Accurate Estimation of Low Fundamental Frequencies from Real-Valued Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2013-01-01
In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason for this is that the......In this paper, the difficult problem of estimating low fundamental frequencies from real-valued measurements is addressed. The methods commonly employed do not take the phenomena encountered in this scenario into account and thus fail to deliver accurate estimates. The reason...... for this is that they employ asymptotic approximations that are violated when the harmonics are not well-separated in frequency, something that happens when the observed signal is real-valued and the fundamental frequency is low. To mitigate this, we analyze the problem and present some exact fundamental frequency estimators...
Semi-analytical Formulas for the Fundamental Parameters of Galactic Early B Supergiants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zaninetti, L.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The publication of new tables of calibration of some fundamental parameters of Galactic B0-B5 supergiants in the two classes $I_mathrm{a}$ and $I_mathrm{b} $ allows to particularize the eight parameters conjecture that model five fundamental parameters. The numerical expressions for visual magnitude, radius, mass, luminosity and surface gravity are derived for supergiants in the range of temperature between 29700 K and 15200 K. The availability of accurate tables of calibration allows us to estimate the efficiency of the derived formulas in reproducing the observed values. The average efficiency of the new formulas, expressed in percent, is 94 for the visual magnitude, 81 for the mass, 96 for the radius, 99 for the logarithm of the luminosity and 97 for the logarithm of the surface gravity.
How Accurate are Government Forecast of Economic Fundamentals?
C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2009-01-01
textabstractA government’s ability to forecast key economic fundamentals accurately can affect business confidence, consumer sentiment, and foreign direct investment, among others. A government forecast based on an econometric model is replicable, whereas one that is not fully based on an
Variation of nonlinearity parameter at low fundamental amplitudes
Barnard, Daniel J.
1999-04-01
Recent harmonic generation measurements of the nonlinearity parameter β in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys have shown a transition to lower values at low fundamental amplitude levels. Values for β at high (>10 Å) fundamental levels are in the range predicted by single-crystal second- and third-order elastic constants while lower fundamental levels (alloy by others. The source of the effect is unclear but initial results may require a reexamination of current methods for measurement of third-order elastic constants.
Temperature dependence of the fundamental band gap parameters ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the energy and broadening of the fundamental band gap have been evaluated using various models including the ... other crucial parameters including the operating temperatures of these devices. ... refrigeration system (Air Product Displex).
The fundamental parameter method applied to X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation
Pantenburg, F. J.; Beier, T.; Hennrich, F.; Mommsen, H.
1992-05-01
Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applying the fundamental parameter method is usually restricted to monochromatic excitation sources. It is shown here, that such analyses can be performed as well with a white synchrotron radiation spectrum. To determine absolute elemental concentration values it is necessary to know the spectral distribution of this spectrum. A newly designed and tested experimental setup, which uses the synchrotron radiation emitted from electrons in a bending magnet of ELSA (electron stretcher accelerator of the university of Bonn) is presented. The determination of the exciting spectrum, described by the given electron beam parameters, is limited due to uncertainties in the vertical electron beam size and divergence. We describe a method which allows us to determine the relative and absolute spectral distributions needed for accurate analysis. First test measurements of different alloys and standards of known composition demonstrate that it is possible to determine exact concentration values in bulk and trace element analysis.
Atomic spectroscopy and highly accurate measurement: determination of fundamental constants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwob, C.
2006-12-01
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author concerning highly accurate atomic spectroscopy applied for the determination of fundamental constants. A pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D 2-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium has been performed. The experimental setting-up is described as well as the data analysis. Optimized values for the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts have been deduced (R = 109737.31568516 (84) cm -1 ). An experiment devoted to the determination of the fine structure constant with an aimed relative uncertainty of 10 -9 began in 1999. This experiment is based on the fact that Bloch oscillations in a frequency chirped optical lattice are a powerful tool to transfer coherently many photon momenta to the atoms. We have used this method to measure accurately the ratio h/m(Rb). The measured value of the fine structure constant is α -1 = 137.03599884 (91) with a relative uncertainty of 6.7*10 -9 . The future and perspectives of this experiment are presented. This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research work and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Leif Højslet; Pind, Niels
1982-01-01
A matrix-independent fundamental parameter-based calibration model for an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has been developed. This model, which is part of a fundamental parameter approach quantification method, accounts for both the excitation and detection probability. For each...... secondary target a number of relative calibration constants are calculated on the basis of knowledge of the irradiation geometry, the detector specifications, and tabulated fundamental physical parameters. The absolute calibration of the spectrometer is performed by measuring one pure element standard per...
Fundamental limits of radio interferometers: calibration and source parameter estimation
Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Tingay, Steven J.
2012-01-01
We use information theory to derive fundamental limits on the capacity to calibrate next-generation radio interferometers, and measure parameters of point sources for instrument calibration, point source subtraction, and data deconvolution. We demonstrate the implications of these fundamental limits, with particular reference to estimation of the 21cm Epoch of Reionization power spectrum with next-generation low-frequency instruments (e.g., the Murchison Widefield Array -- MWA, Precision Arra...
Accurate Lithium-ion battery parameter estimation with continuous-time system identification methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Bing; Zhao, Xin; Callafon, Raymond de; Garnier, Hugues; Nguyen, Truong; Mi, Chris
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Continuous-time system identification is applied in Lithium-ion battery modeling. • Continuous-time and discrete-time identification methods are compared in detail. • The instrumental variable method is employed to further improve the estimation. • Simulations and experiments validate the advantages of continuous-time methods. - Abstract: The modeling of Lithium-ion batteries usually utilizes discrete-time system identification methods to estimate parameters of discrete models. However, in real applications, there is a fundamental limitation of the discrete-time methods in dealing with sensitivity when the system is stiff and the storage resolutions are limited. To overcome this problem, this paper adopts direct continuous-time system identification methods to estimate the parameters of equivalent circuit models for Lithium-ion batteries. Compared with discrete-time system identification methods, the continuous-time system identification methods provide more accurate estimates to both fast and slow dynamics in battery systems and are less sensitive to disturbances. A case of a 2"n"d-order equivalent circuit model is studied which shows that the continuous-time estimates are more robust to high sampling rates, measurement noises and rounding errors. In addition, the estimation by the conventional continuous-time least squares method is further improved in the case of noisy output measurement by introducing the instrumental variable method. Simulation and experiment results validate the analysis and demonstrate the advantages of the continuous-time system identification methods in battery applications.
Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Panei, J. A.
2015-05-01
Context. The knowledge of accurate values of effective temperature, surface gravity, and luminosity of stars in open clusters is very important not only to derive cluster distances and ages but also to discuss the stellar structure and evolution. Unfortunately, stellar parameters are still very scarce. Aims: Our goal is to study five open clusters to derive stellar parameters of the B and Be star population and discuss the cluster properties. In a near future, we intend to gather a statistically relevant samples of Be stars to discuss their origin and evolution. Methods: We use the Barbier-Chalonge-Divan spectrophotometric system, based on the study of low-resolution spectra around the Balmer discontinuity, since it is independent of the interstellar and circumstellar extinction and provides accurate Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams and stellar parameters. Results: We determine stellar fundamental parameters, such as effective temperatures, surface gravities, spectral types, luminosity classes, absolute and bolometric magnitudes and colour gradient excesses of the stars in the field of Collinder 223, Hogg 16, NGC 2645, NGC 3114, and NGC 6025. Additional information, mainly masses and ages of cluster stellar populations, is obtained using stellar evolution models. In most cases, stellar fundamental parameters have been derived for the first time. We also discuss the derived cluster properties of reddening, age and distance. Conclusions: Collinder 223 cluster parameters are overline{E(B-V) = 0.25 ± 0.03} mag and overline{(mv - M_v)0 = 11.21 ± 0.25} mag. In Hogg 16, we clearly distinguish two groups of stars (Hogg 16a and Hogg 16b) with very different mean true distance moduli (8.91 ± 0.26 mag and 12.51 ± 0.38 mag), mean colour excesses (0.26 ± 0.03 mag and 0.63 ± 0.08 mag), and spectral types (B early-type and B late-/A-type stars, respectively). The farthest group could be merged with Collinder 272. NGC 2645 is a young cluster (age between 40 Myr and 69 Myr. In
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christensen, L.H.; Pind, N.
1982-01-01
A matrix-independent fundamental parameter-based calibration model for an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has been developed. This model, which is part of a fundamental parameter approach quantification method, accounts for both the excitation and detection probability. For each secondary target a number of relative calibration constants are calculated on the basis of knowledge of the irradiation geometry, the detector specifications, and tabulated fundamental physical parameters. The absolute calibration of the spectrometer is performed by measuring one pure element standard per secondary target. For sample systems where all elements can be analyzed by means of the same secondary target the absolute calibration constant can be determined during the iterative solution of the basic equation. Calculated and experimentally determined relative calibration constants agree to within 5-10% of each other and so do the results obtained from the analysis of an NBS certified alloy using the two sets of constants. (orig.)
On the Relationships Between the Fundamental Parameters of Calculation Accelerograms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savich, A. I., E-mail: office@geodyn.ru; Burdina, N. A., E-mail: nina-burdina@mail.ru [Center of the Office of Geodynamic Observations in the Power Sector, an affiliate of JSC “Institut Gidroproekt,” (Russian Federation)
2016-05-15
Analysis of published data on the fundamental parameters of actual accelerograms of strong earthquakes having peak ground acceleration A{sub max}, predominant period T{sub pr}, and duration τ{sub 0.5} at 0.5A{sub max} determined that, for earthquakes of intensity greater than 6.5 – 7.0, the relationship between these quantities is sufficiently well described by the parameters B = ATτ and C = AτT{sup −1.338}, the former of which depends little on earthquake intensity I and is almost completely determined by the earthquake magnitude, while the latter, on the contrary, weakly depends on magnitude and is determined principally by the quantity I. Methods are proposed for using the parameters B and C to improve the reliability of determining parameters of accelerograms used to calculate the seismic resistance of hydraulic engineering facilities.
Karshenboim, S. G.
2018-03-01
The metric system appeared as the system of units designed for macroscopic (laboratory scale) measurements. The progress in accurate determination of the values of quantum constants (such as the Planck constant) in SI units shows that the capabilities in high-precision measurement of microscopic and macroscopic quantities in terms of the same units have increased substantially recently. At the same time, relative microscopic measurements (for example, the comparison of atomic transition frequencies or atomic masses) are often much more accurate than relative measurements of macroscopic quantities. This is the basis for the strategy to define units in microscopic phenomena and then use them on the laboratory scale, which plays a crucial role in practical methodological applications determined by everyday life and technologies. The international CODATA task group on fundamental constants regularly performs an overall analysis of the precision world data (the so-called Adjustment of the Fundamental Constants) and publishes their recommended values. The most recent evaluation was based on the data published by the end of 2014; here, we review the corresponding data and results. The accuracy in determination of the Boltzmann constant has increased, the consistency of the data on determination of the Planck constant has improved; it is these two dimensional constants that will be used in near future as the basis for the new definition of the kelvin and kilogram, respectively. The contradictions in determination of the Rydberg constant and the proton charge radius remain. The accuracy of determination of the fine structure constant and relative atomic weight of the electron has improved. Overall, we give a detailed review of the state of the art in precision determination of the values of fundamental constants. The mathematical procedure of the Adjustment, the new data and results are considered in detail. The limitations due to macroscopic properties of material
Machine learning of parameters for accurate semiempirical quantum chemical calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dral, Pavlo O.; Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von; Thiel, Walter
2015-01-01
We investigate possible improvements in the accuracy of semiempirical quantum chemistry (SQC) methods through the use of machine learning (ML) models for the parameters. For a given class of compounds, ML techniques require sufficiently large training sets to develop ML models that can be used for adapting SQC parameters to reflect changes in molecular composition and geometry. The ML-SQC approach allows the automatic tuning of SQC parameters for individual molecules, thereby improving the accuracy without deteriorating transferability to molecules with molecular descriptors very different from those in the training set. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the semiempirical OM2 method using a set of 6095 constitutional isomers C 7 H 10 O 2 , for which accurate ab initio atomization enthalpies are available. The ML-OM2 results show improved average accuracy and a much reduced error range compared with those of standard OM2 results, with mean absolute errors in atomization enthalpies dropping from 6.3 to 1.7 kcal/mol. They are also found to be superior to the results from specific OM2 reparameterizations (rOM2) for the same set of isomers. The ML-SQC approach thus holds promise for fast and reasonably accurate high-throughput screening of materials and molecules
Quantitative x-ray fluorescent analysis using fundamental parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sparks, C.J. Jr.
1976-01-01
A monochromatic source of x-rays for sample excitation permits the use of pure elemental standards and relatively simple calculations to convert the measured fluorescent intensities to an absolute basis of weight per unit weight of sample. Only the mass absorption coefficients of the sample for the exciting and the fluorescent radiation need be determined. Besides the direct measurement of these absorption coefficients in the sample, other techniques are considered which require fewer sample manipulations and measurements. These fundamental parameters methods permit quantitative analysis without recourse to the time-consuming process of preparing nearly identical standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaltout, A.
2003-06-01
The present work describes some actual problems of quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis by means of the fundamental parameter approach. To perform this task, some of the main parameters are discussed in detail. These parameters are photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections, mass absorption cross sections and the variation of the x-ray tube voltage. Photoelectric cross sections, coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections and mass absorption cross sections in the energy range from 1 to 300 keV for the elements from Z=1 to 94 considering ten different data bases are studied. These are data bases given by Hubbell, McMaster, Mucall, Scofield, Xcom, Elam, Sasaki, Henke, Cullen and Chantler's data bases. These data bases have been developed also for an application in fundamental parameter programs for quantitative x-ray analysis (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (EDXRFA), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Total Electron Yield (TEY)). In addition a comparison is performed between different data bases. In McMaster's data base, the missing elements (Z=84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 91, and 93) are added by using photoelectric cross sections of Scofield's data base, coherent as well as incoherent scattering cross sections of Elam's data base and the absorption edges of Bearden. Also, the N-fit coefficients of the elements from Z=61 to 69 are wrong in McMaster data base, therefore, linear least squares fits are used to recalculate the N-fit coefficients of these elements. Additionally, in the McMaster tables the positions of the M- and N-edges of all elements with the exception of the M1- and N1- edges are not defined as well as the jump ratio of the edges. In the present work, the M- and N-edges and the related jump ratios are calculated. To include the missing N-edges, Bearden's values of energy edges are used. In Scofield's data base, modifications include check and correction
Wu, Tao; Li, Yan
2017-09-01
Asteroseismology is a useful tool that is usually used to probe stellar interiors and to determine stellar fundamental parameters, such as stellar mass, radius, and surface gravity. In order to probe stellar interiors, making comparisons between observations and models is usually used with the {χ }2-minimization method. The work of Wu & Li reported that the best parameter determined by the {χ }2-matching process is the acoustic radius for pure p-mode oscillations. In the present work, based on the theoretical calculations of Wu & Li, we will independently analyze the seismic observations of KIC 6225718 to determine its fundamental parameters and to investigate its interior properties. First, in order to test the method, we use it in the Sun to determine its fundamental parameters and to investigate interiors. Second, we independently determine the fundamental parameters of KIC 6225718 without any other non-seismic constraint. Therefore, those determined fundamental parameters are independent of those determined by other methods. They can be regarded as independent references in other analyses. Finally, we analyze the stellar internal structure and find that KIC 6225718 has a convective core with the size of 0.078-0.092 {R}⊙ . Its overshooting parameter {f}{ov} in the core is around 0.010. In addition, its center hydrogen {X}{{c}} is about 0.264-0.355.
Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sidan Du
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.
Radiation-induced segregation: A microchemical gauge to quantify fundamental defect parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonen, E.P.; Bruemmer, S.M.
1994-12-01
Defect Kinetic are evaluated for austenitic stainless alloys by comparing model predictions to measured responses for radiation-induced grain boundary segregation. Heavy-ions, neutrons and proton irradiations having substantial statistical bases are examined. The combined modeling and measurement approach is shown to be useful for quantifying fundamental defect parameters. The mechanism evaluation indicates vacancy, migration energies of 1.15 eV or less and a vacancy formation energy at grain boundaries of 1.5 eV. Damage efficiencies of about 0.03 were established for heavy-ions and for light-water reactor neutrons. Inferred proton damage efficiencies were about 0.15. Segregation measured in an advanced gas-cooled reactor component was much greater than expected using the above parameters
Fundamental parameters of He-weak and He-strong stars
Cidale, L. S.; Arias, M. L.; Torres, A. F.; Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Cruzado, A.
2007-06-01
Context: He-weak and He-strong stars are chemically peculiar AB objects whose He lines are anomalously weak or strong for their MK spectral type. The determination of fundamental parameters for these stars is often more complex than for normal stars due to their abundance anomalies. Aims: We discuss the determination of fundamental parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity, and visual and bolometric absolute magnitudes of He-weak and He-strong stars. We compare our values with those derived independently from methods based on photometry and model fitting. Methods: We carried out low resolution spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range 3400-4700 Å of 20 He-weak and 8 He-strong stars to determine their fundamental parameters by means of the Divan-Chalonge-Barbier (BCD) spectrophotometric system. This system is based on the measurement of the continuum energy distribution around the Balmer discontinuity (BD). For a few He-weak stars we also estimate the effective temperatures and the angular diameters by integrating absolute fluxes observed over a wide spectral range. Non-LTE model calculations are carried out to study the influence of the He/H abundance ratio on the emergent radiation of He-strong stars and on their T_eff determination. Results: We find that the effective temperatures, surface gravities and bolometric absolute magnitudes of He-weak stars estimated with the BCD system and the integrated flux method are in good agreement between each other, and they also agree with previous determinations based on several different methods. The mean discrepancy between the visual absolute magnitudes derived using the hipparcos parallaxes and the BCD values is on average ±0.3 mag for He-weak stars, while it is ±0.5 mag for He-strong stars. For He-strong stars, we note that the BCD calibration, based on stars in the solar environment, leads to overestimated values of T_eff. By means of model atmosphere calculations with enhanced He/H abundance ratios
Surface density: a new parameter in the fundamental metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies
Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Goto, Tomotsugu; Momose, Rieko
2018-04-01
Star-forming galaxies display a close relation among stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rate (or molecular-gas mass). This is known as the fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) (or molecular-gas FMR), and it has a profound implication on models of galaxy evolution. However, there still remains a significant residual scatter around the FMR. We show here that a fourth parameter, the surface density of stellar mass, reduces the dispersion around the molecular-gas FMR. In a principal component analysis of 29 physical parameters of 41 338 star-forming galaxies, the surface density of stellar mass is found to be the fourth most important parameter. The new 4D fundamental relation forms a tighter hypersurface that reduces the metallicity dispersion to 50 per cent of that of the molecular-gas FMR. We suggest that future analyses and models of galaxy evolution should consider the FMR in a 4D space that includes surface density. The dilution time-scale of gas inflow and the star-formation efficiency could explain the observational dependence on surface density of stellar mass.
An accurate method for the determination of unlike potential parameters from thermal diffusion data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Geubeily, S.
1997-01-01
A new method is introduced by means of which the unlike intermolecular potential parameters can be determined from the experimental measurements of the thermal diffusion factor as a function of temperature. The method proved to be easy, accurate, and applicable two-, three-, and four-parameter potential functions whose collision integrals are available. The potential parameters computed by this method are found to provide a faith full representation of the thermal diffusion data under consideration. 3 figs., 4 tabs
Standardless quantification approach of TXRF analysis using fundamental parameter method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szaloki, I.; Taniguchi, K.
2000-01-01
New standardless evaluation procedure based on the fundamental parameter method (FPM) has been developed for TXRF analysis. The theoretical calculation describes the relationship between characteristic intensities and the geometrical parameters of the excitation, detection system and the specimen parameters: size, thickness, angle of the excitation beam to the surface and the optical properties of the specimen holder. Most of the TXRF methods apply empirical calibration, which requires the application of special preparation technique. However, the characteristic lines of the specimen holder (Si Kα,β) present information from the local excitation and geometrical conditions on the substrate surface. On the basis of the theoretically calculation of the substrate characteristic intensity the excitation beam flux can be approximated. Taking into consideration the elements are in the specimen material a system of non-linear equation can be given involving the unknown concentration values and the geometrical and detection parameters. In order to solve this mathematical problem PASCAL software was written, which calculates the sample composition and the average sample thickness by gradient algorithm. Therefore, this quantitative estimation of the specimen composition requires neither external nor internal standard sample. For verification of the theoretical calculation and the numerical procedure, several experiments were carried out using mixed standard solution containing elements of K, Sc, V, Mn, Co and Cu in 0.1 - 10 ppm concentration range. (author)
In-situ measurements of material thermal parameters for accurate LED lamp thermal modelling
Vellvehi, M.; Perpina, X.; Jorda, X.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Kunen, J.M.G.; Jakovenko, J.; Bancken, P.; Bolt, P.J.
2013-01-01
This work deals with the extraction of key thermal parameters for accurate thermal modelling of LED lamps: air exchange coefficient around the lamp, emissivity and thermal conductivity of all lamp parts. As a case study, an 8W retrofit lamp is presented. To assess simulation results, temperature is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)
2012-01-15
This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Moharram, Mohammed A.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.
2012-01-01
This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: ► Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. ► Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. ► The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. ► The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.
Data Mining for Efficient and Accurate Large Scale Retrieval of Geophysical Parameters
Obradovic, Z.; Vucetic, S.; Peng, K.; Han, B.
2004-12-01
Our effort is devoted to developing data mining technology for improving efficiency and accuracy of the geophysical parameter retrievals by learning a mapping from observation attributes to the corresponding parameters within the framework of classification and regression. We will describe a method for efficient learning of neural network-based classification and regression models from high-volume data streams. The proposed procedure automatically learns a series of neural networks of different complexities on smaller data stream chunks and then properly combines them into an ensemble predictor through averaging. Based on the idea of progressive sampling the proposed approach starts with a very simple network trained on a very small chunk and then gradually increases the model complexity and the chunk size until the learning performance no longer improves. Our empirical study on aerosol retrievals from data obtained with the MISR instrument mounted at Terra satellite suggests that the proposed method is successful in learning complex concepts from large data streams with near-optimal computational effort. We will also report on a method that complements deterministic retrievals by constructing accurate predictive algorithms and applying them on appropriately selected subsets of observed data. The method is based on developing more accurate predictors aimed to catch global and local properties synthesized in a region. The procedure starts by learning the global properties of data sampled over the entire space, and continues by constructing specialized models on selected localized regions. The global and local models are integrated through an automated procedure that determines the optimal trade-off between the two components with the objective of minimizing the overall mean square errors over a specific region. Our experimental results on MISR data showed that the combined model can increase the retrieval accuracy significantly. The preliminary results on various
A simple but accurate procedure for solving the five-parameter model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mares, Oana; Paulescu, Marius; Badescu, Viorel
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A new procedure for extracting the parameters of the one-diode model is proposed. • Only the basic information listed in the datasheet of PV modules are required. • Results demonstrate a simple, robust and accurate procedure. - Abstract: The current–voltage characteristic of a photovoltaic module is typically evaluated by using a model based on the solar cell equivalent circuit. The complexity of the procedure applied for extracting the model parameters depends on data available in manufacture’s datasheet. Since the datasheet is not detailed enough, simplified models have to be used in many cases. This paper proposes a new procedure for extracting the parameters of the one-diode model in standard test conditions, using only the basic data listed by all manufactures in datasheet (short circuit current, open circuit voltage and maximum power point). The procedure is validated by using manufacturers’ data for six commercially crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Comparing the computed and measured current–voltage characteristics the determination coefficient is in the range 0.976–0.998. Thus, the proposed procedure represents a feasible tool for solving the five-parameter model applied to crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. The procedure is described in detail, to guide potential users to derive similar models for other types of photovoltaic modules.
A MACHINE-LEARNING METHOD TO INFER FUNDAMENTAL STELLAR PARAMETERS FROM PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, A. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Richards, J. W.; Starr, D. L.; Lee, Y. S.; Butler, N. R.; Tokarz, S.; Smith, N.; Eisner, J. A.
2015-01-01
A fundamental challenge for wide-field imaging surveys is obtaining follow-up spectroscopic observations: there are >10 9 photometrically cataloged sources, yet modern spectroscopic surveys are limited to ∼few× 10 6 targets. As we approach the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope era, new algorithmic solutions are required to cope with the data deluge. Here we report the development of a machine-learning framework capable of inferring fundamental stellar parameters (T eff , log g, and [Fe/H]) using photometric-brightness variations and color alone. A training set is constructed from a systematic spectroscopic survey of variables with Hectospec/Multi-Mirror Telescope. In sum, the training set includes ∼9000 spectra, for which stellar parameters are measured using the SEGUE Stellar Parameters Pipeline (SSPP). We employed the random forest algorithm to perform a non-parametric regression that predicts T eff , log g, and [Fe/H] from photometric time-domain observations. Our final optimized model produces a cross-validated rms error (RMSE) of 165 K, 0.39 dex, and 0.33 dex for T eff , log g, and [Fe/H], respectively. Examining the subset of sources for which the SSPP measurements are most reliable, the RMSE reduces to 125 K, 0.37 dex, and 0.27 dex, respectively, comparable to what is achievable via low-resolution spectroscopy. For variable stars this represents a ≈12%-20% improvement in RMSE relative to models trained with single-epoch photometric colors. As an application of our method, we estimate stellar parameters for ∼54,000 known variables. We argue that this method may convert photometric time-domain surveys into pseudo-spectrographic engines, enabling the construction of extremely detailed maps of the Milky Way, its structure, and history
Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements
Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R.
2015-01-01
Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity. PMID:26574737
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Hong Khiem
2004-01-01
The Fundamental Parameter Method has been used for the correction of the matrix effects for determination of the fineness of gold in the ternary Au-Ag-Cu yellow jewellery alloys. A computer code GOLDANA based on this algorithm has been developed for both data taking and on-line determining the fineness of gold jewellery. Only one ternary Au-Ag-Cu standard sample is required. The analysis performance has been tested by measurements conducted on certified gold reference materials, with the use of the fundamental method, could be used for quickly determining the gold concentration in gold jewellery alloys with an acceptable accuracy for the gold jewellery producers. (author)
Shen, Jiajian; Tryggestad, Erik; Younkin, James E; Keole, Sameer R; Furutani, Keith M; Kang, Yixiu; Herman, Michael G; Bues, Martin
2017-10-01
To accurately model the beam delivery time (BDT) for a synchrotron-based proton spot scanning system using experimentally determined beam parameters. A model to simulate the proton spot delivery sequences was constructed, and BDT was calculated by summing times for layer switch, spot switch, and spot delivery. Test plans were designed to isolate and quantify the relevant beam parameters in the operation cycle of the proton beam therapy delivery system. These parameters included the layer switch time, magnet preparation and verification time, average beam scanning speeds in x- and y-directions, proton spill rate, and maximum charge and maximum extraction time for each spill. The experimentally determined parameters, as well as the nominal values initially provided by the vendor, served as inputs to the model to predict BDTs for 602 clinical proton beam deliveries. The calculated BDTs (T BDT ) were compared with the BDTs recorded in the treatment delivery log files (T Log ): ∆t = T Log -T BDT . The experimentally determined average layer switch time for all 97 energies was 1.91 s (ranging from 1.9 to 2.0 s for beam energies from 71.3 to 228.8 MeV), average magnet preparation and verification time was 1.93 ms, the average scanning speeds were 5.9 m/s in x-direction and 19.3 m/s in y-direction, the proton spill rate was 8.7 MU/s, and the maximum proton charge available for one acceleration is 2.0 ± 0.4 nC. Some of the measured parameters differed from the nominal values provided by the vendor. The calculated BDTs using experimentally determined parameters matched the recorded BDTs of 602 beam deliveries (∆t = -0.49 ± 1.44 s), which were significantly more accurate than BDTs calculated using nominal timing parameters (∆t = -7.48 ± 6.97 s). An accurate model for BDT prediction was achieved by using the experimentally determined proton beam therapy delivery parameters, which may be useful in modeling the interplay effect and patient throughput. The model may
Vliet, van T.
2002-01-01
Abstract Aspects of the relationship between texture perception in the mouth and fundamental mechanical parameters for liquids and time dependent solids are discussed. The emphasis is on the physical side of the relation. The importance is stressed of the incorporation of a thorough knowledge of
Atmospheric and Fundamental Parameters of Stars in Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library
Heap, Sally
2010-01-01
Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) consists of R approximately 1000 spectra of 374 stars of assorted temperature, gravity, and metallicity. We are presently working to determine the atmospheric and fundamental parameters of the stars from the NGSL spectra themselves via full-spectrum fitting of model spectra to the observed (extinction-corrected) spectrum over the full wavelength range, 0.2-1.0 micron. We use two grids of model spectra for this purpose: the very low-resolution spectral grid from Castelli-Kurucz (2004), and the grid from MARCS (2008). Both the observed spectrum and the MARCS spectra are first degraded in resolution to match the very low resolution of the Castelli-Kurucz models, so that our fitting technique is the same for both model grids. We will present our preliminary results with a comparison with those from the Sloan/Segue Stellar Parameter Pipeline, ELODIE, and MILES, etc.
Accurate estimation of motion blur parameters in noisy remote sensing image
Shi, Xueyan; Wang, Lin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huilin; Tao, Zhong
2015-05-01
The relative motion between remote sensing satellite sensor and objects is one of the most common reasons for remote sensing image degradation. It seriously weakens image data interpretation and information extraction. In practice, point spread function (PSF) should be estimated firstly for image restoration. Identifying motion blur direction and length accurately is very crucial for PSF and restoring image with precision. In general, the regular light-and-dark stripes in the spectrum can be employed to obtain the parameters by using Radon transform. However, serious noise existing in actual remote sensing images often causes the stripes unobvious. The parameters would be difficult to calculate and the error of the result relatively big. In this paper, an improved motion blur parameter identification method to noisy remote sensing image is proposed to solve this problem. The spectrum characteristic of noisy remote sensing image is analyzed firstly. An interactive image segmentation method based on graph theory called GrabCut is adopted to effectively extract the edge of the light center in the spectrum. Motion blur direction is estimated by applying Radon transform on the segmentation result. In order to reduce random error, a method based on whole column statistics is used during calculating blur length. Finally, Lucy-Richardson algorithm is applied to restore the remote sensing images of the moon after estimating blur parameters. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of our algorithm.
New fundamental parameters for attitude representation
Patera, Russell P.
2017-08-01
A new attitude parameter set is developed to clarify the geometry of combining finite rotations in a rotational sequence and in combining infinitesimal angular increments generated by angular rate. The resulting parameter set of six Pivot Parameters represents a rotation as a great circle arc on a unit sphere that can be located at any clocking location in the rotation plane. Two rotations are combined by linking their arcs at either of the two intersection points of the respective rotation planes. In a similar fashion, linking rotational increments produced by angular rate is used to derive the associated kinematical equations, which are linear and have no singularities. Included in this paper is the derivation of twelve Pivot Parameter elements that represent all twelve Euler Angle sequences, which enables efficient conversions between Pivot Parameters and any Euler Angle sequence. Applications of this new parameter set include the derivation of quaternions and the quaternion composition rule, as well as, the derivation of the analytical solution to time dependent coning motion. The relationships between Pivot Parameters and traditional parameter sets are included in this work. Pivot Parameters are well suited for a variety of aerospace applications due to their effective composition rule, singularity free kinematic equations, efficient conversion to and from Euler Angle sequences and clarity of their geometrical foundation.
An efficient and accurate method for calculating nonlinear diffraction beam fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Hyun Jo; Cho, Sung Jong; Nam, Ki Woong; Lee, Jang Hyun [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-04-15
This study develops an efficient and accurate method for calculating nonlinear diffraction beam fields propagating in fluids or solids. The Westervelt equation and quasilinear theory, from which the integral solutions for the fundamental and second harmonics can be obtained, are first considered. A computationally efficient method is then developed using a multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model that easily separates the diffraction effects from the plane wave solution. The MGB models provide accurate beam fields when compared with the integral solutions for a number of transmitter-receiver geometries. These models can also serve as fast, powerful modeling tools for many nonlinear acoustics applications, especially in making diffraction corrections for the nonlinearity parameter determination, because of their computational efficiency and accuracy.
Nuclear and fundamental physics instrumentation for the ANS project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, S.J.; Faust, H.; Piotrowski, A.E.
1996-05-01
This report summarizes work carried out during the period 1991-1995 in connection with the refinement of the concepts and detailed designs for nuclear and fundamental physics research instrumentation at the proposed Advanced Neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Initially, emphasis was placed on refining the existing System Design Document (SDD-43) to detail more accurately the needs and interfaces of the instruments that are identified in the document. The conceptual designs of these instruments were also refined to reflect current thinking in the field of nuclear and fundamental physics. In particular, the on-line isotope separator (ISOL) facility design was reconsidered in the light of the development of interest in radioactive ion beams within the nuclear physics community. The second stage of this work was to define those instrument parameters that would interface directly with the reactor systems so that these parameters could be considered for the ISOL facility and particularly for its associated ion source. Since two of these options involved ion sources internal to the long slant beam tube, these were studied in detail. In addition, preliminary work was done to identify the needs for the target holder and changing facility to be located in the tangential through-tube. Because many of the planned nuclear and fundamental physics instruments have similar needs in terms of detection apparatus, some progress was also made in defining the parameters for these detectors. 21 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs
A new approach to determine accurately minority-carrier lifetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idali Oumhand, M.; Mir, Y.; Zazoui, M.
2009-01-01
Electron or proton irradiations introduce recombination centers, which tend to affect solar cell parameters by reducing the minority-carrier lifetime (MCLT). Because this MCLT plays a fundamental role in the performance degradation of solar cells, in this work we present a new approach that allows us to get accurate values of MCLT. The relationship between MCLT in p-region and n-region both before and after irradiation has been determined by the new method. The validity and accuracy of this approach are justified by the fact that the degradation parameters that fit the experimental data are the same for both short-circuit current and the open-circuit voltages. This method is applied to the p + /n-InGaP solar cell under 1 MeV electron irradiation
Accurate Q value measurements for fundamental physics studies at JYFLTRAP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eronen, T., E-mail: tommi.o.eronen@jyu.fi; Kolhinen, V. S. [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Collaboration: JYFLTRAP collaboration
2011-07-15
We have measured several Q values at JYFLTRAP for superallowed {beta} decays that contribute to testing the Standard Model and candidate nuclei that one could use for the search of neutrinoless double-{beta} decay. These results play important roles in the research of fundamental physics that have scopes beyond Standard Model.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fundamental parameters of Kepler stars (Silva Aguirre+, 2015)
Silva Aguirre, V.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Creevey, O.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Bedding, T. R.; Casagrande, L.; Handberg, R.; Lund, M. N.; Nissen, P. E.; Chaplin, W. J.; Huber, D.; Serenelli, A. M.; Stello, D.; van Eylen, V.; Campante, T. L.; Elsworth, Y.; Gilliland, R. L.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lundkvist, M. S.
2016-02-01
Our sample has been extracted from the 77 exoplanet host stars presented in Huber et al. (2013, Cat. J/ApJ/767/127). We have made use of the full time-base of observations from the Kepler satellite to uniformly determine precise fundamental stellar parameters, including ages, for a sample of exoplanet host stars where high-quality asteroseismic data were available. We devised a Bayesian procedure flexible in its input and applied it to different grids of models to study systematics from input physics and extract statistically robust properties for all stars. (4 data files).
Accurate deuterium spectroscopy for fundamental studies
Wcisło, P.; Thibault, F.; Zaborowski, M.; Wójtewicz, S.; Cygan, A.; Kowzan, G.; Masłowski, P.; Komasa, J.; Puchalski, M.; Pachucki, K.; Ciuryło, R.; Lisak, D.
2018-07-01
We present an accurate measurement of the weak quadrupole S(2) 2-0 line in self-perturbed D2 and theoretical ab initio calculations of both collisional line-shape effects and energy of this rovibrational transition. The spectra were collected at the 247-984 Torr pressure range with a frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectrometer linked to an optical frequency comb (OFC) referenced to a primary time standard. Our line-shape modeling employed quantum calculations of molecular scattering (the pressure broadening and shift and their speed dependencies were calculated, while the complex frequency of optical velocity-changing collisions was fitted to experimental spectra). The velocity-changing collisions are handled with the hard-sphere collisional kernel. The experimental and theoretical pressure broadening and shift are consistent within 5% and 27%, respectively (the discrepancy for shift is 8% when referred not to the speed averaged value, which is close to zero, but to the range of variability of the speed-dependent shift). We use our high pressure measurement to determine the energy, ν0, of the S(2) 2-0 transition. The ab initio line-shape calculations allowed us to mitigate the expected collisional systematics reaching the 410 kHz accuracy of ν0. We report theoretical determination of ν0 taking into account relativistic and QED corrections up to α5. Our estimation of the accuracy of the theoretical ν0 is 1.3 MHz. We observe 3.4σ discrepancy between experimental and theoretical ν0.
Fundamental parameters method for quantitative energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirel, H.; Zararsiz, A.
1986-01-01
In this study, the requirement of the standart material in photon excited energy distributed X-ray fluorescence analysis has been removed. The interaction of X-rays with matter has been taken into account. A computer program has been developed by using the fundamental parameters of X-ray fluorescence technique and the spectral intensity 'K' of pure elements at saturation thickness has been obtained. For experimental purpose a convenient source-target-detector geometry has been designed. In order to excite the samples,Cd-109 radioisotope source has been used. The peak intensities has been obtained in a vacum chamber by counting the emitted X-rays. The calculation of concentration has been performed for double mixed samples correcting the effects of absorption and enchancement factors. The results were in conformity with their certificate values. (author)
Fundamental Properties of the SHIELD Galaxies
Cannon, John; Adams, Betsey; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha; Jones, Michael; McQuinn, Kristen; Rhode, Katherine; Salzer, John; Skillman, Evan
2018-05-01
The ALFALFA survey has significantly advanced our knowledge of the HI mass function (HIMF), particularly at the low mass end. From the ALFALFA survey, we have constructed a sample of all of the galaxies with HI masses less than 20 million solar masses. Observations of this 82 galaxy sample allow, for the first time, a characterization of the lowest HI mass galaxies at redshift zero. Specifically, this sample can be used to determine the low HI-mass ends of various fundamental scaling relations, including the critical baryonic Tully Fisher relation (BTFR) and the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation. The M-Z relation and the BTFR are cosmologically important, but current samples leave the low-mass parameter spaces severely underpopulated. A full understanding of these relationships depends critically on accurate stellar masses of this complete sample of uniformly-selected galaxies. Here, we request imaging of the 70 galaxies in our sample that have not been observed with Spitzer. The proposed imaging will allow us to measure stellar masses and inclinations of the sample galaxies using a uniform observational approach. Comparison with (existing and in progress) interferometric HI imaging and with ground-based optical imaging and spectroscopy will enable a robust mass decomposition in each galaxy and accurate placements on the aforementioned scaling relationships. The observations proposed here will allow us to populate the mass continuum between mini-halos and bona fide dwarf galaxies, and to address a range of fundamental questions in galaxy formation and near-field cosmology.
Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Dhar, A.
2017-08-01
The accurate estimation of the photovoltaic parameters is fundamental to gain an insight of the physical processes occurring inside a photovoltaic device and thereby to optimize its design, fabrication processes, and quality. A simulative approach of accurately determining the device parameters is crucial for cell array and module simulation when applied in practical on-field applications. In this work, we have developed a global particle swarm optimization (GPSO) approach to estimate the different solar cell parameters viz., ideality factor (η), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), shunt resistant (Rsh), and series resistance (Rs) with wide a search range of over ±100 % for each model parameter. After validating the accurateness and global search power of the proposed approach with synthetic and noisy data, we applied the technique to the extract the PV parameters of ZnO/PCDTBT based hybrid solar cells (HSCs) prepared under different annealing conditions. Further, we examine the variation of extracted model parameters to unveil the physical processes occurring when different annealing temperatures are employed during the device fabrication and establish the role of improved charge transport in polymer films from independent FET measurements. The evolution of surface morphology, optical absorption, and chemical compositional behaviour of PCDTBT co-polymer films as a function of processing temperature has also been captured in the study and correlated with the findings from the PV parameters extracted using GPSO approach.
Experimental determination of the x-ray atomic fundamental parameters of nickel
Ménesguen, Y.; Lépy, M.-C.; Hönicke, P.; Müller, M.; Unterumsberger, R.; Beckhoff, B.; Hoszowska, J.; Dousse, J.-Cl; Błachucki, W.; Ito, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Fukushima, S.
2018-02-01
The x-ray atomic properties of nickel (Ni) were investigated in a unique approach combining different experimental techniques to obtain new, useful and reliable values of atomic fundamental parameters for x-ray spectrometric purposes and for comparison with theoretical predictions. We determined the mass attenuation coefficients in an energy range covering the L- and K-absorption edges, the K-shell fluorescence yield and the Kβ/Kα and Kβ1, 3/Kα1, 2 transition probability ratios. The obtained line profiles and linewidths of the Kα and Kβ transitions in Ni can be considered as the contribution of the satellite lines arising from the [KM] shake processes suggested by Deutsch et al (1995 Phys. Rev. A 51 283) and Ito et al (2016 Phys. Rev. A 94 042506). Comparison of the new data with several databases showed good agreement, but also discrepancies were found with existing tabulated values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rackwitz, Vanessa
2012-01-01
For a decade X-ray sources have been commercially available for the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF) and offer the possibility of extending the analytics at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). By using the μ-XRF it is possible to determine the content of chemical elements in a microscopic sample volume in a quantitative, reference-free and non-destructive way. For the reference-free quantification with the XRF the Sherman equation is referred to. This equation deduces the intensity of the detected X-ray intensity of a fluorescence peak to the content of the element in the sample by means of fundamental parameters. The instrumental fundamental parameters of the μ-XRF at a SEM/EDS system are the excitation spectrum consisting of X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the X-ray optics, the geometry and the spectrometer efficiency. Based on a calibrated instrumentation the objectives of this work are the development of procedures for the characterization of all instrumental fundamental parameters as well as the evaluation and reduction of their measurement uncertainties: The algorithms known from the literature for the calculation of X-ray tube spectrum are evaluated with regard to their deviations in the spectral distribution. Within this work a novel semi-empirical model is improved with respect to its uncertainties and enhanced in the low energy range as well as extended for another three anodes. The emitted X-ray tube spectrum is calculated from the detected one, which is measured at an especially developed setup for the direct measurement of X-ray tube spectra. This emitted X-ray tube spectrum is compared to the one calculated on base of the model of this work. A procedure for the determination of the most important parameters of an X-ray semi-lens in parallelizing mode is developed. The temporal stability of the transmission of X-ray full lenses, which have been in regular use at
Open clusters. I. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 3766 and NGC 4755
Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Arias, M. L.
2012-08-01
Context. Spectroscopic investigations of galactic open clusters are scarce and limited to a reduced sample of cluster members. Aims: We intend to perform a complete study of the physical parameters of two galactic clusters as well as of their individual members. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the BCD (Barbier-Chalonge-Divan) spectrophotometric system, which is based on the study of the Balmer discontinuity and is independent of interstellar and circumstellar extinction. Additional physical properties were derived from the line profiles (FWHM) and stellar evolution models. We analyzed low-resolution spectra around the Balmer discontinuity for normal B-type and Be stars in two open clusters: NGC 3766 and NGC 4755. We determined the stellar fundamental parameters, such as effective temperatures, surface gravities, spectral types, luminosity classes, absolute and bolometric magnitudes, and color gradient excesses. The stellar rotation velocity was also determined. Complementary information, mainly stellar mass, age, and radius of the star population were calculated using stellar evolution models. In some cases, the stellar fundamental parameters were derived for the first time. The obtained results allowed us also to determine the reddening, age, and distance to the clusters. Results: The cluster parameters obtained through the BCD method agree very well with those derived from classical methods based on photometric data. The BCD system also provides physical properties of the star members. This study enables us to test the good behavior of Mbol(λ1,D)-calibrations and detect systematic discrepancies between log g estimates from model atmospheres and those derived from stellar evolution models. To improve our knowledge on the formation and evolution of the clusters, more statistical studies on the initial mass luminosity and angular momentum distributions should be addressed. Therefore, the BCD spectrophotometric system could be a powerful tool for studying
Fundamental parameters of QCD from non-perturbative methods for two and four flavors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinkovic, Marina
2013-01-01
The non-perturbative formulation of Quantumchromodynamics (QCD) on a four dimensional space-time Euclidean lattice together with the finite size techniques enable us to perform the renormalization of the QCD parameters non-perturbatively. In order to obtain precise predictions from lattice QCD, one needs to include the dynamical fermions into lattice QCD simulations. We consider QCD with two and four mass degenerate flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. In this thesis, we improve the existing determinations of the fundamental parameters of two and four flavor QCD. In four flavor theory, we compute the precise value of the Λ parameter in the units of the scale L max defined in the hadronic regime. We also give the precise determination of the Schroedinger functional running coupling in four flavour theory and compare it to the perturbative results. The Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD within the Schroedinger Functional framework were performed with a platform independent program package Schroedinger Funktional Mass Preconditioned Hybrid Monte Carlo (SF-MP-HMC), developed as a part of this project. Finally, we compute the strange quark mass and the Λ parameter in two flavour theory, performing a well-controlled continuum limit and chiral extrapolation. To achieve this, we developed a universal program package for simulating two flavours of Wilson fermions, Mass Preconditioned Hybrid Monte Carlo (MP-HMC), which we used to run large scale simulations on small lattice spacings and on pion masses close to the physical value.
Fundamental parameters approach applied to focal construct geometry for X-ray diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, K.; Evans, P.; Prokopiou, D.; Dicken, A.; Godber, S.; Rogers, J.
2012-01-01
A novel geometry for the acquisition of powder X-ray diffraction data, referred to as focal construct geometry (FCG), is presented. Diffraction data obtained by FCG have been shown to possess significantly enhanced intensity due to the hollow tube beam arrangement utilized. In contrast to conventional diffraction, the detector is translated to collect images along a primary axis and record the location of Bragg maxima. These high intensity condensation foci are unique to FCG and appear due to the convergence of Debye cones at single points on the primary axis. This work focuses on a two dimensional, fundamental parameter's approach to simulate experimental data and subsequently aid with interpretation. This convolution method is shown to favorably reproduce the experimental diffractograms and can also accommodate preferred orientation effects in some circumstances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puzzarini, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica " Giacomo Ciamician," Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)
2014-04-20
In an effort to provide an accurate spectroscopic characterization of oxirane, state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches have been employed to determine highly accurate fundamental vibrational frequencies and rotational parameters. Available experimental data were used to assess the reliability of our computations, and an accuracy on average of 10 cm{sup –1} for fundamental transitions as well as overtones and combination bands has been pointed out. Moving to rotational spectroscopy, relative discrepancies of 0.1%, 2%-3%, and 3%-4% were observed for rotational, quartic, and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, respectively. We are therefore confident that the highly accurate spectroscopic data provided herein can be useful for identification of oxirane in Titan's atmosphere and the assignment of unidentified infrared bands. Since oxirane was already observed in the interstellar medium and some astronomical objects are characterized by very high D/H ratios, we also considered the accurate determination of the spectroscopic parameters for the mono-deuterated species, oxirane-d1. For the latter, an empirical scaling procedure allowed us to improve our computed data and to provide predictions for rotational transitions with a relative accuracy of about 0.02% (i.e., an uncertainty of about 40 MHz for a transition lying at 200 GHz).
Fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere mixtures: a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roth, Roland
2010-01-01
Hard-sphere systems are one of the fundamental model systems of statistical physics and represent an important reference system for molecular or colloidal systems with soft repulsive or attractive interactions in addition to hard-core repulsion at short distances. Density functional theory for classical systems, as one of the core theoretical approaches of statistical physics of fluids and solids, has to be able to treat such an important system successfully and accurately. Fundamental measure theory is up to date the most successful and most accurate density functional theory for hard-sphere mixtures. Since its introduction fundamental measure theory has been applied to many problems, tested against computer simulations, and further developed in many respects. The literature on fundamental measure theory is already large and is growing fast. This review aims to provide a starting point for readers new to fundamental measure theory and an overview of important developments. (topical review)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwob, C
2006-12-15
This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author concerning highly accurate atomic spectroscopy applied for the determination of fundamental constants. A pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D 2-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium has been performed. The experimental setting-up is described as well as the data analysis. Optimized values for the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts have been deduced (R = 109737.31568516 (84) cm{sup -1}). An experiment devoted to the determination of the fine structure constant with an aimed relative uncertainty of 10{sup -9} began in 1999. This experiment is based on the fact that Bloch oscillations in a frequency chirped optical lattice are a powerful tool to transfer coherently many photon momenta to the atoms. We have used this method to measure accurately the ratio h/m(Rb). The measured value of the fine structure constant is {alpha}{sub -1} = 137.03599884 (91) with a relative uncertainty of 6.7*10{sup -9}. The future and perspectives of this experiment are presented. This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research work and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)
Fast and accurate three-dimensional point spread function computation for fluorescence microscopy.
Li, Jizhou; Xue, Feng; Blu, Thierry
2017-06-01
The point spread function (PSF) plays a fundamental role in fluorescence microscopy. A realistic and accurately calculated PSF model can significantly improve the performance in 3D deconvolution microscopy and also the localization accuracy in single-molecule microscopy. In this work, we propose a fast and accurate approximation of the Gibson-Lanni model, which has been shown to represent the PSF suitably under a variety of imaging conditions. We express the Kirchhoff's integral in this model as a linear combination of rescaled Bessel functions, thus providing an integral-free way for the calculation. The explicit approximation error in terms of parameters is given numerically. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach results in a significantly smaller computational time compared with current state-of-the-art techniques to achieve the same accuracy. This approach can also be extended to other microscopy PSF models.
Fundamental approaches for analysis thermal hydraulic parameter for Puspati Research Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashim, Zaredah; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Farid, Mohamad Fairus Abdul; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi; Azhar, Noraishah Syahirah
2016-01-01
The 1-MW PUSPATI Research Reactor (RTP) is the one and only nuclear pool type research reactor developed by General Atomic (GA) in Malaysia. It was installed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and has reached the first criticality on 8 June 1982. Based on the initial core which comprised of 80 standard TRIGA fuel elements, the very fundamental thermal hydraulic model was investigated during steady state operation using the PARET-code. The main objective of this paper is to determine the variation of temperature profiles and Departure of Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) of RTP at full power operation. The second objective is to confirm that the values obtained from PARET-code are in agreement with Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for RTP. The code was employed for the hot and average channels in the core in order to calculate of fuel’s center and surface, cladding, coolant temperatures as well as DNBR’s values. In this study, it was found that the results obtained from the PARET-code showed that the thermal hydraulic parameters related to safety for initial core which was cooled by natural convection was in agreement with the designed values and safety limit in SAR
Fundamental approaches for analysis thermal hydraulic parameter for Puspati Research Reactor
Hashim, Zaredah; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Farid, Mohamad Fairus Abdul; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi; Azhar, Noraishah Syahirah
2016-01-01
The 1-MW PUSPATI Research Reactor (RTP) is the one and only nuclear pool type research reactor developed by General Atomic (GA) in Malaysia. It was installed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and has reached the first criticality on 8 June 1982. Based on the initial core which comprised of 80 standard TRIGA fuel elements, the very fundamental thermal hydraulic model was investigated during steady state operation using the PARET-code. The main objective of this paper is to determine the variation of temperature profiles and Departure of Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) of RTP at full power operation. The second objective is to confirm that the values obtained from PARET-code are in agreement with Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for RTP. The code was employed for the hot and average channels in the core in order to calculate of fuel's center and surface, cladding, coolant temperatures as well as DNBR's values. In this study, it was found that the results obtained from the PARET-code showed that the thermal hydraulic parameters related to safety for initial core which was cooled by natural convection was in agreement with the designed values and safety limit in SAR.
Fundamental approaches for analysis thermal hydraulic parameter for Puspati Research Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hashim, Zaredah, E-mail: zaredah@nm.gov.my; Lanyau, Tonny Anak, E-mail: tonny@nm.gov.my; Farid, Mohamad Fairus Abdul; Kassim, Mohammad Suhaimi [Reactor Technology Centre, Technical Support Division, Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Bangi, 43000, Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Azhar, Noraishah Syahirah [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 80350, Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Takzim (Malaysia)
2016-01-22
The 1-MW PUSPATI Research Reactor (RTP) is the one and only nuclear pool type research reactor developed by General Atomic (GA) in Malaysia. It was installed at Malaysian Nuclear Agency and has reached the first criticality on 8 June 1982. Based on the initial core which comprised of 80 standard TRIGA fuel elements, the very fundamental thermal hydraulic model was investigated during steady state operation using the PARET-code. The main objective of this paper is to determine the variation of temperature profiles and Departure of Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) of RTP at full power operation. The second objective is to confirm that the values obtained from PARET-code are in agreement with Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for RTP. The code was employed for the hot and average channels in the core in order to calculate of fuel’s center and surface, cladding, coolant temperatures as well as DNBR’s values. In this study, it was found that the results obtained from the PARET-code showed that the thermal hydraulic parameters related to safety for initial core which was cooled by natural convection was in agreement with the designed values and safety limit in SAR.
Wang, Mingyu; Han, Lijuan; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Jinghua; Loh, Soh Kheang; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Fang, Xu
2015-09-01
Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Accurate evaluation for the biofilm-activated sludge reactor using graphical techniques
Fouad, Moharram; Bhargava, Renu
2018-05-01
A complete graphical solution is obtained for the completely mixed biofilm-activated sludge reactor (hybrid reactor). The solution consists of a series of curves deduced from the principal equations of the hybrid system after converting them in dimensionless form. The curves estimate the basic parameters of the hybrid system such as suspended biomass concentration, sludge residence time, wasted mass of sludge, and food to biomass ratio. All of these parameters can be expressed as functions of hydraulic retention time, influent substrate concentration, substrate concentration in the bulk, stagnant liquid layer thickness, and the minimum substrate concentration which can maintain the biofilm growth in addition to the basic kinetics of the activated sludge process in which all these variables are expressed in a dimensionless form. Compared to other solutions of such system these curves are simple, easy to use, and provide an accurate tool for analyzing such system based on fundamental principles. Further, these curves may be used as a quick tool to get the effect of variables change on the other parameters and the whole system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T Douglas
2015-01-01
Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature. (note)
Subramanian, Swetha; Mast, T Douglas
2015-10-07
Computational finite element models are commonly used for the simulation of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments. However, the accuracy of these simulations is limited by the lack of precise knowledge of tissue parameters. In this technical note, an inverse solver based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is proposed to optimize values for specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity resulting in accurately simulated temperature elevations. A total of 15 RFA treatments were performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. For each RFA treatment, 15 finite-element simulations were performed using a set of deterministically chosen tissue parameters to estimate the mean and variance of the resulting tissue ablation. The UKF was implemented as an inverse solver to recover the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity corresponding to the measured area of the ablated tissue region, as determined from gross tissue histology. These tissue parameters were then employed in the finite element model to simulate the position- and time-dependent tissue temperature. Results show good agreement between simulated and measured temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V.I.
1986-01-01
A type of the fundamental parameter method based on empirical relation of corrections for absorption and additional-excitation with absorbing characteristics of samples is suggested. The method is used for X-ray fluorescence analysis of multi-component samples of charges of welded electrodes. It is shown that application of the method is justified only for determination of titanium, calcium and silicon content in charges taking into account only corrections for absorption. Irn and manganese content can be calculated by the simple method of the external standard
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holynska, B; Muia, L M; Maina, D M
1987-01-01
Two methods of determination of trace elements in plant materials, viz. the fundamental parameters method (FPM) and the empirical method with the use of standard samples, were compared. Hay CRM and fresh tea leaves were used in measurements. Good agreement was achieved for the determination of a number of elements by both methods. Also Soil-7 Certified Reference Material (CRM) was analysed using emission-transmission method for absorption correction and FPM for concentration determination. The agreement with CRM was found to be reasonably good for several elements.
AN EMPIRICAL CALIBRATION TO ESTIMATE COOL DWARF FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS FROM H-BAND SPECTRA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Newton, Elisabeth R.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mann, Andrew W., E-mail: enewton@cfa.harvard.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2015-02-20
Interferometric radius measurements provide a direct probe of the fundamental parameters of M dwarfs. However, interferometry is within reach for only a limited sample of nearby, bright stars. We use interferometrically measured radii, bolometric luminosities, and effective temperatures to develop new empirical calibrations based on low-resolution, near-infrared spectra. We find that H-band Mg and Al spectral features are good tracers of stellar properties, and derive functions that relate effective temperature, radius, and log luminosity to these features. The standard deviations in the residuals of our best fits are, respectively, 73 K, 0.027 R {sub ☉}, and 0.049 dex (an 11% error on luminosity). Our calibrations are valid from mid K to mid M dwarf stars, roughly corresponding to temperatures between 3100 and 4800 K. We apply our H-band relationships to M dwarfs targeted by the MEarth transiting planet survey and to the cool Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). We present spectral measurements and estimated stellar parameters for these stars. Parallaxes are also available for many of the MEarth targets, allowing us to independently validate our calibrations by demonstrating a clear relationship between our inferred parameters and the stars' absolute K magnitudes. We identify objects with magnitudes that are too bright for their inferred luminosities as candidate multiple systems. We also use our estimated luminosities to address the applicability of near-infrared metallicity calibrations to mid and late M dwarfs. The temperatures we infer for the KOIs agree remarkably well with those from the literature; however, our stellar radii are systematically larger than those presented in previous works that derive radii from model isochrones. This results in a mean planet radius that is 15% larger than one would infer using the stellar properties from recent catalogs. Our results confirm the derived parameters from previous in-depth studies of KOIs 961 (Kepler
Thompson, Rodger I.
2018-04-01
This investigation explores using the beta function formalism to calculate analytic solutions for the observable parameters in rolling scalar field cosmologies. The beta function in this case is the derivative of the scalar ϕ with respect to the natural log of the scale factor a, β (φ )=d φ /d ln (a). Once the beta function is specified, modulo a boundary condition, the evolution of the scalar ϕ as a function of the scale factor is completely determined. A rolling scalar field cosmology is defined by its action which can contain a range of physically motivated dark energy potentials. The beta function is chosen so that the associated "beta potential" is an accurate, but not exact, representation of the appropriate dark energy model potential. The basic concept is that the action with the beta potential is so similar to the action with the model potential that solutions using the beta action are accurate representations of solutions using the model action. The beta function provides an extra equation to calculate analytic functions of the cosmologies parameters as a function of the scale factor that are that are not calculable using only the model action. As an example this investigation uses a quintessence cosmology to demonstrate the method for power and inverse power law dark energy potentials. An interesting result of the investigation is that the Hubble parameter H is almost completely insensitive to the power of the potentials and that ΛCDM is part of the family of quintessence cosmology power law potentials with a power of zero.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holynska, B.; Muia, L.M.; Maina, D.M.
1987-01-01
Two methods of determination of trace elements in plant materials, viz. the fundamental parameters method (FPM) and the empirical method with the use of standard samples, were compared. Hay CRM and fresh tea leaves were used in measurements. Good agreement was achieved for the determination of a number of elements by both methods. Also Soil-7 Certified Reference Material (CRM) was analysed using emission-transmission method for absorption correction and FPM for concentration determination. The agreement with CRM was found to be reasonably good for several elements. (author)
An evolutionary firefly algorithm for the estimation of nonlinear biological model parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Afnizanfaizal Abdullah
Full Text Available The development of accurate computational models of biological processes is fundamental to computational systems biology. These models are usually represented by mathematical expressions that rely heavily on the system parameters. The measurement of these parameters is often difficult. Therefore, they are commonly estimated by fitting the predicted model to the experimental data using optimization methods. The complexity and nonlinearity of the biological processes pose a significant challenge, however, to the development of accurate and fast optimization methods. We introduce a new hybrid optimization method incorporating the Firefly Algorithm and the evolutionary operation of the Differential Evolution method. The proposed method improves solutions by neighbourhood search using evolutionary procedures. Testing our method on models for the arginine catabolism and the negative feedback loop of the p53 signalling pathway, we found that it estimated the parameters with high accuracy and within a reasonable computation time compared to well-known approaches, including Particle Swarm Optimization, Nelder-Mead, and Firefly Algorithm. We have also verified the reliability of the parameters estimated by the method using an a posteriori practical identifiability test.
An evolutionary firefly algorithm for the estimation of nonlinear biological model parameters.
Abdullah, Afnizanfaizal; Deris, Safaai; Anwar, Sohail; Arjunan, Satya N V
2013-01-01
The development of accurate computational models of biological processes is fundamental to computational systems biology. These models are usually represented by mathematical expressions that rely heavily on the system parameters. The measurement of these parameters is often difficult. Therefore, they are commonly estimated by fitting the predicted model to the experimental data using optimization methods. The complexity and nonlinearity of the biological processes pose a significant challenge, however, to the development of accurate and fast optimization methods. We introduce a new hybrid optimization method incorporating the Firefly Algorithm and the evolutionary operation of the Differential Evolution method. The proposed method improves solutions by neighbourhood search using evolutionary procedures. Testing our method on models for the arginine catabolism and the negative feedback loop of the p53 signalling pathway, we found that it estimated the parameters with high accuracy and within a reasonable computation time compared to well-known approaches, including Particle Swarm Optimization, Nelder-Mead, and Firefly Algorithm. We have also verified the reliability of the parameters estimated by the method using an a posteriori practical identifiability test.
Some implications of accurate thermal parameters for beryllium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, D.M.; Whitehurst, F.W.
1981-01-01
Authoritative values for the parameters of harmonic thermal motion have been used as criteria for various least-squares refinements of the structure model for beryllium metal. A change in the absolute scale of Brown [Philos. Mag. (1972), 26, 1377-1394] improves the correspondence of the associated data with the true thermal parameters. Contraction of the core-electron distribution upon bonding is a possible implication of the rescaled data. (Auth.)
Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics
Mardari, G. N.
2002-01-01
The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. They cannot be predicted, because they cannot have internal causes. However, it is possible to describe them in the language of classical mechanics. We invoke philosophical reas...
Accurate step-hold tracking of smoothly varying periodic and aperiodic probability.
Ricci, Matthew; Gallistel, Randy
2017-07-01
Subjects observing many samples from a Bernoulli distribution are able to perceive an estimate of the generating parameter. A question of fundamental importance is how the current percept-what we think the probability now is-depends on the sequence of observed samples. Answers to this question are strongly constrained by the manner in which the current percept changes in response to changes in the hidden parameter. Subjects do not update their percept trial-by-trial when the hidden probability undergoes unpredictable and unsignaled step changes; instead, they update it only intermittently in a step-hold pattern. It could be that the step-hold pattern is not essential to the perception of probability and is only an artifact of step changes in the hidden parameter. However, we now report that the step-hold pattern obtains even when the parameter varies slowly and smoothly. It obtains even when the smooth variation is periodic (sinusoidal) and perceived as such. We elaborate on a previously published theory that accounts for: (i) the quantitative properties of the step-hold update pattern; (ii) subjects' quick and accurate reporting of changes; (iii) subjects' second thoughts about previously reported changes; (iv) subjects' detection of higher-order structure in patterns of change. We also call attention to the challenges these results pose for trial-by-trial updating theories.
Innovation of Methods for Measurement and Modelling of Twisted Pair Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukas Cepa
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to optimize a measurement methodology for the most accurate broadband modelling of characteristic impedance and other parameters for twisted pairs. Measured values and theirs comparison is presented in this article. Automated measurement facility was implemented at the Department of telecommunication of Faculty of electrical engineering of Czech technical university in Prague. Measurement facility contains RF switches allowing measurements up to 300 MHz or 1GHz. Measured twisted pair’s parameters can be obtained by measurement but for purposes of fundamental characteristics modelling is useful to define functions that model the properties of the twisted pair. Its primary and secondary parameters depend mostly on the frequency. For twisted pair deployment, we are interested in a frequency band range from 1 MHz to 100 MHz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, O.; Cardenas, J.; Valdes, M.
1993-01-01
The fundamental hematological parameters in peripheral blood of 2537 children from 409 Ukrainian localities were studied to evaluate the radiological impact produced by the accident. The hematological analyses were performed as part of the ordinary program of medical examination. The results were grouped taking into account the superficial contamination levels by 137C s of the zones where the infants came from
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neilson, Hilding R.; Lester, John B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Baron, Fabien; Norris, Ryan; Kloppenborg, Brian, E-mail: neilson@astro.utoronto.ca [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States)
2016-10-20
One of the great challenges of understanding stars is measuring their masses. The best methods for measuring stellar masses include binary interaction, asteroseismology, and stellar evolution models, but these methods are not ideal for red giant and supergiant stars. In this work, we propose a novel method for inferring stellar masses of evolved red giant and supergiant stars using interferometric and spectrophotometric observations combined with spherical model stellar atmospheres to measure what we call the stellar mass index, defined as the ratio between the stellar radius and mass. The method is based on the correlation between different measurements of angular diameter, used as a proxy for atmospheric extension, and fundamental stellar parameters. For a given star, spectrophotometry measures the Rosseland angular diameter while interferometric observations generally probe a larger limb-darkened angular diameter. The ratio of these two angular diameters is proportional to the relative extension of the stellar atmosphere, which is strongly correlated to the star’s effective temperature, radius, and mass. We show that these correlations are strong and can lead to precise measurements of stellar masses.
Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardari, Ghenadie N
2007-01-01
The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. Moreover, such models must also contain discrete identical entities with constant properties. These conclusions appear to support the work of Kaniadakis on subquantum mechanics. A qualitative analysis is offered to suggest compatibility with relevant phenomena, as well as to propose new means for verification
Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Panei, J. A.
2018-02-01
Context. Stellar physical properties of star clusters are poorly known and the cluster parameters are often very uncertain. Methods: Our goals are to perform a spectrophotometric study of the B star population in open clusters to derive accurate stellar parameters, search for the presence of circumstellar envelopes, and discuss the characteristics of these stars. The BCD spectrophotometric system is a powerful method to obtain stellar fundamental parameters from direct measurements of the Balmer discontinuity. To this end, we wrote the interactive code MIDE3700. The BCD parameters can also be used to infer the main properties of open clusters: distance modulus, color excess, and age. Furthermore, we inspected the Balmer discontinuity to provide evidence for the presence of circumstellar disks and identify Be star candidates. We used an additional set of high-resolution spectra in the Hα region to confirm the Be nature of these stars. Results: We provide Teff, log g, Mv, Mbol, and spectral types for a sample of 68 stars in the field of the open clusters NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530, as well as the cluster distances, ages, and reddening. Then, based on a sample of 230 B stars in the direction of the 11 open clusters studied along this series of three papers, we report 6 new Be stars, 4 blue straggler candidates, and 15 B-type stars (called Bdd) with a double Balmer discontinuity, which indicates the presence of circumstellar envelopes. We discuss the distribution of the fraction of B, Be, and Bdd star cluster members per spectral subtype. The majority of the Be stars are dwarfs and present a maximum at the spectral type B2-B4 in young and intermediate-age open clusters (operating under agreement of CONICET and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan, Argentina.Tables 1, 2, 9-16 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A30
Gahlawat, Geeta; Srivastava, Ashok K
2012-11-01
Polyhydroxybutyrate or PHB is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic with many interesting applications in medicine, food packaging, and tissue engineering materials. The present study deals with the enhanced production of PHB by Azohydromonas australica using sucrose and the estimation of fundamental kinetic parameters of PHB fermentation process. The preliminary culture growth inhibition studies were followed by statistical optimization of medium recipe using response surface methodology to increase the PHB production. Later on batch cultivation in a 7-L bioreactor was attempted using optimum concentration of medium components (process variables) obtained from statistical design to identify the batch growth and product kinetics parameters of PHB fermentation. A. australica exhibited a maximum biomass and PHB concentration of 8.71 and 6.24 g/L, respectively in bioreactor with an overall PHB production rate of 0.75 g/h. Bioreactor cultivation studies demonstrated that the specific biomass and PHB yield on sucrose was 0.37 and 0.29 g/g, respectively. The kinetic parameters obtained in the present investigation would be used in the development of a batch kinetic mathematical model for PHB production which will serve as launching pad for further process optimization studies, e.g., design of several bioreactor cultivation strategies to further enhance the biopolymer production.
Analysis of fundamental parameters for V477 Lyr
Shimansky, V. V.; Pozdnyakova, S. A.; Borisov, N. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Galeev, A. I.; Sakhibullin, N. A.; Spiridonova, O. I.
2008-06-01
We analyze the photometric and spectroscopic observations of the young pre-cataclysmic variable (pre-CV) V477 Lyr. The masses of both binary components have been corrected by analyzing their radial velocity curves. We show that agreement between the theoretical and observed light curves of the object is possible for several sets of its physical parameters corresponding to the chosen temperature of the primary component. The final parameters of V477 Lyr have been established by comparing observational data with evolutionary tracks for planetary nebula nuclei. The derived effective temperature of the O subdwarf is higher than that estimated by analyzing the object’s ultraviolet spectra by more than 10000 K. This is in agreement with the analogous results obtained previously for the young pre-CVs V664 Cas and UU Sge. The secondary component of V477 Lyr has been proven to have a more than 25-fold luminosity excess compared to main-sequence stars of similar mass. Comparison of the physical parameters for the cool stars in young pre-CVs indicates that their luminosities do not correlate with the masses of the objects. The observed luminosity excesses in such stars show a close correlation with the post-common-envelope lifetime of the systems and should be investigated within the framework of the theory of their relaxation to the state of main-sequence stars.
The angular momentum-mass relation: a fundamental law from dwarf irregulars to massive spirals
Posti, Lorenzo; Fraternali, Filippo; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; Pezzulli, Gabriele
2018-05-01
In a Λ CDM Universe, the specific stellar angular momentum (j*) and stellar mass (M*) of a galaxy are correlated as a consequence of the scaling existing for dark matter haloes (jh ∝2/3). The shape of this law is crucial to test galaxy formation models, which are currently discrepant especially at the lowest masses, allowing to constrain fundamental parameters, such as, for example, the retained fraction of angular momentum. In this study, we accurately determine the empirical j*-M* relation (Fall relation) for 92 nearby spiral galaxies (from S0 to Irr) selected from the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves (SPARC) sample in the unprecedented mass range 7 ≲ log M*/M⊙≲ 11.5. We significantly improve all previous estimates of the Fall relation by determining j* profiles homogeneously for all galaxies, using extended HI rotation curves, and selecting only galaxies for which a robust j* could be measured (converged j*(http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/L6
Coupled variations of fundamental couplings and primordial nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coc, Alain; Nunes, Nelson J.; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth
2006-10-01
The effect of variations of the fundamental nuclear parameters on big-bang nucleosynthesis are modeled and discussed in detail taking into account the interrelations between the fundamental parameters arising in unified theories. Considering only 4 He, strong constraints on the variation of the neutron lifetime, neutron-proton mass difference are set. These constraints are then translated into constraints on the time variation of the Yukawa couplings and the fine structure constant. Furthermore, we show that a variation of the deuterium binding energy is able to reconcile the 7 Li abundance deduced from the WMAP analysis with its spectroscopically determined value while maintaining concordance with D and 4 He. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giacomo Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Dipartimento di Chimica Giacomo Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy))" >Puzzarini, Cristina; Ali, Ashraf; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
An accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane has been carried out by means of state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches. The calculated spectroscopic parameters from our recent computational investigation of oxirane together with the corresponding experimental data available were used to assess the accuracy of our predicted rotational and IR spectra of protonated oxirane. We found an accuracy of about 10 cm –1 for vibrational transitions (fundamentals as well as overtones and combination bands) and, in relative terms, of 0.1% for rotational transitions. We are therefore confident that the spectroscopic data provided herein are a valuable support for the detection of protonated oxirane not only in Titan's atmosphere but also in the interstellar medium.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puzzarini, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica " Giacomo Ciamician," Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Ali, Ashraf [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)
2014-09-10
An accurate spectroscopic characterization of protonated oxirane has been carried out by means of state-of-the-art computational methods and approaches. The calculated spectroscopic parameters from our recent computational investigation of oxirane together with the corresponding experimental data available were used to assess the accuracy of our predicted rotational and IR spectra of protonated oxirane. We found an accuracy of about 10 cm{sup –1} for vibrational transitions (fundamentals as well as overtones and combination bands) and, in relative terms, of 0.1% for rotational transitions. We are therefore confident that the spectroscopic data provided herein are a valuable support for the detection of protonated oxirane not only in Titan's atmosphere but also in the interstellar medium.
Fundamental and composite scalars from extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aranda, Alfredo; Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Hernandez-Sanchez, J.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.
2007-01-01
We discuss a scenario consisting of an effective 4D theory containing fundamental and composite fields. The strong dynamics sector responsible for the compositeness is assumed to be of extra dimensional origin. In the 4D effective theory the SM fermion and gauge fields are taken as fundamental fields. The scalar sector of the theory resembles a bosonic topcolor in the sense there are two scalar Higgs fields, a composite scalar field and a fundamental gauge-Higgs unification scalar. A detailed analysis of the scalar spectrum is presented in order to explore the parameter space consistent with experiment. It is found that, under the model assumptions, the acceptable parameter space is quite constrained. As a part of our phenomenological study of the model, we evaluate the branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson and find that our model predicts a large FCNC mode h→tc, which can be as large as O(10 -3 ). Similarly, a large BR for the top FCNC decay is obtained, namely BR(t→c+H)≅10 -4
Fundamental losses in planar Bragg waveguides
Vinogradov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, A. N.; Popov, A. V.; Fedin, M. A.
2007-01-01
This paper considers a planar Bragg waveguide. The guided modes and their dissipation due to the fundamental absorption are described. In the interacting-wave approximation, an analytical relation between the characteristics of the modes and parameters of the Bragg-waveguide geometry was
A laboratory scale fundamental time?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendes, R.V.
2012-01-01
The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)
Propagation channel characterization, parameter estimation, and modeling for wireless communications
Yin, Xuefeng
2016-01-01
Thoroughly covering channel characteristics and parameters, this book provides the knowledge needed to design various wireless systems, such as cellular communication systems, RFID and ad hoc wireless communication systems. It gives a detailed introduction to aspects of channels before presenting the novel estimation and modelling techniques which can be used to achieve accurate models. To systematically guide readers through the topic, the book is organised in three distinct parts. The first part covers the fundamentals of the characterization of propagation channels, including the conventional single-input single-output (SISO) propagation channel characterization as well as its extension to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cases. Part two focuses on channel measurements and channel data post-processing. Wideband channel measurements are introduced, including the equipment, technology and advantages and disadvantages of different data acquisition schemes. The channel parameter estimation methods are ...
MPUQ-b: Bootstrapping Based Modal Parameter Uncertainty Quantification—Fundamental Principles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chauhan, S.; Ahmed, S. I.
2017-01-01
It is well known that modal parameters play a key role towards understanding the dynamics of a structure. Their estimation, by means of experiments, forms the crux of modal analysis. Modal parameters not only help in characterizing the dynamics of the structure but are also used for several other...
Accurate Frequency Estimation Based On Three-Parameter Sine-Fitting With Three FFT Samples
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Xin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a simple DFT-based golden section searching algorithm (DGSSA for the single tone frequency estimation. Because of truncation and discreteness in signal samples, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT are inevitable to cause the spectrum leakage and fence effect which lead to a low estimation accuracy. This method can improve the estimation accuracy under conditions of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and a low resolution. This method firstly uses three FFT samples to determine the frequency searching scope, then – besides the frequency – the estimated values of amplitude, phase and dc component are obtained by minimizing the least square (LS fitting error of three-parameter sine fitting. By setting reasonable stop conditions or the number of iterations, the accurate frequency estimation can be realized. The accuracy of this method, when applied to observed single-tone sinusoid samples corrupted by white Gaussian noise, is investigated by different methods with respect to the unbiased Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB. The simulation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE of the frequency estimation curve is consistent with the tendency of CRLB as SNR increases, even in the case of a small number of samples. The average RMSE of the frequency estimation is less than 1.5 times the CRLB with SNR = 20 dB and N = 512.
Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiquan Gao
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain.
The fundamental physical constants: initial data and recommended values by CODATA 2002
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karshenbojm, S.G.
2008-01-01
The CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants are the most accurate and the most reliable constant values, applied over all branches of physics. Various questions related to the recommendations are considered
Markov, Yu. G.; Mikhailov, M. V.; Pochukaev, V. N.
2012-07-01
An analysis of perturbing factors influencing the motion of a navigation satellite (NS) is carried out, and the degree of influence of each factor on the GLONASS orbit is estimated. It is found that fundamental components of the Earth's rotation parameters (ERP) are one substantial factor commensurable with maximum perturbations. Algorithms for the calculation of orbital perturbations caused by these parameters are given; these algorithms can be implemented in a consumer's equipment. The daily prediction of NS coordinates is performed on the basis of real GLONASS satellite ephemerides transmitted to a consumer, using the developed prediction algorithms taking the ERP into account. The obtained accuracy of the daily prediction of GLONASS ephemerides exceeds by tens of times the accuracy of the daily prediction performed using algorithms recommended in interface control documents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panagiotis G. Asteris
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamental period is one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of structures. There are several literature approaches for its estimation which often conflict with each other, making their use questionable. Furthermore, the majority of these approaches do not take into account the presence of infill walls into the structure despite the fact that infill walls increase the stiffness and mass of structure leading to significant changes in the fundamental period. In the present paper, artificial neural networks (ANNs are used to predict the fundamental period of infilled reinforced concrete (RC structures. For the training and the validation of the ANN, a large data set is used based on a detailed investigation of the parameters that affect the fundamental period of RC structures. The comparison of the predicted values with analytical ones indicates the potential of using ANNs for the prediction of the fundamental period of infilled RC frame structures taking into account the crucial parameters that influence its value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merz, L [Technische Univ. Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Lehrstuhl und Lab. fuer Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik
1975-01-01
The fundamental course of the electrical measuring of non-electrical parameters aims to fulfill the task of presenting the present knowledge on the basic measuring methods in simple language and illustrative form. The present part II deals especially with measuring methods in heat and process engineering in the industrial field. Following the introduction in part A, the techniques of electrical probes are mainly described, and it is shown which mechanical probes cannot yet be replaced by electrical ones. Part C describes the techniques of measuring transducers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing; Barnard, Dan
2015-01-01
The accurate measurement of acoustic nonlinearity parameter β for fluids or solids generally requires making corrections for diffraction effects due to finite size geometry of transmitter and receiver. These effects are well known in linear acoustics, while those for second harmonic waves have not been well addressed and therefore not properly considered in previous studies. In this work, we explicitly define the attenuation and diffraction corrections using the multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) equations which were developed from the quasilinear solutions of the KZK equation. The effects of making these corrections are examined through the simulation of β determination in water. Diffraction corrections are found to have more significant effects than attenuation corrections, and the β values of water can be estimated experimentally with less than 5% errors when the exact second harmonic diffraction corrections are used together with the negligible attenuation correction effects on the basis of linear frequency dependence between attenuation coefficients, α 2 ≃ 2α 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Hyunjo, E-mail: hjjeong@wku.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing [School of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410075 (China); Barnard, Dan [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)
2015-09-15
The accurate measurement of acoustic nonlinearity parameter β for fluids or solids generally requires making corrections for diffraction effects due to finite size geometry of transmitter and receiver. These effects are well known in linear acoustics, while those for second harmonic waves have not been well addressed and therefore not properly considered in previous studies. In this work, we explicitly define the attenuation and diffraction corrections using the multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) equations which were developed from the quasilinear solutions of the KZK equation. The effects of making these corrections are examined through the simulation of β determination in water. Diffraction corrections are found to have more significant effects than attenuation corrections, and the β values of water can be estimated experimentally with less than 5% errors when the exact second harmonic diffraction corrections are used together with the negligible attenuation correction effects on the basis of linear frequency dependence between attenuation coefficients, α{sub 2} ≃ 2α{sub 1}.
Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Barnard, Dan; Li, Xiongbing
2015-09-01
The accurate measurement of acoustic nonlinearity parameter β for fluids or solids generally requires making corrections for diffraction effects due to finite size geometry of transmitter and receiver. These effects are well known in linear acoustics, while those for second harmonic waves have not been well addressed and therefore not properly considered in previous studies. In this work, we explicitly define the attenuation and diffraction corrections using the multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) equations which were developed from the quasilinear solutions of the KZK equation. The effects of making these corrections are examined through the simulation of β determination in water. Diffraction corrections are found to have more significant effects than attenuation corrections, and the β values of water can be estimated experimentally with less than 5% errors when the exact second harmonic diffraction corrections are used together with the negligible attenuation correction effects on the basis of linear frequency dependence between attenuation coefficients, α2 ≃ 2α1.
Investigation into the influence of build parameters on failure of 3D printed parts
Fornasini, Giacomo
Additive manufacturing, including fused deposition modeling (FDM), is transforming the built world and engineering education. Deep understanding of parts created through FDM technology has lagged behind its adoption in home, work, and academic environments. Properties of parts created from bulk materials through traditional manufacturing are understood well enough to accurately predict their behavior through analytical models. Unfortunately, Additive Manufacturing (AM) process parameters create anisotropy on a scale that fundamentally affects the part properties. Understanding AM process parameters (implemented by program algorithms called slicers) is necessary to predict part behavior. Investigating algorithms controlling print parameters (slicers) revealed stark differences between the generation of part layers. In this work, tensile testing experiments, including a full factorial design, determined that three key factors, width, thickness, infill density, and their interactions, significantly affect the tensile properties of 3D printed test samples.
The FP4026 Research Database on the fundamental period of RC infilled frame structures.
Asteris, Panagiotis G
2016-12-01
The fundamental period of vibration appears to be one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of buildings because it strongly affects the destructive impact of the seismic forces. In this article, important research data (entitled FP4026 Research Database (Fundamental Period-4026 cases of infilled frames) based on a detailed and in-depth analytical research on the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures is presented. In particular, the values of the fundamental period which have been analytically determined are presented, taking into account the majority of the involved parameters. This database can be extremely valuable for the development of new code proposals for the estimation of the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures fully or partially infilled with masonry walls.
The FP4026 Research Database on the fundamental period of RC infilled frame structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panagiotis G. Asteris
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The fundamental period of vibration appears to be one of the most critical parameters for the seismic design of buildings because it strongly affects the destructive impact of the seismic forces. In this article, important research data (entitled FP4026 Research Database (Fundamental Period-4026 cases of infilled frames based on a detailed and in-depth analytical research on the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures is presented. In particular, the values of the fundamental period which have been analytically determined are presented, taking into account the majority of the involved parameters. This database can be extremely valuable for the development of new code proposals for the estimation of the fundamental period of reinforced concrete structures fully or partially infilled with masonry walls.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Zhenwei; Shi Lei; Chen Shuyu; Zhou Guien
2001-01-01
Y, Pr, Ba and Cu compositions of the series of the Y 1-x Pr x Ba 2 Cu 3 O y samples have been determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) fundamental parameter method in a non-destruction state. The composition is given by an atomic fraction. The determined compositions of the samples show a difference from their nominal compositions. One of the reasons why the exact shape of T c vs x varies is different from group to group, as reported, is the difference of the real and the nominal compositions. The relation of T c vs x is not a simple quadric curve. The results agree well with those obtained by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), which indicates that the method is appropriate for the determination of the compositions of the high temperature superconductors. In addition, the influence of oxygen on analytical elements is discussed. The fraction of the matrix total mass absorption, which is associated with oxygen for each analytical line, is less than 3.41%
Study of the size effect by accurately determining the crystal parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seguin, Remy
1973-01-01
The size factor η = da/adC was measured by comparing the variations in the crystal parameter as a function of the concentration, samples of Al of various degrees of purity and Al - V and Al - Cu alloys with concentrations of less than 1 000 ppm being used. The results confirm the experimental results obtained with alloys supersaturated by ultra-rapid tempering but are not consistent with theoretical values, which appear to be too large for the case of transition elements in solution in Al. The parameter was determined from Kossel diagrams obtained using an electron probe microanalyzer. The measurement methods were developed and generalized by plotting curves representing the variation of the parameter as a function of temperature between 20 and 60 deg. C. Values were obtained for the parameter at given temperatures (± 0.1 deg. C) with an accuracy of Δa/a ≅ 8.10 -6 . (author) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rackwitz, Vanessa
2012-05-30
For a decade X-ray sources have been commercially available for the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis ({mu}-XRF) and offer the possibility of extending the analytics at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). By using the {mu}-XRF it is possible to determine the content of chemical elements in a microscopic sample volume in a quantitative, reference-free and non-destructive way. For the reference-free quantification with the XRF the Sherman equation is referred to. This equation deduces the intensity of the detected X-ray intensity of a fluorescence peak to the content of the element in the sample by means of fundamental parameters. The instrumental fundamental parameters of the {mu}-XRF at a SEM/EDS system are the excitation spectrum consisting of X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the X-ray optics, the geometry and the spectrometer efficiency. Based on a calibrated instrumentation the objectives of this work are the development of procedures for the characterization of all instrumental fundamental parameters as well as the evaluation and reduction of their measurement uncertainties: The algorithms known from the literature for the calculation of X-ray tube spectrum are evaluated with regard to their deviations in the spectral distribution. Within this work a novel semi-empirical model is improved with respect to its uncertainties and enhanced in the low energy range as well as extended for another three anodes. The emitted X-ray tube spectrum is calculated from the detected one, which is measured at an especially developed setup for the direct measurement of X-ray tube spectra. This emitted X-ray tube spectrum is compared to the one calculated on base of the model of this work. A procedure for the determination of the most important parameters of an X-ray semi-lens in parallelizing mode is developed. The temporal stability of the transmission of X-ray full lenses, which have been in regular
Investigating parameters participating in the infant respiratory control system attractor.
Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M; Dakin, Carolyn
2008-01-01
Theoretically, any participating parameter in a non-linear system represents the dynamics of the whole system. Taken's time delay embedding theory provides the fundamental basis for allowing non-linear analysis to be performed on physiological, time-series data. In practice, only one measurable parameter is required to be measured to convey an accurate representation of the system dynamics. In this paper, the infant respiratory control system is represented using three variables-a digitally sampled respiratory inductive plethysmography waveform, and the derived parameters tidal volume and inter-breath interval time series data. For 14 healthy infants, these data streams were analysed using recurrence plot analysis across one night of sleep. The measured attractor size of these variables followed the same qualitative trends across the nights study. Results suggest that the attractor size measures of the derived IBI and tidal volume are representative surrogates for the raw respiratory waveform. The extent to which the relative attractor sizes of IBI and tidal volume remain constant through changing sleep state could potentially be used to quantify pathology, or maturation of breathing control.
A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dainotti, M. G.; Hernandez, X.; Postnikov, S.; Nagataki, S.; O’brien, P.; Willingale, R.; Striegel, S.
2017-01-01
Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T a , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L a , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L peak . This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T a as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.
DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)
Fundamental Matrix for a Class of Point Delay Linear Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, M. de la; Alastruey, C. F.
1998-01-01
It is difficult to establish explicit analytic forms for fundamental matrices of delayed linear systems. In this paper, an explicit form of exponential type is given for such a matrix in the case of punctual delays. The existence of real and complex fundamental matrices, for the case of real parameterizations of the differential system, is studied and discussed. Some additional commutativity properties involving the matrices parameters and the fundamental matrices as well as explicit expressions for the solution of the delayed differential system are also given. (Author)
Harmanec, Petr; Prša, Andrej
2011-08-01
The increasing precision of astronomical observations of stars and stellar systems is gradually getting to a level where the use of slightly different values of the solar mass, radius, and luminosity, as well as different values of fundamental physical constants, can lead to measurable systematic differences in the determination of basic physical properties. An equivalent issue with an inconsistent value of the speed of light was resolved by adopting a nominal value that is constant and has no error associated with it. Analogously, we suggest that the systematic error in stellar parameters may be eliminated by (1) replacing the solar radius R⊙ and luminosity L⊙ by the nominal values that are by definition exact and expressed in SI units: and ; (2) computing stellar masses in terms of M⊙ by noting that the measurement error of the product GM⊙ is 5 orders of magnitude smaller than the error in G; (3) computing stellar masses and temperatures in SI units by using the derived values and ; and (4) clearly stating the reference for the values of the fundamental physical constants used. We discuss the need and demonstrate the advantages of such a paradigm shift.
Accurate monoenergetic electron parameters of laser wakefield in a bubble model
Raheli, A.; Rahmatallahpur, S. H.
2012-11-01
A reliable analytical expression for the potential of plasma waves with phase velocities near the speed of light is derived. The presented spheroid cavity model is more consistent than the previous spherical and ellipsoidal model and it explains the mono-energetic electron trajectory more accurately, especially at the relativistic region. As a result, the quasi-mono-energetic electrons output beam interacting with the laser plasma can be more appropriately described with this model.
Design and Establishment of Quality Model of Fundamental Geographic Information Database
Ma, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, P.; Dang, Y.; Zhao, T.
2018-04-01
In order to make the quality evaluation for the Fundamental Geographic Information Databases(FGIDB) more comprehensive, objective and accurate, this paper studies and establishes a quality model of FGIDB, which formed by the standardization of database construction and quality control, the conformity of data set quality and the functionality of database management system, and also designs the overall principles, contents and methods of the quality evaluation for FGIDB, providing the basis and reference for carry out quality control and quality evaluation for FGIDB. This paper designs the quality elements, evaluation items and properties of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database gradually based on the quality model framework. Connected organically, these quality elements and evaluation items constitute the quality model of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database. This model is the foundation for the quality demand stipulation and quality evaluation of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database, and is of great significance on the quality assurance in the design and development stage, the demand formulation in the testing evaluation stage, and the standard system construction for quality evaluation technology of the Fundamental Geographic Information Database.
Sensors, Volume 1, Fundamentals and General Aspects
Grandke, Thomas; Ko, Wen H.
1996-12-01
'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume deals with the fundamentals and common principles of sensors and covers the wide areas of principles, technologies, signal processing, and applications. Contents include: Sensor Fundamentals, e.g. Sensor Parameters, Modeling, Design and Packaging; Basic Sensor Technologies, e.g. Thin and Thick Films, Integrated Magnetic Sensors, Optical Fibres and Intergrated Optics, Ceramics and Oxides; Sensor Interfaces, e.g. Signal Processing, Multisensor Signal Processing, Smart Sensors, Interface Systems; Sensor Applications, e.g. Automotive: On-board Sensors, Traffic Surveillance and Control, Home Appliances, Environmental Monitoring, etc. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialits and newcomers, researchers and developers.
Campbell, J. L.; Lee, M.; Jones, B. N.; Andrushenko, S. M.; Holmes, N. G.; Maxwell, J. A.; Taylor, S. M.
2009-04-01
The detection sensitivities of the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers for a wide range of elements were experimentally determined in 2002 using spectra of geochemical reference materials. A flight spare instrument was similarly calibrated, and the calibration exercise was then continued for this unit with an extended set of geochemical reference materials together with pure elements and simple chemical compounds. The flight spare instrument data are examined in detail here using a newly developed fundamental parameters approach which takes precise account of all the physics inherent in the two X-ray generation techniques involved, namely, X-ray fluorescence and particle-induced X-ray emission. The objectives are to characterize the instrument as fully as possible, to test this new approach, and to determine the accuracy of calibration for major, minor, and trace elements. For some of the lightest elements the resulting calibration exhibits a dependence upon the mineral assemblage of the geological reference material; explanations are suggested for these observations. The results will assist in designing the overall calibration approach for the APXS on the Mars Science Laboratory mission.
Heat propagation in waters - physical fundamentals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haeuser, J
1978-01-01
The physical fundamentals necessary to understand mathematical models of the environment are given. It was found that considerable mathematical and physical efforts are necessary to achieve sufficient accuracy in the calculation of temperature, flow rate, etc. The so-called eco- and transport models are less accurate than purely physical models, due to the fact that they are essentially a quantitative formulation of biological processes. With regard to the given numerical methods of solution, it is interesting to note that a partial differential equation is reduced here to a coupled system of normal first order differential equations.
Heat propagation in waters - physical fundamentals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haeuser, J.
1978-01-01
The physical fundamentals necessary to understand mathematical models of the environment are given. It was found that considerable mathematical and physical effforts are necessary to achieve sufficient accuracy in the calculation of temperature, flow rate, etc. The so-called eco- and transport models are less accurate than purely physical models, due to the fact that they are essentially a quantitative formulation of biological processes. With regard to the given numerical methods of solution, it is interesting to note that a partial differential equation is reduced here to a coupled system of normal first order differential equations. (orig.) [de
A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dainotti, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, México (Mexico); Postnikov, S. [The Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Nagataki, S. [RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako Saitama (Japan); O’brien, P.; Willingale, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Road Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Striegel, S., E-mail: mdainott@stanford.edu, E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl, E-mail: mariagiovannadainotti@yahoo.it, E-mail: xavier@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: postsergey@gmail.com, E-mail: shigehiro.nagataki@riken.jp, E-mail: zrw@le.ac.uk, E-mail: stephanie.striegel@sjsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States)
2017-10-20
Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T {sub a} , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L {sub a} , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L {sub peak}. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T {sub a} as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Whitney, B.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Misselt, K.
2011-01-01
Fundamental parameters and time evolution of mass loss are investigated for post-main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). This is accomplished by fitting spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to existing optical and infrared photometry and spectroscopy, to produce a true Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We confirm the cluster's distance as d = 4611 +213 -200 pc and age as 12 ± 1 Gyr. Horizontal branch models appear to confirm that no more red giant branch mass loss occurs in 47 Tuc than in the more metal-poor ω Centauri, though difficulties arise due to inconsistencies between the models. Using our SEDs, we identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess, finding excess only among the brightest giants: dusty mass loss begins at a luminosity of ∼1000 L sun , becoming ubiquitous above L = 2000 L sun . Recent claims of dust production around lower-luminosity giants cannot be reproduced, despite using the same archival Spitzer imagery.
Short-range fundamental forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.
2010-01-01
We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments
Fundamentals of semiconductor devices
Lindmayer, Joseph
1965-01-01
Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.
Fundamental ecology is fundamental.
Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E
2015-01-01
The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Accurate Online Full Charge Capacity Modeling of Smartphone Batteries
Hoque, Mohammad A.; Siekkinen, Matti; Koo, Jonghoe; Tarkoma, Sasu
2016-01-01
Full charge capacity (FCC) refers to the amount of energy a battery can hold. It is the fundamental property of smartphone batteries that diminishes as the battery ages and is charged/discharged. We investigate the behavior of smartphone batteries while charging and demonstrate that the battery voltage and charging rate information can together characterize the FCC of a battery. We propose a new method for accurately estimating FCC without exposing low-level system details or introducing new ...
Fundamental Frequency and Model Order Estimation Using Spatial Filtering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2014-01-01
extend this procedure to account for inharmonicity using unconstrained model order estimation. The simulations show that beamforming improves the performance of the joint estimates of fundamental frequency and the number of harmonics in low signal to interference (SIR) levels, and an experiment......In signal processing applications of harmonic-structured signals, estimates of the fundamental frequency and number of harmonics are often necessary. In real scenarios, a desired signal is contaminated by different levels of noise and interferers, which complicate the estimation of the signal...... parameters. In this paper, we present an estimation procedure for harmonic-structured signals in situations with strong interference using spatial filtering, or beamforming. We jointly estimate the fundamental frequency and the constrained model order through the output of the beamformers. Besides that, we...
Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions
Kohler, Susanna
2016-06-01
fundamental assumptions.A recent focus set in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, titled Focus on Exploring Fundamental Physics with Extragalactic Transients, consists of multiple published studies doing just that.Testing General RelativitySeveral of the articles focus on the 4th point above. By assuming that the delay in photon arrival times is only due to the gravitational potential of the Milky Way, these studies set constraints on the deviation of our galaxys gravitational potential from what GR would predict. The study by He Gao et al. uses the different photon arrival times from gamma-ray bursts to set constraints at eVGeV energies, and the study by Jun-Jie Wei et al. complements this by setting constraints at keV-TeV energies using photons from high-energy blazar emission.Photons or neutrinos from different extragalactic transients each set different upper limits on delta gamma, the post-Newtonian parameter, vs. particle energy or frequency. This is a test of Einsteins equivalence principle: if the principle is correct, delta gamma would be exactly zero, meaning that photons of different energies move at the same velocity through a vacuum. [Tingay Kaplan 2016]S.J. Tingay D.L. Kaplan make the case that measuring the time delay of photons from fast radio bursts (FRBs; transient radio pulses that last only a few milliseconds) will provide even tighter constraints if we are able to accurately determine distances to these FRBs.And Adi Musser argues that the large-scale structure of the universe plays an even greater role than the Milky Way gravitational potential, allowing for even stricter testing of Einsteins equivalence principle.The ever-narrower constraints from these studies all support GR as a correct set of rules through which to interpret our universe.Other Tests of Fundamental PhysicsIn addition to the above tests, Xue-Feng Wu et al. show that FRBs can be used to provide severe constraints on the rest mass of the photon, and S. Croft et al. even touches on what we
Mean intensity of the fundamental Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere
Lukin, Igor P.
2017-11-01
In the given article mean intensity of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam in turbulent atmosphere is studied. The problem analysis is based on the solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian beam of optical radiation. Distributions of mean intensity of a fundamental Bessel- Gaussian beam optical beam in longitudinal and transverse to a direction of propagation of optical radiation are investigated in detail. Influence of atmospheric turbulence on change of radius of the central part of a Bessel optical beam is estimated. Values of parameters at which it is possible to generate in turbulent atmosphere a nondiffracting pseudo-Bessel optical beam by means of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam are established.
Astrophysical parameters of open star clusters using 2MASS JHKs data
Durgapal, Alok; Bisht, Devendra; Yadav, Ramakant Singh
2018-04-01
In the present analysis we have estimated the fundamental parameters of two poorly studied open star clusters, namely Teutsch 61 and Czernik 3, using 2MASS JHKs data. We have used the color-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams to determine their fundamental parameters.
Calculation of electromagnetic parameter based on interpolation algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan
2015-01-01
Wave-absorbing material is an important functional material of electromagnetic protection. The wave-absorbing characteristics depend on the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media. In order to accurately predict the electromagnetic parameter of mixed media and facilitate the design of wave-absorbing material, based on the electromagnetic parameters of spherical and flaky carbonyl iron mixture of paraffin base, this paper studied two different interpolation methods: Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation of electromagnetic parameters. The results showed that Hermite interpolation is more accurate than the Lagrange interpolation, and the reflectance calculated with the electromagnetic parameter obtained by interpolation is consistent with that obtained through experiment on the whole. - Highlights: • We use interpolation algorithm on calculation of EM-parameter with limited samples. • Interpolation method can predict EM-parameter well with different particles added. • Hermite interpolation is more accurate than Lagrange interpolation. • Calculating RL based on interpolation is consistent with calculating RL from experiment
Uncertainties of Molecular Structural Parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Császár, Attila G.
2014-01-01
Full text: The most fundamental property of a molecule is its three-dimensional (3D) structure formed by its constituent atoms (see, e.g., the perfectly regular hexagon associated with benzene). It is generally accepted that knowledge of the detailed structure of a molecule is a prerequisite to determine most of its other properties. What nowadays is a seemingly simple concept, namely that molecules have a structure, was introduced into chemistry in the 19th century. Naturally, the word changed its meaning over the years. Elemental analysis, simple structural formulae, two-dimensional and then 3D structures mark the development of the concept to its modern meaning. When quantum physics and quantum chemistry emerged in the 1920s, the simple concept associating structure with a three-dimensional object seemingly gained a firm support. Nevertheless, what seems self-explanatory today is in fact not so straightforward to justify within quantum mechanics. In quantum chemistry the concept of an equilibrium structure of a molecule is tied to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation but beyond the adiabatic separation of the motions of the nuclei and the electrons the meaning of a structure is still slightly obscured. Putting the conceptual difficulties aside, there are several experimental, empirical, and theoretical techniques to determine structures of molecules. One particular problem, strongly related to the question of uncertainties of “measured” or “computed” structural parameters, is that all the different techniques correspond to different structure definitions and thus yield different structural parameters. Experiments probing the structure of molecules rely on a number of structure definitions, to name just a few: r_0, r_g, r_a, r_s, r_m, etc., and one should also consider the temperature dependence of most of these structural parameters which differ from each other in the way the rovibrational motions of the molecules are treated and how the averaging is
How accurately can 21cm tomography constrain cosmology?
Mao, Yi; Tegmark, Max; McQuinn, Matthew; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zahn, Oliver
2008-07-01
There is growing interest in using 3-dimensional neutral hydrogen mapping with the redshifted 21 cm line as a cosmological probe. However, its utility depends on many assumptions. To aid experimental planning and design, we quantify how the precision with which cosmological parameters can be measured depends on a broad range of assumptions, focusing on the 21 cm signal from 6noise, to uncertainties in the reionization history, and to the level of contamination from astrophysical foregrounds. We derive simple analytic estimates for how various assumptions affect an experiment’s sensitivity, and we find that the modeling of reionization is the most important, followed by the array layout. We present an accurate yet robust method for measuring cosmological parameters that exploits the fact that the ionization power spectra are rather smooth functions that can be accurately fit by 7 phenomenological parameters. We find that for future experiments, marginalizing over these nuisance parameters may provide constraints almost as tight on the cosmology as if 21 cm tomography measured the matter power spectrum directly. A future square kilometer array optimized for 21 cm tomography could improve the sensitivity to spatial curvature and neutrino masses by up to 2 orders of magnitude, to ΔΩk≈0.0002 and Δmν≈0.007eV, and give a 4σ detection of the spectral index running predicted by the simplest inflation models.
Dieterich, Sergio; Henry, Todd J.; Benedict, George Fritz; Jao, Wei-Chun; White, Russel; RECONS Team
2017-01-01
Mass is the most fundamental stellar parameter, and yet model independent dynamical masses can only be obtained for a small subset of closely separated binaries. The high angular resolution needed to characterize individual components of those systems means that little is known about the details of their atmospheric properties. We discuss the results of HST/STIS observations yielding spatially resolved optical spectra for six closely separated M dwarf systems, all of which have HST/FGS precision dynamical masses for the individual components ranging from 0.4 to 0.076 MSol. We assume coevality and equal metallicity for the components of each system and use those constraints to perform stringent tests of the leading atmospheric and evolutionary model families throughout the M dwarf mass range. We find the latest models to be in good agreement with observations. We discuss specific spectral diagnostic features such as the well-known gravity sensitive Na and K lines and address ways to break the temperature-metallicity-gravity degeneracy that often hinders the interpretation of these features. We single out a comparison between the systems GJ 469 AB and G 250-29 AB, which have nearly identical mass configurations but different metallicities, thus causing marked differences in atmospheric properties and overall luminosities.This work is funded by NASA grant HST-GO-12938. and By the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship program through NSF grant AST-1400680.
Fundamentals of Structural Geology
Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.
2005-09-01
Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors
Fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators with general inverse square potentials
Chen, Huyuan; Alhomedan, Suad; Hajaiej, Hichem; Markowich, Peter A.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we clarify the fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators given as (Formula presented.), where the potential V is a general inverse square potential in (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.). In particular, letting (Formula presented.),(Formula presented.) where (Formula presented.), we discuss the existence and nonexistence of positive fundamental solutions for Hardy operator (Formula presented.), which depend on the parameter t.
Fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators with general inverse square potentials
Chen, Huyuan
2017-03-17
In this paper, we clarify the fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators given as (Formula presented.), where the potential V is a general inverse square potential in (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.). In particular, letting (Formula presented.),(Formula presented.) where (Formula presented.), we discuss the existence and nonexistence of positive fundamental solutions for Hardy operator (Formula presented.), which depend on the parameter t.
An accurate metric for the spacetime around neutron stars
Pappas, George
2016-01-01
The problem of having an accurate description of the spacetime around neutron stars is of great astrophysical interest. For astrophysical applications, one needs to have a metric that captures all the properties of the spacetime around a neutron star. Furthermore, an accurate appropriately parameterised metric, i.e., a metric that is given in terms of parameters that are directly related to the physical structure of the neutron star, could be used to solve the inverse problem, which is to inf...
Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.
Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A
2017-10-20
Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Tobias; Kümmel, Stephan; Kraisler, Eli; Makmal, Adi; Kronik, Leeor
2014-01-01
We present and test a new approximation for the exchange-correlation (xc) energy of Kohn-Sham density functional theory. It combines exact exchange with a compatible non-local correlation functional. The functional is by construction free of one-electron self-interaction, respects constraints derived from uniform coordinate scaling, and has the correct asymptotic behavior of the xc energy density. It contains one parameter that is not determined ab initio. We investigate whether it is possible to construct a functional that yields accurate binding energies and affords other advantages, specifically Kohn-Sham eigenvalues that reliably reflect ionization potentials. Tests for a set of atoms and small molecules show that within our local-hybrid form accurate binding energies can be achieved by proper optimization of the free parameter in our functional, along with an improvement in dissociation energy curves and in Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. However, the correspondence of the latter to experimental ionization potentials is not yet satisfactory, and if we choose to optimize their prediction, a rather different value of the functional's parameter is obtained. We put this finding in a larger context by discussing similar observations for other functionals and possible directions for further functional development that our findings suggest
Open Cluster Dynamics via Fundamental Plane
Lin, Chien-Cheng; Pang, Xiao-Ying
2018-04-01
Open clusters (OCs) are important objects for stellar dynamics studies. The short survival timescale of OCs makes them closely related to the formation of Galactic field stars. We motivate to investigate the dynamical evolution of OCs on the aspect of internal effect and the external influence. Firstly, we make use of the known OC catalog to obtain OCs masses, effective radii. Additionally, we estimate OCs kinematics properties by OC members cross-matched with radial velocity and metallicity from SDSSIV/APOGEE2. We then establish the fundamental plane of OCs based on the radial velocity dispersion, the effective radius, and average surface brightness. The deviation of the fundamental plane from the Virial Plane, so called the tilt, and the r.m.s. dispersion of OCs around the average plane are used to indicate the dynamical status of OCs. Parameters of the fitted plane will vary with cluster age and distance.
Mousavi Anzehaee, Mohammad; Adib, Ahmad; Heydarzadeh, Kobra
2015-10-01
The manner of microtremor data collection and filtering operation and also the method used for processing have a considerable effect on the accuracy of estimation of dynamic soil parameters. In this paper, running variance method was used to improve the automatic detection of data sections infected by local perturbations. In this method, the microtremor data running variance is computed using a sliding window. Then the obtained signal is used to remove the ranges of data affected by perturbations from the original data. Additionally, to determinate the fundamental frequency of a site, this study has proposed a statistical characteristics-based method. Actually, statistical characteristics, such as the probability density graph and the average and the standard deviation of all the frequencies corresponding to the maximum peaks in the H/ V spectra of all data windows, are used to differentiate the real peaks from the false peaks resulting from perturbations. The methods have been applied to the data recorded for the City of Meybod in central Iran. Experimental results show that the applied methods are able to successfully reduce the effects of extensive local perturbations on microtremor data and eventually to estimate the fundamental frequency more accurately compared to other common methods.
The fundamental attribution error in detecting deception: the boy-who-cried-wolf effect.
O'Sullivan, Maureen
2003-10-01
Most people are unable to detect accurately when others are lying. Many explanations for this inability have been suggested but the cognitive heuristics involved in lie detection have received little attention. The present study offers evidence from two experiments, based on two different groups of observers, judging two different kinds of lies, presented in two different testing situations, that the fundamental attribution error significantly undermines the ability to detect honesty and deception accurately. Trait judgments of trustworthiness were highly correlated with state judgments of truthfulness, leading, as predicted, to positive correlations with honest detection accuracy and negative correlations with deception detection accuracy. More accurate lie detectors were significantly more likely than less accurate lie detectors to separate state and trait judgments of honesty. The effect of other biases, such as the halo effect and the truthfulness bias, also are examined. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Coherence degree of the fundamental Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere
Lukin, Igor P.
2017-11-01
In this article the coherence of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam in turbulent atmosphere is analyzed. The problem analysis is based on the solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam of optical radiation. The behavior of a coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam depending on parameters of an optical beam and characteristics of turbulent atmosphere is examined. It was revealed that at low levels of fluctuations in turbulent atmosphere the coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam has the characteristic oscillating appearance. At high levels of fluctuations in turbulent atmosphere the coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam is described by an one-scale decreasing curve which in process of increase of level of fluctuations on a line of formation of a laser beam becomes closer to the same characteristic of a spherical optical wave.
Accurate modeling of the hose instability in plasma wakefield accelerators
Mehrling, T. J.; Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Osterhoff, J.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2018-05-01
Hosing is a major challenge for the applicability of plasma wakefield accelerators and its modeling is therefore of fundamental importance to facilitate future stable and compact plasma-based particle accelerators. In this contribution, we present a new model for the evolution of the plasma centroid, which enables the accurate investigation of the hose instability in the nonlinear blowout regime. It paves the road for more precise and comprehensive studies of hosing, e.g., with drive and witness beams, which were not possible with previous models.
Teaching SIMS fundamentals using the FIB ion microscope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chater, Richard J.; McPhail, David S.
2008-01-01
The use of liquid metal source ion beams for microscopy and ion milling applications has increased dramatically in recent years. This paper explores the teaching of ion-solid sputtering and ionization phenomena without the facility to mass analyse the ionised yield available in dedicated SIMS instrumentation. Fundamental parameters can be demonstrated during the limited period of an undergraduate laboratory teaching session
Relativities of fundamentality
McKenzie, Kerry
2017-08-01
S-dualities have been held to have radical implications for our metaphysics of fundamentality. In particular, it has been claimed that they make the fundamentality status of a physical object theory-relative in an important new way. But what physicists have had to say on the issue has not been clear or consistent, and in particular seems to be ambiguous between whether S-dualities demand an anti-realist interpretation of fundamentality talk or merely a revised realism. This paper is an attempt to bring some clarity to the matter. After showing that even antecedently familiar fundamentality claims are true only relative to a raft of metaphysical, physical, and mathematical assumptions, I argue that the relativity of fundamentality inherent in S-duality nevertheless represents something new, and that part of the reason for this is that it has both realist and anti-realist implications for fundamentality talk. I close by discussing the broader significance that S-dualities have for structuralist metaphysics and for fundamentality metaphysics more generally.
Accurate estimation of indoor travel times
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan
2014-01-01
The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...
Fundamental Frequency Tuning and Its Influence on LHC 200MHz ACN Cavity
Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Tückmantel, Joachim; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division
2001-01-01
To study the influence of the tuner on the fundamental mode frequency, the Q factor as well as the shunt impedance of the LHC 200MHz ACN cavities, 3D simulations have been done in the frequency domain using MAFIA. Curves giving the variation of RF frequency and other RF parameters with tuner position relative to the inner surface of the cavity have been obtained for the fundamental mode. This paper details the simulation results.
Accurate Modeling Method for Cu Interconnect
Yamada, Kenta; Kitahara, Hiroshi; Asai, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Hideo; Okada, Norio; Yasuda, Makoto; Oda, Noriaki; Sakurai, Michio; Hiroi, Masayuki; Takewaki, Toshiyuki; Ohnishi, Sadayuki; Iguchi, Manabu; Minda, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Mieko
This paper proposes an accurate modeling method of the copper interconnect cross-section in which the width and thickness dependence on layout patterns and density caused by processes (CMP, etching, sputtering, lithography, and so on) are fully, incorporated and universally expressed. In addition, we have developed specific test patterns for the model parameters extraction, and an efficient extraction flow. We have extracted the model parameters for 0.15μm CMOS using this method and confirmed that 10%τpd error normally observed with conventional LPE (Layout Parameters Extraction) was completely dissolved. Moreover, it is verified that the model can be applied to more advanced technologies (90nm, 65nm and 55nm CMOS). Since the interconnect delay variations due to the processes constitute a significant part of what have conventionally been treated as random variations, use of the proposed model could enable one to greatly narrow the guardbands required to guarantee a desired yield, thereby facilitating design closure.
Spatial stability of jets - the nonaxisymmetric fundamental and reflection modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardee, P.E.
1987-01-01
A spatial stability analysis of the relativistic dispersion relation governing the growth and propagation of harmonic components comprising a perturbation to the surface of a cylindrical jet is performed. The spatial growth of harmonic components associated with the nonaxisymmetric fundamental solution and reflection solutions of several Fourier modes are analyzed. Approximate analytical expressions describing resonant frequencies and wavelengths, and maximum growth rates at resonance applicable to relativistic jets are found from the dispersion relation, and the nature of the resonances is explored. On transonic jets there is only a fundamental solution for each Fourier mode with no resonance or maximum growth rate. On supersonic jets there is a fundamental solution and reflection solutions for each Fourier mode, and each solution contains a resonance at which the growth rate is a maximum. A numerical analysis of the fundamental and first three reflection solutions of the axisymmetric and first three nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes is performed. The numerical analysis is restricted to nonrelativistic flows but otherwise covers a broad range of Mach numbers and jet densities. The numerical results are used along with the analytical results to obtain accurate expressions for resonant frequencies, wavelengths, and growth rates as a function of Mach numnber and jet density. In all cases the fastest spatial growth rate at a given frequency is of harmonic components associated with the fundamental solution of one of the nonaxisymmetric Fourier modes. The application of these results to jet structure and implication of these results for jet structure in extragalactic radio sources are considered. 23 references
Schultz-Coulon, H J
1975-07-01
The applicability of a newly developed fundamental frequency analyzer to diagnosis in phoniatrics is reviewed. During routine voice examination, the analyzer allows a quick and accurate measurement of fundamental frequency and sound level of the speaking voice, and of vocal range and maximum phonation time. By computing fundamental frequency histograms, the median fundamental frequency and the total pitch range can be better determined and compared. Objective studies of certain technical faculties of the singing voice, which usually are estimated subjectively by the speech therapist, may now be done by means of this analyzer. Several examples demonstrate the differences between correct and incorrect phonation. These studies compare the pitch perturbations during the crescendo and decrescendo of a swell-tone, and show typical traces of staccato, thrill and yodel. Conclusions of the study indicate that fundamental frequency analysis is a valuable supplemental method for objective voice examination.
Effect of sample matrix on the fundamental properties of the inductively coupled plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehn, Scott A.; Warner, Kelly A.; Huang Mao; Hieftje, Gary M.
2003-01-01
In the inductively coupled plasma (ICP), the emission intensities of atomic and ionic spectral lines are controlled by fundamental parameters such as electron temperature, electron number density, gas-kinetic temperature, analyte atom and ion number densities, and others. Accordingly, the effect of a sample matrix on the analyte emission intensity in an ICP might be attributable to changes in these fundamental parameters caused by the matrix elements. In the present study, a plasma imaging instrument that combines Thomson scattering, Rayleigh scattering, laser-induced fluorescence and computed tomography has been employed to measure the above-mentioned parameters in the presence and absence of matrix elements. The data thus obtained were all collected on a spatially resolved basis and without the need for Abel inversion. Calcium, strontium and barium served as analytes, while lithium, copper and zinc were introduced as matrix elements. Comparing the data with and without the matrix elements allows us to determine the extent to which each fundamental parameter changes in the presence of a matrix element, and to better understand the nature of the matrix effects that occur in the ICP. As has been seen in previous studies with different matrix elements, ion emission and ion number densities follow opposite trends when matrix interferents are introduced into the plasma: ion emission is enhanced by the presence of matrix interferents while ion concentrations are lowered. These changes are consistent with a shift from collisional deactivation to radiative decay of excited-state analyte species
Measuring the chargino parameters
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider ... is given by the fundamental SUSY parameters: the SU(2) gaugino mass Е¾, the higgsino .... two points in the plane which are symmetric under the interchange ¾Д ° ¾К.
Accurate multiplicity scaling in isotopically conjugate reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golokhvastov, A.I.
1989-01-01
The generation of accurate scaling of mutiplicity distributions is presented. The distributions of π - mesons (negative particles) and π + mesons in different nucleon-nucleon interactions (PP, NP and NN) are described by the same universal function Ψ(z) and the same energy dependence of the scale parameter which determines the stretching factor for the unit function Ψ(z) to obtain the desired multiplicity distribution. 29 refs.; 6 figs
Fundamentals for remote condition monitoring of offshore wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F.
2007-01-01
inspection, repair or replacement. The paper explores the requirements for the level of remote data Output that will allow an initial improvement in the overall management of offshore wind farms., and ultimately accurate estimates of remaining life for individual blades. The practical and theoretical...... knowledge synergy required to introduce a working system is also considered. Although the initial objectives of the present Study were simply to establish the fundamentals for such technology, with industrial collaboration to follow, it quickly became clear that the development of specific prototype...
2017-03-28
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tigeras, Arancha; Bouhrizi, Sofia; Pierre, Marine; L'Orphelin, Jean-Matthieu
2012-09-01
The monitoring of chemistry and radiochemistry parameters is a fundamental need in nuclear power plants in order to ensure: - The reactivity control in real time, - The barrier integrity surveillance by means of the fuel cladding failures detection and the primary-pressure boundary components control, - The water quality to limit the radiation build-up and the material corrosion permitting to prepare the maintenance, radioprotection and waste operations. - The efficiency of treatment systems and hence the minimization of chemical and radiochemical substances discharges The relevant chemistry and radiochemistry parameters to be monitored are selected depending on the chemistry conditioning of systems, the source term evaluations, the corrosion mechanisms and the radioactivity consequences. In spite of the difficulties for obtaining representative samples under all circumstances, the EPR M design provides the appropriate provisions and analytical procedures for ensuring the reliable and accurate monitoring of parameters in compliance with the specification requirements. The design solutions, adopted for Flamanville 3-EPR M and UK-EPR M , concerning the sampling conditions and locations, the on-line and analytical equipment, the procedures and the results transmission to control room and chemistry laboratory are supported by ALARP considerations, international experience and researches concerning the nuclides behavior (corrosion product and actinides solubility, fission product degassing, impurities and additives reactions also). This paper details the means developed by EDF for making successful and meaningful sampling and measurements to achieve the essential objectives associated with the monitoring. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santos, Ilmar; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier
2013-01-01
The servo valve input signal and the radial injection pressure are the two main parameters responsible for dynamically modifying the journal oil film pressure and generating active fluid film forces in controllable fluid film bearings. Such fluid film forces, resulting from a strong coupling...... domain and the application of such a controllable bearing as a calibrated shaker aiming at determining the frequency response function (FRF) of rotordynamic systems; b) experimental quantification of the influence of the supply pressure and servo valve input signal on the FRF of rotor-journal bearing...... between hydrodynamic, hydrostatic and controllable lubrication regimes, can be used either to control or to excite rotor lateral vibrations. An accurate characterization of the active oil film forces is of fundamental importance to elucidate the feasibility of applying the active lubrication as non...
W(egrzynek, Dariusz; Hołyńska, Barbara; Ostachowicz, Beata
1998-01-01
The performance has been compared of two different quantification methods — namely, the commonly used empirical quantification procedure and a fundamental parameter approach — for determination of the mass fractions of elements in particulate-like sample residues on a quartz reflector measured in the total reflection geometry. In the empirical quantification procedure, the spectrometer system needs to be calibrated with the use of samples containing known concentrations of the elements. On the basis of intensities of the X-ray peaks and the known concentration or mass fraction of an internal standard element, by using relative sensitivities of the spectrometer system the concentrations or mass fractions of the elements are calculated. The fundamental parameter approach does not require any calibration of the spectrometer system to be carried out. However, in order to account for an unknown mass per unit area of a sample and sample nonuniformity, an internal standard element is added. The concentrations/mass fractions of the elements to be determined are calculated during fitting a modelled X-ray spectrum to the measured one. The two quantification methods were applied to determine the mass fractions of elements in the cross-sections of a peat core, biological standard reference materials and to determine the concentrations of elements in samples prepared from an aqueous multi-element standard solution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Pigliucci
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The many facets of fundamentalism. There has been much talk about fundamentalism of late. While most people's thought on the topic go to the 9/11 attacks against the United States, or to the ongoing war in Iraq, fundamentalism is affecting science and its relationship to society in a way that may have dire long-term consequences. Of course, religious fundamentalism has always had a history of antagonism with science, and – before the birth of modern science – with philosophy, the age-old vehicle of the human attempt to exercise critical thinking and rationality to solve problems and pursue knowledge. “Fundamentalism” is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of the Social Sciences1 as “A movement that asserts the primacy of religious values in social and political life and calls for a return to a 'fundamental' or pure form of religion.” In its broadest sense, however, fundamentalism is a form of ideological intransigence which is not limited to religion, but includes political positions as well (for example, in the case of some extreme forms of “environmentalism”.
Effects of measurement noise on modal parameter identification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorvash, S; Pakzad, S N
2012-01-01
In the past decade, much research has been conducted on data-driven structural health monitoring (SHM) algorithms with use of sensor measurements. A fundamental step in this SHM application is to identify the dynamic characteristics of structures. Despite the significant efforts devoted to development and enhancement of the modal parameter identification algorithms, there are still substantial uncertainties in the results obtained in real-life deployments. One of the sources of uncertainties in the results is the existence of noise in the measurement data. Depending on the subsequent application of the system identification, the level of uncertainty in the results and, consequently, the level of noise contamination can be very important. As an effort towards understanding the effect of measurement noise on the modal identification, this paper presents parameters that quantify the effects of measurement noise on the modal identification process and determine their influence on the accuracy of results. The performance of these parameters is validated by a numerically simulated example. They are then used to investigate the accuracy of identified modal properties of the Golden Gate Bridge using ambient data collected by wireless sensors. The vibration monitoring tests of the Golden Gate Bridge provided two synchronized data sets collected by two different sensor types. The influence of the sensor noise level on the accuracy of results is investigated throughout this work and it is shown that high quality sensors provide more accurate results as the physical contribution of response in their measured data is significantly higher. Additionally, higher purity and consistency of modal parameters, identified by higher quality sensors, is observed in the results. (paper)
Fast and Accurate Residential Fire Detection Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Bahrepour, Majid; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.
2010-01-01
Prompt and accurate residential fire detection is important for on-time fire extinguishing and consequently reducing damages and life losses. To detect fire sensors are needed to measure the environmental parameters and algorithms are required to decide about occurrence of fire. Recently, wireless
Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste
Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2006-01-01
This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste
DNA barcode data accurately assign higher spider taxa
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan A. Coddington
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The use of unique DNA sequences as a method for taxonomic identification is no longer fundamentally controversial, even though debate continues on the best markers, methods, and technology to use. Although both existing databanks such as GenBank and BOLD, as well as reference taxonomies, are imperfect, in best case scenarios “barcodes” (whether single or multiple, organelle or nuclear, loci clearly are an increasingly fast and inexpensive method of identification, especially as compared to manual identification of unknowns by increasingly rare expert taxonomists. Because most species on Earth are undescribed, a complete reference database at the species level is impractical in the near term. The question therefore arises whether unidentified species can, using DNA barcodes, be accurately assigned to more inclusive groups such as genera and families—taxonomic ranks of putatively monophyletic groups for which the global inventory is more complete and stable. We used a carefully chosen test library of CO1 sequences from 49 families, 313 genera, and 816 species of spiders to assess the accuracy of genus and family-level assignment. We used BLAST queries of each sequence against the entire library and got the top ten hits. The percent sequence identity was reported from these hits (PIdent, range 75–100%. Accurate assignment of higher taxa (PIdent above which errors totaled less than 5% occurred for genera at PIdent values >95 and families at PIdent values ≥ 91, suggesting these as heuristic thresholds for accurate generic and familial identifications in spiders. Accuracy of identification increases with numbers of species/genus and genera/family in the library; above five genera per family and fifteen species per genus all higher taxon assignments were correct. We propose that using percent sequence identity between conventional barcode sequences may be a feasible and reasonably accurate method to identify animals to family/genus. However
An accurate metric for the spacetime around rotating neutron stars
Pappas, George
2017-04-01
The problem of having an accurate description of the spacetime around rotating neutron stars is of great astrophysical interest. For astrophysical applications, one needs to have a metric that captures all the properties of the spacetime around a rotating neutron star. Furthermore, an accurate appropriately parametrized metric, I.e. a metric that is given in terms of parameters that are directly related to the physical structure of the neutron star, could be used to solve the inverse problem, which is to infer the properties of the structure of a neutron star from astrophysical observations. In this work, we present such an approximate stationary and axisymmetric metric for the exterior of rotating neutron stars, which is constructed using the Ernst formalism and is parametrized by the relativistic multipole moments of the central object. This metric is given in terms of an expansion on the Weyl-Papapetrou coordinates with the multipole moments as free parameters and is shown to be extremely accurate in capturing the physical properties of a neutron star spacetime as they are calculated numerically in general relativity. Because the metric is given in terms of an expansion, the expressions are much simpler and easier to implement, in contrast to previous approaches. For the parametrization of the metric in general relativity, the recently discovered universal 3-hair relations are used to produce a three-parameter metric. Finally, a straightforward extension of this metric is given for scalar-tensor theories with a massless scalar field, which also admit a formulation in terms of an Ernst potential.
An accurate determination of the flux within a slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.; Lapenta, G.
1993-01-01
During the past decade, several articles have been written concerning accurate solutions to the monoenergetic neutron transport equation in infinite and semi-infinite geometries. The numerical formulations found in these articles were based primarily on the extensive theoretical investigations performed by the open-quotes transport greatsclose quotes such as Chandrasekhar, Busbridge, Sobolev, and Ivanov, to name a few. The development of numerical solutions in infinite and semi-infinite geometries represents an example of how mathematical transport theory can be utilized to provide highly accurate and efficient numerical transport solutions. These solutions, or analytical benchmarks, are useful as open-quotes industry standards,close quotes which provide guidance to code developers and promote learning in the classroom. The high accuracy of these benchmarks is directly attributable to the rapid advancement of the state of computing and computational methods. Transport calculations that were beyond the capability of the open-quotes supercomputersclose quotes of just a few years ago are now possible at one's desk. In this paper, we again build upon the past to tackle the slab problem, which is of the next level of difficulty in comparison to infinite media problems. The formulation is based on the monoenergetic Green's function, which is the most fundamental transport solution. This method of solution requires a fast and accurate evaluation of the Green's function, which, with today's computational power, is now readily available
Escola de ensino fundamental(s em movimento – movimento na escola de ensino fundamental
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reiner Hildebrandt-Stramann
2007-12-01
Full Text Available A escola de ensino fundamental na Alemanha sofreu movimento nos últimos 15 anos, porque, entre outros motivos, entrou movimento nessas escolas. Esse jogo de palavras chama atenção a duas linhas de trabalho que determinam a discussão na atual pedagogia escolar. O presente trabalho revela essas duas perspectivas. Uma das linhas está relacionada ao atual processo de mudança na pedagogia escolar. Essa prediz que a escola de ensino fundamental deve ser um lugar de aprendizagem e de vivência para as crianças. A outra linha tem a ver com o jogo de palavras ancorado a esses processos da pedagogia do movimento, a qual ganha cada vez maiores dimensões. A escola de ensino fundamental deve ser vista sob a perspectiva do movimento e transformada em um lugar de movimento.
Fundamental parameters of massive stars in multiple systems: The cases of HD 17505A and HD 206267A
Raucq, F.; Rauw, G.; Mahy, L.; Simón-Díaz, S.
2018-06-01
Context. Many massive stars are part of binary or higher multiplicity systems. The present work focusses on two higher multiplicity systems: HD 17505A and HD 206267A. Aims: Determining the fundamental parameters of the components of the inner binary of these systems is mandatory to quantify the impact of binary or triple interactions on their evolution. Methods: We analysed high-resolution optical spectra to determine new orbital solutions of the inner binary systems. After subtracting the spectrum of the tertiary component, a spectral disentangling code was applied to reconstruct the individual spectra of the primary and secondary. We then analysed these spectra with the non-LTE model atmosphere code CMFGEN to establish the stellar parameters and the CNO abundances of these stars. Results: The inner binaries of these systems have eccentric orbits with e 0.13 despite their relatively short orbital periods of 8.6 and 3.7 days for HD 17505Aa and HD 206267Aa, respectively. Slight modifications of the CNO abundances are found in both components of each system. The components of HD 17505Aa are both well inside their Roche lobe, whilst the primary of HD 206267Aa nearly fills its Roche lobe around periastron passage. Whilst the rotation of the primary of HD 206267Aa is in pseudo-synchronization with the orbital motion, the secondary displays a rotation rate that is higher. Conclusions: The CNO abundances and properties of HD 17505Aa can be explained by single star evolutionary models accounting for the effects of rotation, suggesting that this system has not yet experienced binary interaction. The properties of HD 206267Aa suggest that some intermittent binary interaction might have taken place during periastron passages, but is apparently not operating anymore. Based on observations collected with the TIGRE telescope (La Luz, Mexico), the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute Provence (France), the Nordic Optical Telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los
Fundamental volatility and stock returns : does fundamental volatility explain stock returns?
Selboe, Guner K.; Virdee, Jaspal Singh
2017-01-01
In this thesis, we investigate whether the fundamental uncertainty can explain the crosssection of stock returns. To measure the fundamental uncertainty, we estimate rolling standard deviations and accounting betas of four different fundamentals: revenues, gross profit, earnings and cash flows. The standard deviation and the beta of revenues significantly explain returns in the Fama-Macbeth procedure, but only appears significant among smaller stocks in the portfolio formation ...
Kazerooni, Anahita Fathi; Malek, Mahrooz; Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Parviz, Sara; Nabil, Mahnaz; Torbati, Leila; Assili, Sanam; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Gity, Masoumeh
2017-02-01
To identify the best dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) descriptive parameters in predicting malignancy of complex ovarian masses, and develop an optimal decision tree for accurate classification of benign and malignant complex ovarian masses. Preoperative DCE-MR images of 55 sonographically indeterminate ovarian masses (27 benign and 28 malignant) were analyzed prospectively. Four descriptive parameters of the dynamic curve, namely, time-to-peak (TTP), wash-in-rate (WIR), relative signal intensity (SI rel ), and the initial area under the curve (IAUC 60 ) were calculated on the normalized curves of specified regions-of-interest (ROIs). A two-tailed Student's t-test and two automated classifiers, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVMs), were used to compare the performance of the mentioned parameters individually and in combination with each other. TTP (P = 6.15E-8) and WIR (P = 5.65E-5) parameters induced the highest sensitivity (89% for LDA, and 97% for SVM) and specificity (93% for LDA, and 100% for SVM), respectively. Regarding the high sensitivity of TTP and high specificity of WIR and through their combination, an accurate and simple decision-tree classifier was designed using the line equation obtained by LDA classification model. The proposed classifier achieved an accuracy of 89% and area under the ROC curve of 93%. In this study an accurate decision-tree classifier based on a combination of TTP and WIR parameters was proposed, which provides a clinically flexible framework to aid radiologists/clinicians to reach a conclusive preoperative diagnosis and patient-specific therapy plan for distinguishing malignant from benign complex ovarian masses. 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:418-427. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Van Gordon, Mollie M. [Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2015-09-10
We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (L{sub bol}) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as T{sub eff}, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR–MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler T{sub eff} of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same M{sub H} magnitude.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wasim, Mohammad [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.; Ahmad, Sajjad [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry
2015-07-01
Nickel based alloys play important role in nuclear, mechanical and chemical industry. Two semi-absolute standardless methods, k{sub 0}-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) and fundamental parameter X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FP-XRF) were used for the characterization of certified nickel based alloys. The optimized experimental conditions for NAA provided results for 18 and XRF for 15 elements. Both techniques were unable to quantify some important alloy making elements. However, both reported results of other elements as information values. The techniques were analyzed for their sensitivity and accuracy. Sensitivity was evaluated by the number of elements determined by each technique. Accuracy was ascertained by using the linear regression analysis and the average root mean squared error.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeh, Javad; Afradi, Hamid [Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box: 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran)
2009-11-15
This paper presents a new and accurate algorithm for locating faults in a combined overhead transmission line with underground power cable using Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The proposed method uses 10 ANFIS networks and consists of 3 stages, including fault type classification, faulty section detection and exact fault location. In the first part, an ANFIS is used to determine the fault type, applying four inputs, i.e., fundamental component of three phase currents and zero sequence current. Another ANFIS network is used to detect the faulty section, whether the fault is on the overhead line or on the underground cable. Other eight ANFIS networks are utilized to pinpoint the faults (two for each fault type). Four inputs, i.e., the dc component of the current, fundamental frequency of the voltage and current and the angle between them, are used to train the neuro-fuzzy inference systems in order to accurately locate the faults on each part of the combined line. The proposed method is evaluated under different fault conditions such as different fault locations, different fault inception angles and different fault resistances. Simulation results confirm that the proposed method can be used as an efficient means for accurate fault location on the combined transmission lines. (author)
Skuk, Verena G.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
2014-01-01
Purpose: To determine the relative importance of acoustic parameters (fundamental frequency [F0], formant frequencies [FFs], aperiodicity, and spectrum level [SL]) on voice gender perception, the authors used a novel parameter-morphing approach that, unlike spectral envelope shifting, allows the application of nonuniform scale factors to transform…
Fundamentals of precision medicine
Divaris, Kimon
2018-01-01
Imagine a world where clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide targeted therapies to their patients according to well-defined, biologically-informed disease subtypes, accounting for individual differences in genetic make-up, behaviors, cultures, lifestyles and the environment. This is not as utopic as it may seem. Relatively recent advances in science and technology have led to an explosion of new information on what underlies health and what constitutes disease. These novel insights emanate from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, as well as epigenomics and exposomics—such ‘omics data can now be generated at unprecedented depth and scale, and at rapidly decreasing cost. Making sense and integrating these fundamental information domains to transform health care and improve health remains a challenge—an ambitious, laudable and high-yield goal. Precision dentistry is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. PMID:29227115
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lynch, Vickie E.; Borreguero, Jose M. [Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Bhowmik, Debsindhu [Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby G. [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Proffen, Thomas E. [Neutron Data Analysis & Visualization Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Goswami, Monojoy, E-mail: goswamim@ornl.gov [Center for Nanophase Material Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States)
2017-07-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An automated workflow to optimize force-field parameters. • Used the workflow to optimize force-field parameter for a system containing nanodiamond and tRNA. • The mechanism relies on molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering experimental data. • The workflow can be generalized to any other experimental and simulation techniques. - Abstract: Large-scale simulations and data analysis are often required to explain neutron scattering experiments to establish a connection between the fundamental physics at the nanoscale and data probed by neutrons. However, to perform simulations at experimental conditions it is critical to use correct force-field (FF) parameters which are unfortunately not available for most complex experimental systems. In this work, we have developed a workflow optimization technique to provide optimized FF parameters by comparing molecular dynamics (MD) to neutron scattering data. We describe the workflow in detail by using an example system consisting of tRNA and hydrophilic nanodiamonds in a deuterated water (D{sub 2}O) environment. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) data show a faster motion of the tRNA in the presence of nanodiamond than without the ND. To compare the QENS and MD results quantitatively, a proper choice of FF parameters is necessary. We use an efficient workflow to optimize the FF parameters between the hydrophilic nanodiamond and water by comparing to the QENS data. Our results show that we can obtain accurate FF parameters by using this technique. The workflow can be generalized to other types of neutron data for FF optimization, such as vibrational spectroscopy and spin echo.
A new model for the accurate calculation of natural gas viscosity
Xiaohong Yang; Shunxi Zhang; Weiling Zhu
2017-01-01
Viscosity of natural gas is a basic and important parameter, of theoretical and practical significance in the domain of natural gas recovery, transmission and processing. In order to obtain the accurate viscosity data efficiently at a low cost, a new model and its corresponding functional relation are derived on the basis of the relationship among viscosity, temperature and density derived from the kinetic theory of gases. After the model parameters were optimized using a lot of experimental ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Ji
2014-01-01
Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff , metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ∼ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff , 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test
The MIDAS touch for Accurately Predicting the Stress-Strain Behavior of Tantalum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jorgensen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-03-02
Testing the behavior of metals in extreme environments is not always feasible, so material scientists use models to try and predict the behavior. To achieve accurate results it is necessary to use the appropriate model and material-specific parameters. This research evaluated the performance of six material models available in the MIDAS database [1] to determine at which temperatures and strain-rates they perform best, and to determine to which experimental data their parameters were optimized. Additionally, parameters were optimized for the Johnson-Cook model using experimental data from Lassila et al [2].
Fundamental symmetries and astrophysics with radioactive beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogt, E.
1996-04-01
A major new initiative at TRIUMF pertains to the use of radioactive beams for astrophysics and for fundamental symmetry experiments. Some recent work is described in which the β-decay-followed by alpha particle emission of 16 N was used to find the resonance parameters dominating the alpha particle capture in 12 C and thus to find the astrophysical S-factor of this reaction which is of crucial importance for alpha-particle burning and the subsequent collapse of stars. In some work underway trapped neural atoms of radioactive potassium atoms will be used to study fundamental symmetries of the weak interactions. Trapping has been achieved and soon 38m K decay will be used to search for evidence of scalar interactions and 37 K decay to search for right-handed gauge-bosom interactions. Future experiments are planned to look for parity non-conservation in trapped francium atoms. This program is part of a revitalization for the TRIUMF laboratory accompanied by the construction of the radioactive beam facility (ISAC). (author)
Schubert, Thomas F
2015-01-01
This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to
Babu, V
2014-01-01
Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav
Fundamentals of Structural Engineering
Connor, Jerome J
2013-01-01
Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...
Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals
Kido, Ken'iti
2015-01-01
This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhen, X; Chen, H; Liao, Y; Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Hrycushko, B; Albuquerque, K; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To study the feasibility of employing deformable registration methods for accurate rectum dose volume parameters calculation and their potentials in revealing rectum dose-toxicity between complication and non-complication cervical cancer patients with brachytherapy treatment. Method and Materials: Data from 60 patients treated with BT including planning images, treatment plans, and follow-up clinical exam were retrospectively collected. Among them, 12 patients complained about hematochezia were further examined with colonoscopy and scored as Grade 1–3 complication (CP). Meanwhile, another 12 non-complication (NCP) patients were selected as a reference group. To seek for potential gains in rectum toxicity prediction when fractional anatomical deformations are account for, the rectum dose volume parameters D0.1/1/2cc of the selected patients were retrospectively computed by three different approaches: the simple “worstcase scenario” (WS) addition method, an intensity-based deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm-Demons, and a more accurate, recent developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm (TOP). Statistical significance of the differences between rectum doses of the CP group and the NCP group were tested by a two-tailed t-test and results were considered to be statistically significant if p < 0.05. Results: For the D0.1cc, no statistical differences are found between the CP and NCP group in all three methods. For the D1cc, dose difference is not detected by the WS method, however, statistical differences between the two groups are observed by both Demons and TOP, and more evident in TOP. For the D2cc, the CP and NCP cases are statistically significance of the difference for all three methods but more pronounced with TOP. Conclusion: In this study, we calculated the rectum D0.1/1/2cc by simple WS addition and two DIR methods and seek for gains in rectum toxicity prediction. The results favor the claim that accurate dose
Objective voice parameters in Colombian school workers with healthy voices
L.C. Cantor Cutiva (Lady Catherine); A. Burdorf (Alex)
2015-01-01
textabstractObjectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identify associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional
Ghezzi, Luan; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Pepper, Joshua; Wang, Ji; Paegert, Martin
2014-12-01
Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ~ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test was
DOE fundamentals handbook: Nuclear physics and reactor theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-01-01
The Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of nuclear physics and reactor theory. The handbook includes information on atomic and nuclear physics; neutron characteristics; reactor theory and nuclear parameters; and the theory of reactor operation. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the scientific principles that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance
Whitlock, C. H., III
1977-01-01
Constituents with linear radiance gradients with concentration may be quantified from signals which contain nonlinear atmospheric and surface reflection effects for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous water bodies provided accurate data can be obtained and nonlinearities are constant with wavelength. Statistical parameters must be used which give an indication of bias as well as total squared error to insure that an equation with an optimum combination of bands is selected. It is concluded that the effect of error in upwelled radiance measurements is to reduce the accuracy of the least square fitting process and to increase the number of points required to obtain a satisfactory fit. The problem of obtaining a multiple regression equation that is extremely sensitive to error is discussed.
Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.
Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.
2005-01-01
We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…
EXTRACTION OF SPATIAL PARAMETERS FROM CLASSIFIED LIDAR DATA AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH FOR SOUND MODELING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Biswas
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Prediction of outdoor sound levels in 3D space is important for noise management, soundscaping etc. Sound levels at outdoor can be predicted using sound propagation models which need terrain parameters. The existing practices of incorporating terrain parameters into models are often limited due to inadequate data or inability to determine accurate sound transmission paths through a terrain. This leads to poor accuracy in modelling. LIDAR data and Aerial Photograph (or Satellite Images provide opportunity to incorporate high resolution data into sound models. To realize this, identification of building and other objects and their use for extraction of terrain parameters are fundamental. However, development of a suitable technique, to incorporate terrain parameters from classified LIDAR data and Aerial Photograph, for sound modelling is a challenge. Determination of terrain parameters along various transmission paths of sound from sound source to a receiver becomes very complex in an urban environment due to the presence of varied and complex urban features. This paper presents a technique to identify the principal paths through which sound transmits from source to receiver. Further, the identified principal paths are incorporated inside the sound model for sound prediction. Techniques based on plane cutting and line tracing are developed for determining principal paths and terrain parameters, which use various information, e.g., building corner and edges, triangulated ground, tree points and locations of source and receiver. The techniques developed are validated through a field experiment. Finally efficacy of the proposed technique is demonstrated by developing a noise map for a test site.
Deriving stellar parameters with the SME software package
Piskunov, N.
2017-09-01
Photometry and spectroscopy are complementary tools for deriving accurate stellar parameters. Here I present one of the popular packages for stellar spectroscopy called SME with the emphasis on the latest developments and error assessment for the derived parameters.
Jeong, Hyunjo; Barnard, Daniel; Cho, Sungjong; Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing
2017-11-01
This paper presents analytical and experimental techniques for accurate determination of the nonlinearity parameter (β) in thick solid samples. When piezoelectric transducers are used for β measurements, the receiver calibration is required to determine the transfer function from which the absolute displacement can be calculated. The measured fundamental and second harmonic displacement amplitudes should be modified to account for beam diffraction and material absorption. All these issues are addressed in this study and the proposed technique is validated through the β measurements of thick solid samples. A simplified self-reciprocity calibration procedure for a broadband receiver is described. The diffraction and attenuation corrections for the fundamental and second harmonics are explicitly derived. Aluminum alloy samples in five different thicknesses (4, 6, 8, 10, 12cm) are prepared and β measurements are made using the finite amplitude, through-transmission method. The effects of diffraction and attenuation corrections on β measurements are systematically investigated. When diffraction and attenuation corrections are all properly made, the variation of β between different thickness samples is found to be less than 3.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Toward accurate and precise estimates of lion density.
Elliot, Nicholas B; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M
2017-08-01
Reliable estimates of animal density are fundamental to understanding ecological processes and population dynamics. Furthermore, their accuracy is vital to conservation because wildlife authorities rely on estimates to make decisions. However, it is notoriously difficult to accurately estimate density for wide-ranging carnivores that occur at low densities. In recent years, significant progress has been made in density estimation of Asian carnivores, but the methods have not been widely adapted to African carnivores, such as lions (Panthera leo). Although abundance indices for lions may produce poor inferences, they continue to be used to estimate density and inform management and policy. We used sighting data from a 3-month survey and adapted a Bayesian spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) model to estimate spatial lion density in the Maasai Mara National Reserve and surrounding conservancies in Kenya. Our unstructured spatial capture-recapture sampling design incorporated search effort to explicitly estimate detection probability and density on a fine spatial scale, making our approach robust in the context of varying detection probabilities. Overall posterior mean lion density was estimated to be 17.08 (posterior SD 1.310) lions >1 year old/100 km 2 , and the sex ratio was estimated at 2.2 females to 1 male. Our modeling framework and narrow posterior SD demonstrate that SECR methods can produce statistically rigorous and precise estimates of population parameters, and we argue that they should be favored over less reliable abundance indices. Furthermore, our approach is flexible enough to incorporate different data types, which enables robust population estimates over relatively short survey periods in a variety of systems. Trend analyses are essential to guide conservation decisions but are frequently based on surveys of differing reliability. We therefore call for a unified framework to assess lion numbers in key populations to improve management and
Freeman, Allison
This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.
Singh, Harjit
2011-01-01
""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag
Measurement of attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves in water
Zhang, Shuzeng; Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing
2016-02-01
Attenuation corrections in nonlinear acoustics play an important role in the study of nonlinear fluids, biomedical imaging, or solid material characterization. The measurement of attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear regime is not easy because they depend on the source pressure and requires accurate diffraction corrections. In this work, the attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves which come from the absorption of water are measured in nonlinear ultrasonic experiments. Based on the quasilinear theory of the KZK equation, the nonlinear sound field equations are derived and the diffraction correction terms are extracted. The measured sound pressure amplitudes are adjusted first for diffraction corrections in order to reduce the impact on the measurement of attenuation coefficients from diffractions. The attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonics are calculated precisely from a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting process of the experiment data. The results show that attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear condition depend on both frequency and source pressure, which are much different from a linear regime. In a relatively lower drive pressure, the attenuation coefficients increase linearly with frequency. However, they present the characteristic of nonlinear growth in a high drive pressure. As the diffraction corrections are obtained based on the quasilinear theory, it is important to use an appropriate source pressure for accurate attenuation measurements.
Accurate determination of the charge transfer efficiency of photoanodes for solar water splitting.
Klotz, Dino; Grave, Daniel A; Rothschild, Avner
2017-08-09
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the surface of semiconductor photoanodes is critical for photoelectrochemical water splitting. This reaction involves photo-generated holes that oxidize water via charge transfer at the photoanode/electrolyte interface. However, a certain fraction of the holes that reach the surface recombine with electrons from the conduction band, giving rise to the surface recombination loss. The charge transfer efficiency, η t , defined as the ratio between the flux of holes that contribute to the water oxidation reaction and the total flux of holes that reach the surface, is an important parameter that helps to distinguish between bulk and surface recombination losses. However, accurate determination of η t by conventional voltammetry measurements is complicated because only the total current is measured and it is difficult to discern between different contributions to the current. Chopped light measurement (CLM) and hole scavenger measurement (HSM) techniques are widely employed to determine η t , but they often lead to errors resulting from instrumental as well as fundamental limitations. Intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) is better suited for accurate determination of η t because it provides direct information on both the total photocurrent and the surface recombination current. However, careful analysis of IMPS measurements at different light intensities is required to account for nonlinear effects. This work compares the η t values obtained by these methods using heteroepitaxial thin-film hematite photoanodes as a case study. We show that a wide spread of η t values is obtained by different analysis methods, and even within the same method different values may be obtained depending on instrumental and experimental conditions such as the light source and light intensity. Statistical analysis of the results obtained for our model hematite photoanode show good correlation between different methods for
One-parameter Darboux transformations in thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosu, Haret C.
2002-01-01
The quantum oscillator thermodynamic actions are the conjugate intensive parameters for the frequency in any frequency changing process. These oscillator actions fulfill simple Riccati equations. Interesting Darboux transformations of the fundamental Planck and pure vacuum actions are discussed here in some detail. It is shown that the one-parameter 'Darboux-Transformed-Thermodynamics' refers to superpositions of boson and fermion excitations of positive and negative absolute temperature, respectively. A Darboux generalization of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is also briefly sketched
Operational definition of (brane-induced) space-time and constraints on the fundamental parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maziashvili, Michael
2008-01-01
First we contemplate the operational definition of space-time in four dimensions in light of basic principles of quantum mechanics and general relativity and consider some of its phenomenological consequences. The quantum gravitational fluctuations of the background metric that comes through the operational definition of space-time are controlled by the Planck scale and are therefore strongly suppressed. Then we extend our analysis to the braneworld setup with low fundamental scale of gravity. It is observed that in this case the quantum gravitational fluctuations on the brane may become unacceptably large. The magnification of fluctuations is not linked directly to the low quantum gravity scale but rather to the higher-dimensional modification of Newton's inverse square law at relatively large distances. For models with compact extra dimensions the shape modulus of extra space can be used as a most natural and safe stabilization mechanism against these fluctuations
Stellar atmospheric parameter estimation using Gaussian process regression
Bu, Yude; Pan, Jingchang
2015-02-01
As is well known, it is necessary to derive stellar parameters from massive amounts of spectral data automatically and efficiently. However, in traditional automatic methods such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and kernel regression (KR), it is often difficult to optimize the algorithm structure and determine the optimal algorithm parameters. Gaussian process regression (GPR) is a recently developed method that has been proven to be capable of overcoming these difficulties. Here we apply GPR to derive stellar atmospheric parameters from spectra. Through evaluating the performance of GPR on Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, Medium resolution Isaac Newton Telescope Library of Empirical Spectra (MILES) spectra, ELODIE spectra and the spectra of member stars of galactic globular clusters, we conclude that GPR can derive stellar parameters accurately and precisely, especially when we use data preprocessed with principal component analysis (PCA). We then compare the performance of GPR with that of several widely used regression methods (ANNs, support-vector regression and KR) and find that with GPR it is easier to optimize structures and parameters and more efficient and accurate to extract atmospheric parameters.
Arguing against fundamentality
McKenzie, Kerry
This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Albert, Loïc; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Gagné, Jonathan [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Riedel, Adric, E-mail: malo@cfht.hawaii.edu, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)
2014-09-01
Based on high-resolution optical spectra obtained with ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we determine fundamental parameters (T {sub eff}, R, L {sub bol}, log g, and metallicity) for 59 candidate members of nearby young kinematic groups. The candidates were identified through the BANYAN Bayesian inference method of Malo et al., which takes into account the position, proper motion, magnitude, color, radial velocity, and parallax (when available) to establish a membership probability. The derived parameters are compared to Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models and field stars with the goal of constraining the age of our candidates. We find that, in general, low-mass stars in our sample are more luminous and have inflated radii compared to older stars, a trend expected for pre-main-sequence stars. The Dartmouth magnetic evolutionary models show a good fit to observations of field K and M stars, assuming a magnetic field strength of a few kG, as typically observed for cool stars. Using the low-mass members of the β Pictoris moving group, we have re-examined the age inconsistency problem between lithium depletion age and isochronal age (Hertzspring-Russell diagram). We find that the inclusion of the magnetic field in evolutionary models increases the isochronal age estimates for the K5V-M5V stars. Using these models and field strengths, we derive an average isochronal age between 15 and 28 Myr and we confirm a clear lithium depletion boundary from which an age of 26 ± 3 Myr is derived, consistent with previous age estimates based on this method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihaela-Cristina Onica
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Upon passing to a market economy, it became necessary to find out information as accurate as possible regarding the risk of bankruptcy of a certain companyin the future, in order to determine the share of such a risk and the importance of the fundamental analysis within the prediction of the evolution of stock price. In spite of these, specialists say that this type of analysis, in relation to the technical analysis, in the context of the financial crisis, determined an accentuated decrease of the stock exchange indices on an international level. The paper deals with the results of the research and of a comparative study regarding the fundamental analysis of the shares of 6 companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB.
Review of 241 Pu resonance parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derrien, H.
1981-10-01
The status of 241 Pu resonance parameters is reviewed. The most important recent results are compared in some energy ranges, both from single level and multilevel point of view. It appears that an accurate set of resonance parameters is not still obtained for a general description of the cross-sections in the resonance region. Some recommendations are given for further experiments or evaluations
pH Effects in Foods: Development, Validation and Calibration of a Fundamental Model
Tijskens, L.M.M.; Biekman, E.S.A.; Greiner, R.; Seyhan, F.; Barringer, S.A.
2001-01-01
The effects of pH observed in the activity of a number of enzymes from different origins and the degradation of green colour in blanched vegetables, was modelled based on fundamental kinetic principles by considering hydrogen ions as an integral part of the reaction mechanism. Parameters were
Optomechanical parameter estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ang, Shan Zheng; Tsang, Mankei; Harris, Glen I; Bowen, Warwick P
2013-01-01
We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cramér–Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation–maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cramér–Rao bound most closely. Our analytic results are envisioned to be valuable to optomechanical experiment design, while the EM algorithm, with its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. (paper)
Accurate and fast methods to estimate the population mutation rate from error prone sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miyamoto Michael M
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The population mutation rate (θ remains one of the most fundamental parameters in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, its accurate estimation can be seriously compromised when working with error prone data such as expressed sequence tags, low coverage draft sequences, and other such unfinished products. This study is premised on the simple idea that a random sequence error due to a chance accident during data collection or recording will be distributed within a population dataset as a singleton (i.e., as a polymorphic site where one sampled sequence exhibits a unique base relative to the common nucleotide of the others. Thus, one can avoid these random errors by ignoring the singletons within a dataset. Results This strategy is implemented under an infinite sites model that focuses on only the internal branches of the sample genealogy where a shared polymorphism can arise (i.e., a variable site where each alternative base is represented by at least two sequences. This approach is first used to derive independently the same new Watterson and Tajima estimators of θ, as recently reported by Achaz 1 for error prone sequences. It is then used to modify the recent, full, maximum-likelihood model of Knudsen and Miyamoto 2, which incorporates various factors for experimental error and design with those for coalescence and mutation. These new methods are all accurate and fast according to evolutionary simulations and analyses of a real complex population dataset for the California seahare. Conclusion In light of these results, we recommend the use of these three new methods for the determination of θ from error prone sequences. In particular, we advocate the new maximum likelihood model as a starting point for the further development of more complex coalescent/mutation models that also account for experimental error and design.
Measuring the acoustophoretic contrast factor of living cells in microchannels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustsson, P.; Barnkob, Rune; Grenvall, C.
2010-01-01
We report a new method, which allows for accurate measurement of the acostophoretic contrast factor Φ of different cell types, an acousto-physical parameter of fundamental importance in microchip acoustophoresis. As a test case the Φ factor is measured for undifferentiated and four-days different......We report a new method, which allows for accurate measurement of the acostophoretic contrast factor Φ of different cell types, an acousto-physical parameter of fundamental importance in microchip acoustophoresis. As a test case the Φ factor is measured for undifferentiated and four...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.
1984-01-01
Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more
Simple method for quick estimation of aquifer hydrogeological parameters
Ma, C.; Li, Y. Y.
2017-08-01
Development of simple and accurate methods to determine the aquifer hydrogeological parameters was of importance for groundwater resources assessment and management. Aiming at the present issue of estimating aquifer parameters based on some data of the unsteady pumping test, a fitting function of Theis well function was proposed using fitting optimization method and then a unitary linear regression equation was established. The aquifer parameters could be obtained by solving coefficients of the regression equation. The application of the proposed method was illustrated, using two published data sets. By the error statistics and analysis on the pumping drawdown, it showed that the method proposed in this paper yielded quick and accurate estimates of the aquifer parameters. The proposed method could reliably identify the aquifer parameters from long distance observed drawdowns and early drawdowns. It was hoped that the proposed method in this paper would be helpful for practicing hydrogeologists and hydrologists.
Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters
Pike, William T.
1996-01-01
Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.
Diffusion Parameters of BeO by the Pulsed Neutron Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, B.V.; Nargundkar, V.R.; Subbarao, K.
1965-01-01
The use of the pulsed neutron method for the precise determination of the diffusion parameters of moderators is described. The diffusion parameters of BeO have been obtained by this method. The neutron bursts were produced from a cascade accelerator by pulsing the ion source and using the Be (d, n) reaction. The detector was an enriched boron trifluoride proportional counter. It is shown that by a proper choice of the counter position arid length, and the source position, most of the space harmonics can be eliminated. Any constant background can be accounted for in the calculation of the decay constant. Very large bucklings were not used to avoid time harmonics. Any remaining harmonic content was rendered ineffective by the use of adequate time delay. The decay constant of the fundamental mode of the thermal neutron population was determined for several bucklings. Conditions to be satisfied for an accurate determination of the diffusion cooling constant C are discussed. The following values are obtained for BeO: λ 0 = absorption constant = 156.02 ± 4.37 s -1 D = diffusion coefficient = (1.3334 ± 0.0128) x 10 5 cm 2 /s C = diffusion cooling constant = (-4.8758 ± 0.5846) x 10 5 cm 4 /s. The effect of neglecting the contribution of the B 6 term on the determination of the diffusion parameters was estimated and is shown to be considerable. The reason for the longstanding discrepancy between the values of C obtained for the same moderator by different workers is attributed to this. (author) [fr
Qian, Yu; Zhang, Zhaoyang
2016-01-01
In this paper we have systematically investigated the fundamental structure and the reproduction of spiral wave in a two-dimensional excitable lattice. A periodically rotating spiral wave is introduced as the model to reproduce spiral wave artificially. Interestingly, by using the dominant phase-advanced driving analysis method, the fundamental structure containing the loop structure and the wave propagation paths has been revealed, which can expose the periodically rotating orbit of spiral tip and the charity of spiral wave clearly. Furthermore, the fundamental structure is utilized as the core for artificial spiral wave. Additionally, the appropriate parameter region, in which the artificial spiral wave can be reproduced, is studied. Finally, we discuss the robustness of artificial spiral wave to defects.
Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals
Khan, Ahmad Shahid
2014-01-01
Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...
Measurement-Based Transmission Line Parameter Estimation with Adaptive Data Selection Scheme
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Changgang; Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Hengxu
2017-01-01
Accurate parameters of transmission lines are critical for power system operation and control decision making. Transmission line parameter estimation based on measured data is an effective way to enhance the validity of the parameters. This paper proposes a multi-point transmission line parameter...
Intra-burst firing characteristics as network state parameters
Stegenga, J.; le Feber, Jakob; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico; Stett, A
Introduction In our group we are aiming to demonstrate learning and memory capabilities of cultured networks of cortical neurons. A first step is to identify parameters that accurately describe changes in the network due to learning. Usually, such parameters are calculated from the responses to
Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia
Nagy, Sandra L.
1996-01-01
This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...
Development of a new compound method to extract the five parameters of PV modules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Jianbo; Liu, Sheng; Hao, Yuzhe; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Meng; Zhang, Yu
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A compound method to extract the five parameters of the five-parameter PV model. • A piecewise curve-fitting method to obtain the differential values at the short and open circuit points. • Simulated and experimental I–V and P–V curves at any operating conditions have excellent agreement. • Prediction of generation output for a PV power station has high accuracy. - Abstract: The five-parameter photovoltaic (PV) mathematical model has been considered a reliable and accurate method for simulating the performance of PV modules. This paper puts forth a new compound method to extract the five parameters of the model with the basic manufacture template data. As the two differential values at the short and open circuit points of the I–V curve at standard testing conditions (STC) are fundamental data to obtain the five parameters and not normally available from the template data, we use a piecewise I–V curve-fitting method combined with the four-parameter PV model to calculate them with which an explicit extraction method is then presented to extract the five parameters at STC conditions by using five individual algebraic equations. Furthermore, the five parameters are revised according to certain operating conditions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the simulated I–V characteristic curves for three types of PV modules over a range of operating conditions are compared with the measured data. The experimental results demonstrate that the method has high accuracy. This method is also used to predict the generation power of an actual PV power station; the simulation results show good agreement with the field data. This proposed method is easy to carry out and especially useful for simulating the actual performances of PV modules or arrays at various operating conditions and predicting the output power of real PV power stations
A wearable multichannel tactile display of voice fundamental frequency.
Yeung, E; Boothroyd, A; Redmond, C
1988-12-01
This paper describes a wearable sensory aid that provides the deaf with tactually encoded information about intonation. Fundamental frequency is represented as both place and rate of vibration in a linear array of solenoids. Pitch extraction is accomplished through low-pass filtering and peak detection. A microcomputer is used to measure pitch period, which in turn determines which of the solenoids is actuated. By comparing consecutive periods, the system discriminates against random, noise-related inputs. The device is switchable between 1-, 8-, and 16-channel operation. The electronics package is contained in a case that may be worn on a belt. The solenoid array is worn on the forearm. The system is powered by five, rechargeable lithium cells and runs for at least 6 hours between charges. Proposed developments include the incorporation of digital pitch extraction methods and the option to use the spatial output dimension to encode speech parameters other than fundamental frequency.
Fundamental absorption edge of CdP2 single crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondar', G.I.; Koval', V.S.; Kurik, M.V.
1986-01-01
Fundamental absorption edge of tetragonal CdP 2 crystals is investigated within the temperature range of 4.2-293 K. The crystals are grown by the Bridgman methods and resublimation methods and possess different degree of perfection and purity. In perfect CdP 2 crystals with small concentration of impurities in the region of K > 20 cm -1 the shape of the absorption edge spectrum is described by the Urbach rule. The Urbach rule parameters are defined. The electron-phonon interaction is shown to be the determinant at K > 20 cm -1 and the direct vertical transition is observed. A slight additional absorption with maximum at 2.163 eV within the range of K -1 and at T ≤ 50 is associated with transition from shallow acceptor level to the conduction zone. The impurity leads to the shift of the fundamental absorption edge to the long-wavelength side and diffusion of electrons on impurities is resulted
Observational constraints on f(T) gravity from varying fundamental constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nunes, Rafael C.; Bonilla, Alexander [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Pan, Supriya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece); Baylor University, CASPER, Physics Department, Waco, TX (United States)
2017-04-15
We use observations related to the variation of fundamental constants, in order to impose constraints on the viable and most used f(T) gravity models. In particular, for the fine-structure constant we use direct measurements obtained by different spectrographic methods, while for the effective Newton constant we use a model-dependent reconstruction, using direct observational Hubble parameter data, in order to investigate its temporal evolution. We consider two f(T) models and we quantify their deviation from Λ CDM cosmology through a sole parameter. Our analysis reveals that this parameter can be slightly different from its Λ CDM value, however, the best-fit value is very close to the Λ CDM one. Hence, f(T) gravity is consistent with observations, nevertheless, as every modified gravity, it may exhibit only small deviations from Λ CDM cosmology, a feature that must be taken into account in any f(T) model-building. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talantsev, Evgueni [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Crump, Wayne P.; Tallon, Jeffery L. [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)
2017-12-15
Key questions for any superconductor include: what is its maximum dissipation-free electrical current (its 'critical current') and can this be used to extract fundamental thermodynamic parameters? Present models focus on depinning of magnetic vortices and implicate materials engineering to maximise pinning performance. But recently we showed that the self-field critical current for thin films is a universal property, independent of microstructure, controlled only by the penetration depth. Here, using an extended BCS-like model, we calculate the penetration depth from the temperature dependence of the superconducting energy gap thus allowing us to fit self-field critical current data. In this way we extract from the T-dependent gap a set of key thermodynamic parameters, the ground-state penetration depth, energy gap and jump in electronic specific heat. Our fits to 79 available data sets, from zinc nanowires to compressed sulphur hydride with critical temperatures of 0.65 to 203 K, respectively, are excellent and the extracted parameters agree well with reported bulk values. Samples include thin films, wires or nanowires of single- or multi-band s-wave and d-wave superconductors of either type I or type II. For multiband or multiphase samples we accurately recover individual band contributions and phase fractions. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nita H. Shah
2008-08-01
Full Text Available The classical calibration or space resection is the fundamental task in photogrammetry. The lack of sufficient knowledge of interior and exterior orientation parameters lead to unreliable results in the photogrammetric process. There are several other available methods using lines, which consider the determination of exterior orientation parameters, with no mention to the simultaneous determination of inner orientation parameters. Normal space resection methods solve the problem using control points, whose coordinates are known both in image and object reference systems. The non-linearity of the model and the problems, in point location in digital images are the main drawbacks of the classical approaches. The line based approach to overcome these problems includes usage of lines in the number of observations that can be provided, which improve significantly the overall system redundancy. This paper addresses mathematical model relating to both image and object reference system for solving the space resection problem which is generally used for upgrading the exterior orientation parameters. In order to solve the dynamic camera calibration parameters, a sequential estimator (Kalman Filtering is applied; in an iterative process to the image. For dynamic case, e.g. an image sequence of moving objects, a state prediction and a covariance matrix for the next instant is obtained using the available estimates and the system model. Filtered state estimates can be computed from these predicted estimates using the Kalman Filtering approach and basic physical sensor model for each instant of time. The proposed approach is tested with three real data sets and the result suggests that highly accurate space resection parameters can be obtained with or without using the control points and progressive processing time reduction.
DeSmitt, Holly J; Domire, Zachary J
2016-12-01
Biomechanical models are sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Therefore, determination of accurate subject specific model parameters is important. One approach to generate these parameters is to optimize the values such that the model output will match experimentally measured strength curves. This approach is attractive as it is inexpensive and should provide an excellent match to experimentally measured strength. However, given the problem of muscle redundancy, it is not clear that this approach generates accurate individual muscle forces. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate this approach using simulated data to enable a direct comparison. It is hypothesized that the optimization approach will be able to recreate accurate muscle model parameters when information from measurable parameters is given. A model of isometric knee extension was developed to simulate a strength curve across a range of knee angles. In order to realistically recreate experimentally measured strength, random noise was added to the modeled strength. Parameters were solved for using a genetic search algorithm. When noise was added to the measurements the strength curve was reasonably recreated. However, the individual muscle model parameters and force curves were far less accurate. Based upon this examination, it is clear that very different sets of model parameters can recreate similar strength curves. Therefore, experimental variation in strength measurements has a significant influence on the results. Given the difficulty in accurately recreating individual muscle parameters, it may be more appropriate to perform simulations with lumped actuators representing similar muscles.
Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots
Schiele, A.
2008-01-01
This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a
Accurate frequency measurements on gyrotrons using a ''gyro-radiometer''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebuffi, L.
1986-08-01
Using an heterodyne system, called ''Gyro-radiometer'', accurated frequency measurements have been carried out on VARIAN 60 GHz gyrotrons. Changing the principal tuning parameters of a gyrotron, we have detected frequency variations up to 100 MHz, ∼ 40 MHz frequency jumps and smaller jumps (∼ 10 MHz) when mismatches in the transmission line were present. FWHM bandwidth of 300 KHz, parasitic frequencies and frequency drift during 100 msec pulses have also been observed. An efficient method to find a stable-, high power-, long pulse-working point of a gyrotron loaded by a transmission line, has been derived. In general, for any power value it is possible to find stable working conditions tuning the principal parameters of the tube in correspondance of a maximum of the emitted frequency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Puzzarini, Cristina [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician”, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Alonso, José Luis [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Unidad Asociada CSIC, Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)
2015-06-10
The rotational spectrum of the mono-deuterated isotopologue of water, HD{sup 16}O, has been investigated in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave frequency regions, up to 1.6 THz. The Lamb-dip technique has been exploited to obtain sub-Doppler resolution and to resolve the hyperfine (hf) structure due to the deuterium and hydrogen nuclei, thus enabling the accurate determination of the corresponding hf parameters. Their experimental determination has been supported by high-level quantum-chemical calculations. The Lamb-dip measurements have been supplemented by Doppler-limited measurements (weak high-J and high-frequency transitions) in order to extend the predictive capability of the available spectroscopic constants. The possibility of resolving hf splittings in astronomical spectra has been discussed.
SU(2) Gauge Theory with Two Fundamental Flavours
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arthur, Rudy; Drach, Vincent; Hansen, Martin
2016-01-01
We investigate the continuum spectrum of the SU(2) gauge theory with $N_f=2$ flavours of fermions in the fundamental representation. This model provides a minimal template which is ideal for a wide class of Standard Model extensions featuring novel strong dynamics that range from composite...... (Goldstone) Higgs theories to several intriguing types of dark matter candidates, such as the SIMPs. We improve our previous lattice analysis [1] by adding more data at light quark masses, at two additional lattice spacings, by determining the lattice cutoff via a Wilson flow measure of the $w_0$ parameter...
Fundamental U-Theory of Time. Part 1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuvraj J. Gopaul
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The Fundamental U-Theory of Time (Part 1 is an original theory that aims to unravel the mystery of what exactly is ‘time’. To date very few explanations, from the branches of physics or cosmology, have succeeded to provide an accurate and comprehensive depiction of time. Most explanations have only managed to provide partial understanding or at best, glimpses of its true nature. The U-Theory uses ‘Thought Experiments’ to uncover the determining characteristics of time. In part 1 of this theory, the focus is not on the mathematics as it is on the accuracy of the depiction of time. Moreover, it challenges current views on theoretical physics, particularly on the idea of ‘time travel’. Notably, it is a theory seeking to present a fresh approach for reviewing Einstein’s Theory of Relativity, while unlocking new pathways for upcoming research in the field of physics and cosmology.
Kalman filter data assimilation: targeting observations and parameter estimation.
Bellsky, Thomas; Kostelich, Eric J; Mahalov, Alex
2014-06-01
This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation.
Kalman filter data assimilation: Targeting observations and parameter estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellsky, Thomas; Kostelich, Eric J.; Mahalov, Alex
2014-01-01
This paper studies the effect of targeted observations on state and parameter estimates determined with Kalman filter data assimilation (DA) techniques. We first provide an analytical result demonstrating that targeting observations within the Kalman filter for a linear model can significantly reduce state estimation error as opposed to fixed or randomly located observations. We next conduct observing system simulation experiments for a chaotic model of meteorological interest, where we demonstrate that the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) with targeted observations based on largest ensemble variance is skillful in providing more accurate state estimates than the LETKF with randomly located observations. Additionally, we find that a hybrid ensemble Kalman filter parameter estimation method accurately updates model parameters within the targeted observation context to further improve state estimation
Accurate switching intensities and length scales in quasi-phase-matched materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bang, Ole; Graversen, Torben Winther; Corney, Joel Frederick
2001-01-01
We consider unseeded typeI second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched quadratic nonlinear materials and derive an accurate analytical expression for the evolution of the average intensity. The intensity- dependent nonlinear phase mismatch that is due to the cubic nonlinearity induced...... by quasi phase matching is found. The equivalent formula for the intensity of maximum conversion, the crossing of which changes the one-period nonlinear phase shift of the fundamental abruptly by p , corrects earlier estimates [Opt.Lett. 23, 506 (1998)] by a factor of 5.3. We find the crystal lengths...... that are necessary to obtain an optimal flat phase versus intensity response on either side of this separatrix intensity....
Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler fabricated from two dissimilar waveguides is capable of isolating the power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT). In addition to accurate power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave frequencies.
Accurate Modeling of Advanced Reflectarrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Min
to the conventional phase-only optimization technique (POT), the geometrical parameters of the array elements are directly optimized to fulfill the far-field requirements, thus maintaining a direct relation between optimization goals and optimization variables. As a result, better designs can be obtained compared...... of the incident field, the choice of basis functions, and the technique to calculate the far-field. Based on accurate reference measurements of two offset reflectarrays carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical NearField Antenna Test Facility, it was concluded that the three latter factors are particularly important...... using the GDOT to demonstrate its capabilities. To verify the accuracy of the GDOT, two offset contoured beam reflectarrays that radiate a high-gain beam on a European coverage have been designed and manufactured, and subsequently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility...
Guan, Fengjiao; Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Shujing; Luo, Xu; Zhu, Feng
2017-10-01
Accurate material parameters are critical to construct the high biofidelity finite element (FE) models. However, it is hard to obtain the brain tissue parameters accurately because of the effects of irregular geometry and uncertain boundary conditions. Considering the complexity of material test and the uncertainty of friction coefficient, a computational inverse method for viscoelastic material parameters identification of brain tissue is presented based on the interval analysis method. Firstly, the intervals are used to quantify the friction coefficient in the boundary condition. And then the inverse problem of material parameters identification under uncertain friction coefficient is transformed into two types of deterministic inverse problem. Finally the intelligent optimization algorithm is used to solve the two types of deterministic inverse problems quickly and accurately, and the range of material parameters can be easily acquired with no need of a variety of samples. The efficiency and convergence of this method are demonstrated by the material parameters identification of thalamus. The proposed method provides a potential effective tool for building high biofidelity human finite element model in the study of traffic accident injury.
Harb, Moussab
2016-01-01
The author retracts this article due to similarities with a previously published article by Le Bahers, T.; Rerat, M.; Sautet, ́ P. Semiconductors Used in Photovoltaic and Photocatalytic Devices: Assessing Fundamental Properties from DFT. J. Phys
Use of GMM and SCMS for Accurate Road Centerline Extraction from the Classified Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zelang Miao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The extraction of road centerline from the classified image is a fundamental image analysis technology. Common problems encountered in road centerline extraction include low ability for coping with the general case, production of undesired objects, and inefficiency. To tackle these limitations, this paper presents a novel accurate centerline extraction method using Gaussian mixture model (GMM and subspace constraint mean shift (SCMS. The proposed method consists of three main steps. GMM is first used to partition the classified image into several clusters. The major axis of the ellipsoid of each cluster is extracted and deemed to be taken as the initial centerline. Finally, the initial result is adjusted using SCMS to produce precise road centerline. Both simulated and real datasets are used to validate the proposed method. Preliminary results demonstrate that the proposed method provides a comparatively robust solution for accurate centerline extraction from a classified image.
Fundamental Physics with Antihydrogen
Hangst, J. S.
Antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of the hydrogen atom—is of fundamental interest as a test bed for universal symmetries—such as CPT and the Weak Equivalence Principle for gravitation. Invariance under CPT requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Antimatter is of course intriguing because of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe—currently unexplained by the Standard Model. At the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) [1], several groups have been working diligently since 1999 to produce, trap, and study the structure and behaviour of the antihydrogen atom. One of the main thrusts of the AD experimental program is to apply precision techniques from atomic physics to the study of antimatter. Such experiments complement the high-energy searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Antihydrogen is the only atom of antimatter to be produced in the laboratory. This is not so unfortunate, as its matter equivalent, hydrogen, is one of the most well-understood and accurately measured systems in all of physics. It is thus very compelling to undertake experimental examinations of the structure of antihydrogen. As experimental spectroscopy of antihydrogen has yet to begin in earnest, I will give here a brief introduction to some of the ion and atom trap developments necessary for synthesizing and trapping antihydrogen, so that it can be studied.
Bayesian calibration of power plant models for accurate performance prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boksteen, Sowande Z.; Buijtenen, Jos P. van; Pecnik, Rene; Vecht, Dick van der
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Bayesian calibration is applied to power plant performance prediction. • Measurements from a plant in operation are used for model calibration. • A gas turbine performance model and steam cycle model are calibrated. • An integrated plant model is derived. • Part load efficiency is accurately predicted as a function of ambient conditions. - Abstract: Gas turbine combined cycles are expected to play an increasingly important role in the balancing of supply and demand in future energy markets. Thermodynamic modeling of these energy systems is frequently applied to assist in decision making processes related to the management of plant operation and maintenance. In most cases, model inputs, parameters and outputs are treated as deterministic quantities and plant operators make decisions with limited or no regard of uncertainties. As the steady integration of wind and solar energy into the energy market induces extra uncertainties, part load operation and reliability are becoming increasingly important. In the current study, methods are proposed to not only quantify various types of uncertainties in measurements and plant model parameters using measured data, but to also assess their effect on various aspects of performance prediction. The authors aim to account for model parameter and measurement uncertainty, and for systematic discrepancy of models with respect to reality. For this purpose, the Bayesian calibration framework of Kennedy and O’Hagan is used, which is especially suitable for high-dimensional industrial problems. The article derives a calibrated model of the plant efficiency as a function of ambient conditions and operational parameters, which is also accurate in part load. The article shows that complete statistical modeling of power plants not only enhances process models, but can also increases confidence in operational decisions
Long-range weight functions in fundamental measure theory of the non-uniform hard-sphere fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen-Goos, Hendrik
2016-01-01
We introduce long-range weight functions to the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) of the non-uniform, single-component hard-sphere fluid. While the range of the usual weight functions is equal to the hard-sphere radius R , the modified weight functions have range 3 R . Based on the augmented FMT, we calculate the radial distribution function g (r) up to second order in the density within Percus’ test particle theory. Consistency of the compressibility and virial routes on this level allows us to determine the free parameter γ of the theory. As a side result, we obtain a value for the fourth virial coefficient B 4 which deviates by only 0.01% from the exact result. The augmented FMT is tested for the dense fluid by comparing results for g (r) calculated via the test particle route to existing results from molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement at large distances (r > 6 R) is significantly improved when the FMT with long-range weight functions is used. In order to improve agreement close to contact (r = 2 R) we construct a free energy which is based on the accurate Carnahan–Starling equation of state, rather than the Percus–Yevick compressibility equation underlying standard FMT. (paper)
Fundamental course of measuring. Pt. 2. 4. enlarged ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merz, L.
1975-01-01
The fundamental course of the electrical measuring of non-electrical parameters aims to fulfill the task of presenting the present knowledge on the basic measuring methods in simple language and illustrative form. The present part II deals especially with measuring methods in heat and process engineering in the industrial field. Following the introduction in part A, the techniques of electrical probes are mainly described, and it is shown which mechanical probes cannot yet be replaced by electrical ones. Part C describes the techniques of measuring transducers. (ORU) [de
Quantum-Accurate Molecular Dynamics Potential for Tungsten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wood, Mitchell; Thompson, Aidan P.
2017-03-01
The purpose of this short contribution is to report on the development of a Spectral Neighbor Analysis Potential (SNAP) for tungsten. We have focused on the characterization of elastic and defect properties of the pure material in order to support molecular dynamics simulations of plasma-facing materials in fusion reactors. A parallel genetic algorithm approach was used to efficiently search for fitting parameters optimized against a large number of objective functions. In addition, we have shown that this many-body tungsten potential can be used in conjunction with a simple helium pair potential1 to produce accurate defect formation energies for the W-He binary system.
Robust and accurate vectorization of line drawings.
Hilaire, Xavier; Tombre, Karl
2006-06-01
This paper presents a method for vectorizing the graphical parts of paper-based line drawings. The method consists of separating the input binary image into layers of homogeneous thickness, skeletonizing each layer, segmenting the skeleton by a method based on random sampling, and simplifying the result. The segmentation method is robust with a best bound of 50 percent noise reached for indefinitely long primitives. Accurate estimation of the recognized vector's parameters is enabled by explicitly computing their feasibility domains. Theoretical performance analysis and expression of the complexity of the segmentation method are derived. Experimental results and comparisons with other vectorization systems are also provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suram, Santosh K.; Rajan, Krishna
2013-01-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology to estimate the APT reconstruction parameters when limited crystallographic information is available. Reliable spatial scaling of APT data currently requires identification of multiple crystallographic poles from the field desorption image for estimating the reconstruction parameters. This requirement limits the capacity of accurately reconstructing APT data for certain complex systems, such as highly alloyed systems and nanostructured materials wherein more than one pole is usually not observed within one grain. To overcome this limitation, we develop a quantitative methodology for calibrating the reconstruction parameters in an APT dataset by ensuring accurate inter-planar spacing and optimizing the curvature correction for the atomic planes corresponding to a single crystallographic orientation. We validate our approach on an aluminum dataset and further illustrate its capabilities by computing geometric reconstruction parameters for W and Al–Mg–Sc datasets. - Highlights: ► Quantitative approach is developed to accurately reconstruct APT data. ► Curvature of atomic planes in APT data is used to calibrate the reconstruction. ► APT reconstruction parameters are determined from a single crystallographic axis. ► Quantitative approach is demonstrated on W, Al and Al–Mg–Sc systems. ► Accurate APT reconstruction of complex materials is now possible
Fundamental issues on kappa-distributions in space plasmas and interplanetary proton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leubner, M.P.
2004-01-01
Numerous in situ observations indicate clearly the presence of nonthermal electron and ion structures as ubiquitous and persistent feature in a variety of astrophysical plasma environments. In particular, the detected suprathermal particle populations are accurately represented by the family of κ-distributions, a power-law in particle speed. After clarifying the characteristics of high-energy tail distributions under various space plasma conditions, different generation mechanisms of energetic particles are introduced where numerical simulations of wave-particle interaction based on a Fokker-Planck approach demonstrate how Landau interaction ultimately leads to κ-like distributions. Because of lack of theoretical justification, the use of the analytical form of κ-functions was frequently criticized. It is shown that these distributions turn out as consequence of an entropy generalization favored by nonextensive thermo-statistics, thus providing the missing link for powerlaw models of suprathermal tails from fundamental physics, along with a physical interpretation of the structure parameter κ. Moreover, with regard to the full nonextensive formalism, compatible also with negative values of κ, it is demonstrated that core-halo distribution structures, as observed for instance under typical interplanetary plasma conditions, are a natural content of the pseudo-additive entropy concept. The significance of the complete κ-distribution family with regard to observed core-halo electron and double-humped ion velocity space characteristics is illuminated, where the observed peak separation scale of interplanetary proton distributions is compatible with a maximum entropy condition
Obtention of the parameters of the Voigt function using the least square fit method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flores Ll, H.; Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.
1990-01-01
The fundamental parameters of the Voigt function are determined: lorentzian wide (Γ L ) and gaussian wide (Γ G ) with an error for almost all the cases inferior to 1% in the intervals 0.01 ≤ Γ L / Γ G ≤1 and 0.3 ≤ Γ G / Γ L ≤1. This is achieved using the least square fit method with an algebraic function, being obtained a simple method to obtain the fundamental parameters of the Voigt function used in many spectroscopies. (Author)
Dick, Erik
2015-01-01
This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised. The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogdanov, Andrey; Kavun, Elif Bilge; Tischhauser, Elmar
2012-01-01
An accurate estimation of the success probability and data complexity of linear cryptanalysis is a fundamental question in symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose an efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture to compute the success probability and data complexity of Matsui's Algorithm...... block lengths ensures that any empirical observations are not due to differences in statistical behavior for artificially small block lengths. Rather surprisingly, we observed in previous experiments a significant deviation between the theory and practice for Matsui's Algorithm 2 for larger block sizes...
SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning
1996-02-01
Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs.
A robust methodology for modal parameters estimation applied to SHM
Cardoso, Rharã; Cury, Alexandre; Barbosa, Flávio
2017-10-01
The subject of structural health monitoring is drawing more and more attention over the last years. Many vibration-based techniques aiming at detecting small structural changes or even damage have been developed or enhanced through successive researches. Lately, several studies have focused on the use of raw dynamic data to assess information about structural condition. Despite this trend and much skepticism, many methods still rely on the use of modal parameters as fundamental data for damage detection. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that modal identification procedures are performed with a sufficient level of precision and automation. To fulfill these requirements, this paper presents a novel automated time-domain methodology to identify modal parameters based on a two-step clustering analysis. The first step consists in clustering modes estimates from parametric models of different orders, usually presented in stabilization diagrams. In an automated manner, the first clustering analysis indicates which estimates correspond to physical modes. To circumvent the detection of spurious modes or the loss of physical ones, a second clustering step is then performed. The second step consists in the data mining of information gathered from the first step. To attest the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methodology, numerically generated signals as well as experimental data obtained from a simply supported beam tested in laboratory and from a railway bridge are utilized. The results appeared to be more robust and accurate comparing to those obtained from methods based on one-step clustering analysis.
Thygesen, A. O.; Sbordone, L.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Yong, D.; Zaggia, S.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Collet, R.; Asplund, M.; Ventura, P.; D'Antona, F.; Meléndez, J.; D'Ercole, A.
2014-12-01
Context. The study of chemical abundance patterns in globular clusters is key importance to constraining the different candidates for intracluster pollution of light elements. Aims: We aim at deriving accurate abundances for a wide range of elements in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) to add new constraints to the pollution scenarios for this particular cluster, expanding the range of previously derived element abundances. Methods: Using tailored 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) atmospheric models, together with a combination of equivalent width measurements, LTE, and NLTE synthesis, we derive stellar parameters and element abundances from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 13 red giant stars near the tip of the RGB. Results: We derive abundances of a total 27 elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Dy). Departures from LTE were taken into account for Na, Al, and Ba. We find a mean [Fe/H] = -0.78 ± 0.07 and [ α/ Fe ] = 0.34 ± 0.03 in good agreement with previous studies. The remaining elements show good agreement with the literature, but including NLTE for Al has a significant impact on the behavior of this key element. Conclusions: We confirm the presence of an Na-O anti-correlation in 47 Tucanae found by several other works. Our NLTE analysis of Al shifts the [Al/Fe] to lower values, indicating that this may be overestimated in earlier works. No evidence of an intrinsic variation is found in any of the remaining elements. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Programmes 084.B-0810 and 086.B-0237).Full Tables 2, 5, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A108Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Measurement of drill grinding parameters using laser sensor
Yanping, Peng; Kumehara, Hiroyuki; Wei, Zhang; Nomura, Takashi
2005-12-01
To measure the grinding parameters and geometry parameters accurately for a drill point is essential to its design and reconditioning. In recent years, a number of non-contact coordinate measuring apparatuses, using CCD camera or laser sensors, are developed. But, a lot work is to be done for further improvement. This paper reports another kind of laser coordinate meter. As an example of its application, the method for geometry inspection of the drill flank surface is detailed. Measured data from laser scanning on the flank surface around some points with several 2-dimensional curves are analyzed with mathematical procedure. If one of these curves turns to be a straight line, it must be the generatrix of the grinding cone. Thus, the grinding parameters are determined by a set of three generatrices. Then, the measurement method and data processing procedure are proposed. Its validity is assessed by measuring a sample with given parameters. The point geometry measured agrees well with the known values. In comparison with other methods in the published literature, it is simpler in computation and more accurate in results.
Evaluation of a TRU fundamental criterion and reference TRU waste units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klett, R.
1993-01-01
The comparison of two options for regulating transuranic (TRU) waste disposal is explained in this paper. The two options are (1) fundamental and derived standards developed specifically for the TRU waste and (2) a family of procedures that use a reference to the TRU waste unit with procedures that use a reference to the TRU waste unit with commercial high-level waste (HLW) criteria. Background information pertaining to both options is covered. A section on criteria specifically for TRUE waste suggests a methodology for developing or adapting fundamental and derived criteria that are consistent with all other aspects of the standards. The section on references TRU waste units covers all the parameter variations that have been suggested for this option. The technical bases of each approach is reviewed, implementation is discussed and their relative attributes and deficiencies are evaluated
Information security fundamentals
Peltier, Thomas R
2013-01-01
Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r
Mulholland, Henry
1968-01-01
Fundamentals of Statistics covers topics on the introduction, fundamentals, and science of statistics. The book discusses the collection, organization and representation of numerical data; elementary probability; the binomial Poisson distributions; and the measures of central tendency. The text describes measures of dispersion for measuring the spread of a distribution; continuous distributions for measuring on a continuous scale; the properties and use of normal distribution; and tests involving the normal or student's 't' distributions. The use of control charts for sample means; the ranges
Li, Yuankai; Ding, Liang; Zheng, Zhizhong; Yang, Qizhi; Zhao, Xingang; Liu, Guangjun
2018-05-01
For motion control of wheeled planetary rovers traversing on deformable terrain, real-time terrain parameter estimation is critical in modeling the wheel-terrain interaction and compensating the effect of wheel slipping. A multi-mode real-time estimation method is proposed in this paper to achieve accurate terrain parameter estimation. The proposed method is composed of an inner layer for real-time filtering and an outer layer for online update. In the inner layer, sinkage exponent and internal frictional angle, which have higher sensitivity than that of the other terrain parameters to wheel-terrain interaction forces, are estimated in real time by using an adaptive robust extended Kalman filter (AREKF), whereas the other parameters are fixed with nominal values. The inner layer result can help synthesize the current wheel-terrain contact forces with adequate precision, but has limited prediction capability for time-variable wheel slipping. To improve estimation accuracy of the result from the inner layer, an outer layer based on recursive Gauss-Newton (RGN) algorithm is introduced to refine the result of real-time filtering according to the innovation contained in the history data. With the two-layer structure, the proposed method can work in three fundamental estimation modes: EKF, REKF and RGN, making the method applicable for flat, rough and non-uniform terrains. Simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method under three terrain types, showing the advantages of introducing the two-layer structure.
Exploratory Study for Continuous-time Parameter Estimation of Ankle Dynamics
Kukreja, Sunil L.; Boyle, Richard D.
2014-01-01
Recently, a parallel pathway model to describe ankle dynamics was proposed. This model provides a relationship between ankle angle and net ankle torque as the sum of a linear and nonlinear contribution. A technique to identify parameters of this model in discrete-time has been developed. However, these parameters are a nonlinear combination of the continuous-time physiology, making insight into the underlying physiology impossible. The stable and accurate estimation of continuous-time parameters is critical for accurate disease modeling, clinical diagnosis, robotic control strategies, development of optimal exercise protocols for longterm space exploration, sports medicine, etc. This paper explores the development of a system identification technique to estimate the continuous-time parameters of ankle dynamics. The effectiveness of this approach is assessed via simulation of a continuous-time model of ankle dynamics with typical parameters found in clinical studies. The results show that although this technique improves estimates, it does not provide robust estimates of continuous-time parameters of ankle dynamics. Due to this we conclude that alternative modeling strategies and more advanced estimation techniques be considered for future work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guoqing An
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, stator current analysis used for detecting the incipient fault in squirrel cage motor has received much attention. However, in the case of interturn short circuit in stator, the traditional symmetrical component method has lost the precondition due to the harmonics and noise; the negative sequence component (NSC is hard to be obtained accurately. For broken rotor bars, the new added fault feature blanked by fundamental component is also difficult to be discriminated in the current spectrum. To solve the above problems, a fundamental component extraction (FCE method is proposed in this paper. On one hand, via the antisynchronous speed coordinate (ASC transformation, NSC of extracted signals is transformed into the DC value. The amplitude of synthetic vector of NSC is used to evaluate the severity of stator fault. On the other hand, the extracted fundamental component can be filtered out to make the rotor fault feature emerge from the stator current spectrum. Experiment results indicate that this method is feasible and effective in both interturn short circuit and broken rotor bars fault diagnosis. Furthermore, only stator currents and voltage frequency are needed to be recorded, and this method is easy to implement.
Stability of rigid rotors supported by air foil bearings: Comparison of two fundamental approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jon Steffen; Santos, Ilmar; von Osmanski, Alexander Sebastian
2016-01-01
. This paper compares two fundamental methods for predicting the OSI. One is based on a nonlinear time domain simulation and another is based on a linearised frequency domain method and a perturbation of the Reynolds equation. Both methods are based on equivalent models and should predict similar results......High speed direct drive motors enable the use of Air Foil Bearings (AFB) in a wide range of applications due to the elimination of gear forces. Unfortunately, AFB supported rotors are lightly damped, and an accurate prediction of their Onset Speed of Instability (OSI) is therefore important...
Infosec management fundamentals
Dalziel, Henry
2015-01-01
Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi
Fundamentals of machine elements SI version
Schmid, Steven R; Jacobson, Bo O
2014-01-01
Part I - FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Design?Design of Mechanical SystemsDesign as a Multidisciplinary EndeavorDesign of Machine ElementsComputers in DesignCatalogs and VendorsUnitsUnit ChecksSignificant FiguresSummaryLoad, Stress, and StrainIntroductionCritical SectionLoad Classification and Sign ConventionSupport ReactionsStatic EquilibriumFree-Body DiagramSupported BeamsShear and Moment DiagramsStressStress ElementStress TensorPlane StressMohr's CircleThree-Dimensional StressesOctahedral StressesStrainStrain TensorPlane StrainSummaryIntroduction to Materials and ManufacturingIntroductionDuctile and Brittle MaterialsClassification of Solid MaterialsStress-Strain DiagramsProperties of Solid MaterialsStress-Strain RelationshipsTwo-Parameter Materials ChartsEffects of ManufacturingSummaryStresses and StrainsIntroductionProperties of Beam Cross SectionsNormal Stress and StrainTorsionBending Stress and StrainTransverse Shear Stress and StrainSummaryDeformationIntroductionMoment-Curvature RelationSingularity F...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradhan, T.
1975-01-01
The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)
Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)
1995-12-01
The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.
Structural observability analysis and EKF based parameter estimation of building heating models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.W.U. Perera
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Research for enhanced energy-efficient buildings has been given much recognition in the recent years owing to their high energy consumptions. Increasing energy needs can be precisely controlled by practicing advanced controllers for building Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. Advanced controllers require a mathematical building heating model to operate, and these models need to be accurate and computationally efficient. One main concern associated with such models is the accurate estimation of the unknown model parameters. This paper presents the feasibility of implementing a simplified building heating model and the computation of physical parameters using an off-line approach. Structural observability analysis is conducted using graph-theoretic techniques to analyze the observability of the developed system model. Then Extended Kalman Filter (EKF algorithm is utilized for parameter estimates using the real measurements of a single-zone building. The simulation-based results confirm that even with a simple model, the EKF follows the state variables accurately. The predicted parameters vary depending on the inputs and disturbances.
Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots
Schiele, A.
2008-01-01
This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a new theoretical framework for analyzing physical human robot interaction (pHRI) with exoskeletons, and (2) a clear set of design rules of how to build wearable, portable exoskeletons to easily and...
Communication technology update and fundamentals
Grant, August E
2010-01-01
New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha
Model comparisons and genetic and environmental parameter ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
arc
Model comparisons and genetic and environmental parameter estimates of growth and the ... breeding strategies and for accurate breeding value estimation. The objectives ...... Sci. 23, 72-76. Van Wyk, J.B., Fair, M.D. & Cloete, S.W.P., 2003.
Harb, Moussab
2016-03-08
The author retracts this article due to similarities with a previously published article by Le Bahers, T.; Rerat, M.; Sautet, ́ P. Semiconductors Used in Photovoltaic and Photocatalytic Devices: Assessing Fundamental Properties from DFT. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118 (12), 5997−6008 (DOI: 10.1021/jp409724c).
Individual differences in fundamental social motives.
Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L
2016-06-01
Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Teaching the Politics of Islamic Fundamentalism.
Kazemzadeh, Masoud
1998-01-01
Argues that the rise of Islamic fundamentalism since the Iranian Revolution has generated a number of issues of analytical significance for political science. Describes three main models in teaching and research on Islamic fundamentalism: Islamic exceptionalism, comparative fundamentalisms, and class analysis. Discusses the construction of a…
Fundamental principles of heat transfer
Whitaker, Stephen
1977-01-01
Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int
Running vacuum in the Universe and the time variation of the fundamental constants of Nature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fritzsch, Harald [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Munich (Germany); Sola, Joan [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona (ICCUB), Institute of Cosmos Sciences, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Dept. de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2017-03-15
We compute the time variation of the fundamental constants (such as the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass, the strong coupling constant, the fine-structure constant and Newton's constant) within the context of the so-called running vacuum models (RVMs) of the cosmic evolution. Recently, compelling evidence has been provided that these models are able to fit the main cosmological data (SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB) significantly better than the concordance ΛCDM model. Specifically, the vacuum parameters of the RVM (i.e. those responsible for the dynamics of the vacuum energy) prove to be nonzero at a confidence level >or similar 3σ. Here we use such remarkable status of the RVMs to make definite predictions on the cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. It turns out that the predicted variations are close to the present observational limits. Furthermore, we find that the time evolution of the dark matter particle masses should be crucially involved in the total mass variation of our Universe. A positive measurement of this kind of effects could be interpreted as strong support to the ''micro-macro connection'' (viz. the dynamical feedback between the evolution of the cosmological parameters and the time variation of the fundamental constants of the microscopic world), previously proposed by two of us (HF and JS). (orig.)
Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan
2007-01-01
Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.
An accurate solver for forward and inverse transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monard, Francois; Bal, Guillaume
2010-01-01
This paper presents a robust and accurate way to solve steady-state linear transport (radiative transfer) equations numerically. Our main objective is to address the inverse transport problem, in which the optical parameters of a domain of interest are reconstructed from measurements performed at the domain's boundary. This inverse problem has important applications in medical and geophysical imaging, and more generally in any field involving high frequency waves or particles propagating in scattering environments. Stable solutions of the inverse transport problem require that the singularities of the measurement operator, which maps the optical parameters to the available measurements, be captured with sufficient accuracy. This in turn requires that the free propagation of particles be calculated with care, which is a difficult problem on a Cartesian grid. A standard discrete ordinates method is used for the direction of propagation of the particles. Our methodology to address spatial discretization is based on rotating the computational domain so that each direction of propagation is always aligned with one of the grid axes. Rotations are performed in the Fourier domain to achieve spectral accuracy. The numerical dispersion of the propagating particles is therefore minimal. As a result, the ballistic and single scattering components of the transport solution are calculated robustly and accurately. Physical blurring effects, such as small angular diffusion, are also incorporated into the numerical tool. Forward and inverse calculations performed in a two-dimensional setting exemplify the capabilities of the method. Although the methodology might not be the fastest way to solve transport equations, its physical accuracy provides us with a numerical tool to assess what can and cannot be reconstructed in inverse transport theory.
Fundamental Constants in Physics and their Time Dependence
CERN. Geneva
2008-01-01
In the Standard Model of Particle Physics we are dealing with 28 fundamental constants. In the experiments these constants can be measured, but theoretically they are not understood. I will discuss these constants, which are mostly mass parameters. Astrophysical measurements indicate that the finestructure constant is not a real constant, but depends on time. Grand unification then implies also a time variation of the QCD scale. Thus the masses of the atomic nuclei and the magnetic moments of the nuclei will depend on time. I proposed an experiment, which is currently done by Prof. Haensch in Munich and his group. The first results indicate a time dependence of the QCD scale. I will discuss the theoretical implications.
Development of a setup to enable stable and accurate flow conditions for membrane biofouling studies
Bucs, Szilard; Farhat, Nadia; Siddiqui, Amber; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Radu, Andrea; Kruithof, Joop C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
2015-01-01
on membrane performance parameters such as feed channel pressure drop. There is a suite of available monitors to study biofouling, but systems to operate monitors have not been well designed to achieve an accurate, constant water flow required for a reliable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, P.C.
1985-12-01
The monthly average daily values of the extraterrestrial irradiation on a horizontal plane and the maximum possible sunshine duration are two important parameters that are frequently needed in various solar energy applications. These are generally calculated by solar scientists and engineers each time they are needed and often by using the approximate short-cut methods. Using the accurate analytical expressions developed by Spencer for the declination and the eccentricity correction factor, computations for these parameters have been made for all the latitude values from 90 deg. N to 90 deg. S at intervals of 1 deg. and are presented in a convenient tabular form. Monthly average daily values of the maximum possible sunshine duration as recorded on a Campbell Stoke's sunshine recorder are also computed and presented. These tables would avoid the need for repetitive and approximate calculations and serve as a useful ready reference for providing accurate values to the solar energy scientists and engineers
da Silveira, Christian L; Mazutti, Marcio A; Salau, Nina P G
2016-07-08
Process modeling can lead to of advantages such as helping in process control, reducing process costs and product quality improvement. This work proposes a solid-state fermentation distributed parameter model composed by seven differential equations with seventeen parameters to represent the process. Also, parameters estimation with a parameters identifyability analysis (PIA) is performed to build an accurate model with optimum parameters. Statistical tests were made to verify the model accuracy with the estimated parameters considering different assumptions. The results have shown that the model assuming substrate inhibition better represents the process. It was also shown that eight from the seventeen original model parameters were nonidentifiable and better results were obtained with the removal of these parameters from the estimation procedure. Therefore, PIA can be useful to estimation procedure, since it may reduce the number of parameters that can be evaluated. Further, PIA improved the model results, showing to be an important procedure to be taken. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:905-917, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Fundamentals of aircraft and rocket propulsion
El-Sayed, Ahmed F
2016-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive basics-to-advanced course in an aero-thermal science vital to the design of engines for either type of craft. The text classifies engines powering aircraft and single/multi-stage rockets, and derives performance parameters for both from basic aerodynamics and thermodynamics laws. Each type of engine is analyzed for optimum performance goals, and mission-appropriate engines selection is explained. Fundamentals of Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion provides information about and analyses of: thermodynamic cycles of shaft engines (piston, turboprop, turboshaft and propfan); jet engines (pulsejet, pulse detonation engine, ramjet, scramjet, turbojet and turbofan); chemical and non-chemical rocket engines; conceptual design of modular rocket engines (combustor, nozzle and turbopumps); and conceptual design of different modules of aero-engines in their design and off-design state. Aimed at graduate and final-year undergraduate students, this textbook provides a thorough grounding in th...
Fast and accurate algorithm for the computation of complex linear canonical transforms.
Koç, Aykut; Ozaktas, Haldun M; Hesselink, Lambertus
2010-09-01
A fast and accurate algorithm is developed for the numerical computation of the family of complex linear canonical transforms (CLCTs), which represent the input-output relationship of complex quadratic-phase systems. Allowing the linear canonical transform parameters to be complex numbers makes it possible to represent paraxial optical systems that involve complex parameters. These include lossy systems such as Gaussian apertures, Gaussian ducts, or complex graded-index media, as well as lossless thin lenses and sections of free space and any arbitrary combinations of them. Complex-ordered fractional Fourier transforms (CFRTs) are a special case of CLCTs, and therefore a fast and accurate algorithm to compute CFRTs is included as a special case of the presented algorithm. The algorithm is based on decomposition of an arbitrary CLCT matrix into real and complex chirp multiplications and Fourier transforms. The samples of the output are obtained from the samples of the input in approximately N log N time, where N is the number of input samples. A space-bandwidth product tracking formalism is developed to ensure that the number of samples is information-theoretically sufficient to reconstruct the continuous transform, but not unnecessarily redundant.
Parameter identification of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam
Ruzziconi, Laura; Younis, Mohammad I.; Lenci, Stefano
2013-01-01
In this study we consider a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and focus on extracting analytically the model parameters that describe its non-linear dynamic features accurately. The device consists of a clamped-clamped polysilicon microbeam
Country Fundamentals and Currency Excess Returns
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daehwan Kim
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We examine whether country fundamentals help explain the cross-section of currency excess returns. For this purpose, we consider fundamental variables such as default risk, foreign exchange rate regime, capital control as well as interest rate in the multi-factor model framework. Our empirical results show that fundamental factors explain a large part of the cross-section of currency excess returns. The zero-intercept restriction of the factor model is not rejected for most currencies. They also reveal that our factor model with country fundamentals performs better than a factor model with usual investment-style factors. Our main empirical results are based on 2001-2010 balanced panel data of 19 major currencies. This paper may fill the gap between country fundamentals and practitioners' strategies on currency investment.
Objective Voice Parameters in Colombian School Workers with Healthy Voices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lady Catherine Cantor Cutiva
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the objective voice parameters among school workers, and to identify associated factors of three objective voice parameters, namely fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and maximum phonation time. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 116 Colombian teachers and 20 Colombian non-teachers. After signing the informed consent form, participants filled out a questionnaire. Then, a voice sample was recorded and evaluated perceptually by a speech therapist and by objective voice analysis with praat software. Short-term environmental measurements of sound level, temperature, humidity, and reverberation time were conducted during visits at the workplaces, such as classrooms and offices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between individual and work-related factors and objective voice parameters. Results: Compared with men, women had higher fundamental frequency (201 Hz for teachers and 209 for non-teachers vs. 120 Hz for teachers and 127 for non-teachers and sound pressure level (82 dB vs. 80 dB, and shorter maximum phonation time (around 14 seconds vs. around 16 seconds. Female teachers younger than 50 years of age evidenced a significant tendency to speak with lower fundamental frequency and shorter mpt compared with female teachers older than 50 years of age. Female teachers had significantly higher fundamental frequency (66 Hz, higher sound pressure level (2 dB and short phonation time (2 seconds than male teachers. Conclusion: Female teachers younger than 50 years of age had significantly lower F0 and shorter mpt compared with those older than 50 years of age. The multivariate analysis showed that gender was a much more important determinant of variations in F0, spl and mpt than age and teaching occupation. Objectively measured temperature also contributed to the changes on spl among school workers.
Religious fundamentalism and conflict
Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz
2006-01-01
This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...
Levin, Alan R.; Zhang, Deyin; Polizzi, Eric
2012-11-01
In a recent article Polizzi (2009) [15], the FEAST algorithm has been presented as a general purpose eigenvalue solver which is ideally suited for addressing the numerical challenges in electronic structure calculations. Here, FEAST is presented beyond the “black-box” solver as a fundamental modeling framework which can naturally address the original numerical complexity of the electronic structure problem as formulated by Slater in 1937 [3]. The non-linear eigenvalue problem arising from the muffin-tin decomposition of the real-space domain is first derived and then reformulated to be solved exactly within the FEAST framework. This new framework is presented as a fundamental and practical solution for performing both accurate and scalable electronic structure calculations, bypassing the various issues of using traditional approaches such as linearization and pseudopotential techniques. A finite element implementation of this FEAST framework along with simulation results for various molecular systems is also presented and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utsumi, Takayuki; Sasaki, Akira
2000-02-01
The procedures of grasp92 code to calculate accurate (relative error nearly equal 10 -7 ) eigenvalue for the ground sate of helium atom of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian are presented. The grasp92 code, based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method, is widely used to calculate the atomic properties. However, the main part of the accurate calculations, extended optimal level calculation (EOL), suffer frequently numerical instabilities due to the lack of the confident procedures. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the guideline for stable EOL calculations by calculating the most fundamental atomic system, i.e. the ground sate of helium atom ls 2 1 S 2 . This procedure could be extended for the high-precise eigenfunction calculation of more complex atomic systems, for example highly ionized atoms and high-Z atoms. (author)
Astrophysical parameters of ten poorly studied open star clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tadross, Ashraf Latif; El-Bendary, Reda; Osman, Anas; Ismail, Nader; Bakry, Abdel Aziz
2012-01-01
We present the fundamental parameters of ten open star clusters, nominated from Kronberger et al. who presented some newly discovered stellar groups on the basis of the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry and Digitized Sky Survey visual images. Star counts and photometric parameters (radius, membership, distance, color excess, age, luminosity function, mass function, total mass, and dynamical relaxation time) have been determined for these ten clusters for the first time. In order to calibrate our procedures, the main parameters (distance, age, and color excess) have been re-estimated for another five clusters, which are also studied by Kronberger et al. (research papers)
Planck intermediate results. XXIV. Constraints on variation of fundamental constants
Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Dore, O.; Dupac, X.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Uzan, J.P.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2015-01-01
Any variation of the fundamental physical constants, and more particularly of the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$, or of the mass of the electron, $m_e$, would affect the recombination history of the Universe and cause an imprint on the cosmic microwave background angular power spectra. We show that the Planck data allow one to improve the constraint on the time variation of the fine structure constant at redshift $z\\sim 10^3$ by about a factor of 5 compared to WMAP data, as well as to break the degeneracy with the Hubble constant, $H_0$. In addition to $\\alpha$, we can set a constraint on the variation of the mass of the electron, $m_{\\rm e}$, and on the simultaneous variation of the two constants. We examine in detail the degeneracies between fundamental constants and the cosmological parameters, in order to compare the limits obtained from Planck and WMAP and to determine the constraining power gained by including other cosmological probes. We conclude that independent time variations of the fine structu...
Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis : SPA Convention and Project
Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Allanach, Benjamin C; Arnowitt, R; Baer, H A; Bagger, J A; Balázs, C; Barger, V; Barnett, M; Bartl, Alfred; Battaglia, M; Bechtle, P; Belyaev, A; Berger, E L; Blair, G; Boos, E; Bélanger, G; Carena, M S; Choi, S Y; Deppisch, F; Desch, Klaus; Djouadi, A; Dutta, B; Dutta, S; Díaz, M A; Eberl, H; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Erler, Jens; Fraas, H; Freitas, A; Fritzsche, T; Godbole, Rohini M; Gounaris, George J; Guasch, J; Gunion, J F; Haba, N; Haber, Howard E; Hagiwara, K; Han, L; Han, T; He, H J; Heinemeyer, S; Hesselbach, S; Hidaka, K; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirsch, M; Hohenwarter-Sodek, K; Hollik, W; Hou, W S; Hurth, Tobias; Jack, I; Jiang, Y; Jones, D R T; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamon, T; Kane, G; Kang, S K; Kernreiter, T; Kilian, W; Kim, C S; King, S F; Kittel, O; Klasen, M; Kneur, J L; Kovarik, K; Kraml, Sabine; Krämer, M; Lafaye, R; Langacker, P; Logan, H E; Ma, W G; Majerotto, Walter; Martyn, H U; Matchev, K; Miller, D J; Mondragon, M; Moortgat-Pick, G; Moretti, S; Mori, T; Moultaka, G; Muanza, S; Mukhopadhyaya, B; Mühlleitner, M M; Nauenberg, U; Nojiri, M M; Nomura, D; Nowak, H; Okada, N; Olive, Keith A; Oller, W; Peskin, M; Plehn, T; Polesello, G; Porod, Werner; Quevedo, Fernando; Rainwater, D L; Reuter, J; Richardson, P; Rolbiecki, K; de Roeck, A; Weber, Ch.
2006-01-01
High-precision analyses of supersymmetry parameters aim at reconstructing the fundamental supersymmetric theory and its breaking mechanism. A well defined theoretical framework is needed when higher-order corrections are included. We propose such a scheme, Supersymmetry Parameter Analysis SPA, based on a consistent set of conventions and input parameters. A repository for computer programs is provided which connect parameters in different schemes and relate the Lagrangian parameters to physical observables at LHC and high energy e+e- linear collider experiments, i.e., masses, mixings, decay widths and production cross sections for supersymmetric particles. In addition, programs for calculating high-precision low energy observables, the density of cold dark matter (CDM) in the universe as well as the cross sections for CDM search experiments are included. The SPA scheme still requires extended efforts on both the theoretical and experimental side before data can be evaluated in the future at the level of the d...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avelino, P.P., E-mail: ppavelin@fc.up.pt [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Losano, L., E-mail: losano@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Menezes, R., E-mail: rmenezes@dce.ufpb.br [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.R.E., E-mail: jespain@fe.up.pt [Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Fisica da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)
2012-10-31
We assess the viability of successful reconstruction of the evolution of the dark energy equation of state using varying fundamental couplings, such as the fine structure constant or the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We show that the same evolution of the dark energy equation of state parameter with cosmic time may be associated with arbitrary variations of the fundamental couplings. Various examples of models with the same (different) background evolution and different (the same) time variation of fundamental couplings are studied in the Letter. Although we demonstrate that, for a broad family of models, it is possible to redefine the scalar field in such a way that its dynamics is that of a standard quintessence scalar field, in general such redefinition leads to the breakdown of the linear relation between the scalar field and the variation of fundamental couplings. This implies that the assumption of a linear coupling is not sufficient to guarantee a successful reconstruction of the dark energy dynamics and consequently additional model dependent assumptions about the scalar field responsible for the dark energy need to be made.
Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita
2007-01-01
This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...
Fundamental volatility is regime specific
Arnold, I.J.M.; MacDonald, R.; Vries, de C.G.
2006-01-01
A widely held notion holds that freely floating exchange rates are excessively volatile when judged against fundamentals and when moving from fixed to floating exchange rates. We re-examine the data and conclude that the disparity between the fundamentals and exchange rate volatility is more
Allele-sharing models: LOD scores and accurate linkage tests.
Kong, A; Cox, N J
1997-11-01
Starting with a test statistic for linkage analysis based on allele sharing, we propose an associated one-parameter model. Under general missing-data patterns, this model allows exact calculation of likelihood ratios and LOD scores and has been implemented by a simple modification of existing software. Most important, accurate linkage tests can be performed. Using an example, we show that some previously suggested approaches to handling less than perfectly informative data can be unacceptably conservative. Situations in which this model may not perform well are discussed, and an alternative model that requires additional computations is suggested.
Some Fundamental Limits on SAW RFID Tag Information Capacity and Collision Resolution
Barton, Richard J.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we apply results from multi-user information theory to study the limits of information capacity and collision resolution for SAW RFID tags. In particular, we derive bounds on the achievable data rate per tag as a function of fundamental parameters such as tag time-bandwidth product, tag signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and number of tags in the environment. We also discuss the implications of these bounds for tag waveform design and tag interrogation efficiency
Parameter estimation and inverse problems
Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H
2005-01-01
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...
A new method to estimate heat source parameters in gas metal arc welding simulation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Xiaolei; Xu, Jie; Liu, Zhaoheng; Huang, Shaojie; Fan, Yu; Sun, Zhi
2014-01-01
Highlights: •A new method for accurate simulation of heat source parameters was presented. •The partial least-squares regression analysis was recommended in the method. •The welding experiment results verified accuracy of the proposed method. -- Abstract: Heat source parameters were usually recommended by experience in welding simulation process, which induced error in simulation results (e.g. temperature distribution and residual stress). In this paper, a new method was developed to accurately estimate heat source parameters in welding simulation. In order to reduce the simulation complexity, a sensitivity analysis of heat source parameters was carried out. The relationships between heat source parameters and welding pool characteristics (fusion width (W), penetration depth (D) and peak temperature (T p )) were obtained with both the multiple regression analysis (MRA) and the partial least-squares regression analysis (PLSRA). Different regression models were employed in each regression method. Comparisons of both methods were performed. A welding experiment was carried out to verify the method. The results showed that both the MRA and the PLSRA were feasible and accurate for prediction of heat source parameters in welding simulation. However, the PLSRA was recommended for its advantages of requiring less simulation data
Parameter space of experimental chaotic circuits with high-precision control parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sousa, Francisco F. G. de; Rubinger, Rero M. [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Sartorelli, José C., E-mail: sartorelli@if.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Holokx A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Joinville, SC (Brazil); Baptista, Murilo S. [Institute of Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology, SUPA, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)
2016-08-15
We report high-resolution measurements that experimentally confirm a spiral cascade structure and a scaling relationship of shrimps in the Chua's circuit. Circuits constructed using this component allow for a comprehensive characterization of the circuit behaviors through high resolution parameter spaces. To illustrate the power of our technological development for the creation and the study of chaotic circuits, we constructed a Chua circuit and study its high resolution parameter space. The reliability and stability of the designed component allowed us to obtain data for long periods of time (∼21 weeks), a data set from which an accurate estimation of Lyapunov exponents for the circuit characterization was possible. Moreover, this data, rigorously characterized by the Lyapunov exponents, allows us to reassure experimentally that the shrimps, stable islands embedded in a domain of chaos in the parameter spaces, can be observed in the laboratory. Finally, we confirm that their sizes decay exponentially with the period of the attractor, a result expected to be found in maps of the quadratic family.
Glass-forming liquids: one or more "order" parameters"
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bailey, Nicholas; Christensen, Tage Emil; Jakobsen, Bo
2008-01-01
We first summarize the classical arguments that the vast majority of glass-forming liquids require more than one ‘order' parameter for their description. Critiques against this conventional wisdom are then presented, and it is argued that the matter deserves to be reconsidered in the light...... that a description with a single "order" parameter applies to a good approximation whenever thermal equilibrium fluctuations of fundamental variables like energy and pressure are strongly correlated. Results from computer simulations showing that this is the case for a number of simple glass-forming liquids, as well...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yousaf, Masood; Dalhatu, S.A.; Murtaza, G.; Khenata, R.; Sajjad, M.; Musa, A.; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.A.; Saeed, M.A.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Highly accurate all-electron FP-LAPW+lo method is used. • New physical parameters are reported, important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. • A comparative study that involves FP-LAPW+lo method and modified approximations. • Computed band gap values have good agreement with the experimental values. • Optoelectronic results of fundamental importance can be utilized for the fabrication of devices. - Abstract: We report the structural, electronic and optical properties of the thiospinels XIn 2 S 4 (X = Cd, Mg), using highly accurate all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. In order to calculate the exchange and correlation energies, the method is coupled with modified techniques such as GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, which yield improved results as compared to the previous studies. GGA+SOC approximation is also used for the first time on these compounds to examine the spin orbit coupling effect on the band structure. From the analysis of the structural parameters, robust character is predicted for both materials. Energy band structures profiles are fairly the same for GGA, GGA+SOC, GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, confirming the indirect and direct band gap nature of CdIn 2 S 4 and MgIn 2 S 4 materials, respectively. We report the trend of band gap results as: (mBJ-GGA) > (GGA+U) > (GGA) > (GGA+SOC). Localized regions appearing in the valence bands for CdIn 2 S 4 tend to split up nearly by ≈1 eV in the case of GGA+SOC. Many new physical parameters are reported that can be important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Optical spectra namely, dielectric function (DF), refractive index n(ω), extinction coefficient k(ω), reflectivity R(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), absorption coefficient α(ω) and electron loss function are discussed. Optical’s absorption edge is noted to be 1.401 and 1.782 for CdIn 2 S 4 and MgIn 2 S 4 , respectively. The prominent peaks in the electron energy spectrum
Bayesian Parameter Estimation for Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, Eric; Konan, Arnaud; Duran, Adam
2017-03-28
Accurate vehicle parameters are valuable for design, modeling, and reporting. Estimating vehicle parameters can be a very time-consuming process requiring tightly-controlled experimentation. This work describes a method to estimate vehicle parameters such as mass, coefficient of drag/frontal area, and rolling resistance using data logged during standard vehicle operation. The method uses Monte Carlo to generate parameter sets which is fed to a variant of the road load equation. Modeled road load is then compared to measured load to evaluate the probability of the parameter set. Acceptance of a proposed parameter set is determined using the probability ratio to the current state, so that the chain history will give a distribution of parameter sets. Compared to a single value, a distribution of possible values provides information on the quality of estimates and the range of possible parameter values. The method is demonstrated by estimating dynamometer parameters. Results confirm the method's ability to estimate reasonable parameter sets, and indicates an opportunity to increase the certainty of estimates through careful selection or generation of the test drive cycle.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy fundamentals and applications
Noll, Reinhard
2012-01-01
This book is a comprehensive source of the fundamentals, process parameters, instrumental components and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The effect of multiple pulses on material ablation, plasma dynamics and plasma emission is presented. A heuristic plasma modeling allows to simulate complex experimental plasma spectra. These methods and findings form the basis for a variety of applications to perform quantitative multi-element analysis with LIBS. These application potentials of LIBS have really boosted in the last years ranging from bulk analysis of metallic alloys and non-conducting materials, via spatially resolved analysis and depth profiling covering measuring objects in all physical states: gaseous, liquid and solid. Dedicated chapters present LIBS investigations for these tasks with special emphasis on the methodical and instrumental concepts as well as the optimization strategies for a quantitative analysis. Requirements, concepts, design and characteristic features of LI...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viais J, J.
1994-01-01
Kinetic parameters for dynamic study of two different configurations, 8 and 9, both with standard fuel, 20% enrichment and Flip (Fuel Life Improvement Program with 70% enrichment) fuel, for TRIGA Mark-III reactor from Mexico Nuclear Center, are obtained. A calculation method using both WIMS-D4 and DTF-IV and DAC1 was established, to decide which of those two configurations has the best safety and operational conditions. Validation of this methodology is done by calculate those parameters for a reactor core with new standard fuel. Configuration 9 is recommended to be use. (Author)
Holstein, Barry R.
2009-10-01
In the 77 years since its discovery by Chadwick in 1932, the neutron has come to play an increasingly important role in contemporary physics. As the next to lightest baryon, it is, of course, one of the two primary components of the atomic nucleus and studies of isotopes (nuclei with varying numbers of neutrons but the same proton number) and of the neutron drip line are one of the important focuses of the recently approved radioactive beam machine to be built at Michigan State University. Precise knowledge of its ~900 second lifetime is crucial to determination of the time at which nucleosynthesis occurs in the early universe. Because it is electrically neutral, the neutron can penetrate the atomic cloud and neutron scattering has become a powerful tool in the study of the structure of materials in condensed matter and biophysics. These are all important issues, but will not be addressed in the articles presented below. Rather, in the set of manuscripts published herein, we show various ways in which the neutron has come to probe fundamental questions in physics. We present six such articles: Because of its simple structure, neutron beta decay has served as a laboratory for the study of possible symmetry violations, including search for possible Script T-violation via measurement of the D coefficient, search for second class currents and/or possible CVC violation via examination of recoil terms, search for right-handed currents via examination of correlations, search for S, T couplings via measurement of the b parameter, etc. The study of neutron decay is reviewed in the article by Jeff Nico. The use of the neutron as a probe of possible Script T-violation via the existence of a non-zero electric dipole moment is discussed in the article by Steve Lamoreaux. The neutron is a prime player in the experimental study of hadronic parity violation, via experiments involving radiative capture and spin rotation, as examined in the article by Barry Holstein. Because of its
How Accurately can we Calculate Thermal Systems?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cullen, D; Blomquist, R N; Dean, C; Heinrichs, D; Kalugin, M A; Lee, M; Lee, Y; MacFarlan, R; Nagaya, Y; Trkov, A
2004-01-01
I would like to determine how accurately a variety of neutron transport code packages (code and cross section libraries) can calculate simple integral parameters, such as K eff , for systems that are sensitive to thermal neutron scattering. Since we will only consider theoretical systems, we cannot really determine absolute accuracy compared to any real system. Therefore rather than accuracy, it would be more precise to say that I would like to determine the spread in answers that we obtain from a variety of code packages. This spread should serve as an excellent indicator of how accurately we can really model and calculate such systems today. Hopefully, eventually this will lead to improvements in both our codes and the thermal scattering models that they use in the future. In order to accomplish this I propose a number of extremely simple systems that involve thermal neutron scattering that can be easily modeled and calculated by a variety of neutron transport codes. These are theoretical systems designed to emphasize the effects of thermal scattering, since that is what we are interested in studying. I have attempted to keep these systems very simple, and yet at the same time they include most, if not all, of the important thermal scattering effects encountered in a large, water-moderated, uranium fueled thermal system, i.e., our typical thermal reactors
Can temporal fine structure represent the fundamental frequency of unresolved harmonics?
Oxenham, Andrew J; Micheyl, Christophe; Keebler, Michael V
2009-04-01
At least two modes of pitch perception exist: in one, the fundamental frequency (F0) of harmonic complex tones is estimated using the temporal fine structure (TFS) of individual low-order resolved harmonics; in the other, F0 is derived from the temporal envelope of high-order unresolved harmonics that interact in the auditory periphery. Pitch is typically more accurate in the former than in the latter mode. Another possibility is that pitch can sometimes be coded via the TFS from unresolved harmonics. A recent study supporting this third possibility [Moore et al. (2006a). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 480-490] based its conclusion on a condition where phase interaction effects (implying unresolved harmonics) accompanied accurate F0 discrimination (implying TFS processing). The present study tests whether these results were influenced by audible distortion products. Experiment 1 replicated the original results, obtained using a low-level background noise. However, experiments 2-4 found no evidence for the use of TFS cues with unresolved harmonics when the background noise level was raised, or the stimulus level was lowered, to render distortion inaudible. Experiment 5 measured the presence and phase dependence of audible distortion products. The results provide no evidence that TFS cues are used to code the F0 of unresolved harmonics.
Fundamental number theory with applications
Mollin, Richard A
2008-01-01
An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory Expa
Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.
2013-01-01
We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case
Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kinney, William H.
2013-05-01
We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Burhaneddin İzgi
2017-03-01
under the invariant criteria. We obtain transformations between Ho-Lee model with the corresponding linear (1 + 1 partial differential equation and the first Lie canonical form which is identical to the classical heat equation. These transformations help us to generate the fundamental solution for the Ho-Lee model with respect to the fundamental solution of the classical heat equation sense. Moreover, as a financial application of the Ho-Lee model, we choose the drift term from power functions and perform simulations via Milstein method. Furthermore, we obtain important results for the parameter calibration of the corresponding drift term by using the simulation results.
Fundamental aspects affecting the return on investment from solar power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cintula, B.; Viglas, D.
2012-01-01
The article deals with fundamental parameters of solar cells-conversion efficiency of solar radiation into electricity and price of solar cells. These two aspects affect each other, so it is important to deal with both at once. In introduction are described the theoretical solutions about efficiency analysis. Furthermore the article is focused on a description of materials used in the photovoltaic cells. In addition, the article shows the price trend of photovoltaic cells for the last year. Finally, these two aspects are evaluated for return on investment in photovoltaic power plants. (Authors)
Fundamentals of structural dynamics
Craig, Roy R
2006-01-01
From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e
Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Cosmological parameters
Di Valentino, E.; Brinckmann, T.; Gerbino, M.; Poulin, V.; Bouchet, F. R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Melchiorri, A.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Delabrouille, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Hooper, D. C.; Lattanzi, M.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Salvati, L.; Cabass, G.; Caputo, A.; Giusarma, E.; Hivon, E.; Natoli, P.; Pagano, L.; Paradiso, S.; Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Achúcarro, A.; Ade, P.; Allison, R.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartolo, N.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Baumann, D.; de Bernardis, P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C. S.; Castellano, G.; Challinor, A.; Charles, I.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; D'Alessandro, G.; De Petris, M.; De Zotti, G.; Diego, J. M.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Finelli, F.; de Gasperis, G.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hazra, D. K.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hervias-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kitching, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Martin, S.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McCarthy, D.; Melin, J.-B.; Mohr, J. J.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Quartin, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Roman, M.; Ringeval, C.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Väliviita, J.; van de Weygaert, R.; Van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vermeulen, G.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.
2018-04-01
We forecast the main cosmological parameter constraints achievable with the CORE space mission which is dedicated to mapping the polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). CORE was recently submitted in response to ESA's fifth call for medium-sized mission proposals (M5). Here we report the results from our pre-submission study of the impact of various instrumental options, in particular the telescope size and sensitivity level, and review the great, transformative potential of the mission as proposed. Specifically, we assess the impact on a broad range of fundamental parameters of our Universe as a function of the expected CMB characteristics, with other papers in the series focusing on controlling astrophysical and instrumental residual systematics. In this paper, we assume that only a few central CORE frequency channels are usable for our purpose, all others being devoted to the cleaning of astrophysical contaminants. On the theoretical side, we assume ΛCDM as our general framework and quantify the improvement provided by CORE over the current constraints from the Planck 2015 release. We also study the joint sensitivity of CORE and of future Baryon Acoustic Oscillation and Large Scale Structure experiments like DESI and Euclid. Specific constraints on the physics of inflation are presented in another paper of the series. In addition to the six parameters of the base ΛCDM, which describe the matter content of a spatially flat universe with adiabatic and scalar primordial fluctuations from inflation, we derive the precision achievable on parameters like those describing curvature, neutrino physics, extra light relics, primordial helium abundance, dark matter annihilation, recombination physics, variation of fundamental constants, dark energy, modified gravity, reionization and cosmic birefringence. In addition to assessing the improvement on the precision of individual parameters, we also forecast the post-CORE overall reduction of the allowed
Fundamental study of droplet spray characteristics in photomask cleaning for advanced lithography
Lu, C. L.; Yu, C. H.; Liu, W. H.; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Lee, S. C.; Yen, Anthony; Lee, Gaston; Dress, Peter; Singh, Sherjang; Dietze, Uwe
2010-09-01
The fundamentals of droplet-based cleaning of photomasks are investigated and performance regimes that enable the use of binary spray technologies in advanced mask cleaning are identified. Using phase Doppler anemometry techniques, the effect of key performance parameters such as liquid and gas flow rates and temperature, nozzle design, and surface distance on droplet size, velocity, and distributions were studied. The data are correlated to particle removal efficiency (PRE) and feature damage results obtained on advanced photomasks for 193-nm immersion lithography.
MDL, Collineations and the Fundamental Matrix
Maybank , Steve; Sturm , Peter
1999-01-01
International audience; Scene geometry can be inferred from point correspondences between two images. The inference process includes the selection of a model. Four models are considered: background (or null), collineation, affine fundamental matrix and fundamental matrix. It is shown how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be used to compare the different models. The main result is that there is little reason for preferring the fundamental matrix model over the collineation model, even when ...
Virtual and composite fundamentals in the ERM
Knot, KHW; Sturm, JE
1999-01-01
A latent-variable approach is applied to identify the appropriate driving process for fundamental exchange rates in the ERM. From the time-series characteristics of so-called "virtual fundamentals" and "composite fundamentals", a significant degree of mean reversion can be asserted. The relative
The time-lapse AVO difference inversion for changes in reservoir parameters
Longxiao, Zhi; Hanming, Gu; Yan, Li
2016-12-01
The result of conventional time-lapse seismic processing is the difference between the amplitude and the post-stack seismic data. Although stack processing can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of seismic data, it also causes a considerable loss of important information about the amplitude changes and only gives the qualitative interpretation. To predict the changes in reservoir fluid more precisely and accurately, we also need the quantitative information of the reservoir. To achieve this aim, we develop the method of time-lapse AVO (amplitude versus offset) difference inversion. For the inversion of reservoir changes in elastic parameters, we apply the Gardner equation as the constraint and convert the three-parameter inversion of elastic parameter changes into a two-parameter inversion to make the inversion more stable. For the inversion of variations in the reservoir parameters, we infer the relation between the difference of the reflection coefficient and variations in the reservoir parameters, and then invert reservoir parameter changes directly. The results of the theoretical modeling computation and practical application show that our method can estimate the relative variations in reservoir density, P-wave and S-wave velocity, calculate reservoir changes in water saturation and effective pressure accurately, and then provide reference for the rational exploitation of the reservoir.
Extraction of the Susy and Higgs parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam-Bourdarios, Claire
2010-01-01
If supersymmetry is discovered by the next generation of collider experiments, it will be crucial to determine its fundamental high-scale parameters. Three scenarios have been recently investigated by the SFitter collaboration : the case where the LHC 'only' measures a light Higgs like signal, the case where SUSY signal are discovered at the LHC, and the dream scenario, where LHC and ILC measurements can be combined.
Sisakun, Siphan
2000-12-01
The purpose of this study is to explore the ability of four acoustic parameters, mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio, to detect vocal fatigue in student singers. The participants are 15 voice students, who perform two distinct tasks, data collection task and vocal fatiguing task. The data collection task includes the sustained vowel /a/, reading a standard passage, and self-rate on a vocal fatigue form. The vocal fatiguing task is the vocal practice of musical scores for a total of 45 minutes. The four acoustic parameters are extracted using the software EZVoicePlus. The data analyses are performed to answer eight research questions. The first four questions relate to correlations of the self-rating scale and each of the four parameters. The next four research questions relate to differences in the parameters over time using one-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result yields a proposed acoustic profile of vocal fatigue in student singers. This profile is characterized by increased fundamental frequency; slightly decreased jitter; slightly decreased shimmer; and slightly increased harmonics-to-noise ratio. The proposed profile requires further investigation.
Frohlich, Cliff
Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Fundamentals of continuum mechanics
Rudnicki, John W
2014-01-01
A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally. This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ
Buncher system parameter optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadlinger, E.A.
1981-01-01
A least-squares algorithm is presented to calculate the RF amplitudes and cavity spacings for a series of buncher cavities each resonating at a frequency that is a multiple of a fundamental frequency of interest. The longitudinal phase-space distribution, obtained by particle tracing through the bunching system, is compared to a desired distribution function of energy and phase. The buncher cavity parameters are adjusted to minimize the difference between these two distributions. Examples are given for zero space charge. The manner in which the method can be extended to include space charge using the 3-D space-charge calculation procedure is indicated
Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)
2015-07-01
Wind speed and direction, together with pressure, temperature, and relative humidity, are the most fundamental atmospheric state parameters. Accurate measurement of these parameters is crucial for numerical weather prediction. Vertically resolved wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer are particularly important for modeling pollutant and aerosol transport. Raw data from a scanning coherent Doppler lidar system can be processed to generate accurate height-resolved measurements of wind speed and direction in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Sensitivity analysis of physical/operational parameters in neutron multiplicity counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peerani, P.; Marin Ferrer, M.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we perform a sensitivity study on the influence of various physical and operational parameters on the results of neutron multiplicity counting. The purpose is to have a better understanding of the importance of each component and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Then we will be able to determine the optimal conditions for the operational parameters and for detector design and as well to point out weaknesses in the knowledge of critical fundamental nuclear data
Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals
Eccles, William
2011-01-01
Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi
Moessbauer spectroscopy and transition metal chemistry. Fundamentals and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guetlich, Philipp; Trautwein, Alfred X.
2011-01-01
Moessbauer spectroscopy is a profound analytical method which has nevertheless continued to develop. The authors now present a state-of-the art book which consists of two parts. The first part details the fundamentals of Moessbauer spectroscopy and is based on a book published in 1978 in the Springer series 'Inorganic Chemistry Concepts' by P. Guetlich, R. Link and A.X. Trautwein. The second part covers useful practical aspects of measurements, and the application of the techniques to many problems of materials characterization. The update includes the use of synchroton radiation and many instructive and illustrative examples in fields such as solid state chemistry, biology and physics, materials and the geosciences, as well as industrial applications. Special chapters on magnetic relaxation phenomena (S. Morup) and computation of hyperfine interaction parameters (F. Neese) are also included. An attached CD-ROM with more than 400 full-color PowerPoint images provides self-explanatory examples. The book concentrates on teaching the technique using theory as much as needed and as little as possible. The reader will learn the fundamentals of the technique and how to apply it to many problems of materials characterization. Transition metal chemistry, studied on the basis of the most widely used Moessbauer isotopes, is in the foreground. (orig.)
Machine learning of accurate energy-conserving molecular force fields
Chmiela, Stefan; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Sauceda, Huziel E.; Poltavsky, Igor; Schütt, Kristof T.; Müller, Klaus-Robert
2017-01-01
Using conservation of energy—a fundamental property of closed classical and quantum mechanical systems—we develop an efficient gradient-domain machine learning (GDML) approach to construct accurate molecular force fields using a restricted number of samples from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories. The GDML implementation is able to reproduce global potential energy surfaces of intermediate-sized molecules with an accuracy of 0.3 kcal mol−1 for energies and 1 kcal mol−1 Å̊−1 for atomic forces using only 1000 conformational geometries for training. We demonstrate this accuracy for AIMD trajectories of molecules, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, ethanol, uracil, and aspirin. The challenge of constructing conservative force fields is accomplished in our work by learning in a Hilbert space of vector-valued functions that obey the law of energy conservation. The GDML approach enables quantitative molecular dynamics simulations for molecules at a fraction of cost of explicit AIMD calculations, thereby allowing the construction of efficient force fields with the accuracy and transferability of high-level ab initio methods. PMID:28508076
Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties
Yu, Peter Y
2010-01-01
This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...
Determination of complex microcalorimeter parameters with impedance measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saab, T.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Lindeman, M.A.; Porter, F.S.; Sadleir, J.
2006-01-01
The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter's response requires accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, α. While a few of these parameters are directly determined from the IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and α, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The consideration of a complex microcalorimeter leads to an added ambiguity in the determination of the parameters. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter's complex impedance on these various parameters varies with frequency. This dependence allows us to determine individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to impedance data. In this paper we describe efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. With the parameters determined by this method, we compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predictions to data taken with the same devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kallinger, Thomas; Mosser, Benoit; Hekker, Saskia
2010-01-01
identify the mode degree and the characteristic frequency separations between consecutive modes of the same spherical degree. In most cases, we can also measure the small separation between l = 0, 1, and 2 modes. Subsequently, the seismic parameters are used to estimate stellar masses and radii...
Arithmetic fundamental groups and moduli of curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makoto Matsumoto
2000-01-01
This is a short note on the algebraic (or sometimes called arithmetic) fundamental groups of an algebraic variety, which connects classical fundamental groups with Galois groups of fields. A large part of this note describes the algebraic fundamental groups in a concrete manner. This note gives only a sketch of the fundamental groups of the algebraic stack of moduli of curves. Some application to a purely topological statement, i.e., an obstruction to the subjectivity of Johnson homomorphisms in the mapping class groups, which comes from Galois group of Q, is explained. (author)
Constant physics and characteristics of fundamental constant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarrach, R.
1998-01-01
We present some evidence which supports a surprising physical interpretation of the fundamental constants. First, we relate two of them through the renormalization group. This leaves as many fundamental constants as base units. Second, we introduce and a dimensional system of units without fundamental constants. Third, and most important, we find, while interpreting the units of the a dimensional system, that is all cases accessible to experimentation the fundamental constants indicate either discretization at small values or boundedness at large values of the corresponding physical quantity. (Author) 12 refs
Accurate and reproducible measurements of RhoA activation in small samples of primary cells.
Nini, Lylia; Dagnino, Lina
2010-03-01
Rho GTPase activation is essential in a wide variety of cellular processes. Measurement of Rho GTPase activation is difficult with limited material, such as tissues or primary cells that exhibit stringent culture requirements for growth and survival. We defined parameters to accurately and reproducibly measure RhoA activation (i.e., RhoA-GTP) in cultured primary keratinocytes in response to serum and growth factor stimulation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based G-LISA assays. We also established conditions that minimize RhoA-GTP in unstimulated cells without affecting viability, allowing accurate measurements of RhoA activation on stimulation or induction of exogenous GTPase expression. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fundamentals of successful monitoring, reporting, and verification under a cap-and-trade program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John Schakenbach; Robert Vollaro; Reynaldo Forte [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Washington, DC (United States)
2006-11-15
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed and implemented the Acid Rain Program (ARP), and NOx Budget Trading Programs (NBTP) using several fundamental monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) elements: (1) compliance assurance through incentives and automatic penalties; (2) strong quality assurance (QA); (3) collaborative approach with a petition process; (4) standardized electronic reporting; (5) compliance flexibility for low-emitting sources; (6) complete emissions data record required; (7) centralized administration; (8) level playing field; (9) publicly available data; (10) performance-based approach; and (11) reducing conflicts of interest. Each of these elements is discussed in the context of the authors' experience under two U.S. cap-and-trade programs and their potential application to other cap and-trade programs. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget found that the Acid Rain Program has accounted for the largest quantified human health benefits of any federal regulatory program implemented in the last 10 yr, with annual benefits exceeding costs by {gt} 40 to 1. The authors believe that the elements described in this paper greatly contributed to this success. EPA has used the ARP fundamental elements as a model for other cap-and-trade programs, including the NBTP, which went into effect in 2003, and the recently published Clean Air Interstate Rule and Clean Air Mercury Rule. The authors believe that using these fundamental elements to develop and implement the MRV portion of their cap-and-trade programs has resulted in public confidence in the programs, highly accurate and complete emissions data, and a high compliance rate. 2 refs.
Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications
Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang
2015-01-01
Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle
Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarczyński Waldemar
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, O; Cardenas, J; Valdes, M [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)
1994-12-31
The fundamental hematological parameters in peripheral blood of 2537 children from 409 Ukrainian localities were studied to evaluate the radiological impact produced by the accident. The hematological analyses were performed as part of the ordinary program of medical examination. The results were grouped taking into account the superficial contamination levels by {sup 137C}s of the zones where the infants came from.
Laverick, M.; Lobel, A.; Merle, T.; Royer, P.; Martayan, C.; David, M.; Hensberge, H.; Thienpont, E.
2018-04-01
Context. Fundamental atomic parameters, such as oscillator strengths, play a key role in modelling and understanding the chemical composition of stars in the Universe. Despite the significant work underway to produce these parameters for many astrophysically important ions, uncertainties in these parameters remain large and can propagate throughout the entire field of astronomy. Aims: The Belgian repository of fundamental atomic data and stellar spectra (BRASS) aims to provide the largest systematic and homogeneous quality assessment of atomic data to date in terms of wavelength, atomic and stellar parameter coverage. To prepare for it, we first compiled multiple literature occurrences of many individual atomic transitions, from several atomic databases of astrophysical interest, and assessed their agreement. In a second step synthetic spectra will be compared against extremely high-quality observed spectra, for a large number of BAFGK spectral type stars, in order to critically evaluate the atomic data of a large number of important stellar lines. Methods: Several atomic repositories were searched and their data retrieved and formatted in a consistent manner. Data entries from all repositories were cross-matched against our initial BRASS atomic line list to find multiple occurrences of the same transition. Where possible we used a new non-parametric cross-match depending only on electronic configurations and total angular momentum values. We also checked for duplicate entries of the same physical transition, within each retrieved repository, using the non-parametric cross-match. Results: We report on the number of cross-matched transitions for each repository and compare their fundamental atomic parameters. We find differences in log(gf) values of up to 2 dex or more. We also find and report that 2% of our line list and Vienna atomic line database retrievals are composed of duplicate transitions. Finally we provide a number of examples of atomic spectral lines
Simple, fast and accurate two-diode model for photovoltaic modules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishaque, Kashif; Salam, Zainal; Taheri, Hamed [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)
2011-02-15
This paper proposes an improved modeling approach for the two-diode model of photovoltaic (PV) module. The main contribution of this work is the simplification of the current equation, in which only four parameters are required, compared to six or more in the previously developed two-diode models. Furthermore the values of the series and parallel resistances are computed using a simple and fast iterative method. To validate the accuracy of the proposed model, six PV modules of different types (multi-crystalline, mono-crystalline and thin-film) from various manufacturers are tested. The performance of the model is evaluated against the popular single diode models. It is found that the proposed model is superior when subjected to irradiance and temperature variations. In particular the model matches very accurately for all important points of the I-V curves, i.e. the peak power, short-circuit current and open circuit voltage. The modeling method is useful for PV power converter designers and circuit simulator developers who require simple, fast yet accurate model for the PV module. (author)
Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2018-04-01
One of the most challenging problems in network science is to accurately detect communities at distinct hierarchical scales. Most existing methods are based on structural analysis and manipulation, which are NP-hard. We articulate an alternative, dynamical evolution-based approach to the problem. The basic principle is to computationally implement a nonlinear dynamical process on all nodes in the network with a general coupling scheme, creating a networked dynamical system. Under a proper system setting and with an adjustable control parameter, the community structure of the network would "come out" or emerge naturally from the dynamical evolution of the system. As the control parameter is systematically varied, the community hierarchies at different scales can be revealed. As a concrete example of this general principle, we exploit clustered synchronization as a dynamical mechanism through which the hierarchical community structure can be uncovered. In particular, for quite arbitrary choices of the nonlinear nodal dynamics and coupling scheme, decreasing the coupling parameter from the global synchronization regime, in which the dynamical states of all nodes are perfectly synchronized, can lead to a weaker type of synchronization organized as clusters. We demonstrate the existence of optimal choices of the coupling parameter for which the synchronization clusters encode accurate information about the hierarchical community structure of the network. We test and validate our method using a standard class of benchmark modular networks with two distinct hierarchies of communities and a number of empirical networks arising from the real world. Our method is computationally extremely efficient, eliminating completely the NP-hard difficulty associated with previous methods. The basic principle of exploiting dynamical evolution to uncover hidden community organizations at different scales represents a "game-change" type of approach to addressing the problem of community
Calculation of the well depth parameter to the nuclear potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.U.; Kim, Y.J.
1984-01-01
Well depth parameter S or range correction factor S-1 is computed for several nuclear potentials such as square, Gaussian, exponential and Yukawa wells. A simple central force is assumed for nuclear potential between nucleons. We adopted only two parameters for potentials and attempted to clarify the fundamental nature of the nuclear forces that bind a proton and a neutron into a deuteron. Results thus obtained were used for an estimate of first order correction to simple square well model. (Author)
Selection of noise parameters for Kalman filter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ka-Veng Yuen; Ka-In Hoi; Kai-Meng Mok
2007-01-01
The Bayesian probabilistic approach is proposed to estimate the process noise and measurement noise parameters for a Kalman filter. With state vectors and covariance matrices estimated by the Kalman filter, the likehood of the measurements can be constructed as a function of the process noise and measurement noise parameters. By maximizing the likklihood function with respect to these noise parameters, the optimal values can be obtained. Furthermore, the Bayesian probabilistic approach allows the associated uncertainty to be quantified. Examples using a single-degree-of-freedom system and a ten-story building illustrate the proposed method. The effect on the performance of the Kalman filter due to the selection of the process noise and measurement noise parameters was demonstrated. The optimal values of the noise parameters were found to be close to the actual values in the sense that the actual parameters were in the region with significant probability density. Through these examples, the Bayesian approach was shown to have the capability to provide accurate estimates of the noise parameters of the Kalman filter, and hence for state estimation.
Smith, Peter
2013-01-01
Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yousaf, Masood [Department of Physics, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Dalhatu, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Islamia College, Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Sajjad, M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Musa, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.A. [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeed, M.A., E-mail: saeed@utm.my [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)
2015-03-15
Highlights: • Highly accurate all-electron FP-LAPW+lo method is used. • New physical parameters are reported, important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. • A comparative study that involves FP-LAPW+lo method and modified approximations. • Computed band gap values have good agreement with the experimental values. • Optoelectronic results of fundamental importance can be utilized for the fabrication of devices. - Abstract: We report the structural, electronic and optical properties of the thiospinels XIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (X = Cd, Mg), using highly accurate all-electron full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method. In order to calculate the exchange and correlation energies, the method is coupled with modified techniques such as GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, which yield improved results as compared to the previous studies. GGA+SOC approximation is also used for the first time on these compounds to examine the spin orbit coupling effect on the band structure. From the analysis of the structural parameters, robust character is predicted for both materials. Energy band structures profiles are fairly the same for GGA, GGA+SOC, GGA+U and mBJ-GGA, confirming the indirect and direct band gap nature of CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} materials, respectively. We report the trend of band gap results as: (mBJ-GGA) > (GGA+U) > (GGA) > (GGA+SOC). Localized regions appearing in the valence bands for CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} tend to split up nearly by ≈1 eV in the case of GGA+SOC. Many new physical parameters are reported that can be important for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Optical spectra namely, dielectric function (DF), refractive index n(ω), extinction coefficient k(ω), reflectivity R(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), absorption coefficient α(ω) and electron loss function are discussed. Optical’s absorption edge is noted to be 1.401 and 1.782 for CdIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} and MgIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, respectively. The
Xiao, Suzhi; Tao, Wei; Zhao, Hui
2016-04-28
In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D) measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the 'phase to 3D coordinates transformation' are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nope Gomez, F. I.; Santiago, C. de
2014-01-01
Shallow geothermal energy application in buildings and civil engineering works (tunnels, diaphragm walls, bridge decks, roads, and train/metro stations) are spreading rapidly all around the world. the dual role of these energy geostructures makes their design challenging and more complex with respect to conventional projects. Besides the geotechnical parameters, thermal behavior parameters are needed in the design and dimensioning to warrantee the thermo-mechanical stability of the geothermal structural element. As for obtaining any soil thermal parameter, both in situ and laboratory methods can be used. The present study focuses on a lab test known the need ke method to measure the thermal conductivity of soils (λ). Through this research work, different variables inherent to the test procedure, as well as external factors that may have an impact on thermal conductivity measurements were studied. Samples extracted from the cores obtained from a geothermal drilling conducted on the campus of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, showing different mineralogical and nature composition (granular and clayey) were studied different (moisture and density) compacting conditions. 550 thermal conductivity measurements were performed, from which the influence of factors such as the degree of saturation-moisture, dry density and type of material was verified. Finally, a stratigraphic profile with thermal conductivities ranges of each geologic level was drawn, considering the degree of saturation ranges evaluated in lab tests, in order to be compared and related to thermal response test, currently in progress. Finally, a test protocol is set and proposed, for both remolded and undisturbed samples, under different saturation conditions. Together with this test protocol, a set of recommendations regarding the configuration of the measuring equipment, treatment of samples and other variables, are posed in order to reduce errors in the final results. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorbunkov, Mikhail V; Kostryukov, P V; Telegin, L S; Tunkin, V G; Yakovlev, D V
2007-01-01
The structure of the fundamental mode of a laser is calculated by the iteration Fox-Li method in the case of inhomogeneous unsaturated amplification produced by axially symmetric longitudinal pumping. The calculation is performed for different parameters g 1 and g 2 of the resonator within the entire stability region. It is shown that in the case of inhomogeneous amplification, the fundamental mode considerably deviates from the Gaussian mode of an empty resonator only in the so-called critical configurations of the resonator, when the quantity [arccos(g 1 g 2 ) 1/2 ]/π is zero or takes a number of values expressed by irreducible fractions m/n. For the Fresnel number N F = 9, configurations with m/n = 1/2, 2/5, 3/8, 1/3, 3/10, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, 1/8, and 1/10 are pronounced. As N F increases, the number of critical configurations increases. The expansion in a system of Laguerre-Gaussian beams shows that the fundamental mode in critical configurations is formed by a set of beams with certain radial indices p phased in the active medium. (resonators. modes)
RESEARCH ABSORBING STATES OF THE SYSTEM USING MARKOV CHAINS AND FUNDAMENTAL MATRIX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Тетяна Мефодіївна ОЛЕХ
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the use Markov chains to research models that reflect the essential properties of systems, including methods of measuring the parameters of projects and assess their effectiveness. In the study carried out by its decomposition system for certain discrete state and create a diagram of transitions between these states. Specificity displays various objects Markov homogeneous chains with discrete states and discrete time determined by the method of calculation of transition probabilities. A model of success criteria for absorbing state system that is universal for all projects. A breakdown of passages to the matrix submatrices. The variation elements under matrix Q n with growth linked to the definition of important quantitative characteristics of absorbing circuits: 1 the probability of achieving the status of absorbing any given; 2 the mean number of steps needed to achieve the absorbing state; 3 the mean time that the system spends in each state to hit irreversible system in absorbing state. Built fundamental matrix that allowed calculating the different characteristics of the system. Considered fundamental matrix for supposedly modeled absorbing Markov chain, which gives the forecast for the behavior of the system in the future regardless of the absolute value of the time elapsed from the starting point. This property illustrates the fundamental matrix Markov process that characterizes it as a process without aftereffect.
Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E; Pallardy, Stephen G; Baker, John; Cao, Yonghui; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo; Dong, Xuejun; Ellsworth, David; Van Goethem, Davina; Jensen, Anna M; Law, Beverly E; Loos, Rodolfo; Martins, Samuel C Vitor; Norby, Richard J; Warren, Jeffrey; Weston, David; Winter, Klaus
2014-04-01
Worldwide measurements of nearly 130 C3 species covering all major plant functional types are analysed in conjunction with model simulations to determine the effects of mesophyll conductance (g(m)) on photosynthetic parameters and their relationships estimated from A/Ci curves. We find that an assumption of infinite g(m) results in up to 75% underestimation for maximum carboxylation rate V(cmax), 60% for maximum electron transport rate J(max), and 40% for triose phosphate utilization rate T(u) . V(cmax) is most sensitive, J(max) is less sensitive, and T(u) has the least sensitivity to the variation of g(m). Because of this asymmetrical effect of g(m), the ratios of J(max) to V(cmax), T(u) to V(cmax) and T(u) to J(max) are all overestimated. An infinite g(m) assumption also limits the freedom of variation of estimated parameters and artificially constrains parameter relationships to stronger shapes. These findings suggest the importance of quantifying g(m) for understanding in situ photosynthetic machinery functioning. We show that a nonzero resistance to CO2 movement in chloroplasts has small effects on estimated parameters. A non-linear function with gm as input is developed to convert the parameters estimated under an assumption of infinite gm to proper values. This function will facilitate gm representation in global carbon cycle models. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The accurate particle tracer code
Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun
2017-11-01
The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.
Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories
Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán
2017-09-01
Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.
Accelerated maximum likelihood parameter estimation for stochastic biochemical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daigle Bernie J
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for the mechanistic simulation of a biochemical system is detailed knowledge of its kinetic parameters. Despite recent experimental advances, the estimation of unknown parameter values from observed data is still a bottleneck for obtaining accurate simulation results. Many methods exist for parameter estimation in deterministic biochemical systems; methods for discrete stochastic systems are less well developed. Given the probabilistic nature of stochastic biochemical models, a natural approach is to choose parameter values that maximize the probability of the observed data with respect to the unknown parameters, a.k.a. the maximum likelihood parameter estimates (MLEs. MLE computation for all but the simplest models requires the simulation of many system trajectories that are consistent with experimental data. For models with unknown parameters, this presents a computational challenge, as the generation of consistent trajectories can be an extremely rare occurrence. Results We have developed Monte Carlo Expectation-Maximization with Modified Cross-Entropy Method (MCEM2: an accelerated method for calculating MLEs that combines advances in rare event simulation with a computationally efficient version of the Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (MCEM algorithm. Our method requires no prior knowledge regarding parameter values, and it automatically provides a multivariate parameter uncertainty estimate. We applied the method to five stochastic systems of increasing complexity, progressing from an analytically tractable pure-birth model to a computationally demanding model of yeast-polarization. Our results demonstrate that MCEM2 substantially accelerates MLE computation on all tested models when compared to a stand-alone version of MCEM. Additionally, we show how our method identifies parameter values for certain classes of models more accurately than two recently proposed computationally efficient methods
Fundamentals of electronic image processing
Weeks, Arthur R
1996-01-01
This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.
Parity Doubling and the S Parameter below the Conformal Window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Fleming, G. T.; Lin, M. F.; Neil, E. T.; Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Cohen, S. D.; Rebbi, C.; Schaich, D.; Cheng, M.; Vranas, P. M.; Clark, M. A.; Kiskis, J.; Osborn, J. C.
2011-01-01
We describe a lattice simulation of the masses and decay constants of the lowest-lying vector and axial resonances, and the electroweak S parameter, in an SU(3) gauge theory with N f =2 and 6 fermions in the fundamental representation. The spectrum becomes more parity doubled and the S parameter per electroweak doublet decreases when N f is increased from 2 to 6, motivating study of these trends as N f is increased further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.
Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Kunzman
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.
Fundamental Perspectives on Supply Chain Management
Omta, S.W.F.; Hoenen, S.J.
2012-01-01
The aim of the present literature study is to find the fundamental perspectives/models in the realm of supply chain management and to investigate whether they can be extended based on recent literature findings. The fundamental perspectives were found using a two-tier snowball collection method,
EU criminal law and fundamental rights
de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.
2016-01-01
The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system
Fundamental symmetries and interactions-selected topics
Jungmann, Klaus P.
2015-01-01
In the field of fundamental interactions and symmetries numerous experiments are underway or planned in order to verify the standard model in particle physics, to search for possible extensions to it or to exploit the standard model for extracting most precise values for fundamental constants. We
Fundamental partial compositeness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea
2016-01-01
We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...
Optimal Inversion Parameters for Full Waveform Inversion using OBS Data Set
Kim, S.; Chung, W.; Shin, S.; Kim, D.; Lee, D.
2017-12-01
In recent years, full Waveform Inversion (FWI) has been the most researched technique in seismic data processing. It uses the residuals between observed and modeled data as an objective function; thereafter, the final subsurface velocity model is generated through a series of iterations meant to minimize the residuals.Research on FWI has expanded from acoustic media to elastic media. In acoustic media, the subsurface property is defined by P-velocity; however, in elastic media, properties are defined by multiple parameters, such as P-velocity, S-velocity, and density. Further, the elastic media can also be defined by Lamé constants, density or impedance PI, SI; consequently, research is being carried out to ascertain the optimal parameters.From results of advanced exploration equipment and Ocean Bottom Seismic (OBS) survey, it is now possible to obtain multi-component seismic data. However, to perform FWI on these data and generate an accurate subsurface model, it is important to determine optimal inversion parameters among (Vp, Vs, ρ), (λ, μ, ρ), and (PI, SI) in elastic media. In this study, staggered grid finite difference method was applied to simulate OBS survey. As in inversion, l2-norm was set as objective function. Further, the accurate computation of gradient direction was performed using the back-propagation technique and its scaling was done using the Pseudo-hessian matrix.In acoustic media, only Vp is used as the inversion parameter. In contrast, various sets of parameters, such as (Vp, Vs, ρ) and (λ, μ, ρ) can be used to define inversion in elastic media. Therefore, it is important to ascertain the parameter that gives the most accurate result for inversion with OBS data set.In this study, we generated Vp and Vs subsurface models by using (λ, μ, ρ) and (Vp, Vs, ρ) as inversion parameters in every iteration, and compared the final two FWI results.This research was supported by the Basic Research Project(17-3312) of the Korea Institute of
Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne
2015-01-15
In-line digital holography (DH) is used in many fields to locate and size micro or nano-objects spread in a volume. To reconstruct simple shaped objects, the optimal approach is to fit an imaging model to accurately estimate their position and their characteristic parameters. Increasing the accuracy of the reconstruction is a big issue in DH, particularly when the pixel is large or the signal-to-noise ratio is low. We suggest exploiting the information redundancy of videos to improve the reconstruction of the holograms by jointly estimating the position of the objects and the characteristic parameters. Using synthetic and experimental data, we checked experimentally that this approach can improve the accuracy of the reconstruction by a factor more than the square root of the image number.
Modified Moliere's screening parameter and its impact on multiple coulomb scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Striganov, Sergei
2015-01-01
The Moliere approximation of elastic Coulomb scattering cross-sections plays an important role in accurate description of multiple scattering, non-ionisation energy, DPA radiation damage etc. The cross-section depends only on a single parameter that describes the atomic screening. Moliere calculated the screening angle for the Tomas-Fermi distribution of electrons in atoms. In this paper, the screening parameter was recalculated using a more accurate atomic form-factor obtained from the self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater computations. For relativistic particles, the new screening angle can differ from the Moliere approximation by up to 50%. At the same time, it is rather close to other independent calculations. At low energies, the new screening angle is different for positrons and electrons. The positron screening parameter is much larger than the electron one for heavy nuclei at energies of ∼Z keV. The impact of the screening angle on particle transport and calculated quantities is discussed. (authors)
New constraints on time-dependent variations of fundamental constants using Planck data
Hart, Luke; Chluba, Jens
2018-02-01
Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) today allow us to answer detailed questions about the properties of our Universe, targeting both standard and non-standard physics. In this paper, we study the effects of varying fundamental constants (i.e. the fine-structure constant, αEM, and electron rest mass, me) around last scattering using the recombination codes COSMOREC and RECFAST++. We approach the problem in a pedagogical manner, illustrating the importance of various effects on the free electron fraction, Thomson visibility function and CMB power spectra, highlighting various degeneracies. We demonstrate that the simpler RECFAST++ treatment (based on a three-level atom approach) can be used to accurately represent the full computation of COSMOREC. We also include explicit time-dependent variations using a phenomenological power-law description. We reproduce previous Planck 2013 results in our analysis. Assuming constant variations relative to the standard values, we find the improved constraints αEM/αEM, 0 = 0.9993 ± 0.0025 (CMB only) and me/me, 0 = 1.0039 ± 0.0074 (including BAO) using Planck 2015 data. For a redshift-dependent variation, αEM(z) = αEM(z0) [(1 + z)/1100]p with αEM(z0) ≡ αEM, 0 at z0 = 1100, we obtain p = 0.0008 ± 0.0025. Allowing simultaneous variations of αEM(z0) and p yields αEM(z0)/αEM, 0 = 0.9998 ± 0.0036 and p = 0.0006 ± 0.0036. We also discuss combined limits on αEM and me. Our analysis shows that existing data are not only sensitive to the value of the fundamental constants around recombination but also its first time derivative. This suggests that a wider class of varying fundamental constant models can be probed using the CMB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony L Luz
Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to myriad human diseases and toxicant exposures, highlighting the need for assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial health in vivo. Here, using the Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer and the pharmacological inhibitors dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin (ATP-synthase inhibitors, carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy phenylhydrazone (mitochondrial uncoupler and sodium azide (cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor, we measured the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial respiratory chain function: basal oxygen consumption, ATP-linked respiration, maximal respiratory capacity, spare respiratory capacity and proton leak in the model organism Caenhorhabditis elegans. Since mutations in mitochondrial homeostasis genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction and have been linked to human disease, we measured mitochondrial respiratory function in mitochondrial fission (drp-1-, fusion (fzo-1-, mitophagy (pdr-1, pink-1-, and electron transport chain complex III (isp-1-deficient C. elegans. All showed altered function, but the nature of the alterations varied between the tested strains. We report increased basal oxygen consumption in drp-1; reduced maximal respiration in drp-1, fzo-1, and isp-1; reduced spare respiratory capacity in drp-1 and fzo-1; reduced proton leak in fzo-1 and isp-1; and increased proton leak in pink-1 nematodes. As mitochondrial morphology can play a role in mitochondrial energetics, we also quantified the mitochondrial aspect ratio for each mutant strain using a novel method, and for the first time report increased aspect ratios in pdr-1- and pink-1-deficient nematodes.
Ahumada, A. V.; Claria, J. J.; Bica, E.; Parisi, M. C.; Torres, M. C.; Pavani, D. B.
We present integrated spectra obtained at CASLEO (Argentina) for 9 galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. Two of them (BH 55 and Rup 159) have not been the target of previous research. The flux-calibrated spectra cover the spectral range approx. 3600-6900 A. Using the equivalent widths (EWs) of the Balmer lines and comparing the cluster spectra with template spectra, we determined E(B-V) colour excesses and ages for the present cluster sample. The parameters obtained for 6 of the clusters show good agreement with previous determinations based mainly on photometric methods. This is not the case, however, for BH 90, a scarcely reddened cluster, for which Moffat and Vogt (1975, Astron. and Astroph. SS, 20, 125) derived E(B-V) = 0.51. We explain and justify the strong discrepancy found for this object. According to the present analysis, 3 clusters are very young (Bo 14, Tr 15 and Tr 27), 2 are moderately young (NGC 6268 and BH 205), 3 are Hyades-like clusters (Rup 164, BH 90 and BH 55) and only one is an intermediate-age cluster (Rup 159).
Short-term responses to selection for parameters of the allometric ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The allometric-autoregressive model describes growth accurately and is useful in the characterization of growth responses. ... of value in genetic studies and some of its parameters ..... (1990) appear to be fair estimates of the heritabilities of.
Fundamental physics in particle traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel
2014-01-01
The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.
Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.
2015-01-01
Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410
A new qualitative acoustic emission parameter based on Shannon's entropy for damage monitoring
Chai, Mengyu; Zhang, Zaoxiao; Duan, Quan
2018-02-01
An important objective of acoustic emission (AE) non-destructive monitoring is to accurately identify approaching critical damage and to avoid premature failure by means of the evolutions of AE parameters. One major drawback of most parameters such as count and rise time is that they are strongly dependent on the threshold and other settings employed in AE data acquisition system. This may hinder the correct reflection of original waveform generated from AE sources and consequently bring difficulty for the accurate identification of the critical damage and early failure. In this investigation, a new qualitative AE parameter based on Shannon's entropy, i.e. AE entropy is proposed for damage monitoring. Since it derives from the uncertainty of amplitude distribution of each AE waveform, it is independent of the threshold and other time-driven parameters and can characterize the original micro-structural deformations. Fatigue crack growth test on CrMoV steel and three point bending test on a ductile material are conducted to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parameter. The results show that the new parameter, compared to AE amplitude, is more effective in discriminating the different damage stages and identifying the critical damage.
33 CFR 86.03 - Limits of fundamental frequencies.
2010-07-01
... of fundamental frequencies. To ensure a wide variety of whistle characteristics, the fundamental... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limits of fundamental frequencies. 86.03 Section 86.03 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...
Accurately controlled sequential self-folding structures by polystyrene film
Deng, Dongping; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yong; Lan, Xing; Tice, Jesse
2017-08-01
Four-dimensional (4D) printing overcomes the traditional fabrication limitations by designing heterogeneous materials to enable the printed structures evolve over time (the fourth dimension) under external stimuli. Here, we present a simple 4D printing of self-folding structures that can be sequentially and accurately folded. When heated above their glass transition temperature pre-strained polystyrene films shrink along the XY plane. In our process silver ink traces printed on the film are used to provide heat stimuli by conducting current to trigger the self-folding behavior. The parameters affecting the folding process are studied and discussed. Sequential folding and accurately controlled folding angles are achieved by using printed ink traces and angle lock design. Theoretical analyses are done to guide the design of the folding processes. Programmable structures such as a lock and a three-dimensional antenna are achieved to test the feasibility and potential applications of this method. These self-folding structures change their shapes after fabrication under controlled stimuli (electric current) and have potential applications in the fields of electronics, consumer devices, and robotics. Our design and fabrication method provides an easy way by using silver ink printed on polystyrene films to 4D print self-folding structures for electrically induced sequential folding with angular control.
2004-01-01
Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...
Fundamentals of reactor chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akatsu, Eiko
1981-12-01
In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)
Fundamentals of electro-engineering I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapsik, M.; Smola, M.; Bohac, M.; Mucha, M.
2004-01-01
This is the text-book of the fundamentals of electro-engineering. It contains the following chapters: (1) Selected terms in electro-engineering; (2) Fundamental electric values; (3) Energy and their transformations; (4) Water, hydro-energy and hydro-energetic potential of the Slovak Republic; (5) Nuclear power engineering; (6) Conventional thermal power plants; (7) Heating and cogeneration of electric power and heat production; (8) Equipment of electricity supply system; (9) Measurements in electro-engineering ; (10) Regulation of frequency and voltage, electric power quality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.
1995-01-01
It is common practice to estimate kinetic parameters from dynamically acquired tomographic data by first reconstructing a dynamic sequence of three-dimensional reconstructions and then fitting the parameters to time activity curves generated from the time-varying reconstructed images. However, in SPECT, the pharmaceutical distribution can change during the acquisition of a complete tomographic data set, which can bias the estimated kinetic parameters. It is hypothesized that more accurate estimates of the kinetic parameters can be obtained by fitting to the projection measurements instead of the reconstructed time sequence. Estimation from projections requires the knowledge of their relationship between the tissue regions of interest or voxels with particular kinetic parameters and the project measurements, which results in a complicated nonlinear estimation problem with a series of exponential factors with multiplicative coefficients. A technique is presented in this paper where the exponential decay parameters are estimated separately using linear time-invariant system theory. Once the exponential factors are known, the coefficients of the exponentials can be estimated using linear estimation techniques. Computer simulations demonstrate that estimation of the kinetic parameters directly from the projections is more accurate than the estimation from the reconstructed images
A new hybrid bee pollinator flower pollination algorithm for solar PV parameter estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ram, J. Prasanth; Babu, T. Sudhakar; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Rajasekar, N.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A new Bee Pollinator Flower Pollination Algorithm (BPFPA) is proposed for Solar PV Parameter extraction. • Standard RTC France data is used for the experimentation of BPFPA algorithm. • Four different PV modules are successfully tested via double diode model. • The BPFPA method is highly convincing in accuracy to convergence at faster rate. • The proposed BPFPA provides the best performance among the other recent techniques. - Abstract: The inaccurate I-V curve generation in solar PV modeling introduces less efficiency and on the other hand, accurate simulation of PV characteristics becomes a mandatory obligation before experimental validation. Although many optimization methods in literature have attempted to extract accurate PV parameters, all of these methods do not guarantee their convergence to the global optimum. Hence, the authors of this paper have proposed a new hybrid Bee pollinator Flower Pollination Algorithm (BPFPA) for the PV parameter extraction problem. The PV parameters for both single diode and double diode are extracted and tested under different environmental conditions. For brevity, the I_0_1, I_0_2, I_p_v for double diode and I_0_,I_p_v for single diode models are calculated analytically where the remaining parameters ‘R_s, R_p, a_1, a_2’ are optimized using BPFPA method. It is found that, the proposed Bee Pollinator method has all the scope to create exploration and exploitation in the control variable to yield a less RMSE value even under lower irradiated conditions. Further for performance validation, the parameters arrived via BPFPA method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Pattern Search (PS), Harmony Search (HS), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and Artificial Bee Swarm Optimization (ABSO). In addition, various outcomes of PV modeling and different parameters influencing the accurate PV modeling are critically analyzed.
DC Motor Parameter Identification Using Speed Step Responses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the DC motor speed response measurement under a step voltage input, important motor parameters such as the electrical time constant, the mechanical time constant, and the friction can be estimated. A power series expansion of the motor speed response is presented, whose coefficients are related to the motor parameters. These coefficients can be easily computed using existing curve fitting methods. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the application of this approach. In these experiments, the approach was readily implemented and gave more accurate estimates than conventional methods.
Parameter Optimization for Quantitative Signal-Concentration Mapping Using Spoiled Gradient Echo MRI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gasser Hathout
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives. Accurate signal to tracer concentration maps are critical to quantitative MRI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and optimize spoiled gradient echo (SPGR MR sequences for the use of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA as a kinetic tracer. Methods. Water-gadolinium phantoms were constructed for a physiologic range of gadolinium concentrations. Observed and calculated SPGR signal to concentration curves were generated. Using a percentage error determination, optimal pulse parameters for signal to concentration mapping were obtained. Results. The accuracy of the SPGR equation is a function of the chosen MR pulse parameters, particularly the time to repetition (TR and the flip angle (FA. At all experimental values of TR, increasing FA decreases the ratio between observed and calculated signals. Conversely, for a constant FA, increasing TR increases this ratio. Using optimized pulse parameter sets, it is possible to achieve excellent accuracy (approximately 5% over a physiologic range of concentration tracer concentrations. Conclusion. Optimal pulse parameter sets exist and their use is essential for deriving accurate signal to concentration curves in quantitative MRI.
Burov, Alexey
Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?
GPS Water Vapor Tomography Based on Accurate Estimations of the GPS Tropospheric Parameters
Champollion, C.; Masson, F.; Bock, O.; Bouin, M.; Walpersdorf, A.; Doerflinger, E.; van Baelen, J.; Brenot, H.
2003-12-01
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is now a common technique for the retrieval of zenithal integrated water vapor (IWV). Further applications in meteorology need also slant integrated water vapor (SIWV) which allow to precisely define the high variability of tropospheric water vapor at different temporal and spatial scales. Only precise estimations of IWV and horizontal gradients allow the estimation of accurate SIWV. We present studies developed to improve the estimation of tropospheric water vapor from GPS data. Results are obtained from several field experiments (MAP, ESCOMPTE, OHM-CV, IHOP, .). First IWV are estimated using different GPS processing strategies and results are compared to radiosondes. The role of the reference frame and the a priori constraints on the coordinates of the fiducial and local stations is generally underestimated. It seems to be of first order in the estimation of the IWV. Second we validate the estimated horizontal gradients comparing zenith delay gradients and single site gradients. IWV, gradients and post-fit residuals are used to construct slant integrated water delays. Validation of the SIWV is under progress comparing GPS SIWV, Lidar measurements and high resolution meteorological models (Meso-NH). A careful analysis of the post-fit residuals is needed to separate tropospheric signal from multipaths. The slant tropospheric delays are used to study the 3D heterogeneity of the troposphere. We develop a tomographic software to model the three-dimensional distribution of the tropospheric water vapor from GPS data. The software is applied to the ESCOMPTE field experiment, a dense network of 17 dual frequency GPS receivers operated in southern France. Three inversions have been successfully compared to three successive radiosonde launches. Good resolution is obtained up to heights of 3000 m.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Xie
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to elucidate the effects of the important spray characteristics on the surface morphology and light absorbance of spray-on P3HT:PCBM thin-films, used as an active layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs. Spray coating or deposition is a viable scalable technique for the large-scale, fast, and low-cost fabrication of solution-processed solar cells, and has been widely used for device fabrication, although the fundamental understanding of the underlying and controlling parameters, such as spray characteristics, droplet dynamics, and surface wettability, is still limited, making the results on device fabrication not reproducible and unreliable. In this paper, following the conventional PSC architecture, a PEDOT:PSS layer is first spin-coated on glass substrates, followed by the deposition of P3HT:PCBM using an automatic ultrasonic spray coating system, with a movable nozzle tip, to mimic an industrial manufacturing process. To gain insight, the effects of the spray carrier air pressure, the number of spray passes, the precursor flow rate, and precursor concentration are studied on the surface topography and light absorbance spectra of the spray-on films. Among the results, it is found that despite the high roughness of spray-on films, the light absorbance of the film is satisfactory. It is also found that the absorbance of spray-on films is a linear function of the number of spray passes or deposition layers, based on which an effective film thickness is defined for rough spray-on films. The effective thickness of a rough spray-on P3HT:PCBM film was found to be one-quarter of that of a flat film predicted by a simple mass balance.
Fast and accurate spectral estimation for online detection of partial broken bar in induction motors
Samanta, Anik Kumar; Naha, Arunava; Routray, Aurobinda; Deb, Alok Kanti
2018-01-01
In this paper, an online and real-time system is presented for detecting partial broken rotor bar (BRB) of inverter-fed squirrel cage induction motors under light load condition. This system with minor modifications can detect any fault that affects the stator current. A fast and accurate spectral estimator based on the theory of Rayleigh quotient is proposed for detecting the spectral signature of BRB. The proposed spectral estimator can precisely determine the relative amplitude of fault sidebands and has low complexity compared to available high-resolution subspace-based spectral estimators. Detection of low-amplitude fault components has been improved by removing the high-amplitude fundamental frequency using an extended-Kalman based signal conditioner. Slip is estimated from the stator current spectrum for accurate localization of the fault component. Complexity and cost of sensors are minimal as only a single-phase stator current is required. The hardware implementation has been carried out on an Intel i7 based embedded target ported through the Simulink Real-Time. Evaluation of threshold and detectability of faults with different conditions of load and fault severity are carried out with empirical cumulative distribution function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, R.H.
1980-01-01
This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations
Wakker, K.F.
2015-01-01
This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are
A fundamental equation of state for 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)
Tillner-Roth, R.
1995-01-01
A fundamental equation ofstale for HFC-152a ( 1,1-dilluorocthane) is presented covering temperatures between the triple-point temperature ( 154.56 K) and 435 K for pressures up to 311 M Pa. The equation is based on reliable ( p, g, T) data in the range mentioned above. These are generally represented within ±0.1 % of density. Furthermore. experimental values of the vapor pressure, the saturated liquid density, and some isobaric heat capacities in the liquid were included during the correlation process. The new equation of state is compared with experimental data and also with the equation of state developed by Tamatsu et al. Differences between the two equations of state generally result from using different experimental input data. It is shown that the new equation of state allows an accurate calculation of various thermodynamic properties for most technical applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Duane Knudson
2007-09-01
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones
Parameter optimization of electrochemical machining process using black hole algorithm
Singh, Dinesh; Shukla, Rajkamal
2017-12-01
Advanced machining processes are significant as higher accuracy in machined component is required in the manufacturing industries. Parameter optimization of machining processes gives optimum control to achieve the desired goals. In this paper, electrochemical machining (ECM) process is considered to evaluate the performance of the considered process using black hole algorithm (BHA). BHA considers the fundamental idea of a black hole theory and it has less operating parameters to tune. The two performance parameters, material removal rate (MRR) and overcut (OC) are considered separately to get optimum machining parameter settings using BHA. The variations of process parameters with respect to the performance parameters are reported for better and effective understanding of the considered process using single objective at a time. The results obtained using BHA are found better while compared with results of other metaheuristic algorithms, such as, genetic algorithm (GA), artificial bee colony (ABC) and bio-geography based optimization (BBO) attempted by previous researchers.
Atmospheric parameters and chemical properties of red giants in the CoRoT asteroseismology fields
Morel, T.; Miglio, A.; Lagarde, N.; Montalbán, J.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Eggenberger, P.; Hekker, S.; Kallinger, T.; Mosser, B.; Valentini, M.; Carrier, F.; Hareter, M.; Mantegazza, L.
2014-04-01
A precise characterisation of the red giants in the seismology fields of the CoRoT satellite is a prerequisite for further in-depth seismic modelling. High-resolution FEROS and HARPS spectra were obtained as part of the ground-based follow-up campaigns for 19 targets holding great asteroseismic potential. These data are used to accurately estimate their fundamental parameters and the abundances of 16 chemical species in a self-consistent manner. Some powerful probes of mixing are investigated (the Li and CNO abundances, as well as the carbon isotopic ratio in a few cases). The information provided by the spectroscopic and seismic data is combined to provide more accurate physical parameters and abundances. The stars in our sample follow the general abundance trends as a function of the metallicity observed in stars of the Galactic disk. After an allowance is made for the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium, the observational signature of internal mixing phenomena is revealed through the detection at the stellar surface of the products of the CN cycle. A contamination by NeNa-cycled material in the most massive stars is also discussed. With the asteroseismic constraints, these data will pave the way for a detailed theoretical investigation of the physical processes responsible for the transport of chemical elements in evolved, low- and intermediate-mass stars. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile) with the FEROS and HARPS spectrograph at the 2.2 and 3.6-m telescopes under programs LP178.D-0361, LP182.D-0356, and LP185.D-0056.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables A.2 to A.6 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A119
Towards accurate emergency response behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sargent, T.O.
1981-01-01
Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail
Fundamentals of multicore software development
Pankratius, Victor; Tichy, Walter F
2011-01-01
With multicore processors now in every computer, server, and embedded device, the need for cost-effective, reliable parallel software has never been greater. By explaining key aspects of multicore programming, Fundamentals of Multicore Software Development helps software engineers understand parallel programming and master the multicore challenge. Accessible to newcomers to the field, the book captures the state of the art of multicore programming in computer science. It covers the fundamentals of multicore hardware, parallel design patterns, and parallel programming in C++, .NET, and Java. It
The fundamental interactions of matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falla, D.F.
1977-01-01
Elementary particles are here discussed, in the context of the extent to which the fundamental interactions are related to the elementary constituents of matter. The field quanta related to the four fundamental interactions (electromagnetic, strong,weak and gravitational) are discussed within an historical context beginning with the conception of the photon. The discovery of the mesons and discoveries relevant to the nature of the heavy vector boson are considered. Finally a few recent speculations on the properties of the graviton are examined. (U.K.)
Full Two-Body Problem Mass Parameter Observability Explored Through Doubly Synchronous Systems
Davis, Alex Benjamin; Scheeres, Daniel
2018-04-01
The full two-body problem (F2BP) is often used to model binary asteroid systems, representing the bodies as two finite mass distributions whose dynamics are influenced by their mutual gravity potential. The emergent behavior of the F2BP is highly coupled translational and rotational mutual motion of the mass distributions. For these systems the doubly synchronous equilibrium occurs when both bodies are tidally-locked and in a circular co-orbit. Stable oscillations about this equilibrium can be shown, for the nonplanar system, to be combinations of seven fundamental frequencies of the system and the mutual orbit rate. The fundamental frequencies arise as the linear periods of center manifolds identified about the equilibrium which are heavily influenced by each body’s mass parameters. We leverage these eight dynamical constraints to investigate the observability of binary asteroid mass parameters via dynamical observations. This is accomplished by proving the nonsingularity of the relationship between the frequencies and mass parameters for doubly synchronous systems. Thus we can invert the relationship to show that given observations of the frequencies, we can solve for the mass parameters of a target system. In so doing we are able to predict the estimation covariance of the mass parameters based on observation quality and define necessary observation accuracies for desired mass parameter certainties. We apply these tools to 617 Patroclus, a doubly synchronous Trojan binary and flyby target of the LUCY mission, as well as the Pluto and Charon system in order to predict mutual behaviors of these doubly synchronous systems and to provide observational requirements for these systems’ mass parameters
Novel Method for 5G Systems NLOS Channels Parameter Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladeta Milenkovic
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the development of new 5G systems to operate in mm bands, there is a need for accurate radio propagation modelling at these bands. In this paper novel approach for NLOS channels parameter estimation will be presented. Estimation will be performed based on LCR performance measure, which will enable us to estimate propagation parameters in real time and to avoid weaknesses of ML and moment method estimation approaches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzhi Xiao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In order to acquire an accurate three-dimensional (3D measurement, the traditional fringe projection technique applies complex and laborious procedures to compensate for the errors that exist in the vision system. However, the error sources in the vision system are very complex, such as lens distortion, lens defocus, and fringe pattern nonsinusoidality. Some errors cannot even be explained or rendered with clear expressions and are difficult to compensate directly as a result. In this paper, an approach is proposed that avoids the complex and laborious compensation procedure for error sources but still promises accurate 3D measurement. It is realized by the mathematical model extension technique. The parameters of the extended mathematical model for the ’phase to 3D coordinates transformation’ are derived using the least-squares parameter estimation algorithm. In addition, a phase-coding method based on a frequency analysis is proposed for the absolute phase map retrieval to spatially isolated objects. The results demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed flexible fringe projection vision system on spatially continuous and discontinuous objects for 3D measurement.
Fast determination of plasma parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wijnands, T.J.; Parlange, F.; Joffrin, E.
1995-01-01
Fast analysis of diagnostic signals of a tokamak discharge is demonstrated by using 4 fundamentally different techniques. A comparison between Function Parametrization (FP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and a particular Neural Network (NN) configuration known as the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is carried out, thereby taking a unique linear model based on a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) as a reference. The various techniques provide all functional representations of characteristic plasma parameters in terms of the values of the measurements and are based on an analysis of a large, experimentally achieved database. A brief mathematical description of the various techniques is given, followed by two particular applications to Tore Supra diagnostic data. The first problem is concerned with the identification of the plasma boundary parameters using the poloidal field and differential poloidal flux measurements. A second application involves the interpretation of line integrated data from the multichannel interfero-polarimeter to obtain the central value of the safety factor. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs
Performance emulation and parameter estimation for nonlinear fibre-optic links
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko
2016-01-01
Fibre-optic communication systems, especially when operating in the nonlinear regime, generally do not perform exactly as theory would predict. A number of methods for data-based evaluation of nonlinear fibre-optic link parameters, both for accurate performance emulation and optimization...
Estimation of real-time runway surface contamination using flight data recorder parameters
Curry, Donovan
Within this research effort, the development of an analytic process for friction coefficient estimation is presented. Under static equilibrium, the sum of forces and moments acting on the aircraft, in the aircraft body coordinate system, while on the ground at any instant is equal to zero. Under this premise the longitudinal, lateral and normal forces due to landing are calculated along with the individual deceleration components existent when an aircraft comes to a rest during ground roll. In order to validate this hypothesis a six degree of freedom aircraft model had to be created and landing tests had to be simulated on different surfaces. The simulated aircraft model includes a high fidelity aerodynamic model, thrust model, landing gear model, friction model and antiskid model. Three main surfaces were defined in the friction model; dry, wet and snow/ice. Only the parameters recorded by an FDR are used directly from the aircraft model all others are estimated or known a priori. The estimation of unknown parameters is also presented in the research effort. With all needed parameters a comparison and validation with simulated and estimated data, under different runway conditions, is performed. Finally, this report presents results of a sensitivity analysis in order to provide a measure of reliability of the analytic estimation process. Linear and non-linear sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to quantify the level of uncertainty implicit in modeling estimated parameters and how they can affect the calculation of the instantaneous coefficient of friction. Using the approach of force and moment equilibrium about the CG at landing to reconstruct the instantaneous coefficient of friction appears to be a reasonably accurate estimate when compared to the simulated friction coefficient. This is also true when the FDR and estimated parameters are introduced to white noise and when crosswind is introduced to the simulation. After the linear analysis the
O DIREITO FUNDAMENTAL AO DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL
Fernandes, Jeferson Nogueira
2012-01-01
Este artigo jurídico trata do direito fundamental do ser humano ter um desenvolvimento sustentável, e tem como objetivo identificar o desenvolvimento sustentável como sendo um direito fundamental consagrado universalmente. Em sua elaboração foi utilizado o seguinte material: textos doutrinários, legislação nacional pertinente e documentos internacionais. A conclusão indica que: o desenvolvimento sustentável é um direito fundamental do homem e que devemos manter equilibrada a relação ambiente ...
Constraining the evolution of the Hubble Parameter using cosmic chronometers
Dickinson, Hugh
2017-08-01
Substantial investment is being made in space- and ground-based missions with the goal of revealing the nature of the observed cosmic acceleration. This is one of the most important unsolved problems in cosmology today.We propose here to constrain the evolution of the Hubble parameter [H(z)] between 1.3 fundamental nature of dark energy.
Accurate Recovery of H i Velocity Dispersion from Radio Interferometers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ianjamasimanana, R. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Blok, W. J. G. de [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Heald, George H., E-mail: roger@mpia.de, E-mail: blok@astron.nl, E-mail: George.Heald@csiro.au [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands)
2017-05-01
Gas velocity dispersion measures the amount of disordered motion of a rotating disk. Accurate estimates of this parameter are of the utmost importance because the parameter is directly linked to disk stability and star formation. A global measure of the gas velocity dispersion can be inferred from the width of the atomic hydrogen (H i) 21 cm line. We explore how several systematic effects involved in the production of H i cubes affect the estimate of H i velocity dispersion. We do so by comparing the H i velocity dispersion derived from different types of data cubes provided by The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey. We find that residual-scaled cubes best recover the H i velocity dispersion, independent of the weighting scheme used and for a large range of signal-to-noise ratio. For H i observations, where the dirty beam is substantially different from a Gaussian, the velocity dispersion values are overestimated unless the cubes are cleaned close to (e.g., ∼1.5 times) the noise level.
RFID design fundamentals and applications
Lozano-Nieto, Albert
2010-01-01
RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl
Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, C.J.A.P.
2009-01-01
I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.
Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2009-10-15
I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.
The fundamentals of mathematical analysis
Fikhtengol'ts, G M
1965-01-01
The Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis, Volume 1 is a textbook that provides a systematic and rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of mathematical analysis. Emphasis is placed on the concept of limit which plays a principal role in mathematical analysis. Examples of the application of mathematical analysis to geometry, mechanics, physics, and engineering are given. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a discussion on real numbers, their properties and applications, and arithmetical operations over real numbers. The reader is then introduced to the concept of function, i
Spectrally accurate contour dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.
1994-01-01
We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use
Statistical inference involving binomial and negative binomial parameters.
García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente
2009-05-01
Statistical inference about two binomial parameters implies that they are both estimated by binomial sampling. There are occasions in which one aims at testing the equality of two binomial parameters before and after the occurrence of the first success along a sequence of Bernoulli trials. In these cases, the binomial parameter before the first success is estimated by negative binomial sampling whereas that after the first success is estimated by binomial sampling, and both estimates are related. This paper derives statistical tools to test two hypotheses, namely, that both binomial parameters equal some specified value and that both parameters are equal though unknown. Simulation studies are used to show that in small samples both tests are accurate in keeping the nominal Type-I error rates, and also to determine sample size requirements to detect large, medium, and small effects with adequate power. Additional simulations also show that the tests are sufficiently robust to certain violations of their assumptions.
Shareholders' Fundamental Rights in Listed Companies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Werlauff, Erik
2017-01-01
There can be no reasonable doubt that the EU’s initiatives in the field of shareholders’ fundamental rights in listed companies are among the successful, relevant and necessary provisions under EU corporate and stock exchange law. This also holds true for the main Directive 2007/36. When consider......There can be no reasonable doubt that the EU’s initiatives in the field of shareholders’ fundamental rights in listed companies are among the successful, relevant and necessary provisions under EU corporate and stock exchange law. This also holds true for the main Directive 2007/36. When...... considering the whole spirit and idea of the EU and its competences, the field of basic shareholders’ rights, including cross-border shareholding, is to be regarded as a welcome initiative that has facilitated the exercise of fundamental rights also in cross-border shareholding. The success is further...... emphasized by the fact that some countries, including Denmark, have regarded a number of the fundamental rights vested in the directive as being so well formulated that the countries have chosen to gold-plate their own legislation by introducing rights which are similar to those in the directive also for non...
Default Bayesian Estimation of the Fundamental Frequency
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2013-01-01
Joint fundamental frequency and model order esti- mation is an important problem in several applications. In this paper, a default estimation algorithm based on a minimum of prior information is presented. The algorithm is developed in a Bayesian framework, and it can be applied to both real....... Moreover, several approximations of the posterior distributions on the fundamental frequency and the model order are derived, and one of the state-of-the-art joint fundamental frequency and model order estimators is demonstrated to be a special case of one of these approximations. The performance...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuda, Shin; Kanoh, Eiji; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Niki, Shoji
2009-01-01
We investigated the accuracy limitation of a wavelength meter installed in a vacuum chamber to enable us to develop a highly accurate meter based on a Michelson interferometer in 1550 nm optical communication bands. We found that an error of parts per million order could not be avoided using famous wavelength compensation equations. Chromatic dispersion of the refractive index in air can almost be disregarded when a 1560 nm wavelength produced by a rubidium (Rb) stabilized distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser is used as a reference wavelength. We describe a novel dual-wavelength self-calibration scheme that maintains high accuracy of the wavelength meter. The method uses the fundamental and second-harmonic wavelengths of an Rb-stabilized DFB diode laser. Consequently, a highly accurate Michelson type wavelength meter with an absolute accuracy of 5x10 -8 (10 MHz, 0.08 pm) over a wide wavelength range including optical communication bands was achieved without the need for a vacuum chamber.
Identification of Synchronous Generator Electric Parameters Connected to the Distribution Grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frolov M. Yu.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available According to modern trends, the power grids with distributed generation will have an open system architecture. It means that active consumers, owners of distributed power units, including mobile units, must have free access to the grid, like when using internet, so it is necessary to have plug and play technologies. Thanks to them, the system will be able to identify the unit type and the unit parameters. Therefore, the main aim of research, described in the paper, was to develop and research a new method of electric parameters identification of synchronous generator. The main feature of the proposed method is that parameter identification is performed while the generator to the grid, so it fits in the technological process of operation of the machine and does not influence on the connection time of the machine. For the implementation of the method, it is not necessary to create dangerous operation modes for the machine or to have additional expensive equipment and it can be used for salient pole machines and round rotor machines. The parameter identification accuracy can be achieved by more accurate account of electromechanical transient process, and making of overdetermined system with many more numbers of equations. Parameter identification will be made with each generator connection to the grid. Comparing data obtained from each connection, the middle values can be find by numerical method, and thus, each subsequent identification will accurate the machine parameters.
Online Support Vector Regression with Varying Parameters for Time-Dependent Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Jeong, Myong K.; Badiru, Adedeji B.
2011-01-01
Support vector regression (SVR) is a machine learning technique that continues to receive interest in several domains including manufacturing, engineering, and medicine. In order to extend its application to problems in which datasets arrive constantly and in which batch processing of the datasets is infeasible or expensive, an accurate online support vector regression (AOSVR) technique was proposed. The AOSVR technique efficiently updates a trained SVR function whenever a sample is added to or removed from the training set without retraining the entire training data. However, the AOSVR technique assumes that the new samples and the training samples are of the same characteristics; hence, the same value of SVR parameters is used for training and prediction. This assumption is not applicable to data samples that are inherently noisy and non-stationary such as sensor data. As a result, we propose Accurate On-line Support Vector Regression with Varying Parameters (AOSVR-VP) that uses varying SVR parameters rather than fixed SVR parameters, and hence accounts for the variability that may exist in the samples. To accomplish this objective, we also propose a generalized weight function to automatically update the weights of SVR parameters in on-line monitoring applications. The proposed function allows for lower and upper bounds for SVR parameters. We tested our proposed approach and compared results with the conventional AOSVR approach using two benchmark time series data and sensor data from nuclear power plant. The results show that using varying SVR parameters is more applicable to time dependent data.
Methane spectral line widths and shifts, and dependences on physical parameters
Fox, K.; Quillen, D. T.; Jennings, D. E.; Wagner, J.; Plymate, C.
1991-01-01
A detailed report of the recent high-resolution spectroscopic research on widths and shifts measured for a strong infrared-active fundamental of methane is presented. They were measured in collision with several rare gases and diatomic molecules, in the vibrational-rotational fundamental near 3000/cm. These measurements were made at an ambient temperature of 294 K over a range of pressures from 100 to 700 torr. The measurements are discussed in a preliminary but detailed and quantitative manner with reference to masses, polarizabilities, and quadrupole moments. Some functional dependences on these physical parameters are considered. The present data are useful for studies of corresponding planetary spectra.
Unified composite model of all fundamental particles and forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terazawa, H.
2000-01-01
The unified supersymmetric composite model of all fundamental particles (and forces) including not only the fundamental fermions (quarks and leptons) but also the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs scalars) is reviewed in detail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Érika do Amaral Véras
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This legal article works the theme of the collision of the fundamental principles, especially the principle of human dignity and the right to life, abortion perspective. First, we discuss of fundamental rights, bringing its definition, observed the distinction between human rights and fundamental rights. Then the super principle of human dignity is covered and, soon after, the right to life is highlighted through its relevant elements. Finally, talks on a possible collision beween the fundamental right to life and the principle of human dignity, with a special focus on the issue of abortion.
Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design
Miller, Owen Dennis
Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to become a part of all future designs. The second half of the dissertation introduces inverse design as a new computational paradigm in photonics. An assortment of techniques (FDTD, FEM, etc.) have enabled quick and accurate simulation of the "forward problem" of finding fields for a given geometry. However, scientists and engineers are typically more interested in the inverse problem: for a desired functionality, what geometry is needed? Answering this question breaks from the emphasis on the forward problem and forges a new path in computational photonics. The framework of shape calculus enables one to quickly find superior, non-intuitive designs. Novel designs for optical cloaking and sub-wavelength solar cell applications are presented.
48 CFR 9904.416-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement..., OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.416-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The amount of...
48 CFR 9904.413-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement..., OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) Assignment of...
48 CFR 9904.417-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.417-40 Fundamental requirement. The cost of money applicable to the investment in tangible and intangible capital assets being constructed, fabricated, or...
48 CFR 9905.501-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501-40 Fundamental... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement. 9905.501-40 Section 9905.501-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...
48 CFR 9905.502-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502-40 Fundamental... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement. 9905.502-40 Section 9905.502-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...
48 CFR 9905.506-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.506-40 Fundamental... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement. 9905.506-40 Section 9905.506-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongzhuan Zhao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available With the enrichment of perception methods, modern transportation system has many physical objects whose states are influenced by many information factors so that it is a typical Cyber-Physical System (CPS. Thus, the traffic information is generally multi-sourced, heterogeneous and hierarchical. Existing research results show that the multisourced traffic information through accurate classification in the process of information fusion can achieve better parameters forecasting performance. For solving the problem of traffic information accurate classification, via analysing the characteristics of the multi-sourced traffic information and using redefined binary tree to overcome the shortcomings of the original Support Vector Machine (SVM classification in information fusion, a multi-classification method using improved SVM in information fusion for traffic parameters forecasting is proposed. The experiment was conducted to examine the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results reveal that the method can get more accurate and practical outcomes.
Possible constraints on SUSY-model parameters from direct dark matter search
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bednyakov, V.A.; Kovalenko, S.G.
1993-01-01
We consider the SUSY-model neutralino as a dominant Dark Matter particle in the galactic halo and investigate some general issues of direct DM searches via elastic neutralino-nucleus scattering. On the basis of conventional assumptions about the nuclear and nucleon structure, without referring to a specific SUSY-model, we prove that it is impossible in principle to extract more than three constrains on fundamental SUSY-model parameters from the direct Dark Matter searches. Three types of Dark Matter detector probing different groups of parameters are recognized. 21 refs., 1 tab
Estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Massinaei
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The estimation of metallurgical parameters of flotation process from froth visual features is the ultimate goal of a machine vision based control system. In this study, a batch flotation system was operated under different process conditions and metallurgical parameters and froth image data were determined simultaneously. Algorithms have been developed for measuring textural and physical froth features from the captured images. The correlation between the froth features and metallurgical parameters was successfully modeled, using artificial neural networks. It has been shown that the performance parameters of flotation process can be accurately estimated from the extracted image features, which is of great importance for developing automatic control systems.
Structural parameter optimization design for Halbach permanent maglev rail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, F.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.
2010-01-01
Maglev rail is an important part of the magnetic levitation launch system. Reducing the manufacturing cost of magnetic levitation rail is the key problem for the development of magnetic levitation launch system. The Halbach permanent array has an advantage that the fundamental spatial field is cancelled on one side of the array while the field on the other side is enhanced. So this array used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent maglev rail could improve the surface magnetic field and the levitation force. In order to make the best use of Nd-Fe-B (NdFeB) material and reduce the cost of maglev rail, the effect of the rail's structural parameters on levitation force and the utilization rate of NdFeB material are analyzed. The optimal ranges of these structural parameters are obtained. The mutual impact of these parameters is also discussed. The optimization method of these structure parameters is proposed at the end of this paper.
Structural parameter optimization design for Halbach permanent maglev rail
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, F., E-mail: guofang19830119@163.co [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J. [R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2010-11-01
Maglev rail is an important part of the magnetic levitation launch system. Reducing the manufacturing cost of magnetic levitation rail is the key problem for the development of magnetic levitation launch system. The Halbach permanent array has an advantage that the fundamental spatial field is cancelled on one side of the array while the field on the other side is enhanced. So this array used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent maglev rail could improve the surface magnetic field and the levitation force. In order to make the best use of Nd-Fe-B (NdFeB) material and reduce the cost of maglev rail, the effect of the rail's structural parameters on levitation force and the utilization rate of NdFeB material are analyzed. The optimal ranges of these structural parameters are obtained. The mutual impact of these parameters is also discussed. The optimization method of these structure parameters is proposed at the end of this paper.
A Kalman-based Fundamental Frequency Estimation Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shi, Liming; Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Jesper Rindom
2017-01-01
Fundamental frequency estimation is an important task in speech and audio analysis. Harmonic model-based methods typically have superior estimation accuracy. However, such methods usually as- sume that the fundamental frequency and amplitudes are station- ary over a short time frame. In this pape...
48 CFR 9904.420-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement..., OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.420-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The basic unit for...
48 CFR 9904.411-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.411-40 Fundamental requirement. (a) The contractor shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement. 9904.411-40 Section 9904.411-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...
48 CFR 9904.402-40 - Fundamental requirement.
2010-10-01
... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-40 Fundamental requirement. All costs incurred for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirement. 9904.402-40 Section 9904.402-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...
48 CFR 9904.418-40 - Fundamental requirements.
2010-10-01
... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418-40 Fundamental requirements. (a) A business unit... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fundamental requirements. 9904.418-40 Section 9904.418-40 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD...
Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung
2015-04-09
In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user's muscular effort is important to recognize the user's motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users' muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user's limb accurately from the measured torque. The user's limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user's muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.
A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beomsoo Hwang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.
Hak, C.C.J.M.; Hoekstra, N.; Nicolai, B.; Wenmaekers, R.H.C.
2016-01-01
Selecting an appropriate method for measuring ‘normal’ indoor concert hall acoustics is always a trade-off between time, stimulus type, number of measurements and measurement quality. For ISO 3382 room acoustic parameters to be derived accurately from impulse responses, this tradeoff aims at a
Dopheide, D.; Taux, G.; Krey, E.-A.
1990-01-01
In the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), a research test facility for the accurate measurement of gas (volume and mass) flowrates has been set up in the last few years on the basis of a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) with a view to directly measuring gas flowrates with a relative uncertainty of only 0,1%. To achieve this, it was necessary to develop laser Doppler anemometry into a precision measuring technique and to carry out detailed investigations on stationary low-turbulence nozzle flow. The process-computer controlled test facility covers the flowrate range from 100 to 4000 m3/h (~0,03 - 1,0 m3/s), any flowrate being measured directly, immediately and without staggered arrangement of several flow meters. After the development was completed, several turbine-type gas meters were calibrated and international comparisons carried out. The article surveys the most significant aspects of the work and provides an outlook on future developments with regard to the miniaturization of optical flow and flowrate sensors for industrial applications.
Overview of the fundamental safety principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chishinga, Milton Mulenga
2015-02-01
The primary objective of this work was to provide an overview of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) document; 'Fundamental Safety principles, SF.1'. The document outlines ten (10) fundamental principles which provide the basis for an effective the radiation protection framework. The document is the topmost in the hierarchy of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. These principles are the foundation of the nuclear safety put stringent obligations on Parties under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The fundamental Safety objective of protecting people individually and collectively and the environment has to be achieved without unduly limiting the operation of facilities or the conduct of activities that give rise to risks. The thematic areas covered are; responsibility for safety, role of government, leadership and management for safety, justification of facilities and activities, optimization of protection, limitation of risks to individuals, protection of present and future generations, prevention of accidents, emergency preparedness and response and protective actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. Appropriate recommendations have been provided for effective application of the principles by Governments, Regulatory Bodies and Operating Organizations of facilities and Nuclear Installations the give rise to radiation risks. (au)
Temperature dependence of the fundamental excitonic resonance in lead-salt quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue, Fangyu; Tomm, Jens W.; Kruschke, Detlef; Ullrich, Bruno; Chu, Junhao
2015-01-01
The temperature dependences of the fundamental excitonic resonance in PbS and PbSe quantum dots fabricated by various technologies are experimentally determined. Above ∼150 K, sub-linearities of the temperature shifts and halfwidths are observed. This behavior is analyzed within the existing standard models. Concordant modeling, however, becomes possible only within the frame of a three-level system that takes into account both bright and dark excitonic states as well as phonon-assisted carrier redistribution between these states. Our results show that luminescence characterization of lead-salt quantum dots necessarily requires both low temperatures and excitation densities in order to provide reliable ensemble parameters
Four-parameter model for polarization-resolved rough-surface BRDF.
Renhorn, Ingmar G E; Hallberg, Tomas; Bergström, David; Boreman, Glenn D
2011-01-17
A modeling procedure is demonstrated, which allows representation of polarization-resolved BRDF data using only four parameters: the real and imaginary parts of an effective refractive index with an added parameter taking grazing incidence absorption into account and an angular-scattering parameter determined from the BRDF measurement of a chosen angle of incidence, preferably close to normal incidence. These parameters allow accurate predictions of s- and p-polarized BRDF for a painted rough surface, over three decades of variation in BRDF magnitude. To characterize any particular surface of interest, the measurements required to determine these four parameters are the directional hemispherical reflectance (DHR) for s- and p-polarized input radiation and the BRDF at a selected angle of incidence. The DHR data describes the angular and polarization dependence, as well as providing the overall normalization constraint. The resulting model conserves energy and fulfills the reciprocity criteria.
Fundamentals of electrochemical science
Oldham, Keith
1993-01-01
Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Townsend, R.P.
1993-01-01
In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)
An adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy for multispectral bioluminescence tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jinchao; Qin Chenghu; Jia Kebin; Han Dong; Liu Kai; Zhu Shouping; Yang Xin; Tian Jie [Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2728, Beijing 100190 (China) and School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)
2011-11-15
rather than monochromatic data. Furthermore, the study conducted using an adaptive regularization parameter demonstrated our ability to accurately localize the bioluminescent source. With the adaptively estimated regularization parameter, the reconstructed center position of the source was (20.37, 31.05, 12.95) mm, and the distance to the real source was 0.63 mm. The results of the dual-source experiments further showed that our algorithm could localize the bioluminescent sources accurately. The authors then presented experimental evidence that the proposed algorithm exhibited its calculated efficiency over the heuristic method. The effectiveness of the new algorithm was also confirmed by comparing it with the L-curve method. Furthermore, various initial speculations regarding the regularization parameter were used to illustrate the convergence of our algorithm. Finally, in vivo mouse experiment further illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions: Utilizing numerical, physical phantom and in vivo examples, we demonstrated that the bioluminescent sources could be reconstructed accurately with automatic regularization parameters. The proposed algorithm exhibited superior performance than both the heuristic regularization parameter choice method and L-curve method based on the computational speed and localization error.
Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Volume 1
Jue, Thomas
2009-01-01
HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume I: Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Editor Thomas Jue, PhD In Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics, prominent professors have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Mathematical Methods in Biophysics Quantum Mechanics Basic to Biophysical Methods Computational Modeling of Receptor–Ligand Binding and Cellular Signaling Processes Fluorescence Spectroscopy Elec...
Different Vocal Parameters Predict Perceptions of Dominance and Attractiveness
Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R.; Gaulin, Steven J. C.; Puts, David A.
2010-01-01
Low mean fundamental frequency (F 0) in men’s voices has been found to positively influence perceptions of dominance by men and attractiveness by women using standardized speech. Using natural speech obtained during an ecologically valid social interaction, we examined relationships between multiple vocal parameters and dominance and attractiveness judgments. Male voices from an unscripted dating game were judged by men for physical and social dominance and by women in fert...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, A.C.D.
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations
Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owens, Alec; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan; Thiel, Walter
2015-01-01
Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH 3 35 Cl and CH 3 37 Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35 HL , and CBS-37 HL , are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY 3 Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35 HL and CBS-37 HL PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm −1 , respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH 3 Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs
Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong
2011-04-12
This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm - 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin.
An accurate analytical solution of a zero-dimensional greenhouse model for global warming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foong, S K
2006-01-01
In introducing the complex subject of global warming, books and papers usually use the zero-dimensional greenhouse model. When the ratio of the infrared radiation energy of the Earth's surface that is lost to outer space to the non-reflected average solar radiation energy is small, the model admits an accurate approximate analytical solution-the resulting energy balance equation of the model is a quartic equation that can be solved analytically-and thus provides an alternative solution and instructional strategy. A search through the literature fails to find an analytical solution, suggesting that the solution may be new. In this paper, we review the model, derive the approximation and obtain its solution. The dependence of the temperature of the surface of the Earth and the temperature of the atmosphere on seven parameters is made explicit. A simple and convenient formula for global warming (or cooling) in terms of the percentage change of the parameters is derived. The dependence of the surface temperature on the parameters is illustrated by several representative graphs
Geotechnical parameters for three deep ocean study areas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholson, D.P.
1989-01-01
This chapter summarizes the results of geotechnical measurements made on cores taken at the three deep ocean sites that have been studied in detail as part of the international programme assessing the feasibility of deep ocean disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste. The capabilities of existing sampling methods and the adequacy of the available data for providing the geotechnical parameters needed to evaluate the technical feasibility of deep ocean disposal are discussed. It is concluded that, while it has not been possible to obtain core samples of sufficient quality and depth to provide all the parameters needed for the assessment, no fundamental differences between the sediments at the study areas and those found on land or in shallow water have been identified. (author)
How to Select the most Relevant Roughness Parameters of a Surface: Methodology Research Strategy
Bobrovskij, I. N.
2018-01-01
In this paper, the foundations for new methodology creation which provides solving problem of surfaces structure new standards parameters huge amount conflicted with necessary actual floors quantity of surfaces structure parameters which is related to measurement complexity decreasing are considered. At the moment, there is no single assessment of the importance of a parameters. The approval of presented methodology for aerospace cluster components surfaces allows to create necessary foundation, to develop scientific estimation of surfaces texture parameters, to obtain material for investigators of chosen technological procedure. The methods necessary for further work, the creation of a fundamental reserve and development as a scientific direction for assessing the significance of microgeometry parameters are selected.
Kim, Gun; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly E.; Jacobs, Laurence J.
2015-03-01
This research experimentally investigates the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to microcracks in cement-based materials. Based on the second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, an experimental setup using non-contact, air-coupled detection is used to receive the consistent Rayleigh surface waves. To induce variations in the extent of microscale cracking in two types of specimens (concrete and mortar), shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA), is used in one set, while a companion specimen is prepared without SRA. A 50 kHz wedge transducer and a 100 kHz air-coupled transducer are implemented for the generation and detection of nonlinear Rayleigh waves. It is shown that the air-coupled detection method provides more repeatable fundamental and second harmonic amplitudes of the propagating Rayleigh waves. The obtained amplitudes are then used to calculate the relative nonlinearity parameter βre, the ratio of the second harmonic amplitude to the square of the fundamental amplitude. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the nonlinearity parameter (βre) is highly sensitive to the microstructural changes in cement-based materials than the Rayleigh phase velocity and attenuation and that SRA has great potential to avoid shrinkage cracking in cement-based materials.
Fundamental matters on radiation risk communication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shinohara, Kunihiko; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Yonezawa, Rika; Ohuchi, Hiroko; Chikamoto, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Kazufumi; Morimoto, Eriko
2009-01-01
In the field of atomic energy and radiation utilization, radiation risk is considered as one of the social uneasy factors. About the perception of risks, there is a gap between experts and general public (non-experts). It is said that the general public tends to be going to judge risk from intuitive fear and a visible concrete instance whereas the experts judge it scientifically. A company, an administration or experts should disclose relating information about the risks and communicate interactively with the stakeholders to find the way to solve the problem with thinking together. This process is called 'risk communication'. The role of the expert is important on enforcement of risk communication. They should be required to explain the information on the risks with plain words to help stakeholders understand the risks properly. The Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) is the largest academic society for radiation protection professionals in Japan, and one of its missions is supposed to convey accurate and trustworthy information about the radiation risk to the general public. The expert group on risk communication of ionizing radiation of the JHPS has worked for the purpose of summarizing the fundamental matters on radiation risk communication. 'Lecture on risk communication for the members of the JHPS.' which has been up on the JHPS web-site, and the symposium of 'For better understanding of radiation risk.' are a part of the activities. The expert group proposes that the JHPS should enlighten the members continuously for being interested in and practicing risk communication of radiation. (author)
Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quintiere, James
analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...
Industrial separation processes : fundamentals
Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans
2013-01-01
Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,
Fundamentals of plasma physics
Bittencourt, J A
1986-01-01
A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.
Analysis of Camera Parameters Value in Various Object Distances Calibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yusoff, Ahmad Razali; Ariff, Mohd Farid Mohd; Idris, Khairulnizam M; Majid, Zulkepli; Setan, Halim; Chong, Albert K
2014-01-01
In photogrammetric applications, good camera parameters are needed for mapping purpose such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that encompassed with non-metric camera devices. Simple camera calibration was being a common application in many laboratory works in order to get the camera parameter's value. In aerial mapping, interior camera parameters' value from close-range camera calibration is used to correct the image error. However, the causes and effects of the calibration steps used to get accurate mapping need to be analyze. Therefore, this research aims to contribute an analysis of camera parameters from portable calibration frame of 1.5 × 1 meter dimension size. Object distances of two, three, four, five, and six meters are the research focus. Results are analyzed to find out the changes in image and camera parameters' value. Hence, camera calibration parameter's of a camera is consider different depend on type of calibration parameters and object distances
Instrumental parameters' determination in a fluorescences X-ray Philips PW 1400 equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, J.M.; Fasio, I.; Baronio, N.; Viola, M.
1987-01-01
The instrumental parameters of a Philips PW 1400 equipment wavelengths dispersive are determined; fundamentally, those related to the equipment's accuracy (stability at a very short, short and long term drift) as well as to those related to the detection system (dead time, detector's cleaning and detection limit). (S.M.) [es
Gliese, U.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Kujawski, J. T.; Mariano, A. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Chornay, D. J.; Cao, N. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.;
2015-01-01
system calibration method that enables accurate and repeatable measurement and calibration of MCP gain, MCP efficiency, signal loss due to variation in gain and efficiency, crosstalk from effects both above and below the MCP, noise margin, and stability margin in one single measurement. More precise calibration is highly desirable as the instruments will produce higher quality raw data that will require less post-acquisition data correction using results from in-flight pitch angle distribution measurements and ground calibration measurements. The detection system description and the fundamental concepts of this new calibration method, named threshold scan, will be presented. It will be shown how to derive all the individual detection system parameters and how to choose the optimum detection system operating point. This new method has been successfully applied to achieve a highly accurate calibration of the DESs and DISs of the MMS mission. The practical application of the method will be presented together with the achieved calibration results and their significance. Finally, it will be shown that, with further detailed modeling, this method can be extended for use in flight to achieve and maintain a highly accurate detection system calibration across a large number of instruments during the mission.
Systematic Biases in Parameter Estimation of Binary Black-Hole Mergers
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Baker, John G.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kelly, Bernard J.
2012-01-01
Parameter estimation of binary-black-hole merger events in gravitational-wave data relies on matched filtering techniques, which, in turn, depend on accurate model waveforms. Here we characterize the systematic biases introduced in measuring astrophysical parameters of binary black holes by applying the currently most accurate effective-one-body templates to simulated data containing non-spinning numerical-relativity waveforms. For advanced ground-based detectors, we find that the systematic biases are well within the statistical error for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). These biases grow to be comparable to the statistical errors at high signal-to-noise ratios for ground-based instruments (SNR approximately 50) but never dominate the error budget. At the much larger signal-to-noise ratios expected for space-based detectors, these biases will become large compared to the statistical errors but are small enough (at most a few percent in the black-hole masses) that we expect they should not affect broad astrophysical conclusions that may be drawn from the data.
Experimental evaluation of a modal parameter based system identification procedure
Yu, Minli; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.
2016-02-01
Correct modelling of the foundation of a rotor bearing foundation system (RBFS) is an invaluable asset for the balancing and efficient running of turbomachinery. Numerical experiments have shown that a modal parameter based identification approach could be feasible for this purpose but there is a lack of experimental verification of the suitability of such a modal approach for even the simplest systems. In this paper the approach is tested on a simple experimental rig comprising a clamped horizontal bar with lumped masses. It is shown that apart from damping, the proposed approach can identify reasonably accurately the relevant modal parameters of the rig; and that the resulting equivalent system can predict reasonably well the frequency response of the rig. Hence, the proposed approach shows promise but further testing is required, since application to identifying the foundation of an RBFS involves the additional problem of accurately obtaining the force excitation from motion measurements.
Parameters and design optimization of the ring piezoelectric ceramic transformer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Erhart
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Main aim of the presented paper is the theoretical analysis and experimental verification of the transformation parameters for the new type of nonhomogeneously poled ring transformer. The input part is poled in the thickness direction and output part in the radial direction. Two transformer geometries are studied — the input part is at inner ring segment, or it is at the outer ring segment. The optimum electrode size aspect ratios have been found experimentally as d1∕D≈0.60−0.65 for the ring with aspect ratio d∕D=0.2. The fundamental as well as higher overtone resonances were studied for the transformation ratio, the optimum resistive load, efficiency and no-load transformation ratio. Higher overtones have better transformation parameters compared to the fundamental resonance. The new type ring transformer exhibits very high transformation ratios up to 200 under no-load and up to 13.4 under a high efficiency of 97% at the optimum load conditions of 10 kΩ. Strong electric field gradient at the output circuit is applicable for the electrical discharge generation.
Accurate van der Waals force field for gas adsorption in porous materials.
Sun, Lei; Yang, Li; Zhang, Ya-Dong; Shi, Qi; Lu, Rui-Feng; Deng, Wei-Qiao
2017-09-05
An accurate van der Waals force field (VDW FF) was derived from highly precise quantum mechanical (QM) calculations. Small molecular clusters were used to explore van der Waals interactions between gas molecules and porous materials. The parameters of the accurate van der Waals force field were determined by QM calculations. To validate the force field, the prediction results from the VDW FF were compared with standard FFs, such as UFF, Dreiding, Pcff, and Compass. The results from the VDW FF were in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements. This force field can be applied to the prediction of the gas density (H 2 , CO 2 , C 2 H 4 , CH 4 , N 2 , O 2 ) and adsorption performance inside porous materials, such as covalent organic frameworks (COFs), zeolites and metal organic frameworks (MOFs), consisting of H, B, N, C, O, S, Si, Al, Zn, Mg, Ni, and Co. This work provides a solid basis for studying gas adsorption in porous materials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hartveit, Espen; Veruki, Margaret Lin
2010-03-15
Accurate measurement of the junctional conductance (G(j)) between electrically coupled cells can provide important information about the functional properties of coupling. With the development of tight-seal, whole-cell recording, it became possible to use dual, single-electrode voltage-clamp recording from pairs of small cells to measure G(j). Experiments that require reduced perturbation of the intracellular environment can be performed with high-resistance pipettes or the perforated-patch technique, but an accompanying increase in series resistance (R(s)) compromises voltage-clamp control and reduces the accuracy of G(j) measurements. Here, we present a detailed analysis of methodologies available for accurate determination of steady-state G(j) and related parameters under conditions of high R(s), using continuous or discontinuous single-electrode voltage-clamp (CSEVC or DSEVC) amplifiers to quantify the parameters of different equivalent electrical circuit model cells. Both types of amplifiers can provide accurate measurements of G(j), with errors less than 5% for a wide range of R(s) and G(j) values. However, CSEVC amplifiers need to be combined with R(s)-compensation or mathematical correction for the effects of nonzero R(s) and finite membrane resistance (R(m)). R(s)-compensation is difficult for higher values of R(s) and leads to instability that can damage the recorded cells. Mathematical correction for R(s) and R(m) yields highly accurate results, but depends on accurate estimates of R(s) throughout an experiment. DSEVC amplifiers display very accurate measurements over a larger range of R(s) values than CSEVC amplifiers and have the advantage that knowledge of R(s) is unnecessary, suggesting that they are preferable for long-duration experiments and/or recordings with high R(s). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fast and Accurate Prediction of Stratified Steel Temperature During Holding Period of Ladle
Deodhar, Anirudh; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rishabh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.
2017-04-01
Thermal stratification of liquid steel in a ladle during the holding period and the teeming operation has a direct bearing on the superheat available at the caster and hence on the caster set points such as casting speed and cooling rates. The changes in the caster set points are typically carried out based on temperature measurements at the end of tundish outlet. Thermal prediction models provide advance knowledge of the influence of process and design parameters on the steel temperature at various stages. Therefore, they can be used in making accurate decisions about the caster set points in real time. However, this requires both fast and accurate thermal prediction models. In this work, we develop a surrogate model for the prediction of thermal stratification using data extracted from a set of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, pre-determined using design of experiments technique. Regression method is used for training the predictor. The model predicts the stratified temperature profile instantaneously, for a given set of process parameters such as initial steel temperature, refractory heat content, slag thickness, and holding time. More than 96 pct of the predicted values are within an error range of ±5 K (±5 °C), when compared against corresponding CFD results. Considering its accuracy and computational efficiency, the model can be extended for thermal control of casting operations. This work also sets a benchmark for developing similar thermal models for downstream processes such as tundish and caster.
Latent Fundamentals Arbitrage with a Mixed Effects Factor Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Salem Gonçalves
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We propose a single-factor mixed effects panel data model to create an arbitrage portfolio that identifies differences in firm-level latent fundamentals. Furthermore, we show that even though the characteristics that affect returns are unknown variables, it is possible to identify the strength of the combination of these latent fundamentals for each stock by following a simple approach using historical data. As a result, a trading strategy that bought the stocks with the best fundamentals (strong fundamentals portfolio and sold the stocks with the worst ones (weak fundamentals portfolio realized significant risk-adjusted returns in the U.S. market for the period between July 1986 and June 2008. To ensure robustness, we performed sub period and seasonal analyses and adjusted for trading costs and we found further empirical evidence that using a simple investment rule, that identified these latent fundamentals from the structure of past returns, can lead to profit.
Accurate Evaluation of Quantum Integrals
Galant, D. C.; Goorvitch, D.; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Combining an appropriate finite difference method with Richardson's extrapolation results in a simple, highly accurate numerical method for solving a Schrodinger's equation. Important results are that error estimates are provided, and that one can extrapolate expectation values rather than the wavefunctions to obtain highly accurate expectation values. We discuss the eigenvalues, the error growth in repeated Richardson's extrapolation, and show that the expectation values calculated on a crude mesh can be extrapolated to obtain expectation values of high accuracy.
Parameter Estimation of Spacecraft Fuel Slosh Model
Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marlowe, Andrea; Njengam Charles
2004-01-01
Fuel slosh in the upper stages of a spinning spacecraft during launch has been a long standing concern for the success of a space mission. Energy loss through the movement of the liquid fuel in the fuel tank affects the gyroscopic stability of the spacecraft and leads to nutation (wobble) which can cause devastating control issues. The rate at which nutation develops (defined by Nutation Time Constant (NTC can be tedious to calculate and largely inaccurate if done during the early stages of spacecraft design. Pure analytical means of predicting the influence of onboard liquids have generally failed. A strong need exists to identify and model the conditions of resonance between nutation motion and liquid modes and to understand the general characteristics of the liquid motion that causes the problem in spinning spacecraft. A 3-D computerized model of the fuel slosh that accounts for any resonant modes found in the experimental testing will allow for increased accuracy in the overall modeling process. Development of a more accurate model of the fuel slosh currently lies in a more generalized 3-D computerized model incorporating masses, springs and dampers. Parameters describing the model include the inertia tensor of the fuel, spring constants, and damper coefficients. Refinement and understanding the effects of these parameters allow for a more accurate simulation of fuel slosh. The current research will focus on developing models of different complexity and estimating the model parameters that will ultimately provide a more realistic prediction of Nutation Time Constant obtained through simulation.
Ismail, Ahmad Muhaimin; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Abdul Majid, Hairudin; Abas, Khairul Hamimah; Deris, Safaai; Zaki, Nazar; Mohd Hashim, Siti Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Remli, Muhammad Akmal
2017-12-01
Mathematical modelling is fundamental to understand the dynamic behavior and regulation of the biochemical metabolisms and pathways that are found in biological systems. Pathways are used to describe complex processes that involve many parameters. It is important to have an accurate and complete set of parameters that describe the characteristics of a given model. However, measuring these parameters is typically difficult and even impossible in some cases. Furthermore, the experimental data are often incomplete and also suffer from experimental noise. These shortcomings make it challenging to identify the best-fit parameters that can represent the actual biological processes involved in biological systems. Computational approaches are required to estimate these parameters. The estimation is converted into multimodal optimization problems that require a global optimization algorithm that can avoid local solutions. These local solutions can lead to a bad fit when calibrating with a model. Although the model itself can potentially match a set of experimental data, a high-performance estimation algorithm is required to improve the quality of the solutions. This paper describes an improved hybrid of particle swarm optimization and the gravitational search algorithm (IPSOGSA) to improve the efficiency of a global optimum (the best set of kinetic parameter values) search. The findings suggest that the proposed algorithm is capable of narrowing down the search space by exploiting the feasible solution areas. Hence, the proposed algorithm is able to achieve a near-optimal set of parameters at a fast convergence speed. The proposed algorithm was tested and evaluated based on two aspartate pathways that were obtained from the BioModels Database. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperformed other standard optimization algorithms in terms of accuracy and near-optimal kinetic parameter estimation. Nevertheless, the proposed algorithm is only expected to work well in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, Yoshitaka; Todaka, Takashi; Shimoji, Hiroyasu; Enokizono, Masato; Sievert, Johanes
2006-01-01
Recently, two-dimensional vector magnetic measurement has become popular and many researchers concerned with this field have attracted to develop more accurate measuring systems and standard measurement systems. Because the two-dimensional vector magnetic property is the relationship between the magnetic flux density vector B and the magnetic field strength vector H , the most important parameter is those components. For the accurate measurement of the field strength vector, we have developed an evaluation apparatus, which consists of a standard solenoid coil and a high-precision turntable. Angle errors of a double H-coil (a cross-type H-coil), which is wound one after the other around a former, can be evaluated with this apparatus. The magnetic field strength is compensated with the measured angle error
Grenoble Fundamental Research Department
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
A summary of the various activities of the Fundamental Research Institute, Grenoble, France is given. The following fields are covered: Nuclear physics, solid state physics, physical chemistry, biology and advanced techniques. Fore more detailed descriptions readers are referred to scientific literature [fr
Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín
2016-01-01
of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...
Effective and accurate processing and inversion of airborne electromagnetic data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Andersen, Kristoffer Rønne
Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data is used throughout the world for mapping of mineral targets and groundwater resources. The development of technology and inversion algorithms has been tremendously over the last decade and results from these surveys are high-resolution images of the subsurface....... In this keynote talk, we discuss an effective inversion algorithm, which is both subjected to intense research and development as well as production. This is the well know Laterally Constrained Inversion (LCI) and Spatial Constrained Inversion algorithm. The same algorithm is also used in a voxel setup (3D model......) and for sheet inversions. An integral part of these different model discretization is an accurate modelling of the system transfer function and of auxiliary parameters like flight altitude, bird pitch,etc....
Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.
Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M
2009-11-01
A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.
Monte Carlo simulation of core physics parameters of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jonah, S.A. [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, P.M.B. 1014 (Nigeria)], E-mail: jonahsa2001@yahoo.com; Liaw, J.R.; Matos, J.E. [RERTR Program, Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2007-12-15
The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code, version 4C (MCNP4C) and a set of neutron cross-section data were used to develop an accurate three-dimensional computational model of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1). The geometry of the reactor core was modeled as closely as possible including the details of all the fuel elements, reactivity regulators, the control rod, all irradiation channels, and Be reflectors. The following reactor core physics parameters were calculated for the present highly enriched uranium (HEU) core: clean cold core excess reactivity ({rho}{sub ex}), control rod (CR) and shim worth, shut down margin (SDM), neutron flux distributions in the irradiation channels, reactivity feedback coefficients and the kinetics parameters. The HEU input model was validated by experimental data from the final safety analyses report (SAR). The model predicted various key neutronics parameters fairly accurately and the calculated thermal neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels agree with the values obtained by foil activation method. Results indicate that the established Monte Carlo model is an accurate representation of the NIRR-1 HEU core and will be used to perform feasibility for conversion to low enriched uranium (LEU)
Roger, J. C.; Vermote, E.; Holben, B. N.
2014-12-01
The land surface reflectance is a fundamental climate data record at the basis of the derivation of other climate data records (Albedo, LAI/Fpar, Vegetation indices) and a key parameter in the understanding of the land-surface-climate processes. It is essential that a careful validation of its uncertainties is performed on a global and continuous basis. One approach is the direct comparison of this product with ground measurements but that approach presents several issues related to scale, the episodic nature of ground measurements and the global representativeness. An alternative is to compare the surface reflectance product to reference reflectance determined from Top of atmosphere reflectance corrected using accurate radiative transfer code and very detailed measurements of the atmosphere obtained over the AERONET sites (Vermote and al, 2014, RSE) which allows to test for a large range of aerosol characteristics; formers being important inputs for atmospheric corrections. However, the application of this method necessitates the definition of a very detailed protocol for the use of AERONET data especially as far as size distribution and absorption are concerned, so that alternative validation methods or protocols could be compared. This paper describes the protocol we have been working on based on our experience with the AERONET data and its application to the MODIS and VIIRS record.
YIN, a fundamental frequency estimator for speech and music
de Cheveigné, Alain; Kawahara, Hideki
2002-04-01
An algorithm is presented for the estimation of the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech or musical sounds. It is based on the well-known autocorrelation method with a number of modifications that combine to prevent errors. The algorithm has several desirable features. Error rates are about three times lower than the best competing methods, as evaluated over a database of speech recorded together with a laryngograph signal. There is no upper limit on the frequency search range, so the algorithm is suited for high-pitched voices and music. The algorithm is relatively simple and may be implemented efficiently and with low latency, and it involves few parameters that must be tuned. It is based on a signal model (periodic signal) that may be extended in several ways to handle various forms of aperiodicity that occur in particular applications. Finally, interesting parallels may be drawn with models of auditory processing.
Fundamental Properties of Co-moving Stars Observed by Gaia
Bochanski, John J.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Gagné, Jonathan; Nelson, Olivia; Coker, Kristina; Smithka, Iliya; Desir, Deion; Vasquez, Chelsea
2018-04-01
We have estimated fundamental parameters for a sample of co-moving stars observed by Gaia and identified by Oh et al. We matched the Gaia observations to the 2MASS and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs and fit MIST isochrones to the data, deriving estimates of the mass, radius, [Fe/H], age, distance, and extinction to 9754 stars in the original sample of 10606 stars. We verify these estimates by comparing our new results to previous analyses of nearby stars, examining fiducial cluster properties, and estimating the power-law slope of the local present-day mass function. A comparison to previous studies suggests that our mass estimates are robust, while metallicity and age estimates are increasingly uncertain. We use our calculated masses to examine the properties of binaries in the sample and show that separation of the pairs dominates the observed binding energies and expected lifetimes.
Fundamental superstrings as holograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.
2007-06-01
The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)
Fundamental superstrings as holograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabholkar, Atish; Murthy, Sameer
2008-01-01
The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d (d = 3, ..., 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings
Mehdinejadiani, Behrouz
2017-08-01
This study represents the first attempt to estimate the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm. The numerical studies as well as the experimental studies were performed to certify the integrity of Bees Algorithm. The experimental ones were conducted in a sandbox for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. A detailed comparative study was carried out between the results obtained from Bees Algorithm and those from Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN routines in FracFit toolbox. The results indicated that, in general, the Bees Algorithm much more accurately appraised the sFADE parameters in comparison with Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN, especially in the heterogeneous soil and for α values near to 1 in the numerical study. Also, the results obtained from Bees Algorithm were more reliable than those from Genetic Algorithm. The Bees Algorithm showed the relative similar performances for all cases, while the Genetic Algorithm and the LSQNONLIN yielded different performances for various cases. The performance of LSQNONLIN strongly depends on the initial guess values so that, compared to the Genetic Algorithm, it can more accurately estimate the sFADE parameters by taking into consideration the suitable initial guess values. To sum up, the Bees Algorithm was found to be very simple, robust and accurate approach to estimate the transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Zhongya; Pan, Bing; Grédiac, Michel; Song, Weidong
2018-04-01
The virtual fields method (VFM) is generally used with two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) or grid method (GM) for identifying constitutive parameters. However, when small out-of-plane translation/rotation occurs to the test specimen, 2D-DIC and GM are prone to yield inaccurate measurements, which further lessen the accuracy of the parameter identification using VFM. In this work, an easy-to-implement but effective "special" stereo-DIC (SS-DIC) method is proposed for accuracy-enhanced VFM identification. The SS-DIC can not only deliver accurate deformation measurement without being affected by unavoidable out-of-plane movement/rotation of a test specimen, but can also ensure evenly distributed calculation data in space, which leads to simple data processing. Based on the accurate kinematics fields with evenly distributed measured points determined by SS-DIC method, constitutive parameters can be identified by VFM with enhanced accuracy. Uniaxial tensile tests of a perforated aluminum plate and pure shear tests of a prismatic aluminum specimen verified the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the constitutive parameters identified by VFM using SS-DIC are more accurate and stable than those identified by VFM using 2D-DIC. It is suggested that the proposed SS-DIC can be used as a standard measuring tool for mechanical identification using VFM.
Mehdinejadiani, Behrouz
2017-08-01
This study represents the first attempt to estimate the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm. The numerical studies as well as the experimental studies were performed to certify the integrity of Bees Algorithm. The experimental ones were conducted in a sandbox for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. A detailed comparative study was carried out between the results obtained from Bees Algorithm and those from Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN routines in FracFit toolbox. The results indicated that, in general, the Bees Algorithm much more accurately appraised the sFADE parameters in comparison with Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN, especially in the heterogeneous soil and for α values near to 1 in the numerical study. Also, the results obtained from Bees Algorithm were more reliable than those from Genetic Algorithm. The Bees Algorithm showed the relative similar performances for all cases, while the Genetic Algorithm and the LSQNONLIN yielded different performances for various cases. The performance of LSQNONLIN strongly depends on the initial guess values so that, compared to the Genetic Algorithm, it can more accurately estimate the sFADE parameters by taking into consideration the suitable initial guess values. To sum up, the Bees Algorithm was found to be very simple, robust and accurate approach to estimate the transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation.
Notas, George; Bariotakis, Michail; Kalogrias, Vaios; Andrianaki, Maria; Azariadis, Kalliopi; Kampouri, Errika; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Lavrentaki, Katerina; Kastrinakis, Stelios; Kampa, Marilena; Agouridakis, Panagiotis; Pirintsos, Stergios; Castanas, Elias
2015-01-01
Severe allergic reactions of unknown etiology,necessitating a hospital visit, have an important impact in the life of affected individuals and impose a major economic burden to societies. The prediction of clinically severe allergic reactions would be of great importance, but current attempts have been limited by the lack of a well-founded applicable methodology and the wide spatiotemporal distribution of allergic reactions. The valid prediction of severe allergies (and especially those needing hospital treatment) in a region, could alert health authorities and implicated individuals to take appropriate preemptive measures. In the present report we have collecterd visits for serious allergic reactions of unknown etiology from two major hospitals in the island of Crete, for two distinct time periods (validation and test sets). We have used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a satellite-based, freely available measurement, which is an indicator of live green vegetation at a given geographic area, and a set of meteorological data to develop a model capable of describing and predicting severe allergic reaction frequency. Our analysis has retained NDVI and temperature as accurate identifiers and predictors of increased hospital severe allergic reactions visits. Our approach may contribute towards the development of satellite-based modules, for the prediction of severe allergic reactions in specific, well-defined geographical areas. It could also probably be used for the prediction of other environment related diseases and conditions.
An accurate expression for radial distribution function of the Lennard-Jones fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morsali, Ali; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Ali Mansoori, G.; Abbaspour, Mohsen
2005-01-01
A simple and accurate expression for radial distribution function (RDF) of the Lennard-Jones fluid is presented. The expression explicitly states the RDF as a continuous function of reduced interparticle distance, temperature, and density. It satisfies the limiting conditions of zero density and infinite distance imposed by statistical thermodynamics. The distance dependence of this expression is expressed by an equation which contains 11 adjustable parameters. These parameters are fitted to 353 RDF data, obtained by molecular dynamics calculations, and then expressed as functions of reduced distance, temperature and density. This expression, having a total of 65 constants, reproduces the RDF data with an average root-mean-squared deviation of 0.0152 for the range of state variables of 0.5= * = * = * =ρσ 3 are reduced temperature and density, respectively). The expression predicts the pressure and the internal energy of the Lennard-Jones fluid with an uncertainty that is comparable to that obtained directly from the molecular dynamics simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Zhiwen; Zhou, Youhe
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We studied fracture problem in HTS based on real fundamental solutions. • When the thickness of HTS strip increases the SIF decrease. • A higher applied field leads to a larger stress intensity factor. • The greater the critical current density is, the smaller values of the SIF is. - Abstract: Real fundamental solution for fracture problem of transversely isotropic high temperature superconductor (HTS) strip is obtained. The superconductor E–J constitutive law is characterized by the Bean model where the critical current density is independent of the flux density. Fracture analysis is performed by the methods of singular integral equations which are solved numerically by Gauss–Lobatto–Chybeshev (GSL) collocation method. To guarantee a satisfactory accuracy, the convergence behavior of the kernel function is investigated. Numerical results of fracture parameters are obtained and the effects of the geometric characteristics, applied magnetic field and critical current density on the stress intensity factors (SIF) are discussed
Zhao, Xiao-mei; Xie, Dong-fan; Li, Qi
2015-02-01
With the development of intelligent transport system, advanced information feedback strategies have been developed to reduce traffic congestion and enhance the capacity. However, previous strategies provide accurate information to travelers and our simulation results show that accurate information brings negative effects, especially in delay case. Because travelers prefer to the best condition route with accurate information, and delayed information cannot reflect current traffic condition but past. Then travelers make wrong routing decisions, causing the decrease of the capacity and the increase of oscillations and the system deviating from the equilibrium. To avoid the negative effect, bounded rationality is taken into account by introducing a boundedly rational threshold BR. When difference between two routes is less than the BR, routes have equal probability to be chosen. The bounded rationality is helpful to improve the efficiency in terms of capacity, oscillation and the gap deviating from the system equilibrium.
Arthropods in modern resins reveal if amber accurately recorded forest arthropod communities.
Solórzano Kraemer, Mónica M; Delclòs, Xavier; Clapham, Matthew E; Arillo, Antonio; Peris, David; Jäger, Peter; Stebner, Frauke; Peñalver, Enrique
2018-05-07
Amber is an organic multicompound derivative from the polymerization of resin of diverse higher plants. Compared with other modes of fossil preservation, amber records the anatomy of and ecological interactions between ancient soft-bodied organisms with exceptional fidelity. However, it is currently suggested that ambers do not accurately record the composition of arthropod forest paleocommunities, due to crucial taphonomic biases. We evaluated the effects of taphonomic processes on arthropod entrapment by resin from the plant Hymenaea , one of the most important resin-producing trees and a producer of tropical Cenozoic ambers and Anthropocene (or subfossil) resins. We statistically compared natural entrapment by Hymenaea verrucosa tree resin with the ensemble of arthropods trapped by standardized entomological traps around the same tree species. Our results demonstrate that assemblages in resin are more similar to those from sticky traps than from malaise traps, providing an accurate representation of the arthropod fauna living in or near the resiniferous tree, but not of entire arthropod forest communities. Particularly, arthropod groups such as Lepidoptera, Collembola, and some Diptera are underrepresented in resins. However, resin assemblages differed slightly from sticky traps, perhaps because chemical compounds in the resins attract or repel specific insect groups. Ground-dwelling or flying arthropods that use the tree-trunk habitat for feeding or reproduction are also well represented in the resin assemblages, implying that fossil inclusions in amber can reveal fundamental information about biology of the past. These biases have implications for the paleoecological interpretation of the fossil record, principally of Cenozoic amber with angiosperm origin.
Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics
2005-12-01
superstring theory and extra dimensions in spacetime calling for the "constants" to change over time, he said. The astronomers used the GBT to detect and study radio emissions at four specific frequencies between 1612 MHz and 1720 MHz coming from hydroxyl (OH) molecules in a galaxy more than 6 billion light-years from Earth, seen as it was at roughly half the Universe's current age. Each of the four frequencies represents a specific change in the energy level of the molecule. The exact frequency emitted or absorbed when the molecule undergoes a transition from one energy level to another depends on the values of the fundamental physical constants. However, each of the four frequencies studied in the OH molecule will react differently to a change in the constants. That difference is what the astronomers sought to detect using the GBT, which, Kanekar explained, is the ideal telescope for this work because of its technical capabilities and its location in the National Radio Quiet Zone, where radio interference is at a minimum. "We can place very tight limits on changes in the physical constants by studying the behavior of these OH molecules at a time when the Universe was only about half its current age, and comparing this result to how the molecules behave today in the laboratory," said Karl Menten of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Germany. Wetterich, a theorist, welcomes the new capability, saying the observational method "seems very promising to obtain perhaps the most accurate values for such possible time changes of the constants." He pointed out that, while some theoretical models call for the constants to change only in the early moments after the Big Bang, models of the recently-discovered, mysterious "dark energy" that seems to be accelerating the Universe's expansion call for changes "even in the last couple of billion years." "Only observations can tell," he said. This research ties together the theoretical and observational work of Wetterich and
Estimation of Transport Parameters Using Forced Gradient Tracer Tests in Heterogeneous Aquifers
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Illangasekare, Tissa
2003-01-01
.... The focus was on both reactive and sorptive parameters. The experimental component of the study was conducted in a three-dimensional, intermediate-scale test tank to obtain accurate data on the behavior of nonreactive and sorptive tracers...
Luo, Shezhou; Chen, Jing M; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Zeng, Hongcheng; Peng, Dailiang; Li, Dong
2016-05-30
Vegetation leaf area index (LAI), height, and aboveground biomass are key biophysical parameters. Corn is an important and globally distributed crop, and reliable estimations of these parameters are essential for corn yield forecasting, health monitoring and ecosystem modeling. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is considered an effective technology for estimating vegetation biophysical parameters. However, the estimation accuracies of these parameters are affected by multiple factors. In this study, we first estimated corn LAI, height and biomass (R2 = 0.80, 0.874 and 0.838, respectively) using the original LiDAR data (7.32 points/m2), and the results showed that LiDAR data could accurately estimate these biophysical parameters. Second, comprehensive research was conducted on the effects of LiDAR point density, sampling size and height threshold on the estimation accuracy of LAI, height and biomass. Our findings indicated that LiDAR point density had an important effect on the estimation accuracy for vegetation biophysical parameters, however, high point density did not always produce highly accurate estimates, and reduced point density could deliver reasonable estimation results. Furthermore, the results showed that sampling size and height threshold were additional key factors that affect the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Therefore, the optimal sampling size and the height threshold should be determined to improve the estimation accuracy of biophysical parameters. Our results also implied that a higher LiDAR point density, larger sampling size and height threshold were required to obtain accurate corn LAI estimation when compared with height and biomass estimations. In general, our results provide valuable guidance for LiDAR data acquisition and estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters using LiDAR data.
The Fundamentals of the Air Sampler Calibration-Verification Process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavila, F.M.
2011-01-01
The calibration of an air sampling instrument using a reference air flow calibrator requires attention to scientific detail in order to establish that the instrument's reported values are correctly stated and valid under the actual operating conditions of the air sampling instrument. The primary objective of an air flow calibration-verification is to ensure that the device under test (DUT) is within the manufacturer's stated accuracy range of temperature, pressure and humidity conditions under which the instrument was designed to operate. The DUT output values are compared to those obtained from a reference instrument (REF) measuring the sample physical parameter that the DUT is measuring. An accurate comparison of air flow rates or air volumes requires that the comparison of the DUT and REF values be made under the same temperature and pressure conditions. It is absolutely necessary that the REF be more accurate than the DUT; otherwise, it can not be considered a reference instrument. The REF should be at least twice as accurate and, if possible, it should be four times as accurate as the DUT. Upon confirmation that the DUT meets the manufacturer's accuracy criteria, the technician must place a calibration sticker or label indicating the date of calibration, the expiration date of the calibration and an authorized signature. If it is a limited-use instrument, the label should state the limited-use operating range. The serial number and model number of the instrument should also be shown on the calibration sticker. A specific calibration file for each instrument by serial number should be kept in the calibration laboratory file records. Instruments that display gas flow or gas volume values corrected to a reference temperature and pressure are very desirable. The ideal situation is when both the DUT and the REF output flow rate or volume values are at the same conditions of T and P. The calibration-verification is, then, a simple process. The credibility of an air
THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Ceccarelli
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Partindo da palavra PSICOPATOLOGIA, o autor mostra, de forma resumida, como cada contexto histórico tentou "decompor" o sofrimento psíquico em seus elementos de base para classificá-lo, estudá-lo e tratá-lo. Após uma breve apresentação da psicopatologia na contemporaneidade, o autor introduz os pressupostos da Psicopatologia Fundamental e suas contribuições na compreensão do sofrimento psíquico. Ainda que não seja objetivo do texto participar do debate atual sobre as diretrizes curriculares que norteiam a formação do psicólogo, o autor toma o estudo do conhecimento (logos da alma (psyché - a psicologia - como exemplo de um dos campos de aplicação da Psicopatologia Fundamental.From the word PSYCHOPATHOLOGY the author briefly shows how each historical context had its own way to decompose psychic suffering in order to classify, study and search for its cure. After a short discussion about psychopathology in contemporaneity the author introduces the theoretical bases of Fundamental Psychopathology and its contributions to understanding psychic suffering. Although this text does not claim to participate in the debate about psychology students training, the author exemplifies through the study of the soul (psyche knowledge (logos one of the applications of Fundamental Psychopathology.
RF plasma parameter determination by a Langmuir multipoint double probe array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas-Olmedo, I A; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G
2012-01-01
A multipoint double Langmuir (MDL) probe system, which is exempt from interference, has been designed and assembled to be applied to an RF plasma. The system provides the measurement of fundamental plasma parameters such as density, temperature, plasma potential, etc. on the basis of the Bohm Approximation Theory and the Orbital Movement Limit. Thus, one pair of the MDL system is selected so as to consider the right plasma parameters within the prevailing pressure-power intervals. Both the hardware and software of the system have been applied to the modification of material properties by means of the PIII process.
A constrained reconstruction technique of hyperelasticity parameters for breast cancer assessment
Mehrabian, Hatef; Campbell, Gordon; Samani, Abbas
2010-12-01
In breast elastography, breast tissue usually undergoes large compression resulting in significant geometric and structural changes. This implies that breast elastography is associated with tissue nonlinear behavior. In this study, an elastography technique is presented and an inverse problem formulation is proposed to reconstruct parameters characterizing tissue hyperelasticity. Such parameters can potentially be used for tumor classification. This technique can also have other important clinical applications such as measuring normal tissue hyperelastic parameters in vivo. Such parameters are essential in planning and conducting computer-aided interventional procedures. The proposed parameter reconstruction technique uses a constrained iterative inversion; it can be viewed as an inverse problem. To solve this problem, we used a nonlinear finite element model corresponding to its forward problem. In this research, we applied Veronda-Westmann, Yeoh and polynomial models to model tissue hyperelasticity. To validate the proposed technique, we conducted studies involving numerical and tissue-mimicking phantoms. The numerical phantom consisted of a hemisphere connected to a cylinder, while we constructed the tissue-mimicking phantom from polyvinyl alcohol with freeze-thaw cycles that exhibits nonlinear mechanical behavior. Both phantoms consisted of three types of soft tissues which mimic adipose, fibroglandular tissue and a tumor. The results of the simulations and experiments show feasibility of accurate reconstruction of tumor tissue hyperelastic parameters using the proposed method. In the numerical phantom, all hyperelastic parameters corresponding to the three models were reconstructed with less than 2% error. With the tissue-mimicking phantom, we were able to reconstruct the ratio of the hyperelastic parameters reasonably accurately. Compared to the uniaxial test results, the average error of the ratios of the parameters reconstructed for inclusion to the middle
A constrained reconstruction technique of hyperelasticity parameters for breast cancer assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mehrabian, Hatef; Samani, Abbas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Campbell, Gordon, E-mail: asamani@uwo.c [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)
2010-12-21
In breast elastography, breast tissue usually undergoes large compression resulting in significant geometric and structural changes. This implies that breast elastography is associated with tissue nonlinear behavior. In this study, an elastography technique is presented and an inverse problem formulation is proposed to reconstruct parameters characterizing tissue hyperelasticity. Such parameters can potentially be used for tumor classification. This technique can also have other important clinical applications such as measuring normal tissue hyperelastic parameters in vivo. Such parameters are essential in planning and conducting computer-aided interventional procedures. The proposed parameter reconstruction technique uses a constrained iterative inversion; it can be viewed as an inverse problem. To solve this problem, we used a nonlinear finite element model corresponding to its forward problem. In this research, we applied Veronda-Westmann, Yeoh and polynomial models to model tissue hyperelasticity. To validate the proposed technique, we conducted studies involving numerical and tissue-mimicking phantoms. The numerical phantom consisted of a hemisphere connected to a cylinder, while we constructed the tissue-mimicking phantom from polyvinyl alcohol with freeze-thaw cycles that exhibits nonlinear mechanical behavior. Both phantoms consisted of three types of soft tissues which mimic adipose, fibroglandular tissue and a tumor. The results of the simulations and experiments show feasibility of accurate reconstruction of tumor tissue hyperelastic parameters using the proposed method. In the numerical phantom, all hyperelastic parameters corresponding to the three models were reconstructed with less than 2% error. With the tissue-mimicking phantom, we were able to reconstruct the ratio of the hyperelastic parameters reasonably accurately. Compared to the uniaxial test results, the average error of the ratios of the parameters reconstructed for inclusion to the middle
Simple Mathematical Models Do Not Accurately Predict Early SIV Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cecilia Noecker
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Upon infection of a new host, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV replicates in the mucosal tissues and is generally undetectable in circulation for 1–2 weeks post-infection. Several interventions against HIV including vaccines and antiretroviral prophylaxis target virus replication at this earliest stage of infection. Mathematical models have been used to understand how HIV spreads from mucosal tissues systemically and what impact vaccination and/or antiretroviral prophylaxis has on viral eradication. Because predictions of such models have been rarely compared to experimental data, it remains unclear which processes included in these models are critical for predicting early HIV dynamics. Here we modified the “standard” mathematical model of HIV infection to include two populations of infected cells: cells that are actively producing the virus and cells that are transitioning into virus production mode. We evaluated the effects of several poorly known parameters on infection outcomes in this model and compared model predictions to experimental data on infection of non-human primates with variable doses of simian immunodifficiency virus (SIV. First, we found that the mode of virus production by infected cells (budding vs. bursting has a minimal impact on the early virus dynamics for a wide range of model parameters, as long as the parameters are constrained to provide the observed rate of SIV load increase in the blood of infected animals. Interestingly and in contrast with previous results, we found that the bursting mode of virus production generally results in a higher probability of viral extinction than the budding mode of virus production. Second, this mathematical model was not able to accurately describe the change in experimentally determined probability of host infection with increasing viral doses. Third and finally, the model was also unable to accurately explain the decline in the time to virus detection with increasing viral
Joint Multi-Fiber NODDI Parameter Estimation and Tractography using the Unscented Information Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yogesh eRathi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Tracing white matter fiber bundles is an integral part of analyzing brain connectivity. An accurate estimate of the underlying tissue parameters is also paramount in several neuroscience applications. In this work, we propose to use a joint fiber model estimation and tractography algorithm that uses the NODDI (neurite orientation dispersion diffusion imaging model to estimate fiber orientation dispersion consistently and smoothly along the fiber tracts along with estimating the intracellular and extracellular volume fractions from the diffusion signal. While the NODDI model has been used in earlier works to estimate the microstructural parameters at each voxel independently, for the first time, we propose to integrate it into a tractography framework. We extend this framework to estimate the NODDI parameters for two crossing fibers, which is imperative to trace fiber bundles through crossings as well as to estimate the microstructural parameters for each fiber bundle separately. We propose to use the unscented information filter (UIF to accurately estimate the model parameters and perform tractography. The proposed approach has significant computational performance improvements as well as numerical robustness over the unscented Kalman filter (UKF. Our method not only estimates the confidence in the estimated parameters via the covariance matrix, but also provides the Fisher-information matrix of the state variables (model parameters, which can be quite useful to measure model complexity. Results from in-vivo human brain data sets demonstrate the ability of our algorithm to trace through crossing fiber regions, while estimating orientation dispersion and other biophysical model parameters in a consistent manner along the tracts.
Parameter Selection for Ant Colony Algorithm Based on Bacterial Foraging Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The optimal performance of the ant colony algorithm (ACA mainly depends on suitable parameters; therefore, parameter selection for ACA is important. We propose a parameter selection method for ACA based on the bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA, considering the effects of coupling between different parameters. Firstly, parameters for ACA are mapped into a multidimensional space, using a chemotactic operator to ensure that each parameter group approaches the optimal value, speeding up the convergence for each parameter set. Secondly, the operation speed for optimizing the entire parameter set is accelerated using a reproduction operator. Finally, the elimination-dispersal operator is used to strengthen the global optimization of the parameters, which avoids falling into a local optimal solution. In order to validate the effectiveness of this method, the results were compared with those using a genetic algorithm (GA and a particle swarm optimization (PSO, and simulations were conducted using different grid maps for robot path planning. The results indicated that parameter selection for ACA based on BFA was the superior method, able to determine the best parameter combination rapidly, accurately, and effectively.
Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?
Fiorentini, G.; Okun, L.; Vysotsky, M.
2001-01-01
By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.
Automated inference procedure for the determination of cell growth parameters
Harris, Edouard A.; Koh, Eun Jee; Moffat, Jason; McMillen, David R.
2016-01-01
The growth rate and carrying capacity of a cell population are key to the characterization of the population's viability and to the quantification of its responses to perturbations such as drug treatments. Accurate estimation of these parameters necessitates careful analysis. Here, we present a rigorous mathematical approach for the robust analysis of cell count data, in which all the experimental stages of the cell counting process are investigated in detail with the machinery of Bayesian probability theory. We advance a flexible theoretical framework that permits accurate estimates of the growth parameters of cell populations and of the logical correlations between them. Moreover, our approach naturally produces an objective metric of avoidable experimental error, which may be tracked over time in a laboratory to detect instrumentation failures or lapses in protocol. We apply our method to the analysis of cell count data in the context of a logistic growth model by means of a user-friendly computer program that automates this analysis, and present some samples of its output. Finally, we note that a traditional least squares fit can provide misleading estimates of parameter values, because it ignores available information with regard to the way in which the data have actually been collected.
Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tiedje, Niels
2004-01-01
The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from...
Fast fundamental frequency estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom
2017-01-01
Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...
Duru, Kenneth
2014-12-01
© 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.
Lumped-Parameter Models for Windturbine Footings on Layered Ground
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars
The design of modern wind turbines is typically based on lifetime analyses using aeroelastic codes. In this regard, the impedance of the foundations must be described accurately without increasing the overall size of the computationalmodel significantly. This may be obtained by the fitting...... of a lumped-parameter model to the results of a rigorous model or experimental results. In this paper, guidelines are given for the formulation of such lumped-parameter models and examples are given in which the models are utilised for the analysis of a wind turbine supported by a surface footing on a layered...