keats, D

    2005-10-01

    The HIV and STIs epidemic in China has had a significant impact among China's ethnic minorities. However, the official traditional approach, which has used an anti-epidemic social campaign, has not paid any attention to the diversity of cultural backgrounds of the many ethnic minority groups. This study carried out in Sichuan Province is the first to explore how to use cultural resources for developing an effective strategy for promoting HIV prevention in different cultural groups in China. One hundred and fifty male volunteers drawn from the Yi (50), Tibetan (50) and majority Han (50) cultural groups were assigned to a direct training programme. After training, these participants spread safe sex messages to other contacts who became an indirect peer diffusion group. A third group of 150 male volunteers from the same three cultural groups but from another relatively comparable community acted as controls. Each participant was interviewed before and after the intervention to assess knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding HIV/AIDS prevention. The study examined the cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of peer-led health message diffusion in promoting condom use through a traditional oral communication approach from the direct training groups to the indirect intervention groups and broad peer networks within the Yi, Tibetan and Han cultural communities. Key findings showed that the peer-based oral communication strategy was effective for encouraging condom use with casual sexual partners in both the direct training group and the indirect peer diffusion group in all three cultural groups. There was no significant change in any of the comparison groups. Although change in the majority Han cultural group was generally greater than in the ethnic minority groups, the results clearly suggest that the methods can be successfully adopted to promote safe sexual behaviour in different cultural groups of China.

  14. The Effects of Different Standard Setting Methods and the Composition of Borderline Groups: A Study within a Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochy, Filip; Kyndt, Eva; Baeten, Marlies; Pottier, Sofie; Veestraeten, Marlies; Leuven, K. U.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different standard setting methods on the size and composition of the borderline group, on the discrimination between different types of students and on the types of students passing with one method but failing with another. A total of 107 university students were classified into 4 different types…

  15. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF TEMPERATURE RESPONSES OF CARIBBEAN SEAWEEDS FROM DIFFERENT BIOGEOGRAPHIC GROUPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAKKER, H; BREEMAN, AM; VANREINE, WFP; VANDENHOEK, C

    1995-01-01

    Temperature tolerances were determined for Caribbean isolates (total 31) of seaweeds belonging to three distributional groups: 1) species confined to the tropical western Atlantic (Botryocladia spinulifera, Chamaedoris peniculum, Cladophoropsis sundanensis, Dictyopteris justii, Dictyurus occidentali

  16. On the adaptations to cave life of some different animal groups (first note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Pricop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the major and common adaptations to the cave environment ofdifferent animal groups. The common features are: anophthalmia, depigmentation, apterism in the caseof insects, body shape and ecophysiological adaptations.

  17. Group differences in fairness perceptions and decision making in voting rights cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Angela P; Thomas, Ewart A C

    2006-10-01

    Participants recruited from one Historically Black University (HBU) and two predominantly White higher-education institutions evaluated and decided simulated voting rights case summaries in which the plaintiff was either a racially-defined (African American) or a nonracially-defined (farmers) minority group. Contrary to social identity and social justice findings of an in-group bias, the present study showed greater support at all institutions for the voting rights of the African Americans than for the rural farmers, and the greatest support for both minority groups was found at the HBU. Perceived evidence strength was a better predictor of decisions than perceived unfairness, and both of these predictor variables completely mediated the effects of institution-type and involvement of a racially-defined group on decisions.

  18. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Desig...

  19. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn D Langen

    Full Text Available Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1 middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2 patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection in different age groups of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Singh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hepatitis A is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the pediatric age group and the most common cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF among children in India. Hepatitis A is a waterborne disease. High endemicity obviates the need for vaccine in the community. Aims: We studied 116 children in the outpatient department (OPD to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV, total antibodies, and the effect of various demographic and water sanitation variables on it. Settings and Design: Children attending the pediatric OPD with minor problems in a medical college hospital were chosen for this study. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and seroepidemiologic investigative study. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of randomly selected children were collected and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test was done for the detection of total anti-HAV antibodies, [both immunoglobulin M (IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG], using a commercially available ELISA kit. "Dia.Pro" (Diagnostic Bioprobes srl via Columella n° 31 20128 Millano, Italy. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by the chi-square test using Epi Info software 3.5.4 version (2012 [Center for disease control and prevention (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia (USA]. Results: Seroprevalence in children from the upper social class was 54.5% versus 87.2% in the lower social class (P = 0.00075. 90.9% of the children with rural background were seropositive compared to 77.1% of children with urban background. The mother′s education above and below secondary level had a seropositivity for HAV in children up to 69.23% and 87.1%, respectively. The method of water treatment using boiled water, mechanical filtration, filtration plus ultraviolet (UV light treatment, and no treatment had a seropositivity of 50.0%, 83.33%, 37.5%, and 84%, respectively, (P = 0.0036. Seropositivity was the highest when the water source was municipal bore well pipeline (88

  1. LABORATORY TESTING RESULTS ANALYSIS OF GIARDIASIS PREVALENCE AMONG DIFFERENT POPULATION GROUPS IN THE NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Bobyreva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nenets Autonomous District (NAD refers to the territories of the Russia’s Far North. The country is the only region of Russia, where there are still no roads. The extreme weather conditions, as well as residential patterns in the NAD reduce the availability of specialized medical care, as indigenous people and other nationalities living in the district, which requires the use of health care management specific forms. The article presents data on giardiasis studies amongst different categories of the NAD population, obtained as a result of the population surveys in remote regions of the Russian Federation Arctic zone. Samples studied were serum and faecal emulsion. The study used the following laboratory methods: for serum — Giardia lamblia antibody screening method using ELISA kit, emulsion stool — native smear microscopy analysis, the method of enrichment using disposable concentrators «Parasep» immunological diagnostic methods based on the detection of specific lamblia antigen in faeces using ELISA kits. For statistics was used descriptive statistics analysis (mean values, the percentage error of the mean, the construction of the trend line with program SPSS 20.00, Excel 2010, the method of analysis of official statistical reporting hospitals survey on giardiasis, data of Rospotrebnadzor (Russian Sanitary service for NAD and data from own research from 2002 to 2013. Just in the process of research carried out research on the 10 356 giardiasis, registered diseases by 3470 cases of giardiasis, accounting for 99.14% of the total number of protozoonosises registered and 37.4% of all registered in the NAD parasitosis. The comparison was made among the population of the county towns, home to both the indigenous people, nomadic, and representatives of other ethnic groups, sedentary with urban population of the city of Naryan-Mar. The article analyzes the incidence rates for giardiasis according to district official statistical reporting

  2. Differences in outcomes between GOLD groups in patients with COPD in the TIOSPIR® trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusser D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Dusser,1 Robert A Wise,2 Ronald Dahl,3 Antonio Anzueto,4,5 Kerstine Carter,6 Andy Fowler,7 Peter M Calverley8 1Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; 2Asthma and Allergy Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark; 4Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Texas, 5South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 6Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 7Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma Ltd, Bracknell, UK; 8Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK  Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD classification could predict mortality risk factors and whether baseline treatment intensity would relate to mortality within each group, using data from TIOSPIR®, the largest randomized clinical trial in COPD performed to date.Methods: A total of 17,135 patients from TIOSPIR® were pooled and grouped by GOLD grading (A–D according to baseline Medical Research Council breathlessness score, exacerbation history, and spirometry. All-cause mortality and adjudicated cardiovascular (CV and respiratory mortality were assessed.Results: Of the 16,326 patients classified, 1,248 died on treatment. Group B patients received proportionally more CV treatment at baseline. CV mortality risk, but not all-cause mortality risk, was significantly higher in Group B than Group C patients (CV mortality – hazard ratio [HR] =1.74, P=0.004; all-cause mortality – HR =1.18, P=0.11. Group D patients had a higher incidence of all-cause mortality than Group B patients (10.9% vs 6.6%. Similar trends were observed regardless of respiratory or CV medication at baseline. In contrast, respiratory deaths increased consistently from Groups A–D (0.3%, 0.8%, 1.6%, and 4.2% of

  3. Understanding obstacles to the recognition of and response to dementia in different European countries: a modified focus group approach using multinational, multi-disciplinary expert groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliffe, S; De Lepeleire, J; Van Hout, H; Kenny, G; Lewis, A; Vernooij-Dassen, M

    2005-01-01

    Experts from eight European countries (Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom) and the disciplines of clinical psychology, general practice, geriatric medicine, old age psychiatry, medical sociology, nursing and voluntary body organisation met in 2003 to explore obstacles to recognition of and response to dementia in general practice within Europe. A modified focus group methodology was used in this exploratory process. Groups were conducted over a two-day period, with five sessions lasting 1-1.5 hours each. An adapted nominal group method was used to record themes arising from the group discussion, and these themes were used in a grounded theory approach to generate explanations for delayed recognition of and response to dementia. The overarching theme that arose from the focus groups was movement, which had three different expressions. These were: population movement and its consequences for localities, services and professional experience; the journey of the person with dementia along the disease process; and the referral pathway to access services and support. Change is the core issue in dementia care, with multiple pathways of change that need to be understood at clinical and organisational levels. Practitioners and people with dementia are engaged in managing emotional, social and physical risks, making explicit risk management a potentially important component of dementia care. The boundary between generalist and specialist services is a particular problem, with great potential for dysfunctionality. Stigma and ageism are variably distributed phenomena both within and between countries.

  4. Study on physico-chemical properties of dialdehyde yam starch with different aldehyde group contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liming, E-mail: zhanglmd@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Liu, Peng; Wang, Yugao [College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Gao, Wenyuan [Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2011-01-10

    Dialdehyde yam starches (DASs) are prepared and characterized. Compared with native starch, viscosity average molecular weight of DASs decreases, and the extent of degradation depends on content of the aldehyde groups. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the characteristic peak for C=O group at 1732 cm{sup -1} is enhanced with the increasing of content of the aldehyde groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show that the surface of starch granules becomes wrinkled. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate that their crystallinity decreases with the increasing content of the aldehyde groups before they become amorphous at higher oxidation states. The experimental results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that DASs have poor stability as compared to native starch. With the increase in content of the aldehyde groups, the thermal stability of DAS declines gradually. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gelatinization temperature (T{sub o} and T{sub p}) of DASs are increased, whereas the gelatinization enthalpy decreased.

  5. Modeling the Role of Networks and Individual Differences in Inter-Group Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakov, Alexander; Holcomb, Amelia; Glowacki, Luke; Christakis, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    There is significant heterogeneity within and between populations in their propensity to engage in conflict. Most research has neglected the role of within-group effects in social networks in contributing to between-group violence and focused instead on the precursors and consequences of violence, or on the role of between-group ties. Here, we explore the role of individual variation and of network structure within a population in promoting and inhibiting group violence towards other populations. Motivated by ethnographic observations of collective behavior in a small-scale society, we describe a model with differentiated roles for individuals embedded within friendship networks. Using a simple model based on voting-like dynamics, we explore several strategies for influencing group-level behavior. When we consider changing population level attitude changes and introducing control nodes separately, we find that a particularly effective control strategy relies on exploiting network degree. We also suggest refinements to our model such as tracking fine-grained information spread dynamics that can lead to further enrichment in using evolutionary game theory models for sociological phenomena. PMID:26828362

  6. Differences of serum parathyroid hormone levels and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study,the differences of serum parathyroid hormone(PTH)and its gene polymorphism in different ethnic groups in drinking brick-tea-borne endemic fluorosis areas were investigated.Methods Inhabitants over the age of 16 years old in Inner Mongolia,Qinghai and Xinjiang were investigated.The questionnaire survey included basic information,dietary survey

  7. Internal radiation doses from radio-cesium for some population groups with differing dietary habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere which took place in the nineteen fifties and sixties resulted in the contamination of food chains which culminate in human intake. Measurements have since been taken of the concentration in human whole bodies of Cesium-137 since the beginning of the nineteen sixties. The first reference group in this repect in Finland were persons employed at the Radiation Safety Centre in Helsingfors. After the Chernobyl accident new population groups were chosen in order to follow changes in the radiocesium niveau and the radiation doses from the contamination. In order to get an idea of how high the radiation doses some groups of people received, areas with a high depostion density were selected. People who consumed locally produced foods and natural products such as fresh-water fish, fungi and wild berries were selected for monitoring. Results of these measurements are presented and discussed. (AB) (10 refs.)

  8. Testing Latent Mean Differences between Observed and Unobserved Groups Using Multilevel Factor Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allua, Shane; Stapleton, Laura M.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2008-01-01

    When assessing latent mean differences, researchers frequently do not explore possible heterogeneity within their data sets. Sources of differences may be functions of a nested data structure or heterogeneity in the form of unobserved classes of observations defined by a difference in factor means. In this study, the use of multilevel structural…

  9. Power of the muscular group's taekwondokas of the different qualification in steady-state mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saienko Vladimir Grigor'evich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Data are given meaningful totals display of force the muscle groups in athletes in the static mode. Displaying characteristics of muscle groups, hands (7, legs (5, trunk (2.The experiment involved 110 athletes (1-5 years experience training, age - 14-25 years old. Quantitative indicators, which reflect the individual level of informative power trained athletes. The optimum parameters of power qualities of athletes. Recommended use in training of special methods of strength training (isometric, concentric, eccentric, plyometric, isokinetic. In training must take into account the resistance, speed, joint angles, number of repetitions of the same approach.

  10. Perceived barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in older women of different racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, K C; Brown, D R; Blanton, C J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether barriers to exercise differ among racial/ethnic groups at the same stage of exercise adoption and adjacent stages within racial/ethnic groups. Questions about stage of exercise adoption and perceived barriers to exercise were administered to a cross sectional sample of 745 African American, 660 Hispanic, 738 Native American/Native Alaskan, and 769 Caucasian U.S. women aged 40 years and older. Correlations between rankings of barriers among racial/ethnic groups within the same stage ranged from .43 to .89. For each racial/ethnic group, significant differences existed between adjacent stages in the percentage of women reporting barriers to interfere with exercise (p < .10). Barriers were not similar enough among racial/ethnic groups to recommend that the same barriers be addressed for all races/ethnicities.

  11. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  12. Group Projects Using Clients versus Not Using Clients: Do Students Perceive Any Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Amy L.; Lepkowska-White, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Today's educators are faced with the challenge of preparing undergraduate students to be productive employees who can communicate effectively, work well in teams, and solve problems, as well as demonstrate content knowledge. Group projects are one tool that educators can use to help students develop these key skills. Educators may be tempted to…

  13. Cultural Differences in how an Engagement-Seeking Robot should Approach a Group of People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel; Poppe, Ronald; Lohse, Manja; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by “being there”. Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man’s use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot’s approaching groups of peop

  14. Cultural differences in how an engagement-seeking robot should approach a group of people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Michiel P.; Poppe, Ronald; Lohse, Manja; Evers, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    In our daily life everything and everyone occupies an amount of space, simply by "being there". Edward Hall coined the term proxemics for the studies of man's use of this space. This paper presents a study on proxemics in Human-Robot Interaction and particularly on robot's approaching groups of peop

  15. The Effect of Group Differences among Church-Related Youth in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the influence of nationality, ethnicity, language, and beliefs on priority concerns among church related college students in Indonesia (N=122), Malaysia and Singapore (N=341). Results confirm the importance of traditional values with less agreement between groups about peers and adults. Implications for counselors are discussed. (JAC)

  16. Sex disparities in acute myocardial infarction incidence : Do ethnic minority groups differ from the majority population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in men exceeds that in women. The extent of this sex disparity varies widely between countries. Variations may also exist between ethnic minority groups and the majority population, but scientific evidence is lacking. Methods: A nationwi

  17. Oral health and dental behaviour in 11-year-old children of different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was first, to assess the oral health of 11-year-old children in four ethnic groups in Amsterdam; second, to assess their dental behaviour and third, to identify potential determinants of frequency of toothbrushing. Representative samples of 97 Surinamese, 209 Moroccan, 128 Turkish

  18. Group Project Work and Student-centered Active Learning: Two Different Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, David; Lynch, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Compared experiences with group-based student projects in a Geographical Information Systems degree taught by one faculty member and in geography degree modules taught by another. Concludes that care must be taken in the design and execution of these projects to avoid problems that might reinforce myths about negative effects of team-based…

  19. Printing properties of the red reactive dyes with different number sulfonate groups on cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Li, Min; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-30

    Cellulose fabric is an important printing substrate. Four red azo reactive dyes based on 1-naphthol-8-amino-3,6-disulfonic acid for cotton fabric printing were designed. Their UV-Vis spectra and printing properties for cotton were investigated. The relationship between the chemical structures of the dyes and their printing properties on cotton fabric was discussed. The results show that the color yield (K/S) values of the printed fabrics decreased with the increase of sulfonate groups, but the fixation and penetration of the reactive dyes on cotton fabric increased. The reactive dyes with fewer number sulfonate groups were sensitive to alkaline and urea. Whereas, the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups were not sensitive to urea and had good leveling properties, penetration uniformity, and good wet fastness for cotton fabric. Surface wettability of all cotton fabrics printed with four dyes was excellent. It is possible to print cotton fabric urea-free using the reactive dyes with numerous sulfonate groups.

  20. Malaria crisis activity in sera from individuals of different ethnic groups of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, S; Perlaza, B L; Sanchez, C A; Herrera, M A

    1990-08-01

    Sera of negroes of African origin and of indians, living in a malaria endemic village on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, were analyzed to see if they could block intraerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. A group of mestizos from a malaria-free city in Colombia was used as a negative control. Blood of each individual was studied for the presence of circulating parasites by thick and thin smears and their sera for antimalarial antibodies by IFAT and IRMA techniques. The inhibition of the intraerythrocytic growth induced by these sera was assessed by [3H]Hypoxanthine incorporation. All groups showed inhibitory activity independent of their exposure to malaria. Negro sera had the highest inhibitory activity even following the removal of antibody, and also the highest antimalarial antibody titers. The group of indians had reduced inhibitory activity and lower antibody titers compared to the negro sera. In the group of mestizos, who reported no malaria exposure, 14% had antibodies to asexual blood forms of P. falciparum and 60% induced significant inhibition. PMID:2283155

  1. Planning support in estimating green housing opportunities for different socioeconomic groups in Nanjing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Hong; Geertman, Stan; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable city concept is often criticized for being unaffordable for the majority. To cater for various socioeconomic groups, it is essential that planners consider both affordability and sustainability. We provide planners with a methodology for estimating green housing potential for various

  2. Obstetrical outcome valuations by patients, professionals, and laypersons: differences within and between groups using three valuation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijlenga Denise

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making can be based on treatment preferences of the patient, the doctor, or by guidelines based on lay people's preferences. We compared valuations assigned by three groups: patients, obstetrical care professionals, and laypersons, for health states involving both mother and (unborn child. Our aim was to compare the valuations of different groups using different valuation methods and complex obstetric health outcome vignettes that involve both maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods Patients (n = 24, professionals (n = 30, and laypersons (n = 27 valued the vignettes using three valuation methods: visual analogue scale (VAS, time trade-off (TTO, and discrete choice experimentation (DCE. Each vignette covered five health attributes: maternal health ante partum, time between diagnosis and delivery, process of delivery, maternal outcome, and neonatal outcome. We used feasibility questionnaires, Generalization theory, test-retest reliability and within-group reliability to compare the valuation patterns between groups and methods. We assessed relative weights from each valuation method to test for consistency across groups. Results Test-retest reliability was equal across groups, but different across methods: highest for VAS (ICC = 0.61-0.73, intermediate for TTO (ICC = 0.24-0.74 and lowest for DCE (kappa = 0.15-0.37. Within-group reliability was highest in all groups with VAS (ICC = 0.70-0.73, intermediate with DCE (kappa = 0.56-0.76 and lowest with TTO (ICC = 0.20-0.66. Effects of groups were smaller than effects of methods. Differences between groups were largest for severe health states. Conclusion Based on our results, decision making among laypersons should use TTO or DCE; patients should use VAS or TTO.

  3. Evaluation of Teaching Methods in Mass CPCR Training in Different Groups of the Society, an Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Hamed; Bahrami, Mojtaba; Malekpour, Abdorrasoul; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Allahyary, Elaheh; Amini, Mitra; Abdorahimi, Mehdi; khani, Sara; Kalantari Meibodi, Mohammad; Kojuri, Javad

    2015-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of different methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPCR) training in 3 different groups of the society. In a prospective and observational study of 2000 individuals in 3 different groups including G1, G2, and G3 4 different protocols of CPCR training were applied and their efficacy was compared between the groups. Also, 12 months after the study course, 460 participants from 3 groups were asked to take apart in a theoretical and practical examination to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the 4 protocols. Among 2000 individuals took a parted in the study, 950 (47.5%) were G1, 600 (30%) were G2, and 450 (22.5%) were G3. G1 in 4 groups were 2.37 and 2.65 times more successful in pretest theoretical and 2.61 and 18.20 times more successful in practical examinations compared with G2 and G3 and gained highest improvement in CPCR skills. Other groups also showed significantly improved CPCR skills. Comparison of different methods of CPCR learning showed that the workshop using interactive lecture as well as human model, educational film, and reference CPCR book has the highest efficacy in all groups. This protocol of CPCR training showed more efficacy in long-term postdelayed evaluation. On the contrary, medical students had better long-term outcomes from the course. Although G1 and G2 obtained better results in learning CPCR skills, in G3 also the theoretical and practical knowledge were improved significantly. This course increased confidence for doing CPCR in all groups of the study. Considering that the most of the bystanders at emergency states are general population, training this group of the society and increasing their confidence about performing CPCR can be so effective and lifesaving at emergency states. (Clinical trial. Gov registration: NCT02120573).

  4. Spatial-Temporal NDVI Variation of Different Alpine Grassland Classes and Groups in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI can usually be used as a good proxy for evaluating potential variability in regional ecosystems and under climate change. We used 16-day MODIS-NDVI composite satellite data with 250-m resolution for the period 2000 to 2013 to assess the temporal and spatial variation of the NDVI among different alpine grassland classes and groups in northern Tibet. The annual average NDVI of the whole alpine grassland area in northern Tibet generally increased slightly from 2000 to 2003, and the annual average NDVI values ranged from 0.112 to 0.492 across all alpine grassland groups and years. The NDVI clearly decreased from the southeastern to the northwestern areas, with 22.50% of total grasslands significantly having increased or decreased, while 77.50% presented little change during 2000–2013. Both temperature and precipitation were key factors that controlled the NDVI variations of the entire alpine grassland. However, for different alpine grassland classes and groups, the NDVI displayed different correlation patterns with temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate that the NDVI variations of alpine grassland generally increased slightly but differed among different classes and groups. Although temperature and precipitation were the driving forces influencing the NDVI of the entire alpine grassland, it was more difficult to define the driving forces for the individual classes and groups, and more detailed analyses covering prolonged observation periods are still needed.

  5. Psychodynamic mechanism and weight reduction in obesity group therapy – first observations with different attachment styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, Sybille; Köpsel, Andrea; Köpp, Werner; Kallenbach-Dermutz, Bettina; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim; Deter, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Successful long-term results are extremely rare in non-surgical obesity treatment. Interactional difficulties with the attending physicians and the limited compliance of obese patients are a frequently described dilemma in repeated psychotherapeutic group treatment attempts. The type of relationship initiation and the attachment behavior probably play a central role in this connection but have not yet been systematically investigated. Methods: This paper focuses on the attachment ...

  6. Psychodynamic mechanism and weight reduction in obesity group therapy - first observations with different attachment styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, S.; Köpsel, A; Köpp, W; Kallenbach-Dermutz, B; Pfeiffer, AFH; Spranger, J; Deter, HC

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Successful long-term results are extremely rare in non-surgical obesity treatment. Interactional difficulties with the attending physicians and the limited compliance of obese patients are a frequently described dilemma in repeated psychotherapeutic group treatment attempts. The type of relationship initiation and the attachment behavior probably play a central role in this connection but have not yet been systematically investigated.Methods: This paper focuses on the attachment...

  7. Strategic development in exact calculation: Group and individual differences in four achievement subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Judith; Jordan, Julie-Ann; Mulhern, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study sought to identify developmental changes in strategy use between 5 and 7 years of age when solving exact calculation problems. Four mathematics and reading achievement subtypes were examined at four time points. Five strategies were considered: finger counting, verbal counting, delayed retrieval, automatic retrieval, and derived fact retrieval. Results provided unique insights into children’s strategic development in exact calculation at this early stage. Group analysi...

  8. Disparities in survival of stomach cancer among different socioeconomic groups in North-East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Ester J.M.; Hospers, Geke A.; Mulder, Nanno J.; Siesling, Sabine; Aa, van der Maaike A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Survival differences in stomach cancer are depended on patient, tumour and treatment factors. Some populations are more prone to develop stomach cancer, such as people with low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this population based study was to assess whether differences in socioec

  9. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.T.; Donders, N.C.G.M.; Velden, K. van der; Gulden, J.W.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work featur

  10. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors...... to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 1453 Danish 15-year-old students. The outcome measure was drunkenness 10 times or more, as a lifetime measure. Predictor variables comprised five aspects of well-being at school. Socio-economic position (SEP...

  11. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  12. Analysis of the melanin distribution in different ethnic groups by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, C.; Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Astner, S.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSM) is able to visualize differences in melanin content and distribution in different Skin Phototypes. The investigations were carried out on six healthy volunteers with Skin Phototypes II, IV, and VI. Representative skin samples of Skin Phototypes II, V, and VI were obtained for histological analysis from remaining tissue of skin grafts and were used for LSM-pathologic correlation. LSM evaluation showed significant differences in melanin distribution in Skin Phototypes II, IV, and VI, respectively. Based on the differences in overall reflectivity and image brightness, a visual evaluation scheme showed increasing brightness of the basal and suprabasal layers with increasing Skin Phototypes. The findings correlated well with histological analysis. The results demonstrate that LSM may serve as a promising adjunctive tool for real time assessment of melanin content and distribution in human skin, with numerous clinical applications and therapeutic and preventive implications.

  13. Grouping Travelers on the Basis of their Different Car and Transit Levels of Use

    OpenAIRE

    DIANA, Marco; Mokhtarian, Patricia L

    2009-01-01

    Market segmentation studies in travel behavior research are ordinarily based on socioeconomic characteristics and personality traits. This study explores the usefulness of a different approach, where the actual overall mobility levels across different ground transportation modes, along with desired changes in the use of cars and transit, are used as clustering variables. Using a given mode can in fact influence the personal representation of that mode, which in turn has been proven to be a ke...

  14. Grouping travelers on the basis of their different car and transit levels of use

    OpenAIRE

    DIANA, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Market segmentation studies in travel behavior research are ordinarily based on socioeconomic characteristics and personality traits. This study explores the usefulness of a different approach, where the actual overall mobility levels across different ground transportation modes, along with desired changes in the use of cars and transit, are used as clustering variables. Using a given mode can in fact influence the personal representation of that mode, which in turn has been proven to be a ke...

  15. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon; Kim, Kang-Il

    2015-01-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical re...

  16. Performance and parasite control of different genetic groups of lambs finished in irrigated pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Fernandes Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the following four genetic groups of hair sheep: Santa Inês (SI, Morada Nova (MN, Brazilian Somali (BS, and the F1 1/2Dorper x 1/2Morada Nova crossbreed on traits related to growth and parasitic infection. Thirty-three male lambs of the same age and of simple birth, under the same pre-weaning management conditions were used in the experiment. After weaning the animals were housed in a completely randomized design in paddocks made of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. Along the course of the research, the performance of the four groups of sheep was observed to be negatively affected by gastrointestinal parasites, but there was a genotype effect to the average daily weight gain (ADWG, where the SI and F1 genotypes presented higher values. The effects of genotype, time and genotype x time interaction were significant in weight and corporal score (CS measurements. The BS lambs had the highest CS values throughout the experiment despite not presenting greater weight gain when compared to the SI and F1 breeds. There were also significant effects of time and genotype x time interaction for packed cell volume (PCV and FAMACHA© score (FAM and only the time effect was significant in the total number of eggs per gram (EPG and total plasma protein (TPP. The MN lambs showed higher PCV values and unlike the other groups, presented a FAMACHA© score below 3 and PCV above 23% even having a higher EPG tendency, especially in the initial phase, indicating a possible higher resilience to infection caused by gastrointestinal parasites.

  17. Characterization of cutability and palatability attributes among different slaughter groups of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, D M; Griffin, C L; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Savell, J W

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen slaughter cattle from five groups (Charolais crossbred bulls, Brahman crossbred steers, Holstein steers, mixed-Exotic crossbred heifers and Hereford-Angus crossbred steers) were randomly selected from a commercial feedlot. Time-on-feed was 108, 114, 102, 108 and 145 days for the aforementioned groups, respectively. Carcasses from Charolais crossbred bulls had the highest percentage yield of chuck and round, but the lowest percentage yield of loin; hereford-Angus crossbred steers had the lowest percentage yield of round and Holstein steers had the lowest percentage yield of rib. Carcasses from Charolais crossbred bulls had the highest percentage yield of major retail-ready subprimals and lean trim, Hereford-Angus crossbred steers had the highest percentage yield of fat trim and Holstein steers had the highest percentage yield of bone from the major wholesale cuts. Mean percentage yields of closely trimmed, boneless retail cuts were highest for carcasses from the bulls and lowest for carcasses from the Hereford-Angus steers. Although Holstein steer carcasses had less fat trim than Brahman-crossbred steers mixed-Exotic heifers, this advantage was largely offset by their higher percentage of bone. Loin steaks from carcasses of Charolais crossbred bulls, Holstein, mixed-Exotic heifers were comparable (P > 0·05)with those of Hereford-Angus steers for shear force and sensory panel tenderness ratings. However, loin steaks from carcasses of Brahman-crossbred steers had significantly higher (P 0·05) were found for flavor desirability of loin steaks among any of the groups. For bottom round steaks, Hereford-Angus steers received the highest palatability ratings while those from Holstein steers received the lowest palatability ratings. PMID:22055633

  18. Phosphor Dysprosium-Doped Layered Double Hydroxides Exchanged with Different Organic Functional Groups

    OpenAIRE

    David Ricardo Martínez Vargas; Oviedo, Mariana J.; Fabio da Silva Lisboa; Fernando Wypych; Hirata, Gustavo A.; Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal Arizaga

    2013-01-01

    The layers of a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) were doped with Dy3+ cations. Among some compositions, the Zn2+ : Al3+ : Dy3+ molar ratio equal to 30 : 9 : 1 presented a single crystalline phase. Organic anions with carboxylic, amino, sulfate, or phosphate functional groups were intercalated as single layers between LDH layers as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of the nitrate intercalated LDH showed a wide emission band with strong inte...

  19. Differences between immigrant and non-immigrant groups in the use of primary medical care; a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foets Marleen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on differences between immigrant and non-immigrant groups in health care utilization vary with respect to the extent and direction of differences in use. Therefore, our study aimed to provide a systematic overview of the existing research on differences in primary care utilization between immigrant groups and the majority population. Methods For this review PubMed, PsycInfo, Cinahl, Sociofile, Web of Science and Current Contents were consulted. Study selection and quality assessment was performed using a predefined protocol by 2 reviewers independently of each other. Only original, quantitative, peer-reviewed papers were taken into account. To account for this hierarchical structure, logistic multilevel analyses were performed to examine the extent to which differences are found across countries and immigrant groups. Differences in primary care use were related to study characteristics, strength of the primary care system and methodological quality. Results A total of 37 studies from 7 countries met all inclusion criteria. Remarkably, studies performed within the US more often reported a significant lower use among immigrant groups as compared to the majority population than the other countries. As studies scored higher on methodological quality, the likelihood of reporting significant differences increased. Adjustment for health status and use of culture-/language-adjusted procedures during the data collection were negatively related to reporting significant differences in the studies. Conclusion Our review underlined the need for careful design in studies of differences in health care use between immigrant groups and the majority population. The results from studies concerning differences between immigrant and the majority population in primary health care use performed within the US might be interpreted as a reflection of a weaker primary care system in the US compared to Europe and Canada.

  20. Mortality forecast from gastroduodenal ulcer disease for different gender and age population groups in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzhiy I.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 2030 the ulcer mortality will have a growing trend as estimated by the World Health Organization. Detection of countries and population groups with high risks for the ulcer mortality is possible using forecast method. The authors made a forecast of mortality rate from complicated ulcer disease in males and females and their age groups (15-24, 25-34, 35-54, 55-74, over 75, 15 - over 75 in our country. The study included data of the World Health Organization Database from 1991 to 2012. The work analyzed absolute all-Ukrainian numbers of persons of both genders died from the ulcer causes (К25-К27 coded by the 10th International Diseases Classification. The relative mortality per 100 000 of alive persons of the same age was calculated de novo. The analysis of distribution laws and their estimation presents a trend of growth of the relative mortality. A remarkable increase of deaths from the ulcer disease is observed in males and females of the age after 55 years old. After the age of 75 years this trend is more expressed.

  1. Solubility studies of inorganic–organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry. The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists.

  2. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Frey, Beat [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch

    2008-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils.

  3. Solubility studies of inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticle photoresists with different surface functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chakrabarty, Souvik; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Ober, Christopher; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2016-01-21

    The solubility behavior of Hf and Zr based hybrid nanoparticles with different surface ligands in different concentrations of photoacid generator as potential EUV photoresists was investigated in detail. The nanoparticles regardless of core or ligand chemistry have a hydrodynamic diameter of 2-3 nm and a very narrow size distribution in organic solvents. The Hansen solubility parameters for nanoparticles functionalized with IBA and 2MBA have the highest contribution from the dispersion interaction than those with tDMA and MAA, which show more polar character. The nanoparticles functionalized with unsaturated surface ligands showed more apparent solubility changes after exposure to DUV than those with saturated ones. The solubility differences after exposure are more pronounced for films containing a higher amount of photoacid generator. The work reported here provides material selection criteria and processing strategies for the design of high performance EUV photoresists. PMID:26695121

  4. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  5. Differences in survival on chronic dialysis treatment between ethnic groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Beukel, Tessa O; Hommel, Kristine; Kamper, Anne-Lise;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Western countries, black and Asian dialysis patients experience better survival compared with white patients. The aim of this study is to compare the survival of native Danish dialysis patients with that of dialysis patients originating from other countries and to explore...... the association between the duration of residence in Denmark before the start of dialysis and the mortality on dialysis. METHODS: We performed a population-wide national cohort study of incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark (≥18 years old) who started dialysis between 1995 and 2010. RESULTS: In total......, 8459 patients were native Danes, 344 originated from other Western countries, 79 from North Africa or West Asia, 173 from South or South-East Asia and 54 from sub-Saharan Africa. Native Danes were more likely to die on dialysis compared with the other groups (crude incidence rates for mortality: 234...

  6. Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among nonrevascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual anti-platelet treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated for most patients after myocardial infarction. We examined the risk/benefit relationship of dual anti-platelet treatment according to age in a nationwide cohort of 30,532 myocardial infarction patients without...... revascularization. METHODS: Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all...... included (mean age 67.02 (±13.8) years and 64.7% males). Use of dual anti-platelet treatment decreased with age: 80% (79 years). We found a reduced risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in users

  7. [Antipsychotics of different clinical/pharmacological groups in treatment of negative disorders in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, D S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of using different anti psychotics in treatment of negative disorders in schizophrenia is considered. Mechanisms of the development of "antinegative" effect during treatment with typical neuroleptics, atypical neuroleptics with dopamine-serotonin activity and atypical neuroleptics (partial dopamine receptor agonists) are analyzed. Their efficacy is discussed in the comparative context. In conclusion, a differential approach to schizophrenia treatment is suggested.

  8. Are Korean Patients Different from Other Ethnic Groups in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Kyoon; Seo, Min-Chul; Song, Sang-Joon; Kim, Kang-Il

    2015-12-01

    Most of the implants used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asian patients have been produced based on anthropometry of Western people. Since anatomic features and life styles are different between Western and Eastern people, there would be ethnic differences in terms of conformity of implants to the patient's anatomy or clinical results after TKA. Therefore, surgeons in Asia are particularly interested in related surgical techniques and implant designs used in TKA for improved clinical results and patient satisfaction. In this review, we investigated the anthropometric differences of Koreans from Westerners. Koreans are of shorter stature, less weight, and smaller skeletal structure and have a higher incidence of constitutional varus alignment of the lower extremity. Moreover, compared to Westerner TKA populations, the proportion of female patients was large and primary osteoarthritis was prevalent in preoperative diagnosis in Korean TKA patients. Culturally, Koreans have life styles that demand high flexion positions of the knee such as squatting, kneeling, and cross-legged sitting. Although there were no notable differences in the complication and revision rates following TKA between Westerners and Koreans, the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism was lower in Koreans than Westerners. We hope that further research on implant designs and more interest in TKA will improve outcomes in Korean patients.

  9. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  10. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  11. Differences in Earnings by Language Groups in Quebec, 1970: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Francois

    This work puts forward a framework that takes into account the roles of the languages known by an individual in explaining his labor earnings. First, two different strands of literature are surveyed: (1) the material on labor earnings determination viewed through capital, discrimination, and supply and demand type models; and (2) the works on what…

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder and health: a preliminary study of group differences in health and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Lindamer, Laurie A.; Mostoufi, Sheeva; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to undertake harmful health behaviors like substance use. Less is known about the association of PTSD with healthful behaviors such as healthy diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine differences across physical health indicators and health behaviors in individuals with and without PTSD. Methods A cross...

  13. Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of the Beck Depression Inventory II across Gender Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance (i.e., configural invariance, metric invariance, scalar invariance) of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II-C) across college males and females and compared gender differences on depression at the latent factor mean level. Two samples composed of 402 male college students and 595…

  14. Individuals from different-looking animal species may group together to confuse shared predators: simulations with artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Colin R; Jackson, Andrew L; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2007-03-22

    Individuals of many quite distantly related animal species find each other attractive and stay together for long periods in groups. We present a mechanism for mixed-species grouping in which individuals from different-looking prey species come together because the appearance of the mixed-species group is visually confusing to shared predators. Using an artificial neural network model of retinotopic mapping in predators, we train networks on random projections of single- and mixed-species prey groups and then test the ability of networks to reconstruct individual prey items from mixed-species groups in a retinotopic map. Over the majority of parameter space, cryptic prey items benefit from association with conspicuous prey because this particular visual combination worsens predator targeting of cryptic individuals. However, this benefit is not mutual as conspicuous prey tends to be targeted most poorly when in same-species groups. Many real mixed-species groups show the asymmetry in willingness to initiate and maintain the relationship predicted by our study. The agreement of model predictions with published empirical work, the efficacy of our modelling approach in previous studies, and the taxonomic ubiquity of retinotopic maps indicate that we may have uncovered an important, generic selective agent in the evolution of mixed-species grouping. PMID:17251090

  15. Accurate ab initio spin densities

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Legeza, Örs; Reiher, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach for the calculation of spin density distributions for molecules that require very large active spaces for a qualitatively correct description of their electronic structure. Our approach is based on the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm to calculate the spin density matrix elements as basic quantity for the spatially resolved spin density distribution. The spin density matrix elements are directly determined from the second-quantized elementary operators optimized by the DMRG algorithm. As an analytic convergence criterion for the spin density distribution, we employ our recently developed sampling-reconstruction scheme [J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 134, 224101] to build an accurate complete-active-space configuration-interaction (CASCI) wave function from the optimized matrix product states. The spin density matrix elements can then also be determined as an expectation value employing the reconstructed wave function expansion. Furthermore, the explicit reconstruction of a CA...

  16. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain this differences. Therefore we propose that older Fars and Turkmen people may have elevated requirement for

  17. Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. The AIDS in Europe Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Pedersen, C; Clumeck, N;

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the pattern of survival and factors associated with the outcome of disease in patients with AIDS. DESIGN--Inception cohort. Data collected retrospectively from patients' charts. SETTING--52 clinical centres in 17 European countries. SUBJECTS--6578 adults diagnosed with AIDS....... The regional differences in survival were less pronounced for patients diagnosed in 1989 compared with earlier years. Improved survival in recent years was observed for patients with a variety of manifestations used to define AIDS but was significant only for patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii...... pneumonia. The three year survival, however, remains unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS--Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term survival has...

  18. Prevalence of cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) disliking among different ethnocultural groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mauer Lilli; El-Sohemy Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cilantro, the leaf of the Coriandrum sativum plant, is an herb that is widely consumed globally and has purported health benefits ranging from antibacterial to anticancer activities. Some individuals report an extreme dislike for cilantro, and this may explain the different cilantro consumption habits between populations. However, the prevalence of cilantro dislike has not previously been reported in any population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalen...

  19. A COMPARISON OF SENSATION SEEKING AMONG DIFFERENT GROUPS OF ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Kooshan; Fahimeh Keyvanlou; Mohammad Sayed Ahmadi; Akbar Pajouhan

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the differences in sensation seeking and it’s components between athletesand non- athletes students. Methods and materials: In these descriptive analytical study 160students (80 athletic students and 80 non-athletic students) with average age of 22 years selectedrandomly from students of azad university of mashhad. Sensation seeking scale V (SSS; form V)developed by Zackerman and cognitive questionnaire were used for data collection. The obtaineddata were analyzed in SP...

  20. LABORATORY TESTING RESULTS ANALYSIS OF GIARDIASIS PREVALENCE AMONG DIFFERENT POPULATION GROUPS IN THE NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    N. S. Bobyreva; G. N. Degteva

    2015-01-01

    The Nenets Autonomous District (NAD) refers to the territories of the Russia’s Far North. The country is the only region of Russia, where there are still no roads. The extreme weather conditions, as well as residential patterns in the NAD reduce the availability of specialized medical care, as indigenous people and other nationalities living in the district, which requires the use of health care management specific forms. The article presents data on giardiasis studies amongst different categ...

  1. Comparative characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from different age groups of cynomolgus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Y.Alex

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BM-MSCs) are a potential tool for cell therapy and tissue engineering.In this study,we carried on a comparative study of the characteristics of MSCs from different age cynomolgus monkeys.A variety of factors,including donor age,must be considered before further applications,and various tests should be used to properly assess MSCs before the clinical application,especially when a prolonged culture and ex vivo expansion is necessary.

  2. Volumetric behaviour of amino acids and their group contributions in aqueous lactose solutions at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Amalendu, E-mail: palchem@sify.co [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India); Chauhan, Nalin [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Densities, {rho}, for glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, and L-leucine [(0.05 to 0.30) m] in aqueous lactose solutions ranging from pure water to 6 mass% lactose were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. The density was used to compute apparent molar volume, V{sub {phi}}, partial molar volume at infinite dilution, V{sub {phi}}{sup o}, and experimental slope, S{sub V} were obtained and interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions. These data were used to calculate the ({partial_derivative}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}/{partial_derivative}T){sub P} values. The partial molar volume of transfer, {Delta}V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} from water to aqueous lactose solutions at infinite dilution has also been calculated. In addition to this, the linear correlation of V{sub {phi}}{sup 0} with number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids was utilized to determine the respective contributions of NH{sub 3}{sup +}COO{sup -}, and CH{sub 2} groups to V{sub {phi}}{sup 0}.

  3. Welfare Balance of Different Interest Groups During Rural-urban Land Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Kaili; Zhang Peng; Zhang Anlu

    2009-01-01

    Rural-urban land conversion is currently a common social economic phenomenon during the process of economic development and rural urbanization in China.Rural-urban land conversion is positively effective as far as social and economic benefits are concerned (Yang,2002),but its negative effect is also evident,resulting in such problems as low efficiency of rural land configuration and loss of social welfare.Consequently,farmers should also have an equal chance to enjoy the social welfare enhanced by land conversion.Based on the theories of welfare economy,this paper puts forward policy suggestions by discussing the welfare changes of various interest groups,builds the model of welfare distribution,and analyzes the conditions of maximizing social welfare.The absolute and opposite value of social welfare is closely related with the speed of rural-urban land conversion,and governments should give farmers and collectives fair compensation to make up for the utility loss caused by land expropriation,which are conclusions drawn from this paper.This study aims to provide a theoretical basis for regulating targets and evaluation criteria,realizing the mechanism and implementation of public polices during rural-urban land conversion.

  4. Distribution of anionic groups at the cell surface of different Sporothrix schenckii cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, M; de Souza, W; Travassos, L R

    1979-06-01

    The distribution of anionic groups at the cell surface of yeastlike forms, hyphae, and conidia of Sporothrix schenckii was studied by staining with colloidal iron hydroxide and cationized ferritin. By using colloidal iron hydroxide it was shown that the external cell wall layer of one strain (strain 1099.18) could be resolved into two reactive sublayers and that these layers were present in many but not all cells of the same population. In contrast, most cells of another strain (strain 1099.12) were stained by colloidal iron hydroxide, but only one reactive layer was seen. Acidic layers of the yeastlike forms of the two strains were much thicker than those of conidia and hyphae. By the cationized ferritin staining procedure it was observed that the acidic layers of yeast forms sloughed off of cells, probably due to cell-cell or cell-medium attrition in shaken submerged cultures or to a process by which the outer layers detach from cells as they are replaced by newly synthesized ones. The colloidal iron hydroxide- and cationized ferritin-reactive cell surface layers of S. schenckii correspond to the previously described (L. R. Travassos et al., Exp. Mycol. 1:293-305, 1977) concanavalin A-reactive peptidorhamnomannan complexes, and their reactivity is probably due to the presence of acidic amino acids of low pK values rather than to glucuronic acid units.

  5. Phosphor Dysprosium-Doped Layered Double Hydroxides Exchanged with Different Organic Functional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ricardo Martínez Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were doped with Dy3+ cations. Among some compositions, the Zn2+ : Al3+ : Dy3+ molar ratio equal to 30 : 9 : 1 presented a single crystalline phase. Organic anions with carboxylic, amino, sulfate, or phosphate functional groups were intercalated as single layers between LDH layers as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra of the nitrate intercalated LDH showed a wide emission band with strong intensity in the yellow region (around 574 nm, originated due to symmetry distortion of the octahedral coordination in dysprosium centers. Moreover, a broad red band emission was also detected apparently due to the presence of zinc oxide. The distorted symmetry of the dysprosium coordination environment, also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, was modified after the intercalation with phenyl phosphonate (PP, aspartate (Asp, adipate (Adip, and serinate (Ser anions; the emission as measured from PL spectra of these LDH was more intense in the blue region (ca. 486 nm, thus indicating an increase in symmetry of dysprosium octahedrons. The red emission band from zinc oxide kept the same intensity after intercalation of dodecyl sulfate (DDS. An additional emission of unknown origin at λ = 767 nm was present in all LDHs.

  6. Flashbulb memories of the Pope's resignation: explicit and implicit measures across differing religious groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Maddalena, Chiara; Mastandrea, Stefano; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we aimed to provide evidence in support of the idea tested in a recent study by Lanciano and colleagues that flashbulb memories (FBMs) are a special class of autobiographical memories that can be assessed through the autobiographical implicit association test (aIAT). FBMs and event memories (EMs) for the news of the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI were evaluated in three samples of churchgoer Catholic, non-churchgoer Catholic and Evangelical Italian participants through the traditional self-report measures (specificity/accuracy, confidence, consistency) and aIAT indices. Results confirmed the strength of the association between FBM and true information. The aIAT effect was stronger for FBMs than for EM details, and for Catholic respondents who were the group most concerned by the original event. Furthermore, the use of implicit measures for memory assessment concurs with the traditional self-report indices of FBMs. The present evidence supports the idea that FBMs are special autobiographical memories which remain detailed, certain and consistent over time. PMID:24787135

  7. Racial differences in responses to therapy with interferon in chronic hepatitis C. Consensus Interferon Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K R; Hoofnagle, J H; Tong, M J; Lee, W M; Pockros, P; Heathcote, E J; Albert, D; Joh, T

    1999-09-01

    The likelihood of a sustained response to a course of interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis C correlates with several clinical and viral factors, including age, viral genotype and initial levels of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum. The role of race and ethnicity has not been assessed. We evaluated the association of race with response to interferon in a large randomized, controlled trial using either consensus interferon (9 microg) or interferon alfa-2b (3 million units) given three times weekly for 24 weeks. African-American patients participating in the study were similar to white patients in mean age (43 vs. 42 years) and baseline levels of HCV RNA (3.6 vs. 3.0 million copies/mL) but had lower rates of cirrhosis (5% vs. 12%) and more frequently had viral genotype 1 (88% vs. 66%: P =.004). Most strikingly, the rates of end-of-treatment and sustained virological responses were lower among the 40 African-American patients (5% and 2%) than among the 380 white patients (33% and 12%) (P =.04 and.07). Rates of response among Hispanic and Asian-American patients were not statistically different than non-Hispanic white patients. Median viral levels decreased by week 24 of therapy by 2.5 logs in white patients (from 3.0 to 0.012 million copies/mL) but by only 0.5 logs among African- American patients (from 3.6 to 1.8 million copies/mL). Thus, there are marked racial differences in virological responses to interferon in hepatitis C that must be considered in assessing trials of interferon therapy and in counseling patients regarding treatment. The differences in response rates are as yet unexplained. PMID:10462387

  8. Laboratory tests for group and individual exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slugs to different molluscicide baits

    OpenAIRE

    Bojan Stojnić; Marina Vukša; Goran Jokić

    2008-01-01

    Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983) and Wiktor (1989). The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% rela...

  9. Different dispersions of group II catalysts over SBA 15 and MCM-41: Effects on transesterification reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, James A; Sherry, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Activities of CaO catalysts on SBA-15 and MCM-41 have been compared in transesterification and SBA-15 supported samples invariably more active than those on MCM-41. Increased activity is not due to diffusional effects (as measured using substrates of differing size) but rather to increased dispersion of CaO on SBA-15 (as measured using NOx TPD). The effect, i.e. increased reactivity of SBA-15 supported catalysts being related to increased dispersion, is also noted in supported BaO catalysts w...

  10. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    OpenAIRE

    Barwais, Faisal A; Cuddihy, Thomas F.; Tomson, L Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relat...

  11. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways. PMID:24944164

  12. EFFICACY OF CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT AND PROBING IN CONGENITAL NASO LACRIMAL DUCT OBSTRUCTION IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUP OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Congenital naso lacrimal duct obstruction is one of the common congenital anomaly. This condition affects nearly 20% of all newborns. Most of the cases are self resolving but cases where it persists can be cured by probing. AIMS: The present study was conducted to find out the efficacy of conservative treatment and probing in different age group of children. MATERIAL: 48 children (24 children in Group A and 24 children in Group B with unilateral involvement were included in study. Children were divided into 2 groups. In group A children up to age of 1 year were included, they were treated conservatively with massage and topical antibiotics. In group B children between ages 1 year – 2 years were included, they underwent probing. Success of Conservative management and Probing was the main outcome measure. Success was predefined as complete resolution of symptoms and signs; tearing, crusting, discharge, regurgitation on pressure over lacrimal sac area. RESULT: In group A, success rate was (91.67%, 22 out of 24 children were relieved of symptoms with conservative treatment of massage over nasolacrimal sac area and topical antibiotics. In group B, success rate was (83.33%, 17 out of 24 children were relieved of symptoms by 1st probing (70.83%; 3 out of 24 children were relieved of symptoms by 2nd probing (12.5%. CONCLUSION: In our study the success rate of Group A and Group B are almost similar. Hence we conclude that conservative management by massage can be done safely up to 1 year of age, the reason being most of the cases (91.67% were resolved within the first year of life with it; never the less success of probing in second year of age too is highly successful and the success rate does not vary significantly (83.33%. Hence it is best to recommend probing in a child 1 year of age or more

  13. Climatic and Catchment-Scale Predictors of Chinese Stream Insect Richness Differ between Taxonomic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Jonathan D; Shah, Deep Narayan; Kuemmerlen, Mathias; Li, Fengqing; Cai, Qinghua; Haase, Peter; Jähnig, Sonja C

    2015-01-01

    Little work has been done on large-scale patterns of stream insect richness in China. We explored the influence of climatic and catchment-scale factors on stream insect (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera; EPT) richness across mid-latitude China. We assessed the predictive ability of climatic, catchment land cover and physical structure variables on genus richness of EPT, both individually and combined, in 80 mid-latitude Chinese streams, spanning a 3899-m altitudinal gradient. We performed analyses using boosted regression trees and explored the nature of their influence on richness patterns. The relative importance of climate, land cover, and physical factors on stream insect richness varied considerably between the three orders, and while important for Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera, latitude did not improve model fit for any of the groups. EPT richness was linked with areas comprising high forest cover, elevation and slope, large catchments and low temperatures. Ephemeroptera favoured areas with high forest cover, medium-to-large catchment sizes, high temperature seasonality, and low potential evapotranspiration. Plecoptera richness was linked with low temperature seasonality and annual mean, and high slope, elevation and warm-season rainfall. Finally, Trichoptera favoured high elevation areas, with high forest cover, and low mean annual temperature, seasonality and aridity. Our findings highlight the variable role that catchment land cover, physical properties and climatic influences have on stream insect richness. This is one of the first studies of its kind in Chinese streams, thus we set the scene for more in-depth assessments of stream insect richness across broader spatial scales in China, but stress the importance of improving data availability and consistency through time.

  14. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict.Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data.Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  15. Investigation of Brand Name-Country of Origin Preference in Four Different Product Groups with Respect to Conspicuous Consumption Tendency

    OpenAIRE

    Volkan Doğan; Behçet Yalın Özkara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine different preferences for brand name–country of origin shaped in line with levels of conspicuous consumption tendency and to determine Turkish consumers’ preferences for brand name–country of origin combinations in different product groups. The study was conducted in Eskisehir (Turkey) with a sample of 413 people chosen through convenience sampling. The study data were collected with a questionnaire and face-face-to interviews. The participants’ preferences...

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women’s cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a seco...

  17. Nutrition and fatty acid composition in different botanical groups of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea. L in ICRISAT mini core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapati Mukri , ,Shridevi Jakkeral and H.L Nadaf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for enhanced nutritional quality is need of the hour. India not only needs increased quantity of food to feed the growing population but also quality food to mitigate hidden hunger. Oil is the major energy source of the Indian diet. Chemical composition of oil decides its edible nature. Even in edible oil fatty acid composition in general and ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid of the oil plays major role in deciding its quality. In India, availability of breeding line to improve groundnut oil quality is limited. Screening of different botanical group may give some idea about choice of material for further crop improvement program. In present study botanical group hypogaea, found to have higher amount of oleic acid and fastigiata group recorded high protein and oil content. Growing season also matters in the expression of different fatty acid. Rainy season is found to have better for the better expression of all studied traits.

  18. [Search of heavy metals biosorbents among yeasts of different taxonomic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovaia, O G; Kasatkina, T P; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2004-01-01

    The use of microbial cells as heavy metal biosorbents is a potential alternative for the existing methods of the environment treatment for pollution by these metals. Yeast may be successfully used in the metals sorption. An agar-plate screening method was used for rapid isolation of metal-accumulating strains of yeast and preliminary estimation of their biosorption capacity. The capacity to accumulate heavy metals, such as copper, zinc, lead, chrome and cobalt was estimated in 68 pigmented and pigmentless yeast strains isolated from different sources. The best capacity of copper and zinc accumulation was shown by pink-coloured Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Rhodotorula aurantiaca, Rhodotorula glutinis and pigmentless strains of the yeast Candida krusei, Williopsis california.

  19. The Factorial Validity of The Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey in Representative Samples of Eight Different Occupational Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Falkum, Erik; Innstrand, Siw Tone; Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow

    2006-01-01

    The Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey (MBI-GS) is designed to measure the three subdimensions (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) of burnout in a wide range of occupations. This article examines the factorial validity of the MBI-GS across eight different occupational groups in Norway: lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers,…

  20. Using Group-Inquiry to Study Differing Reaction Conditions in the E2 Elimination of Cyclohexyl Halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment, students individually conduct one of several variations of an E2 dehydrohalogenation reaction on a cyclohexyl halide substrate for 30 min, which is sufficient only for a partial reaction to occur. The variations examine reaction conditions including different leaving groups, decreased reaction temperature, or reduced base…

  1. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...

  2. Promoting Awareness of Learner Diversity in Prospective Teachers: Signaling Individual and Group Differences within Virtual Classroom Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roxana; Abercrombie, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We investigated two methods to promote prospective teachers' awareness of learner diversity and application of teaching principles using a problem-based learning environment. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of presenting a conceptual framework about learners' individual and group differences either before or after instruction on teaching…

  3. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  4. Motivation and learner variables: Group differences in college foreign language learners' motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Yin Sung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers surveyed 130 language learners enrolled in first-year foreign language classrooms in a public university in Utah, United States. This study intended to address the following research questions: (1 What motivational factors are found among learners enrolled in first-year foreign language courses at the university level in the United States?, (2 Do first-year language learners' motivations differ based on the following learner variables: (a gender, (b language being learned, (c major, and (d religion? and (3 What motivational factors predict learners' interest in continuing foreign language learning? Factor analysis, MANOVA, and multiple regressions were run to answer the questions. The factor analysis results found seven motivational factors: positive learning attitudes/experience and intended efforts, interest in culture, travel, and people, interest in contemporary cultural media, milieu, instrumentality, language requirement, and religion. The MANOVA results showed that major and religion had significant effects on motivation. The results of the multiple regression test indicated that two motivational factors, positive learning attitudes/experience and intended efforts, and interest in culture, travel, and people, predicted the participants' interest in future L2 study.

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL AMORTIZATION FACTORS FOR MEDIA IMPACT IN DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN FROM DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Makhovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to analyze the domestic and foreign psychological researches on influence of TV-programs on social, cognitive and emotional development of children. Methods. Methods involve a comparative historical and psychological analysis of papers, manuscripts and archival records of television companies. Results. The present study demonstrates that educational television, subsequently on-line resources for children, affect operative cognitive functions, increase cognitive motivation, and contribute to the formation of other important cognitive and social skills. However, the impact on children on-screen resources depends on the status and education level of the family. Scientific novelty. Much attention is given to the fact that it is the first attempt to provide historical and psychological analysis of world-wide studies of the effects of children’s television, from the main countries-producers of TV and video programs for children of different age – Russia, USA, Germany, France, Israel, etc. Criteria and matrix for comparison of heterogeneous researches, the domestic theory of child development, cultural-historical approach, the theory of stage formation of mental actions, activity theory had been chosen. Practical significance of the research is that these criteria can be used to assess any of the videos, their educational potential. Psychologists involved in the process of television production, this article will help to simulate the learning process taking into account the age of the children and their socio-cultural origin. 

  6. Different patterns of evolution for duplicated DNA repair genes in bacteria of the Xanthomonadales group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aires Karina A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA repair genes encode proteins that protect organisms against genetic damage generated by environmental agents and by-products of cell metabolism. The importance of these genes in life maintenance is supported by their high conservation, and the presence of duplications of such genes may be easily traced, especially in prokaryotic genomes. Results The genome sequences of two Xanthomonas species were used as the basis for phylogenetic analyses of genes related to DNA repair that were found duplicated. Although 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyses confirm their classification at the basis of the gamma proteobacteria subdivision, differences were found in the origin of the various genes investigated. Except for lexA, detected as a recent duplication, most of the genes in more than one copy are represented by two highly divergent orthologs. Basically, one of such duplications is frequently positioned close to other gamma proteobacteria, but the second is often positioned close to unrelated bacteria. These orthologs may have occurred from old duplication events, followed by extensive gene loss, or were originated from lateral gene transfer (LGT, as is the case of the uvrD homolog. Conclusions Duplications of DNA repair related genes may result in redundancy and also improve the organisms' responses to environmental challenges. Most of such duplications, in Xanthomonas, seem to have arisen from old events and possibly enlarge both functional and evolutionary genome potentiality.

  7. Multidrug resistance phenotypes are widespread over different bacterial taxonomic groups thriving in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-09-01

    The environment is the original and most ancient source of the antibiotic resistance determinants that threat the human health nowadays. In the environment, water is a privileged habitat and mode of dissemination of bacteria of different origins. Freshwater bodies that cross urban areas are supposed to hold a complex mixture of both human/animal origin and strictly environmental bacteria. In this study, we were interested in unveiling the bacterial diversity in urban river transects and, simultaneously, investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, in particular the multidrug resistant (MDR). With this aim, water and sediments of two rivers were sampled from an urban transect and the bacterial diversity was assessed based on 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis and, simultaneously, total heterotrophic bacteria were isolated in the presence and in the absence of antibiotics. The three predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, in water, or Acidobacteria, in sediments. MDR bacteria were observed to belong to the predominant phyla observed in water, mostly of the classes Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria (Proteobacteria) and Sphingobacteriia and Flavobacteriia (Bacteroidetes) and belonged to genera of ubiquitous (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas) or mainly environmental (Chitinophaga, Chryseobacterium) bacteria. The observation that MDR bacteria are widespread in the environment and over distinct phylogenetic lineages has two relevant implications: i) the potential of environmental bacteria as source or facilitators for antibiotic resistance acquisition; ii) the need to complement culture-independent methods with culture-based approaches in order to identify major sources of MDR profiles. PMID:27131885

  8. Amount of cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube in women of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Shadlinskaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the amount of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube in women of different age. The transverse sections of one-third of each part of uterine tube from 116 women (from newborn to senile age were studied. The sections were colored by gematoksilin-eosin, by van Gizon, by Brashe, azur-2-eosine, by Qrimelius. The amount of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube increased till the age of 16-20 and remained at high level further on till the age of 35. The quantity of lymphoid cells of diffuse lymphoid tissue of uterine tube changed according to the age and localization throughout the organ. The presence of diffused lymphoid tissue of uterine tube depended on the state of reproductive function of female organism. In the phase of desquamation there was minimal quantity of lymphoid tissue and in the phase of secretion there was maximal quantity of lymphoid tissue

  9. Who directs group movement? Leader effort versus follower preference in stickleback fish of different personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shinnosuke; Harcourt, Jennifer L; Johnstone, Rufus A; Manica, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    During collective movement, bolder individuals often emerge as leaders. Here, we investigate whether this reflects a greater propensity of bold individuals to initiate movement, or a preference for shy individuals to follow a bolder leader. We set up trios of stickleback fish comprising a focal individual who was either bold or shy, and one other individual of each personality. We then recorded the movements of all individuals in and out of cover in a foraging context to determine how assiduously the focal fish followed the movements of each other partner. We found that a shy focal fish preferred to follow a leader whose personality matched its own, but we did not detect such a difference in bold fish. Despite this preference, however, the greater propensity of bold individuals to initiate movements out of cover meant that they successfully led more joint trips. Thus, when offered a choice of leaders, sticklebacks prefer to follow individuals whose personality matches their own, but bolder individuals may, nevertheless, be able to impose their leadership, even among shy followers, simply through greater effort.

  10. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Shaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N=1997 and Pennsylvania (PA, N=1080 by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p<0.001. However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT, although women had more dental restorations (p<0.001 and men had more current decay (p<0.001. These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men.

  11. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  12. The validity of clinical findings for diagnosing temporomandibular disorders in patients from different age and gender groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of clinical findings for internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) compared with that of magnetic resonance imaging. A series of 4559 patients (879 male and 3680 female, mean age 32.7 years; range 8-85 years;) with temporomandibular disorders were clinically examined by un unspecified number of dentists. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The clinical findings that characterize disc displacement, anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDwR) and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDwoR) are pain, clicking sound and limitation of maximum mouth opening. These clinical findings were compared to the MRI interpretation, which was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders to define the diagnostic accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of clinical findings. The prevalence of clinical finding was 3990 joints (43%) with pain, 2775 joints (30%) with clicking sound and 1731 patients (38%) with limitation of opening. Three thousands forty seven joints were diagnosed as having a normal disc position, 510 joints with sideways disc displacement, 2312 joints with ADDwR, 3239 joints with ADDwoR on MR image. The sensitivity of clinical findings was considerably low: sensitivity was 0.48 for pain versus internal derangement, 0.51 for clicking sound versus ADDwR, 0.62 for limitation of opening versus ADDwoR. The sensitivity was higher in the younger group for clicking sound versus ADDwR, but sensitivity was higher in the older group for limitation of opening versus ADDwoR. The diagnostic accuracy based on clinical findings of internal derangement of TMJ was found to be correlated with age. This study has been that the overall diagnostic accuracy of the clinical findings to determine the status of the joint is about 50-60%. The status of the joint could not be accurately determined by clinical findings

  13. The impact of global warming on the range distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güizado-Rodríguez, Martha Anahí; Ballesteros-Barrera, Claudia; Casas-Andreu, Gustavo; Barradas-Miranda, Victor Luis; Téllez-Valdés, Oswaldo; Salgado-Ugarte, Isaías Hazarmabeth

    2012-12-01

    The ectothermic nature of reptiles makes them especially sensitive to global warming. Although climate change and its implications are a frequent topic of detailed studies, most of these studies are carried out without making a distinction between populations. Here we present the first study of an Aspidoscelis species that evaluates the effects of global warming on its distribution using ecological niche modeling. The aims of our study were (1) to understand whether predicted warmer climatic conditions affect the geographic potential distribution of different climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata and (2) to identify potential altitudinal changes of these groups under global warming. We used the maximum entropy species distribution model (MaxEnt) to project the potential distributions expected for the years 2020, 2050, and 2080 under a single simulated climatic scenario. Our analysis suggests that some climatic groups of Aspidoscelis costata costata will exhibit reductions and in others expansions in their distribution, with potential upward shifts toward higher elevation in response to climate warming. Different climatic groups were revealed in our analysis that subsequently showed heterogeneous responses to climatic change illustrating the complex nature of species geographic responses to environmental change and the importance of modeling climatic or geographic groups and/or populations instead of the entire species' range treated as a homogeneous entity.

  14. Deletion of TTTTA in 5'UTR of goat MSTN gene and its distribution in different population groups and genetic effect on bodyweight at different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianglong LI; Zhengzhu LIU; Rongyan ZHOU; Guiru ZHENG; Yuanfang GONG; Lanhui LI

    2008-01-01

    A total of 436 goat samples from twenty-six populations were scanned for single nucleotide polymor-phisms (SNPs) in 5'UTR of goat MSTN gene using sequen-cing and the polymerase chain reaction technique combined with restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The deletion of TTTTA found in 5'UTR of goat MSTN gene was conserved in different species and might be a unique mutation in goats. The Foreign Group and the Boer Goat backcrossed offspring had the highest and smallest genetic diversity of this mutation respectively, and also with the smallest and highest heterozygosity defi-ciency respectively. The genetic diversity of this mutation for the South Group of Chinese indigenous goat breeds was higher than that of the North Group, and the South Group had the smaller heterozygosity deficiency than the North Group. The estimated marginal means based on the modified population marginal mean and pairwise com-parison between significant pairs showed that there was a trend that genotype AA had a significant effect on body weight and size from birth to four-month old (P<0.05 or P<0.01). It could be inferred that the deletion of TTTTA in 5'UTR of goat MSTN gene had a significant effect on body weight and size.

  15. Age-related differences in functional nodes of the brain cortex - a high model order group ICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Littow

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so called resting state networks (RSN of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. 168 healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 yrs, 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6yrs , and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 yrs, all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70 were calculated and dual regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN’s spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN’s reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs.

  16. Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated risk factors in rural and urban populations of different ethnic groups in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.;

    2009-01-01

    sample of Luo, Kamba, Maasai, and an ethnically mixed group from rural and urban Kenya. Diabetes and IGT were diagnosed using a standard OGTT. BMI, WC, AFA, AMA and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat thicknesses, physical activity and fitness were measured. Questionnaires were used to determine...... intolerance among the rural ethnic groups. High BMI, WC, AFA, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, low fitness and physical activity, frequent alcohol consumption, and urban residence were associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT among different Kenyan...

  17. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Amit Kr; Tchounwou, Paul B; Tuluri, Francis

    2016-03-29

    Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers) and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)'s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR) for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O₃). The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts.

  18. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Prevalence in Different Population Groups Residing in Eastern Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kr. Gorai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been an on-going research focus due to its detrimental impact on human health. However, its specific effects on asthma prevalence in different age groups, genders and races are not well understood. Thus, the present study was designed to examine the association between selected air pollutants and asthma prevalence in different population groups during 2010 in the eastern part of Texas, USA.The pollutants considered were particulate matter (PM2.5 with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers and surface ozone. The population groups were categorized based on age, gender, and race. County-wise asthma hospital discharge data for different age, gender, and racial groups were obtained from Texas Asthma Control Program, Office of Surveillance, Evaluation and Research, Texas Department of State Health Services. The annual means of the air pollutants were obtained from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA’s air quality system data mart program. Pearson correlation analyzes were conducted to examine the relationship between the annual mean concentrations of pollutants and asthma discharge rates (ADR for different age groups, genders, and races. The results reveal that there is no significant association or relationship between ADR and exposure of air pollutants (PM2.5, and O3. The study results showed a positive correlation between PM2.5 and ADR and a negative correlation between ADR and ozone in most of the cases. These correlations were not statistically significant, and can be better explained by considering the local weather conditions. The research findings facilitate identification of hotspots for controlling the most affected populations from further environmental exposure to air pollution, and for preventing or reducing the health impacts.

  19. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  20. Gender and theory of mind in preschoolers' group effort: evidence for timing differences behind children's earliest social loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R Bruce; Thornton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study explored mental state reasoning within the context of group effort and possible differences in development between boys and girls. Preschool children (59 girls, 47 boys) were assessed for theory of mind (ToM) ability using classic false belief tests. Children participated in group effort conditions that alternated from one condition, where individual effort was transparent and obvious, to one where individual effort remained anonymous. The aim was to investigate if emergent mental state reasoning, after controlling for age, was associated with the well-known phenomenon of reduced effort in group tasks ("social loafing"). Girls had slightly higher ToM scores and social loafing than boys. Hierarchical regression, controlling for age, indicated that understanding of others' false beliefs uniquely predicted social loafing and interacted weakly with gender status. PMID:25280164

  1. Tracing sources of suspended sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a Bayesian model: Testing different groups of fingerprinting properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Leticia; Owens, Philip; Petticrew, Ellen; Lobb, David; Koiter, Alexander; Reiffarth, Dominic; Barthod, Louise; Liu, Kui; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of sediment redistribution processes and the main sediment sources within a watershed is needed to support catchment management strategies, to control soil erosion processes, and to preserve water quality and ecological status. The fingerprinting technique is increasingly recognised as a method for establishing the source of the sediment transported within a catchment. However, the different behaviour of the various fingerprinting properties has been recognised as a major limitation of the technique, and the uncertainty associated with tracer selection has to be addressed. Do the different properties give similar results? Can we combine different groups of tracers? This study aims to compare and evaluate the differences between fingerprinting predictions provided by a Bayesian mixing model using different groups of tracer properties for use in sediment source identification. We are employing fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pbex) and geochemical elements as conventional fingerprinting properties, and colour parameters and compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) as emerging properties; both alone and in combination. These fingerprinting properties are being used to determine the proportional contributions of fine sediment in the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural catchment located in south-central Manitoba in Canada. We present preliminary results to evaluate the use of different statistical procedures to increase the accuracy of fingerprinting outputs and establish protocols for the selection of appropriate fingerprint properties.

  2. Different variations of tissue B-group vitamin concentrations in short- and long-term starved rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sano, Mitsue; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged starvation changes energy metabolism; therefore, the metabolic response to starvation is divided into three phases according to changes in glucose, lipid and protein utilisation. B-group vitamins are involved in energy metabolism via metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids. To determine how changes in energy metabolism alter B-group vitamin concentrations during starvation, we measured the concentration of eight kinds of B-group vitamins daily in rat blood, urine and in nine tissues including cerebrum, heart, lung, stomach, kidney, liver, spleen, testis and skeletal muscle during 8 d of starvation. Vitamin B1, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, folate and biotin concentrations in the blood reduced after 6 or 8 d of starvation, and other vitamins did not change. Urinary excretion was decreased during starvation for all B-group vitamins except pantothenic acid and biotin. Less variation in B-group vitamin concentrations was found in the cerebrum and spleen. Concentrations of vitamin B1, vitamin B6, nicotinamide and pantothenic acid increased in the liver. The skeletal muscle and stomach showed reduced concentrations of five vitamins including vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid and folate. Concentrations of two or three vitamins decreased in the kidney, testis and heart, and these changes showed different patterns in each tissue and for each vitamin. The concentration of pantothenic acid rapidly decreased in the heart, stomach, kidney and testis, whereas concentrations of nicotinamide were stable in all tissues except the liver. Different variations in B-group vitamin concentrations in the tissues of starved rats were found. The present findings will lead to a suitable supplementation of vitamins for the prevention of the re-feeding syndrome.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF BRAND NAME-COUNTRY OF ORIGIN PREFERENCE IN FOUR DIFFERENT PRODUCT GROUPS WITH RESPECT TO CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine different preferences for brand name–country of origin shaped in line with levels of conspicuous consumption tendency and to determine Turkish consumers’ preferences for brand name–country of origin combinations in different product groups. The study was conducted in Eskisehir (Turkey with a sample of 413 people chosen through convenience sampling. The study data were collected with a questionnaire and face-face-to interviews. The participants’ preferences for brand name-country of origin combinations were determined separately based on four different product groups(hedonic, utilitarian, durable and non-durable. The study showed that, for all the four product groups, the participants preferred the products with a Turkish brand name and Turkey as the country of origin most, followed by the products with a French brand name and France as the country of origin. This finding suggests that, with respect to the four product groups in the study, Turkish consumers preferred domestic products over foreign products. Also, the participants who preferred French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product were found to have highest tendency of conspicuous consumption in the corresponding product groups. In other words, as the level of conspicuous consumption increased, the participants tended to prefer French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product.

  4. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  5. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation.

  6. Differences in social skills performance between institutionalized juvenile male offenders and a comparable group of boys without offence records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S H

    1981-09-01

    Eighteen institutionalized young male offenders and 18 boys without criminal records, comparable in terms of age, academic performance and social background, were videotaped during a five-minute standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. The videotapes were then subjected to a behavioural analysis of 13 responses which had previously been suggested to be important social skill components. The tapes were also shown to six independent judges who rated each tape in terms of social skills performance, social anxiety, friendliness, and employability. The offender group was found to differ significantly from the non-offender group in terms of the level of eye-contact, head movements, amount spoken, fiddling movements, and gross body movements. The offender group was also rated in significantly less favourably terms on the scales of social skills performance, social anxiety, and employability, compared to the non-offender groups. No significant difference was found in terms of friendliness ratings. Correlation analyses between the specific behavioural measures and the subjective rating scales revealed statistically significant associations between six of the 13 behavioural measures and one or more of the subjective rating scales. The provides some indication of the type of responses important in determining the impression made by adolescent male in an interview situation. PMID:7284650

  7. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  8. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2006-01-01

    groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf......To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy...... and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows. 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg...

  9. What Makes a Difference for Disadvantaged Girls? Investigating the Interplay between Group Composition and Positive Youth Development in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Schaillée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that group composition can influence the experiences of individual group members in social programmes (Weiss, 1998. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between peer group composition in sports programmes and positive youth development (PYD in disadvantaged girls, as well as to determine whether it was moderated by personal characteristics. Two hundred young women aged between 10 and 24 completed a questionnaire including, among others, the “Youth Experience Survey for Sport” (YES-S (MacDonald, Côté, Eys, & Deakin, 2012 and questions regarding participants’ socio-economic characteristics (i.e., nationality, education, family situation. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to take into account the hierarchical data structure. At the group level, a higher percentage of girls from a low educational track and with a migration background predicted greater PYD, as indicated by higher levels of personal and social skills, cognitive skills and goal setting. Results showed interaction effects between the respondents’ family structures on the participant and team levels. The overall statistical models for the different developmental domains accounted for variance ranging from 14.7% (personal and social skills to 30.3% (cognitive skills. Results indicated that the extent to which disadvantaged girls derive benefits from their participation in sport also depends on the group composition. The interaction effects between the group composition and individual characteristics suggest that when girls participate in a group of similar peers, those from non-intact families will derive more benefits than their counterparts from intact families.

  10. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach's transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants' perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts. PMID:27199857

  11. Comparing the Effectiveness of Individual Coaching, Self-Coaching, and Group Training: How Leadership Makes the Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losch, Sabine; Traut-Mattausch, Eva; Mühlberger, Maximilian D; Jonas, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Few empirical studies have used a randomized controlled design to evaluate the impact of coaching, and there are even fewer that have compared coaching with other interventions. In the current field study, we investigated the relative effectiveness of coaching as an intervention to reduce procrastination. In a randomized controlled study, participants (N = 84) were assigned to an individual coaching, a self-coaching, a group training, or a control group condition. Results indicate that individual coaching and group training were effective in reducing procrastination and facilitating goal attainment. Individual coaching created a high degree of satisfaction and was superior in helping participants attaining their goals, whereas group training successfully promoted the acquisition of relevant knowledge. The results for the self-coaching condition show that independently performing exercises without being supported by a coach is not sufficient for high goal attainment. Moreover, mediation analysis show that a coach's transformational and transactional leadership behavior influenced participants' perceived autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, resulting in beneficial coaching outcomes. The results may guide the selection of appropriate human resource development methods: If there is a general need to systematically prepare employees to perform on specific tasks, group training seems appropriate due to lower costs. However, when certain aspects of working conditions or individual development goals are paramount, coaching might be indicated. However, further research is needed to compare the relative effectiveness of coaching with other interventions in different contexts.

  12. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  13. Gait analysis in clinically healthy sheep from three different age groups using a pressure-sensitive walkway

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho Felipe S; Rahal Sheila C; Araújo Fábio A P; Conceição Renato T; Hussni Carlos A; El-Warrak Alexander O; Monteiro Frederico O B

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding normal gait requires allowing for variations in normal patterns by the sex, age, and species in question. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate kinetic and temporospatial parameters in clinically healthy sheep from three different age groups with a pressure-sensing walkway. The sheep were judged to be healthy based on the results of complete physical and orthopaedic examinations and had no history of lameness. Twenty-one clinically healthy female S...

  14. Transcription of ColE1Ap mbeC induced by conjugative plasmids from twelve different incompatibility groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaratnam, S; Gealt, M A

    1993-01-01

    Although nonconjugative mobilizable plasmids require helping functions of conjugative plasmids in order to be mobilized into recipients, at least some genes from the nonconjugative plasmids may be induced to assist in the DNA transfer process. Conjugative plasmids from 12 different incompatibility groups mobilized the nonconjugative plasmid ColE1Ap between Escherichia coli strains. Introduction of any of the conjugative plasmids into the ColE1Ap-containing strain resulted in an induction of m...

  15. Age, gender, mileage and the DBQ: The validity of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire in different driver groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa; Møller, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring selfreported driving behaviors. Despite the popularity of the DBQ, the applicability of the DBQ in different driver groups has remained mostly unexamined. The present study measured aberrant driving...... behavior using the original DBQ (Reason, J.T., Manstead, A., Stradling, S.G., Baxter, J., Campbell, K., 1990. Errors and violations on the road – a real distinction. Ergonomics, 33 (10/11), 1315–1332) to test the factorial validity and reliability of the instrument across different subgroups of Danish...

  16. Composition and quality differences between the longissimus and infraspinatus muscles for several groups of pasture-finished cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Zou, M

    2008-10-01

    Samples of longissimus (LT) and infraspinatus (IS) muscles from five contrasting groups of pasture-finished cattle (n=7/group) were assessed for quality and composition characteristics in order to determine whether features of pasture-finished beef reported previously apply across different muscles and different classes of cattle. The cattle were not raised together or slaughtered at the same time. Wagyu-cross steers had the highest intramuscular fat levels, particularly in the LT, followed by Angus steers, Charolais-cross steers and Belgian Blue-cross steers, with the lowest levels for Friesian bulls. Relative to the LT, the IS muscle had longer sarcomeres, higher cooking losses, higher concentrations of vitamin E, and lower myofibrillar fragmentation indexes, while its ultimate pH was slightly higher but less variable. Beef from Wagyu-cross steers had the highest chroma values and the lowest shear values, while Friesian bull beef was darkest and least tender. Intramuscular fatty acid composition and concentrations of bioactive compounds such as coenzyme Q(10) and carnosine, were similar to those reported previously for cattle finished on New Zealand pastures although taurine levels were lower. Generally concentrations of bioactive compounds differed more between muscles and groups than between cattle finished on pasture or grain as reported previously. PMID:22063355

  17. Use of an Innovative Personality-Mindset Profiling Tool to Guide Culture-Change Strategies among Different Healthcare Worker Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Lindsay Grayson

    Full Text Available Important culture-change initiatives (e.g. improving hand hygiene compliance are frequently associated with variable uptake among different healthcare worker (HCW categories. Inherent personality differences between these groups may explain change uptake and help improve future intervention design.We used an innovative personality-profiling tool (ColourGrid® to assess personality differences among standard HCW categories at five large Australian hospitals using two data sources (HCW participant surveys [PS] and generic institution-wide human resource [HR] data to: a compare the relative accuracy of these two sources; b identify differences between HCW groups and c use the observed profiles to guide design strategies to improve uptake of three clinically-important initiatives (improved hand hygiene, antimicrobial stewardship and isolation procedure adherence.Results from 34,243 HCWs (HR data and 1045 survey participants (PS data suggest that HCWs were different from the general population, displaying more individualism, lower power distance, less uncertainty avoidance and greater cynicism about advertising messages. HR and PS data were highly concordant in identifying differences between the three key HCW categories (doctors, nursing/allied-health, support services and predicting appropriate implementation strategies. Among doctors, the data suggest that key messaging should differ between full-time vs part-time (visiting senior medical officers (SMO, VMO and junior hospital medical officers (HMO, with SMO messaging focused on evidence-based compliance, VMO initiatives emphasising structured mandatory controls and prestige loss for non-adherence, and for HMOs focusing on leadership opportunity and future career risk for non-adherence.Compared to current standardised approaches, targeted interventions based on personality differences between HCW categories should result in improved infection control-related culture-change uptake. Personality

  18. Quality of diabetes care in Dutch care groups: no differences between diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R de Bruin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between presence and nature of co-morbidity and quality of care for diabetes patients enrolled in diabetes disease management programmes provided by care groups.Methods: We performed an observational study within eight Dutch diabetes care groups. Data from patient record systems of care groups and patient questionnaires were used to determine quality of care. Quality of care was measured as provision of the recommended diabetes care, patients’ achievement of recommended clinical outcomes and patients’ perception of coordination and integration of care.Results: 527 diabetes patients without and 1187 diabetes patients with co-morbidity were included. Of the co-morbid patients, 7.8% had concordant co-morbid conditions only, 63.8% had discordant co-morbid diseases only and 28.4% had both types of conditions. Hardly any differences were observed between patients with and without co-morbidity in terms of provided care, achievement of clinical outcomes and perceived coordination and integration of care.Conclusions: Our study implies that care groups are able to provide similar quality of diabetes care for diabetes patients with and without co-morbidity. Considering the expected developments regarding additional disease management programmes in care groups, it is of importance to monitor quality of care, including patient experiences, for all chronic diseases. It will then become clear whether accountable provider-led organisations such as care groups are able to ensure quality of care for the increasing number of patients with multiple chronic conditions.

  19. Bioaccumulation and depuration pattern of copper in different tissues of mystus vittatus, related to various size groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subathra, Sriramulu; Karuppasamy, Ramasamy

    2008-02-01

    The bioaccumulation pattern of copper (Cu) in gill, liver, kidney, and muscle of different sizes (fingerlings and adult age) of healthy Mystus vittatus when exposed to their respective sublethal concentrations of Cu-water, containing one-third 96-hr LC(50) level (6.20 and 15.95 mg L(-1)) for short-term (120 hr) and one-eighth 96-hr LC(50) level (2.33 and 5.98 mg L(-1)) for long-term experimentation, respectively, has been analyzed. The Cu shows a maximum deposition (p < 0.01) in the liver (82.12 and 70.65 microg/g) followed by gill (74.35 and 63.69 microg/g) and kidney (61.52 and 54.09 microg/g) both in fingerlings and adult fish, respectively, during 28 days of exposure. The lowest deposition of Cu is found to be 0.83 and 0.93 microg/g in fingerlings and 0.79 and 0.86 microg/g in adult muscle tissue during short-term (120 hr) and long-term (28 days) exposure periods, respectively. Comparing the accumulation of Cu on the two size groups at both exposure levels, it is obvious that the fingerlings showed higher Cu concentration in all tissues than those of adult fish. Another equally important finding is that the depuration of Cu by maintaining the bioaccumulated fish (long-term exposed group) of both size groups in quality dechlorinated ground water reveals that there is a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in Cu concentration in different tissues as the day passes. A comparison of the performance of the two size groups in respect of depuration clearly indicates that the fingerlings have taken 24-43 days (gill-kidney), whereas in mature fish it is 21-39 days (gill-kidney) to reach the level of control fish. Among the various tissues in both size groups, gill took the minimum number of days for complete recovery, whereas the muscle tissue did not significantly eliminate Cu even after 30 days of depuration. These data constitute a reference for future studies on the evolution of Cu accumulation and elimination tendency in relation to different size groups of fish in the

  20. Design and validation of a qPCR assay for accurate detection and initial serogrouping of Legionella pneumophila in clinical specimens by the ESCMID Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentasti, M; Kese, D; Echahidi, F; Uldum, S A; Afshar, B; David, S; Mrazek, J; De Mendonça, R; Harrison, T G; Chalker, V J

    2015-07-01

    Prompt detection of Legionella pneumophila is essential for rapid investigation of legionellosis. Furthermore, as the majority of L. pneumophila infections are caused by serogroup 1 (sg1) strains, rapid identification of such strains can be critical in both routine and outbreak scenarios. The ESCMID Study Group for Legionella Infections (ESGLI) was established in 2012 and immediately identified as a priority the validation of a reliable, easy to perform and interpret, cost-effective qPCR assay to standardise the detection of L. pneumophila DNA amongst members. A novel L. pneumophila assay targeting the mip gene was designed and combined with previously published methodologies amplifying the sg1 marker (wzm) and the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) internal process control. The resulting triplex assay was validated internationally on the three qPCR platforms used by the majority of European Legionella reference laboratories: ABI 7500 (Life Technologies), LightCycler 480 Instrument II (Roche) and Rotor-Gene Q (Qiagen). Clinical and EQA specimens were tested together with a large panel of strains (251 in total) to validate the assay. The assay proved to be 100% specific for L. pneumophila and sg1 DNA both in silico and in vitro. Efficiency values for mip and wzm assays ranged between 91.97 and 97.69%. Limit of detection values estimated with 95% confidence were adopted for mip and wzm assays on all three qPCR platforms. Inhibition was not observed. This study describes a robust assay that could be widely implemented to standardise the molecular detection of L. pneumophila among ESGLI laboratories and beyond. PMID:25851812

  1. HIV-1 group O integrase displays lower susceptibility to raltegravir and has a different mutational pathway for resistance than HIV-1 group M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Depatureaux

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-1 group O (HIV-O is a rare HIV-1 variant characterized by a high number of polymorphisms, especially in the integrase gene, e.g. positions L74I, S153A, G163Q and T206S. As HIV-O integrase enzymes have not previously been studied, our aim was to assess the impact of HIV-O integrase polymorphisms on susceptibility to integrase inhibitors and emergence of resistance associated mutations. Viruses and Methods: We cloned and purified integrase proteins from each of HIV-1 Group O clades A (HIV-O/A and B (HIV-O/B, a HIV-O divergent strain (HIV-O/Div, and HIV-1 group M (subtype B, HIV-M/B and characterized these enzymes for susceptibility to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs in cell-free assays and in tissue culture, in the absence or presence of varying concentrations of several INSTIs. The inhibition constant (Ki and IC50 were calculated and compared for HIV-M and HIV-O integrases. Selections for resistance-related mutations were performed using cord blood mononuclear cells and increasing concentration of INSTIs. Results: HIV-O integrase and viruses were more susceptible to raltegravir (RAL in competitive inhibition assays and in tissue culture than were HIV-M enzymes and viruses, respectively. During selection, we observed different pathways of resistance depending on the drug and clade. Mutations selected in HIV-O can be classified as follows: (1 mutations described for HIV-M such as T97A, Q148R, V151A/I (RAL, T66I, E92Q, E157Q (EVG and M50I, R263K (DTG and (2 signature mutations for HIV-O (i.e. not described in HIV-M F121C (HIV-O/B for RAL, V75I (HIV-O/A for RAL and S153V (HIV-O/A for DTG. Only the HIV-O/Div selected the Q148R mutation for RAL and R263K+M50I for DTG, as previously described for HIV-M. None of the HIV-O viruses selected either N155H or Y143C. The selection of the specific S153V mutation could be explained at the nucleotide level: HIV-O at this position contains an alanine and substitution of alanine to

  2. RR Lyrae Luminosity Differences between Oosterhoff Group I and II Cluster Systems and the Origin of the Oosterhoff Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Carney, Bruce W.

    1999-09-01

    We present a comparative study of the Oosterhoff II cluster M2 and the Oosterhoff I cluster M3. Both have similar metallicities, [Fe/H]=-1.62 for M2 and -1.66 for M3, but very different horizontal-branch (HB) morphologies (B-R)/(B+V+R)=0.92 for M2 and 0.08 for M3. A period shift analysis and main-sequence fitting show that RRab variables in M2 are about 0.2 mag brighter than those in M3. Comparisons of the M2 period shift with Oosterhoff I clusters NGC 3201 and NGC 7006 also yield similar results, while a comparison between M2 and the Oosterhoff II cluster NGC 5986 reveals that the RR Lyrae luminosities are very similar. The luminosity difference is thought to be due to the evolutionary effect described in 1990 by Lee, Demarque, & Zinn: the M2 RRab variables have evolved away from the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB), while most M3 RRab variables lie near the ZAHB. A comparison of the mean period change rates of two clusters supports this hypothesis. Our relative age estimation using the difference in color between the base of giant branch and turn-off point shows that M2 is about 2 Gyr older than M3. Our result strongly suggests that the Oosterhoff dichotomy is due to age differences between Oosterhoff group I and II. This is consistent with the idea that the global second parameter is age. We discuss the kinematic differences between Oosterhoff group I and II clusters. Our result shows that the Oosterhoff group I clusters have zero or retrograde rotation with =-68+/-56 km s^-1 and sigma_los=131+/-28 km s^-1, while the Oosterhoff group II clusters have prograde rotation with =+94+/-47 km s^-1 and sigma_los=115+/-29 km s^-1, confirming a similar conclusion of van den Bergh. The difference in kinematics and ages between Oosterhoff group I and II clusters suggests that they may have different origins: The Oosterhoff II clusters were formed very early in the proto-Galaxy while the Oosterhoff I clusters were formed at different locations and at a later time, and were

  3. Water content differences have stronger effects than plant functional groups on soil bacteria in a steppe ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhang

    Full Text Available Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China. We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem.

  4. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL GROUP-CONTAINING ORGANICS ON MORPHOLOGY-CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L. Wang; H.B. Yin; M. Ren; X.N. Cheng; Q.F. Zhou; X.F. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with average particles sizes ranging from 2 to 131nm were manipulatively synthesized starting from silver nitrate using different functional group-containing organic modifiers at room temperature. The effects of the organic modifiers on the morphology of the resulting silver nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the intrinsic properties of the functional groups and the reducibility of the reductant. Numerous ether bonds (-O-) present in polyethylene glycol and Tween-80 were beneficial to the formation of silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of several nanometers in a narrow size distribution in both weak and strong reducing environments.Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide induced the formation of nanosized silver triangle plates in a weak reducing environment. The crystal growth of the silver nanoparticles with particle sizes of more than 10nm was postulated through an adhesion process of small-sized particles followed by a subsequent coalescence process under the present reaction conditions.

  5. [Structural and functional changes of external and intracranial arteries in elderly patients of different ethnic groups with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorets, V N; Abramov, E A; Bartosh-Zelenaia, S Iu; Naĭden, T V

    2014-01-01

    The present article discusses the problem of structural and functional changes in extra-and intracranial arteries in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease (CHD) belonging to different ethnic groups before the upcoming coronary arteriography research and planned operative intervention. We examined 120 elderly patients with ischemic heart disease, including 50 patients of Korean nationality and 70 patients of Slavic ethnicity. Average values of IMT of the right and left CCA patients of South Asian group were significantly lower than those of Slavic ethnicity. Elderly patients with CHD the violation of cerebral circulation were due to atherosclerotic lesions of the extracranial vessels and local hemodynamic disturbances in their area of pathological tortuosity. Korean ethnicity elderly patients with CHD were observed more pronounced signs of stenosis and deformation of the main arteries of the neck, as well as lower collateral reserve of cerebral circulation.

  6. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. PMID:25861710

  7. Autogenic training and cognitive self-hypnosis for the treatment of recurrent headaches in three different subject groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, M M; Spinhoven, P; Linssen, A C; Zitman, F G; Van Dyck, R; Rooijmans, H G

    1994-09-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) investigate the efficacy of autogenic training (AT) and cognitive self-hypnosis training (CSH) for the treatment of chronic headaches in comparison with a waiting-list control (WLC) condition, (b) investigate the influence of subject recruitment on treatment outcome and (c) explore whether the level of hypnotizability is related to therapy outcome. Three different subjects groups (group 1, patients (n = 58) who were referred by a neurological outpatient clinic; group 2, members (n = 48) of the community who responded to an advertisement in a newspaper; and group 3, students (n = 40) who responded to an advertisement in a university newspaper) were allocated at random to a therapy or WLC condition. During treatment, there was a significant reduction in the Headache Index scores of the subjects in contrast with the controls. At post-treatment and follow-up almost no significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment conditions or the 3 referral sources regarding the Headache Index, psychological distress (SCL-90) scores and medication use. Follow-up measurements indicated that therapeutic improvement was maintained. In both treatment conditions, the high-hypnotizable subjects achieved a greater reduction in headache pain at post-treatment and follow-up than did the low-hypnotizable subjects. It is concluded that a relatively simple and highly structured relaxation technique for the treatment of chronic headache subjects may be preferable to more complex cognitive hypnotherapeutic procedures, irrespective of the source of recruitment. The level of hypnotic susceptibility seems to be a subject characteristic which is associated with a more favourable outcome in subjects treated with AT or CSH.

  8. Gait analysis in clinically healthy sheep from three different age groups using a pressure-sensitive walkway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Felipe S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding normal gait requires allowing for variations in normal patterns by the sex, age, and species in question. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate kinetic and temporospatial parameters in clinically healthy sheep from three different age groups with a pressure-sensing walkway. The sheep were judged to be healthy based on the results of complete physical and orthopaedic examinations and had no history of lameness. Twenty-one clinically healthy female Santa Ines sheep were divided into three groups: G1 – seven animals, aged from 8 to 12 months and weighing 19.5-33 kg; G2 - seven individuals, aged from 2 to 4 years and weighing 26.5-42 kg; and G3 - seven sheep, aged more than 5 years and weighing 37.3-45 kg. The animals were examined from two directions: first on the left side and then on the right side of the handler. The data from the first five valid trials in each direction were collected for each sheep and analysed using the designated software. A trial was considered valid if the sheep walked within the correct velocity (1.1-1.3 m/s and acceleration (from −0.15 to 0.15 m/s2 ranges. The peak vertical force (PVF, vertical impulse (VI, gait cycle time, stance time, swing time, stride length, and the percentage body weight distribution among the four limbs were determined. Results No significant differences were observed, in either the forelimbs or the hind limbs, between the left and right sides or between the two directions for any of the variables. No significant temporospatial differences were found among the groups. Significant PVF (%BW differences were observed in the forelimbs (G1 > G3 and hind limbs (G1 > G3, and significant VI differences were observed in the forelimbs (G1 > G3. Conclusions Young healthy sheep differ from older sheep in the vertical forces they create when walking at the same velocity on a pressure-sensing walkway.

  9. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze dental deviations in three cleft groups and relate findings to embryological neural crest fields (frontonasal, maxillary, and palatal). The overall purpose was to evaluate how fields are involved in different cleft types. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of clinical photographs......, radiographs, dental casts, and medical records. PATIENTS: Ninety individuals (30 cleft lip, 30 cleft palate, and 30 combined cleft lip and palate), aged 5-27 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual evaluation of tooth number and tooth morphology. RESULTS: Cleft lip: Dental deviations were predominantly observed...

  10. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.;

    2014-01-01

    = 378), and Maasai (n = 348) was conducted. All participants had a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 120 min. Serum insulin was analysed at 0 and 30 min. From the OGTT, we assessed the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance...... compared to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1–7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5–14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest...

  11. The effects of walking on golf drive performance in two groups of golfers with different skill levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Green

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although walking is a fundamental part of the game of golf, the effects of walking on the golf shots outcome are largely overlooked. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of a hole-to-hole distance walk on the golf drive performance as well as possible physiological contributory factors were evaluated. Twenty-one volunteer golfers were recruited and divided into two groups based on their average round scores: More competitive Golfer (McG ≤88 (n=13 and Irregular Social Golfer (ISG ≥89 (n=8. Drive distance was directly measured. Balance and hand-eye coordination were assessed using a modified stork test and a customized three dimension- al maze. Participants hit 10 golf balls and then walked 500m before repeating the tests. Heart rates of golfers before driving weren’t different between groups, but were elevated within the groups following walking. The McG had longer drives following the walk (p=0.018. The change in the distance was correlated to the change in right leg balance with eyes closed (r=- 0.619 p=0.003. Biomechanical changes were correlated to the change in drive distance (r=0.867 p=0.025. This study shows that an aerobic warm-up prior to a round or small amounts of walking early in a round may be beneficial to golfers of better ability.

  12. Detecting local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region of different lipidic phases using modified fluorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.; Zahid, N. Idayu; Khyasudeen, M. Faisal; Giera, David S.; Thimm, Julian C.; Hashim, Rauzah

    2015-01-01

    Local heterogeneity in lipid self-assembly is important for executing the cellular membrane functions. In this work, we chemically modified 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and attached a C8 alkyl chain in two different locations to probe the microscopic environment of four lipidic phases of dodecyl β-maltoside. The fluorescence change in HBO and the new probes (HBO-1 and HBO-2) shows that in all phases (micellar, hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) three HBO tautomeric species (solvated syn-enol, anionic, and closed syn-keto) are stable. The formation of multi tautomers reflects the heterogeneity of the lipidic phases. The results indicate that HBO and HBO-1 reside in a similar location within the head group region, whereas HBO-2 is slightly pushed away from the sugar-dominated area. The stability of the solvated syn-enol tautomer is due to the formation of a hydrogen bond between the OH group of the HBO moiety and an adjacent oxygen atom of a sugar unit. The detected HBO anions was proposed to be a consequence of this solvation effect where a hydrogen ion abstraction by the sugar units is enhanced. Our results point to a degree of local heterogeneity and ionization ability in the head group region as a consequence of the sugar amphoterism. PMID:25731606

  13. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  14. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  15. High league bench players and starters: differences in group interactions, group cohesion, role acceptance and self-confidence in football teams

    OpenAIRE

    Simonenkova Irina Petrovna

    2015-01-01

    Main staff players differ from bench players in their perceptions and demonstrate different responses. This research compares the situation of bench players with the situation of starters in high league Latvian football teams.

  16. Is bioelectrical impedance accurate for use in large epidemiological studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study.

  17. Fourth order accurate compact scheme with group velocity control (GVC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Yanwen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kristian, J. , Sandage, A. R. , Westphal, J., The extension of the Hubble diagram: Ⅱ. New redshifts and photometry of very distant galaxy clusters, Astrophys. J., 1978, 221: 383.[2]Sandage, A., The redshift-distant relation V. Galaxy co lors as functions of galactic latitude and redshift, Astrophys, J.,1973, 183: 711.[3]Qu, Q. Y., Qin, Z. H., Han, C. S. et al., A relation between magnitudes and redshifts of QSOs with strong interplanetary scientillation, Chinese Astron., 1979, 4: 97.[4]Tinsley, B. M. , The Galaxy counts, color-redshift relation, and related quantities as probes of cosmology and galactic evolu-tion, Astrophys. J., 1977, 211: 621.[5]Spinrad, H., Djorgovski, S., The status of the Hubble diagram in 1986 (eds. Hewitt, A. Burbidge, G. Fang, L. Z. ),Proc. IAU Symp 124 on Observational Cosmology, New York: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1986, 129.[6]Fang, L. Z., Zhou, Y. Y., Cheng F. Z. et al., Evolution of quasars with resolved components and determination of decel-eration parameter q0, Scientia Sinica, 1979, 22: 1292.[7]Cheng, K. S., Fan, J. H., Li, Y. et al., Do γ-ray burst associated with metal-rich quasars (ed. Cheng, K. S., Singh,H. P.), Proc. of The Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics, August 13-16, 1997, Houg Kong, 1997.[8]Davis, M., Geller, M. J., Huchra, J., The local mean mass density of the universe: new methods for studying galaxy clus-tering, Astrophys. J., 1978, 221: 1.[9]Gott, J. R., Turner, E. L., The mean luminosity and mass densities in the universe, Astrophys. J., 1976, 209: 1.[10]Shapiro, S. L., The density of matter in the form of galaxies, Astron. J., 1971, 76: 291.[11]Fang, L. Z., Hu, F. X., The large-scale inhomogeneities in the universe (eds. Yang, J., Zhu, C. S. ), Proceeding of A-cademia Sinica--Max-Plank Socity Workshop on High Energy Astrophyics Held in Nanjing, China, April 9-17, 1982,New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers S.A. 1982, 425[12]Baldwin, J. A., Wampler, E. J., Gaskell, C. M., Emission-line properties of optically and radio-selected complete quasars samples, Astrophys. J., 1989, 338: 630.[13]Yong, P., Sargent, W. L. W. A., High-resolution study of the absorption spectra of three QSOs: evidence for cosmological evolution in the lyman-alpha lines, Astrophys. J., 1982, 252: 10.[14]Lawrence, J., Zucker, J. R., Readhead, A. C. S. et al., Optical spectra of a complete sample of radio sources I. The spectra, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1996, 107: 541.[15]Junkkarinen, V. T. , Burbidge E. M. , Smith, H. E. , Spectrophyotometry of six broad absoption line QSOs, Astrophys. J. ,1987, 317, 460.[16]Laor, A., Babcall, J. N., Jannuzi, B. T. et al., The ultraviolet emission properties of 13 quasars, Astrophys. J. Suppl.,1995, 99: 1.[17]Baldwin, J. A., Rees, M. J., Longair, M. S. et al., QSOs with narrow emission lines, Astrophys. J., 1988, 327: 103.[18]Shaver, P. A. , Boksenberg A. , Robertson, J. G. , Spectroscopy of the QSO pair Q0028 + 003/Q0029 + 003, Astrophys.J., 1982, 261: L7.[19]Baldwin, J. A., Netzer, H., The emission-line regions of high-redshift QSOs, Astrophys. J., 1978, 226: 1.[20]Wills, B. J., Thompson, K. L., Han, M. et al. , The Hubble space telescope sample of radio-loud quasars: Ultraviolet spectra of the first 31 quasars, Astrophys. J., 1995, 447: 139.[21]Osmer, P. S., Smith, M. G. , Discovery and spectroscopic observations of 27 optical selected quasars with 1.4 < z < 2.5,Astrophys. J., 1977, 213: 607.[22]Storrie-Lombardi, L. J., McMabon, R. G., Irwin, M. J. et al., APM Z > = 4 QSO Survey: Spectra and Intervening Ab-sorption Systems, Astrophys. J., 1996, 468: 121.[23]Young, P. , Sargent, W. L. W. , Boksenberg, A. , Clv absorption in an unbiased sample of 33 QSOs: evidence for the inter-vening galaxy hypothesis, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1982, 48: 455.[24]Zitelli, V., Mignoli, M., Zarano, B. et al., A spectroscopically complete sample of quasars with Bj ≤ 22.0, MNRAS,1992, 256: 349.[25]Hazard, C. , Morton, D. C., Terlevich, R. et al. , Nine new quasi-stellar objects with borad absorption lines, Astrophys.J. , 1984, 282: 33.[26]Osmer, P. S. , Q0353-383: The best case yet for abundance anomalies in quasars, Astrophys. J. , 1980, 237, 666.[27]Hamann, F. , Zuo, L., Tytler, D. , Broad Ne VIII λ774 emission from quasars in the HST-Fos snapshot survey (ABSNAP),Astrophys. J., 1995, 444: L69.[28]Laor, A. , Bahcall, J. N., Jannuzi, B. T. , The ultraviolet emission properties of five low-redshift active galactic unclei at high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution, Astrophys. J., 1994, 420: 110.[29]Barthel, P. D., Tytler, D. R., Thomson, B., Optical spectra of distant radio loud quasars, A&AS, 1990, 82: 339.[30]Schmidt, M., Schneider, D. P., Gunn, J. E., Pc0910 + 5625: An optically selected quasar with a redshift of 4.04, Astro-phys. J., 1987, 321: L7.[31]Adams, M. T., Coleman, G. D., Stockman, H. S. et al., The spectrum of Markarian 132, Astrophys. J., 1978, 228:758.[32]Hammann, F. , Shields, J. C. , Ferland, G. J. et al. , Broad NE VIII lambda 744 emission from the Quasar PG 148 + 549,Astrophys. J., 1995, 454: 688.[33]Baldwin, J. A., McMahon, R., Hazard, C. et al., QSOs with narrow emission lines, Astrophys. J., 1988, 327: 103.[34]Baldwin, J. A. , Burbidge, E. M. , Hazard, C. et al. , A spectroscopic surrvey of 92 QSO candidates, Astrophys. J. ,1973, 185: 739.[35]Baldwin, J. A. , Ferland, G. J. , Korista, K. T., Very high density clumps and out flowing winds in QSO broad-line re-gions, Astrophys. J., 1996, 461: 664.[36]Ferland, G. J., Baldwin, J. A., Korista, K. T., High metal enrichments in luminous quasars, Astrophys. J., 461: 683.[37]Bceker, R. H., Helfand, D. J., White, R. L., The discovery of an X-ray selected radio-loud quasar at z = 3.9 AJ, 1992,104: 531.[38]Schneider, D. P., Lawrence, C. R., Schmide, M. et al., Deep optical and radio observations of the gravitational lens sys-tem 2016 + 112, Astrophys. J. , 1985, 294: 66.[39]Aldcroft, T. L. , Bechtold, J. , Elvis, M. , MglI absorption in a sample of 56 steep-spectrum quasars, Astrophys. J. Sup-pl., 1994, 93: 1.[40]Verib-Getty, M. P., Veron, P., A catalogue of quasars and active nuclei, ESO Scientific Report, 1996, 17: 1.[41]Hewitt, A., Burbidge, G., A revised and updated catalog of quas-stellar objects, Astrophys, J. Suppl., 1993, 87: 451.[42]Rudy, R. J., Cohan, R. D., Ake, T. B., Ultraviolet and optical spectrophyotometry of the seyfert 1.8 galaxy Markarian 609, Astrophys. J., 1988, 332: 172.[43]Bregrmamn, T. S. , Pastoriza, M. G. , On the metal abundance of low-activity galactic nuclei, Astrophys. J. , 1989, 347:195.[44]Malkan, M. A., Oke, J. B., IUE observations of Markarian 3 and 6: reddening and nonstellar continuum, Astrophys. J. ,1983, 265: 92.[45]Oke, J. B., Goodrich, R. W., IUE and VISUAl spectrophotometry of Markarian 9, Markarian 10, and 3C 390.3, Astro-phys. J., 1981, 243: 445.[46]Crenshaw, D. M. , Peterson, B. M. , Korista, K. , Ultraviolet and optical spectra of high-ionization Seyfert galaxies with nar-row lines, AJ, 1991, 101: 1202.[47]Voit, G. M. , Shull, J. M. , Begelman, M. C. , Broad, variable absorption lines in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516-probing the structure of the emission-line regions, Astrophys. J., 1987, 316: 573.[48]Reichert, G. A., Rodriguez-Pascual, P. M. , Alloin, D. et al., Steps toward determination of the size and structure of the broad-line region in active galactic, Astrophys. J., 1994, 425: 582.[49]Setti, G., Woltjer, L., Hubble Diagram for Quasars, Astrophys. J., 1973, 181: L61.[50]Baldwin, J. A. , Burke, W. L. , Gaskell, M. G. et al. , Relative quasar luminosities determined from emission line strengths, Nature, 1978, 273: 431.[51]Bressan, A., Chiosi, C., Fagotto, F., Spectrophotometric evolution of elliptical galaxies, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1994, 94:63.[52]Scappa, R. , Urry, C. M. , The Hubble space telescope survey fo BL Lacertea objects, Astrophys. J. , 2000, 532: 740.

  18. The Evaluation of the Effects of Different Patient Information Strategy on Self-Performed Oral Hygiene in a Group of Turkish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Tezel, Adnan; Yagız, Hatice; Canakcı, Cenk Fatih; Tezel, Ayfer; Kaya, M. Dursun; Kavrut, Fahri

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different patient information strategy on self-performed oral hygiene in a short and intermediate time period in a group of Turkish population. The study population consisted of 105 patient at the same socio-economical level and divided into three groups: Group I, who were not attended any program, group II, who attended only one explanatory session about oral hygiene, and group III, who attended a comprehensive education and motivation ...

  19. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinkel Ch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. Methods To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP, White Blood Cell Count (WBC, Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70, Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-α and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E, L, P, Substance-P (SP, and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC and chronic (CC CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR, with neuralgia (NE, and from healthy volunteers (C. Results No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007, FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048 and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049. High interindividual variations were observed. No intra-or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification or outcome was detectable. Conclusion Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this

  20. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  1. Detection of HPV DNA in esophageal cancer specimens from different regions and ethnic groups: a descriptive study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HPV has been found repeatedly in esophageal carcinoma tissues. However, reported detection rates of HPV DNA in these tumors have varied markedly. Differences in detection methods, sample types, and geographic regions of sample origin have been suggested as potential causes of this discrepancy. HPV L1 DNA and HPV genotypes were evaluated in 435 esophageal carcinoma specimens collected from four geographic regions with different ethnicities including Anyang in north China, Shantou in south China, Xinjiang in west China, and the United States. The HPV L1 fragment was detected using SPF1/GP6+ primers. HPV genotyping was performed using genotype specific PCR. Two hundred and forty four of 435 samples (56.1%) tested positive for HPV L1. Significant differences in detection rate were observed neither among the three areas of China nor between China and the US. HPV6, 16, 18, 26, 45, 56, 57, and 58 were identified in L1 positive samples. HPV16 and 57 were the most common types in all regions, followed by HPV26 and HPV18. HPV infection is common in esophageal carcinoma independent of region and ethnic group of origin. Findings in this study raise the possibility that HPV is involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Further investigation with a larger sample size over broader geographic areas may be warranted

  2. Adsorption of the Inflammatory Mediator High-Mobility Group Box 1 by Polymers with Different Charge and Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tripisciano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1 is a conserved protein with a variety of biological functions inside as well as outside the cell. When released by activated immune cells, it acts as a proinflammatory cytokine. Its delayed release has sparked the interest in HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target. Here, we studied the adsorption of HMGB1 to anionic methacrylate-based polymers as well as to neutral polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Both groups of adsorbents exhibited efficient binding of recombinant HMGB1 and of HMGB1 derived from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The adsorption characteristics depended on particle size, porosity, accessibility of the pores, and charge of the polymers. In addition to these physicochemical parameters of the adsorbents, modifications of the molecule itself (e.g., acetylation, phosphorylation, and oxidation, interaction with other plasma proteins or anticoagulants (e.g., heparin, or association with extracellular microvesicles may influence the binding of HMGB1 to adsorbents and lead to preferential depletion of HMGB1 subsets with different biological activity.

  3. Detection of Breast Cancer with Mammography in the First Screening Round in Relation to Expected Incidence in Different Age Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (R) of prevalence of screening-detected breast cancer in the first screening round (P) was compared with the expected incidence rate (I) for different age groups in several screening programs. Published data on the first screening round from three Swedish randomized trials and six counties with service screening were used. The women invited to take part in the screening were aged 40-74 years. Not only P and I but also R increased with increasing age. With the youngest age group as reference, the increase was statistically significant for both invasive cancer and invasive cancer and carcinoma in situ together. The studied ratio (R) can be thought of as a measure of efficiency in detecting breast cancer cases in mammography screening. The reasons for the increase are probably that the breast tissue of younger women is denser, which makes the cancer more difficult to detect by mammography, and that slow-growing cancers tend to appear more frequently in older women

  4. Effects of Working Memory Capacity on Metacognitive Monitoring: A Study of Group Differences Using a Listening Span Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Mie

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment). The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high vs. low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants' memory capacity. In addition, irrelevant information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task) and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that interference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance. PMID:26973577

  5. Effects of working memory capacity on metacognitive monitoring: A study of group differences using a listening span test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eKomori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an executive function of working memory that serves to update novel information, focusing attention on task-relevant targets, and eliminating task-irrelevant noise. The present research used a verbal working memory task to examine how working memory capacity limits affect monitoring. Participants performed a Japanese listening span test that included maintenance of target words and listening comprehension. On each trial, participants responded to the target word and then immediately estimated confidence in recall performance for that word (metacognitive judgment. The results confirmed significant differences in monitoring accuracy between high and low capacity groups in a multi-task situation. That is, confidence judgments were superior in high versus low capacity participants in terms of absolute accuracy and discrimination. The present research further investigated how memory load and interference affect underestimation of successful recall. The results indicated that the level of memory load that reduced word recall performance and led to an underconfidence bias varied according to participants’ memory capacity. In addition, irreverent information associated with incorrect true/ false decisions (secondary task and word recall within the current trial impaired monitoring accuracy in both participant groups. These findings suggest that inference from unsuccessful decisions only influences low, but not high, capacity participants. Therefore, monitoring accuracy, which requires high working memory capacity, improves metacognitive abilities by inhibiting task-irrelevant noise and focusing attention on detecting task-relevant targets or useful retrieval cues, which could improve actual cognitive performance.

  6. Model comparison on genomic predictions using high-density markers for different groups of bulls in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc;

    2013-01-01

    Bayesian mixture model (a mixture of 4 normal distributions). Direct genomic values (DGV) were estimated for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fertility, and mastitis, using deregressed proofs (DRP) as response variable. The validation animals were split into 4 groups according to their genetic...... mixture model and the exponential power model with shape parameter of 0.30 led to higher reliability of DGV than did the other models. The differences between reliabilities of DGV from the Bayesian models and the GBLUP model were statistically significant for some traits. We observed a tendency that the.......3 percentage points for Groupmgs, and 4.3 percentage points for Groupnon compared with GBLUP. The results showed that a Bayesian model with intense shrinkage of the explanatory variable, such as the Bayesian mixture model and the Bayesian exponential power model with shape parameter of 0.30, can improve...

  7. The Norwegian Educational System, the Linguistic Diversity in the Country and the Education of Different Minority Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity has always been and still is one of the current issues in the Norwegian educational system. Norwegian is the official language of the country, but, there have been several distinct dialects and two official written Norwegian languages in the country since 1885. One of them is Bokmål and the other is Nynorsk. There has also been an indigenous Sami people with three different Sami languages in the country: Northern Sami, Lulesami and Southern Sami in the country. At the same time there are two national minority groups, Kvens and the Roma people, who have their own languages. In addition about 200 languages are represented among linguistic minority children with immigrant parents/grandparents. This linguistic diversity means that almost 15% of Norway’s population of 5 million has another first language than Norwegian. This paper gives a brief account of policies and challenges related to multilingualism and multilingual education in the Norwegian educational system.

  8. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  9. Study of On-Ramp PI Controller Based on Dural Group QPSO with Different Well Centers Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm, dual-group QPSO with different well centers (DWC-QPSO algorithm, is proposed by constructing the master-slave subswarms. The new algorithm was applied in the parameter optimization of on-ramp traffic PI controller combining with nonlinear feedback theory. With the critical information contained in the searching space and results of the basic QPSO algorithm, this algorithm avoids the rapid disappearance of swarm diversity and enhances the global searching ability through collaboration between subswarms. Experiment results on an on-ramp traffic control simulation show that DWC-QPSO can be well applied in the study of on-ramp traffic PI controller and the comparison results illustrate that DWC-QPSO outperforms other evolutionary algorithms with enhancement in both adaptability and stability.

  10. Repair Effect of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Different Contents of Sulfate Group and Molecular Weights on Damaged HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bhadja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure–activity relationships and repair mechanism of six low-molecular-weight seaweed polysaccharides (SPSs on oxalate-induced damaged human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 were investigated. These SPSs included Laminaria japonica polysaccharide, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide, degraded Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide, degraded Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide, Eucheuma gelatinae polysaccharide, and degraded Undaria pinnatifida polysaccharide. These SPSs have a narrow difference of molecular weight (from 1968 to 4020 Da after degradation by controlling H2O2 concentration. The sulfate group (–SO3H content of the six SPSs was 21.7%, 17.9%, 13.3%, 8.2%, 7.0%, and 5.5%, respectively, and the –COOH contents varied between 1.0% to 1.7%. After degradation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of characteristic –SO3H and –COOH groups of polysaccharides. The repair effect of polysaccharides was determined using cell-viability test by CCK-8 assay and cell-morphology test by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results revealed that these SPSs within 0.1–100 μg/mL did not express cytotoxicity in HK-2 cells, and each polysaccharide had a repair effect on oxalate-induced damaged HK-2 cells. Simultaneously, the content of polysaccharide –SO3H was positively correlated with repair ability. Furthermore, the low-molecular-weight degraded polysaccharides showed better repair activity on damaged HK-2 cells than their undegraded counterpart. Our results can provide reference for inhibiting the formation of kidney stones and for developing original anti-stone polysaccharide drugs.

  11. Invariant Image Watermarking Using Accurate Zernike Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A. Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available problem statement: Digital image watermarking is the most popular method for image authentication, copyright protection and content description. Zernike moments are the most widely used moments in image processing and pattern recognition. The magnitudes of Zernike moments are rotation invariant so they can be used just as a watermark signal or be further modified to carry embedded data. The computed Zernike moments in Cartesian coordinate are not accurate due to geometrical and numerical error. Approach: In this study, we employed a robust image-watermarking algorithm using accurate Zernike moments. These moments are computed in polar coordinate, where both approximation and geometric errors are removed. Accurate Zernike moments are used in image watermarking and proved to be robust against different kind of geometric attacks. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using standard images. Results: Experimental results show that, accurate Zernike moments achieve higher degree of robustness than those approximated ones against rotation, scaling, flipping, shearing and affine transformation. Conclusion: By computing accurate Zernike moments, the embedded bits watermark can be extracted at low error rate.

  12. Specific excitonic interactions in the aggregates of hyaluronic acid and cyanine dyes with different lengths of methine group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobata, H; Sagawa, T

    2016-03-01

    The absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of three types of cyanine dyes with different lengths of methine group (3,3'-diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide, DTDC; 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide, DTC; and 3,3'-diethylthiacyanine iodide, DTTHC) in an aqueous solution were compared with and without hyaluronic acid (HA), which has a helical structure. DTDC forms chiral H- and J-aggregates, whereas DTC and DTTHC are unable to form any aggregates. DTDC also forms H- and J-aggregates in the presence of sodium polyacrylate (PA) with a random-coil structure; however, the PA-DTDC aggregates exhibit no chirality. These results suggest that the chirality of HA-DTDC aggregates is induced by the helical structure of HA. In 2.4 vol% and 10 vol% methanol, HA-DTDC aggregates displayed different patterns of temperature dependence, whereas no aggregation was observed in 30 vol% methanol. The solubility of DTDC in a mixed solvent of water and methanol is generally improved by the addition of methanol, which prevents the aggregation of DTDC. PMID:26815728

  13. [Hair mercury levels in different occupational groups in a gold mining zone in the north of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J; Mendonza, C; Mestre, J

    1995-10-01

    Hair mercury analysis was carried out on a sample of 219 people living in the main gold mining zone of Colombia, 27 inhabitante of Cartagena City being taken as control sample. For data analysis the sample was divided by occupation and the corresponding the hair mercury concentrations (mean +/- SD) were found to be 5.23 +/- 5.78, 2.83 +/- 3.27, 2.4 +/- 2.02 and 1.33 +/- 0.74 micrograms/g for fishermen, miners, people of various other activities and the control sample, respectively. According to variance analysis and the Newman Keuls test, there were significant differences (p < 0.01) between the mercury concentrations for fishermen and those for the other groups. No significant differences were found for hair mercury and sex, non was any correlation with age detected; however, a low positive correlation (R = 0.15, p < 0.01) with the frequency of the consumption of fish was noted. The main symptoms of mercury poinsoning observed in the persons exposed were headache, oral lesions, metalic taste, loss of memory, and irritability. PMID:8731277

  14. Synchrotron-induced X-ray fluorescence from rat bone and lumber vertebra of different age groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Swapna, Medasani; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Akatsuka, Tako; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tohoru; Tromba, Giuliana; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2009-02-01

    The fluorescence spectra from rat bones of different age groups (8, 56 and 78 weeks) and lumber vertebra were measured with 8, 10 and 12 keV synchrotron X-rays. We have utilized the new hard X-ray micro-spectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS with a primary beam spot size of the order of ˜10 μm. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, X-ray fluorescent intensities for Ca and other trace elements were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. Regarding the lumber vertebra, we acquired the fluorescence spectra from the left, right and middle portions and calcium accumulation was evaluated and compared with the other samples. We have identified the major trace elements of Ca, Ni, Fe and Zn and minor trace elements of Ti, Cr and Mn in the sample. The percentage of scattered radiation and trace element contributions from these samples were highlighted at different energies.

  15. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  16. Effects of smoking on the Lipoprotein levels among Mauritian of different ethnic groups and their preponderance to cardiovascular threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dhunnoo Yuvrajsing

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease progression and initiation has since long been known to be influenced by smoking and also genetic variability, owing to ethnic differences. Past studies conducted among Mauritian, have reported certain genetic preponderance to diseases. In the current study, effect of smoking on various cardiovascular parameters in two different ethnic groups of Mauritius was studied. Smokers and non-smokers volunteers were recruited from ethnic Asian and African population and blood sample collected by venipuncture. Myeloperoxidase, APOA1, OxLDL, HDL, TG, LDL, and cholesterol were assessed The level of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, myeloperoxidase, APO A1, and OxLDL was 5.56±1.09, 2.13±1.70, 0.67±0.11, 4.07±0.93, 145.90±9.59, 0.42±0.13 and 74.55±13.73 mmol/L respectively in Asian smokers. Corresponding values in African smokers were respectively 4.65±0.88, 1.17±0.78, 1.18±0.42, 2.33±0.67, 172.50±15.55, 0.47±0.88 and 65.11±7.38. Results of our study indicate a significant difference (p<0.05 in cardiovascular parameters between Asian and African smokers. Furthermore, Asians were also observed to be prone to dyslipidaemia. On the other hand, smoking did not seem to influence cardiovascular parameters among African smokers, but rather seemed to have an underlying genetic protective effect against the deleterious effects of smoking.

  17. Accurate Modeling of Advanced Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min

    Analysis and optimization methods for the design of advanced printed re ectarrays have been investigated, and the study is focused on developing an accurate and efficient simulation tool. For the analysis, a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency can be obtained using the spectral domain...

  18. Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species in Different Cattle Breeds and Age Groups in Mbarara District (Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhanguzi Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma and Ehrlichia sp. (AEs cause significant economic losses to the livestock sector in Uganda. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AEs in cattle from Kashaari county-Mbarara district (Uganda so as to compare the prevalence of AEs in different cattle breeds, age groups, sub county of origin and management systems and predictor(s of infection with AEs. Such information is deemed necessary to direct future tick-borne disease control programs. A single pair of primers w as used to am plify a 492-498bp fragment of the 16SRNA gene spanning the V1 region conserved for both AEs. PCR products were transferred onto the Reverse Line Blot (RLB membrane and AEs amplicons in the PCR products allowed to hybridize with AE species-specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of Ehrlichia sp. was 5.1% (CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3% whereas that of Anaplasma species was 5.3 % (C I = 95%, 3-7.6%. Individual AEs detected include; A. bovis (5.1%, CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3%, E. ruminantium (4.5% , CI = 95%, 2.4-6.6%, A. marginale (3.7%, CI = 95%, 1.8-5.6%, A. (E. phagocytophilum (2.7%, CI = 95%, 1.1-4.3% , E. ovina/canis (2.7%, CI = 95%; 1.1-4.3%, E. sp. (omatjenne(1.9%, CI = 95 %, 0.5-3.3%. Cattle breed was found to be the best predictor of infection. To further understand bovine tick-borne parasites in Uganda, we recommend that studies covering a wider area and over longer periods, investigation of breed as a predictor of infection, molecular genetic characterization, transmission and pathogenicity studies on the different strains of AEs be carried out.

  19. [Toward exploration of morphological disparity of measurable traits of mammalian skull. 1. Interrelation between different forms of group variation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia; Nanova, O G; Spasskaia, N N

    2008-01-01

    Interrelations between some forms of group variation (FGVs) (age, sex, geographic, inter-species, differences among breeds) of 12 to 15 measurable skull traits are studied in 6 mammal species (pine marten, polar fox, Przewalskii horse, and 3 jird species) by means of dispersion analysis (model III, MANOVA). The above FGVs are considered as factors in the MANOVA, and skull traits are considered as dependent variables. To obtaine commeasurables estimates for the FGVs, each of them is assessed numerically as a portion of its dispersion in the entire morphological disparity defined for each character (or a set of characters) by MANOVA. The data obtained indicate a wide diversity of interrelations between FGVs. It is shown that statistical analysis of significance of joint effects of FGVs does not substitute the analysis of numerical interrelations of their dispersion portions. It is concluded that it is unproductive to study such interrelations as simple "statistical regularities" like the Kluge-Kerfoot phenomenon, so the character sets are not to be considered as statistical ensembles. A kind of content-wise null-model for FGVs of measurable traits is formulated according to which there is a "background" age variation while other FGVs are its derivatives. Respectively, other factors structuring the morphological disparity under investigation being absent, a positive correlation between FGVs is to be anticipated (strong succession). With the significant deviations of the postulated correlation being observed, other factors regulating respective FGVs that cannot be reduced to the age variation are to be supposed (weak succession). Possible interpretations of interrelations between age variation and some other FGVs in carnivores are considered. Craniological variation in the Przewalskii horse is just slightly effected by maintenance conditions under its domestication, a significant influence of other factors is to be supposed. Negative correlation between geographic and

  20. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Sara; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance. Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated papers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions according to the method described by WHO. Number of take-offs were counted during 15 minutes of exposure time. Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group. Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended. PMID:27308276

  1. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  2. A group decision-making tool for the application of membrane technologies in different water reuse scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, S M K; Saroj, D P; Kouchaki, S; Ilemobade, A A; Ouki, S K

    2015-06-01

    A global challenge of increasing concern is diminishing fresh water resources. A growing practice in many communities to supplement diminishing fresh water availability has been the reuse of water. Novel methods of treating polluted waters, such as membrane assisted technologies, have recently been developed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of membrane assisted technologies available, the current challenge is how to select a reliable alternative among numerous technologies for appropriate water reuse. In this research, a fuzzy logic based multi-criteria, group decision making tool has been developed. This tool has been employed in the selection of appropriate membrane treatment technologies for several non-potable and potable reuse scenarios. Robust criteria, covering technical, environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects, were selected, while 10 different membrane assisted technologies were assessed in the tool. The results show this approach capable of facilitating systematic and rigorous analysis in the comparison and selection of membrane assisted technologies for advanced wastewater treatment and reuse.

  3. Cumulative dietary exposure to a selected group of pesticides of the triazole group in different European countries according to the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Polly E; van Donkersgoed, Gerda; Christodoulou, Despo; Crépet, Amélie; D'Addezio, Laura; Desvignes, Virginie; Ericsson, Bengt-Göran; Galimberti, Francesco; Ioannou-Kakouri, Eleni; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Rehurkova, Irena; Rety, Josselin; Ruprich, Jiri; Sand, Salomon; Stephenson, Claire; Strömberg, Anita; Turrini, Aida; van der Voet, Hilko; Ziegler, Popi; Hamey, Paul; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    The practicality was examined of performing a cumulative dietary exposure assessment according to the requirements of the EFSA guidance on probabilistic modelling. For this the acute and chronic cumulative exposure to triazole pesticides was estimated using national food consumption and monitoring data of eight European countries. Both the acute and chronic cumulative dietary exposures were calculated according to two model runs (optimistic and pessimistic) as recommended in the EFSA guidance. The exposures obtained with these model runs differed substantially for all countries, with the highest exposures obtained with the pessimistic model run. In this model run, animal commodities including cattle milk and different meat types, entered in the exposure calculations at the level of the maximum residue limit (MRL), contributed most to the exposure. We conclude that application of the optimistic model run on a routine basis for cumulative assessments is feasible. The pessimistic model run is laborious and the exposure results could be too far from reality. More experience with this approach is needed to stimulate the discussion of the feasibility of all the requirements, especially the inclusion of MRLs of animal commodities which seem to result in unrealistic conclusions regarding their contribution to the dietary exposure. PMID:25125392

  4. Accurate Enthalpies of Formation of Astromolecules: Energy, Stability and Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Etim, Emmanuel E

    2016-01-01

    Accurate enthalpies of formation are reported for known and potential astromolecules using high level ab initio quantum chemical calculations. A total of 130 molecules comprising of 31 isomeric groups and 24 cyanide/isocyanide pairs with atoms ranging from 3 to 12 have been considered. The results show an interesting, surprisingly not well explored, relationship between energy, stability and abundance (ESA) existing among these molecules. Among the isomeric species, isomers with lower enthalpies of formation are more easily observed in the interstellar medium compared to their counterparts with higher enthalpies of formation. Available data in literature confirm the high abundance of the most stable isomer over other isomers in the different groups considered. Potential for interstellar hydrogen bonding accounts for the few exceptions observed. Thus, in general, it suffices to say that the interstellar abundances of related species are directly proportional to their stabilities. The immediate consequences of ...

  5. Comparison of fractal characteristics of species richness patterns among different plant taxonomic groups along an altitudinal gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Haibao; ZHANG Linyan; MA Keping

    2007-01-01

    This study was done using the non brown fractal model to quantify and compare the variations in the species richness of trees,shrubs,herbs and all plants along an altitudinal gradient and to characterize the dominating ecological processes that determine the variations.Two transects were sampled far away from any anthropogenic disturbances along the shady slopes of the Dongling mountains in Beijing,China.Both transects were continuous and 2 m wide,and every individual tree and shrub was recorded in each of them.Discrete quadrats of 1m × 1m were located along the transects A and B for estimation of the herb species richness along the altitudinal gradients.The level interval between the quadrats was 10m and 25m respectively.In this study,transects A and B were combined into one transect AB,and 40 m was selected as the optimal quadrat length along the altitudinal gradients for measuring the plant species richness patterns.Species richness in each quadrat was calculated using a program written in Matlab 6.0.Direct gradient analysis was used to describe the overall trends in the species richness of trees,shrubs,herbs and other plants with change in altitude,while the non-brown ffactal model was used to detect more accurately their variations at various scales along the gradient.The model assumed that each class of ecological processes affecting the distribution of a variable could be represented by an independent spatial random function.Generally,ecological phenomena are determined not by a single ecological process but by multiple ones.These processes act on ecological patterns within their own spatial scales.In the non-brown fractal model,the spatial random functions are nested within a larger range of spatial scales.The relative contribution of the spatial random functions to the spatial variation of a variable is indicated by a weighting parameter that has to be greater than or equal to zero.In this paper,we reached the following results and conclusions

  6. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages. PMID:8788799

  7. Do Differences in GPA Impact Attitudes about Group Work? A Comparison of Business and Non-Business Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzimek, Volker; Marks, Melanie Beth; Kinnamon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data the authors investigate the impact of grade point average (GPA) on students' preferences for classroom group work and its structure. Topics range from general attitudes and beliefs (benefits to grades, impact on mastery of material, professors' motives) to administration (group composition, grading, peer reviews, group…

  8. Contrasting intra-annual patterns of six biotic groups with different dispersal mode and ability in Mediterranean temporary ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Boix, Dani; Caria, Maria Carmela; Gascón, Stéphanie; Mariani, Maria Antonietta; Sala, Jordi; Ruhi, Albert; Compte Ciurana, Jordi; Bagella, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    The temporal patterns of six biotic groups (amphibians, macroinvertebrates with active and passive dispersal mode, microcrustaceans, vascular plants and phytoplankton) and the responses of each biotic group to environmental variation (water, pond and landscape variables) were studied in a set of Sardinian temporary ponds.

  9. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity. PMID:27374250

  10. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Adela; Lope, Virginia; Vioque, Jesús; Santamariña, Carmen; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Abad, Soledad; Ederra, Maria; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Vidal, Carmen; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in different samples extracted from similar populations. Dietary patterns were extracted by applying principal component analyses to the dietary information collected from a sample of 3550 women recruited from seven screening centres belonging to the Spanish breast cancer (BC) screening network (Determinants of Mammographic Density in Spain (DDM-Spain) study). The resulting patterns were compared with three dietary patterns obtained from a previous Spanish case-control study on female BC (Epidemiological study of the Spanish group for breast cancer research (GEICAM: grupo Español de investigación en cáncer de mama)) using the dietary intake data of 973 healthy participants. The level of agreement between patterns was determined using both the congruence coefficient (CC) between the pattern loadings (considering patterns with a CC≥0·85 as fairly similar) and the linear correlation between patterns scores (considering as fairly similar those patterns with a statistically significant correlation). The conclusions reached with both methods were compared. This is the first study exploring the reproducibility of data-driven patterns from two studies and the first using the CC to determine pattern similarity. We were able to reproduce the EpiGEICAM Western pattern in the DDM-Spain sample (CC=0·90). However, the reproducibility of the Prudent (CC=0·76) and Mediterranean (CC=0·77) patterns was not as good. The linear correlation between pattern scores was statistically significant in all cases, highlighting its arbitrariness for determining pattern similarity. We conclude that the reproducibility of widely prevalent dietary patterns is better than the reproducibility of more population-specific patterns. More methodological studies are needed to establish an objective measurement and threshold to determine pattern similarity.

  11. Climate change and water use partitioning by different plant functional groups in a grassland on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Hu

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP is predicted to experience increases in air temperature, increases in snowfall, and decreases in monsoon rains; however, there is currently a paucity of data that examine the ecological responses to such climate changes. In this study, we examined the effects of increased air temperature and snowfall on: 1 water use partitioning by different plant functional groups, and 2 ecosystem CO2 fluxes throughout the growing season. At the individual plant scale, we used stable hydrogen isotopes (δD to partition water use between shallow- and deep-rooted species. Prior to the arrival of summer precipitation (typically mid-July, snowmelt was the main water source in the soils. During this time, shallow and deep-rooted species partitioned water use by accessing water from shallow and deep soils, respectively. However, once the monsoon rains arrived, all plants used rainwater from the upper soils as the main water source. Snow addition did not result in increased snowmelt use throughout the growing season; instead, snowmelt water was pushed down into deeper soils when the rains arrived. At the larger plot scale, CO2 flux measurements demonstrated that rain was the main driver for net ecosystem productivity (NEP. NEP rates were low during June and July and reached a maximum during the monsoon season in August. Warming decreased NEP through a reduction in gross primary productivity (GPP, and snow additions did not mitigate the negative effects of warming by increasing NEP or GPP. Both the isotope and CO2 flux results suggest that rain drives productivity in the Nam Tso region on the TP. This also suggests that the effects of warming-induced drought on the TP may not be mitigated by increased snowfall. Further decreases in summer monsoon rains may affect ecosystem productivity, with large implications for livestock-based livelihoods.

  12. Distribution of causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic groups in Ghana; a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musinguzi Geofrey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana's maternal mortality ratio remains high despite efforts made to meet Millennium Development Goal 5. A number of studies have been conducted on maternal mortality in Ghana; however, little is known about how the causes of maternal mortality are distributed in different socio-demographic subgroups. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess and analyse the causes of maternal mortality according to socio-demographic factors in Ghana. Methods The causes of maternal deaths were assessed with respect to age, educational level, rural/urban residence status and marital status. Data from a five year retrospective survey was used. The data was obtained from Ghana Maternal Health Survey 2007 acquired from the database of Ghana Statistical Service. A total of 605 maternal deaths within the age group 12-49 years were analysed using frequency tables, cross-tabulations and logistic regression. Results Haemorrhage was the highest cause of maternal mortality (22.8%. Married women had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage, compared with single women (adjusted OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2-5.7. On the contrary, married women showed a significantly reduced risk of dying from abortion compared to single women (adjusted OR = 0.2, 95%CI = 0.1-0.4. Women aged 35-39years had a significantly higher risk of dying from haemorrhage (aOR 2.6, 95%CI = 1.4-4.9, whereas they were at a lower risk of dying from abortion (aOR 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.7 compared to their younger counterparts. The risk of maternal death from infectious diseases decreased with increasing maternal age, whereas the risk of dying from miscellaneous causes increased with increasing age. Conclusions The study shows evidence of variations in the causes of maternal mortality among different socio-demographic subgroups in Ghana that should not be overlooked. It is therefore recommended that interventions aimed at combating the high maternal mortality in Ghana should be both

  13. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.

  14. The Influence of Culture on Agroecosystem Structure: A Comparison of the Spatial Patterns of Homegardens of Different Ethnic Groups in Thailand and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry

    2016-01-01

    Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. PMID:26752564

  15. Universality: Accurate Checks in Dyson's Hierarchical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina, J. J.; Meurice, Y.; Oktay, M. B.

    2003-06-01

    In this talk we present high-accuracy calculations of the susceptibility near βc for Dyson's hierarchical model in D = 3. Using linear fitting, we estimate the leading (γ) and subleading (Δ) exponents. Independent estimates are obtained by calculating the first two eigenvalues of the linearized renormalization group transformation. We found γ = 1.29914073 ± 10 -8 and, Δ = 0.4259469 ± 10-7 independently of the choice of local integration measure (Ising or Landau-Ginzburg). After a suitable rescaling, the approximate fixed points for a large class of local measure coincide accurately with a fixed point constructed by Koch and Wittwer.

  16. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo;

    2004-01-01

    the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size...... methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted...... life years (DALY). The material is based on relative risks obtained from various international studies, smoking prevalence (SP) data and the number of DALY based on data available for Sweden. The results show that if smoking would have been eliminated (attributable fraction, AF), the inequality between...

  17. Neutron to proton mass difference, parton distribution functions and baryon resonances from dynamics on the Lie group u(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole

    in the N-Deltasector. The grouping and number of resonances is predicted by the model from a single fitting of the ground state N(939). The Hamiltonian also contains terms from the group space Laplacian to take care of spin and the superimposed hypercharge and isospin flavour structure. Scarce neutral...... fields from the allospatial state. The allostate in turn is excited from space by the momentum operators which act as toroidal generators on the group manifold. Such generators can be used to trace out parton distribution functions and examples are shown to mimic the valence quark content of the proton....

  18. Surface receptors for serum albumin in group C and G streptococci show three different types of albumin specificity.

    OpenAIRE

    Wideback, K; Kronvall, G

    1982-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains were tested for binding uptake of radiolabeled albumin preparations from 15 mammalian species. Three types of surface structures with specific binding sites for albumin were defined. A previously described receptor for albumin was separated into type a in Streptococcus equisimilis strains and in human group G streptococcal strains and type b in bovine group C streptococci. A new type of albumin receptor, type c, was found in Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains,...

  19. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  20. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in a Large Scale Study of different cities and ethnicities in Khuzestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Torabizade maatoghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed ethnicity-related prevalence. Overall, the blood group O had the highest prevalence and AB the lowest percentage among the ethnicities, indicating a significant difference with studies in other parts of the world.