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Sample records for accreting neutron star

  1. The Magnetospheres of (Accreting Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilms J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview of the most important observational tools to study the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars, with a focus on accreting neutron stars in high mass X-ray binary systems. Topics covered are the different types of accretion onto neutron stars and the structure of the accretion column, and how models for these can be tested with observations.

  2. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patruno A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the first part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.

  3. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keek, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes

  4. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Keek, L.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one seco...

  5. Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.

  6. Accretion Models for Young Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Alpar, M. Ali

    2003-01-01

    Interaction with possible fallback material, along with the magnetic fields and rotation rates at birth should determine the fates and categories of young neutron stars. This paper addresses some issues related to pure or hybrid accretion models for explaining the properties of young neutron stars.

  7. Pycnonuclear burning and accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, D G

    2002-01-01

    We outline the phenomenon of deep crustal heating in transiently accreting neutron stars. It is produced by nuclear transformations (mostly, by pycnonuclear reactions) in accreted matter while this matter sinks to densities rho > 10^{10} g/cc under the weight of freshly accreted material. We consider then thermal states of transiently accreting neutron stars (with mean mass accretion rates \\dot{M}=(10^{-14}-10^{-9}) M_\\odot/yr) determined by deep crustal heating. In a simplified fashion we study how the thermal flux emergent from such stars depends on the properties of superdense matter in stellar interiors. We analyze the most important regulators of the thermal flux: strong superfluidity in the cores of low-mass stars and fast neutrino emission (in nucleon, pion-condensed, kaon-condensed, or quark phases of dense matter) in the cores of high-mass stars. We compare the results with observations of soft X-ray transients in quiescent states.

  8. Physical Environment of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron stars (NSs powered by accretion, which are known as accretion-powered NSs, always are located in binary systems and manifest themselves as X-ray sources. Physical processes taking place during the accretion of material from their companions form a challenging and appealing topic, because of the strong magnetic field of NSs. In this paper, we review the physical process of accretion onto magnetized NS in X-ray binary systems. We, firstly, give an introduction to accretion-powered NSs and review the accretion mechanism in X-ray binaries. This review is mostly focused on accretion-induced evolution of NSs, which includes scenario of NSs both in high-mass binaries and in low-mass systems.

  9. Neutron drip transition in accreting and nonaccreting neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Chamel, N; Zdunik, J L; Haensel, P

    2015-01-01

    The neutron-drip transition in the dense matter constituting the interior of neutron stars generally refers to the appearance of unbound neutrons as the matter density reaches some threshold density $\\rho_\\textrm{drip}$. This transition has been mainly studied under the cold catalyzed matter hypothesis. However, this assumption is unrealistic for accreting neutron stars. After examining the physical processes that are thought to be allowed in both accreting and nonaccreting neutron stars, suitable conditions for the onset of neutron drip are derived and general analytical expressions for the neutron drip density and pressure are obtained. Moreover, we show that the neutron-drip transition occurs at lower density and pressure than those predicted within the mean-nucleus approximation. This transition is studied numerically for various initial composition of the ashes from X-ray bursts and superbursts using microscopic nuclear mass models.

  10. Probing thermonuclear burning on accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keek, L.

    2008-12-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact stars that can be directly observed, which makes them ideal laboratories to study physics at extreme densities. Neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries accrete hydrogen and helium from a lower-mass companion star through Roche lobe overflow. This matter undergoes thermonuclear burning in the neutron star envelope, creating carbon and heavier elements. The fusion process may proceed in an unstable manner, resulting in a thermonuclear runaway. Within one second the entire surface is burned, which is observable as a sharp rise in the emitted X-ray flux: a type I X-ray burst. Afterwards the neutron star surface cools down on a timescale of ten to one hundred seconds. During these bursts the surface of an accreting neutron star can be observed directly, which makes them instrumental for studying this type of stars. We have studied rare kinds of X-ray bursts. One such rare burst is the superburst, which lasts a thousand times longer than an ordinary burst. Superbursts are thought to result from the explosive burning of a thick carbon layer, which lies deeper inside the neutron star, close to a layer known as the crust. A prerequisite for the occurrence of a superburst is a high enough temperature, which is set by the temperature of the crust and the heat conductivity of the envelope. The latter is lowered by the presence of heavy elements that are produced during normal X-ray bursts. Using a large set of observations from the Wide Field Camera's onboard the BeppoSAX satellite, we find that, at high accretion rate, sources which do not exhibit normal bursts likely have a longer superburst recurrence time, than the observed superburst recurrence time of one burster. We analyze in detail the first superburst from a transient source, which went into outburst only 55 days before the superburst. Recent models of the neutron star crust predict that this is too small a time to heat the crust sufficiently for superburst ignition, indicating

  11. Magnetic field evolution of accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Istomin, Ya N

    2016-01-01

    The flow of a matter, accreting onto a magnetized neutron star, is accompanied by an electric current. The closing of the electric current occurs in the crust of a neutron stars in the polar region across the magnetic field. But the conductivity of the crust along the magnetic field greatly exceeds the conductivity across the field, so the current penetrates deep into the crust down up to the super conducting core. The magnetic field, generated by the accretion current, increases greatly with the depth of penetration due to the Hall conductivity of the crust is also much larger than the transverse conductivity. As a result, the current begins to flow mainly in the toroidal direction, creating a strong longitudinal magnetic field, far exceeding an initial dipole field. This field exists only in the narrow polar tube of $r$ width, narrowing with the depth, i.e. with increasing of the crust density $\\rho$, $r\\propto \\rho^{-1/4}$. Accordingly, the magnetic field $B$ in the tube increases with the depth, $B\\propto...

  12. Can neutron stars have auroras ? : electromagnetic coupling process between neutron star and magnetized accretion disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Iwakiri, W. B.; Enoto, T.; Wada, T.; Tao, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the binary neutron star system, angular momentum transfer from accretion disk to a star is essential process for spin-up/down of stars. The angular momentum transfer has been well formulated for the accretion disk strongly magnetized by the neutron star [e.g., Ghosh and Lamb, 1978, 1979a, b]. However, the electromagnetic (EM) coupling between the neutron star and accretion disk has not been self-consistently solved in the previous studies although the magnetic field lines from the star are strongly tied with the accretion disk. In this study, we applied the planet-magnetosphere coupling process established for Jupiter [Hill, 1979] to the binary neutron star system. Angular momentum distribution is solved based on the torque balance between the neutron star's surface and accretion disk coupled by the magnetic field tensions. We found the EM coupling can transfer significantly larger fraction of the angular momentum from the magnetized accretion disk to the star than the unmagnetized case. The resultant spin-up rate is estimated to ~10^-14 [sec/sec] for the nominal binary system parameters, which is comparable with or larger than the other common spin-down/up processes: e.g., the magnetic dipole radiation spin-down. The Joule heating energy dissipated in the EM coupling is estimated to be up to ~10^36 [erg/sec] for the nominal binary system parameters. The release is comparable to that of gravitation energy directly caused by the matters accreting onto the neutron star. This suggests the EM coupling at the neutron star can accompany the observable radiation as auroras with a similar manner to those at the rotating planetary magnetospheres like Jupiter, Saturn, and other gas giants.

  13. Theoretical Models of Superbursts on Accreting Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, R L; Cooper, Randall L.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2004-01-01

    We carry out a general-relativistic global linear stability analysis of the amassed carbon fuel on the surface of an accreting neutron star to determine the conditions under which superbursts occur. By comparing our results with observations, we are able to set constraints on neutron star parameters such as the stellar radius and neutrino cooling mechanism in the core, as well as the composition of the ashes where superbursts are triggered. Specifically, we find that accreting neutron stars with ordered crusts and highly efficient neutrino emission in their cores produce extremely energetic superbursts which are inconsistent with observations. Also, because of pycnonuclear burning of carbon, they do not have superbursts in the range of accretion rates at which superbursts are actually observed. Stars with less efficient neutrino emission produce bursts that agree better with observations. Stars with highly inefficient neutrino emission in their cores produce bursts that agree best with observations. Furthermo...

  14. The outer crust of non-accreting cold neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ruster, S B; Schaffner-Bielich, J; Ruster, Stefan B.; Hempel, Matthias; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of the outer crust of non-accreting cold neutron stars are studied by using modern nuclear data and theoretical mass tables updating in particular the classic work of Baym, Pethick and Sutherland. Experimental data from the atomic mass table from Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault of 2003 is used and a thorough comparison of many modern theoretical nuclear models, relativistic and non-relativistic ones, is performed for the first time. In addition, the influences of pairing and deformation are investigated. State-of-the-art theoretical nuclear mass tables are compared in order to check their differences concerning the neutron dripline, magic neutron numbers, the equation of state, and the sequence of neutron-rich nuclei up to the dripline in the outer crust of non-accreting cold neutron stars.

  15. Detecting gravitational wave emission from the known accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Krishnan, B.; Bildsten, L.; Schutz, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    Detection of gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars (NSs) in our Galaxy, due to ellipticity or internal oscillation, would be a breakthrough in our understanding of compact objects and explain the absence of NSs rotating near the break-up limit. Direct detection, however, poses a formidabl

  16. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  17. Luminosities of Disk--accreting Non--magnetic Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Thampan, A V

    2002-01-01

    Disk accretion onto a neutron star possessing a weak surface magnetic field ($B \\le 10^8$ G) provides interesting X-ray emission scenarios, and is relevant for understanding X-ray bursters and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The standard (Newtonian) theory of disk-accretion predicts that the matter spiralling in from infinity loses one-half of its total gravitational energy in the extended disk, and the remainder in a narrow boundary layer girdling the neutron star. The ratio of the boundary layer luminosity to that from the disk ($E_{\\rm BL}/E_{\\rm D}$) is, therefore, unity. On incorporation of general relativity without rotation (Schwarzschild solution), $E_{\\rm BL}/E_{\\rm D}$ is seen to be as high as 6. We construct rotating sequences of neutron stars for three representative equations of state. We show here that for a neutron star rotating at a limit where centrifugal force balances the inward gravitational force, $E_{\\rm BL}/E_{\\rm D}\\sim 0$.

  18. Advection of magnetic flux by accretion disks around neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Tulian, S.; Reisenegger, A.

    The aim of our research is to address why millisecond pulsars have relatively weak surface magnetic fields, of about 10^8 G, with a narrow spread. We propose that the accretion of plasma from the companion star fully screens the original neutron star field, but the accretion disk carries additional magnetic flux from the companion star, or itself can generate field by means of dynamo processes. For a strongly magnetized star, the field prevents the disk from approaching the star. The accretion is along the field lines and deposits the matter on the polar cap. Then, the accreted plasma flows, dragging with itself the magnetic field lines, from the pole to the equator (Payne & Melatos 2004). In a following stage, when the star becomes non-magnetic, because the field has been buried, the disk touches the star. We suggest that some effective mechanism of magnetic flux transport such as that proposed by Spruit & Uzdensky 2005 (or Bisnovatyi-Kogan & Lovelace 2007), operates and necessarily leads to a "strongly magnetized disk''. It becomes laminar because the magneto-rotational instability saturates (it is considered to be responsible for turbulence in the disk), and the magnetic difussivity is negligible. Then, the loss of angular momentum allowing the accretion is only caused by the magneto-centrifugal disk-wind (Blandford & Payne 1982). Meanwhile, the wind-driven transport of the magnetic flux by the disk re-magnetizes the star. This process continues until the Lorentz force due to the star's magnetic field forbids any further accretion of matter and magnetic flux, in the Ideal Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics approach. Additional of material can fall onto the star (but at lower rate) if some instability process sets in, allowing the diffusion of mass through the magnetic field lines (e.g the Interchange Instability, Spruit & Taam 1990). All these processes might lead to an asymptotic magnetic field of 10^8 G,as is inferred from observations. We are developing a self

  19. Hot Radiative Accretion onto a Spinning Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, M V

    2004-01-01

    (Abridged) A new type of self-similar hot viscous radiative accretion flow onto a rapidly spinning neutron star has recently been discovered. This ``hot brake'' flow forms in the two-temperature zone (close to a central object), but at a sufficiently low accretion rate and a high spin it may extend in the radial direction beyond ~300 Schwarzchild radii into a one-temperature zone. When the spin of the star is small enough, the flow transforms smoothly to an advection-dominated accretion flow. All gas parameters (density, angular velocity, temperature, luminosity, angular momentum flux) except for the radial velocity are independent of the mass accretion rate. The radiative efficiency may be arbitrarily large as M-dot -> 0. The gas angular momentum is transported outward under most conditions, hence the central star is nearly always spun-down. The flow is convectively stable. We also find that themal conduction in the flow is strong enough to make the flow thermally stable. The very fact that the density, temp...

  20. On the spreading layer emission in luminous accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Revnivtsev, Mikhail G; Poutanen, Juri

    2013-01-01

    Emission of the neutron star surface potentially contains information about its size and thus of vital importance for high energy astrophysics. In spite of the wealth of data on the emission of luminous accreting neutron stars, the emission of their surfaces is hard to disentangle from their time averaged spectra. A recent X-ray transient source XTE J1701-462 has provided a unique dataset covering the largest ever observed luminosity range for a single source. In this paper, we extract the spectrum of the boundary layer between the inner part of the accretion disc and the neutron star surface with the help of maximally spectral model-independent method. We show compelling evidences that the energy spectrum of the boundary layer stays virtually the same over factor of 20 variations of the source luminosity. It is rather wide and cannot be described by a single temperature blackbody spectrum, probably because of the inhomogeneity of the boundary layer and a spread in the colour temperature. The observed maximum...

  1. Comptonization and QPO Origins in Accreting Neutron Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H C; Lee, Hyong C.; Miller, Guy S.

    1997-01-01

    We develop a simple, time-dependent Comptonization model to probe the origins of spectral variability in accreting neutron star systems. In the model, soft ``seed photons'' are injected into a corona of hot electrons, where they are Compton upscattered before escaping as hard X-rays. The model describes how the hard X-ray spectrum varies when the properties of either the soft photon source or the Comptonizing medium undergo small oscillations. Observations of the resulting spectral modulations can determine whether the variability is due to (i) oscillations in the injection of seed photons, (ii) oscillations in the coronal electron density, or (iii) oscillations in the coronal energy dissipation rate. Identifying the origin of spectral variability should help clarify how the corona operates and its relation to the accretion disk. It will also help in finding the mechanisms underlying the various quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in the X-ray outputs of many accreting neutron star and black hole syste...

  2. Self-Similar Hot Accretion Flow onto a Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, M V; Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2000-01-01

    We consider hot, two-temperature, viscous accretion onto a rotating, unmagnetized neutron star. We assume Coulomb coupling betweenthe protons and electrons, and free-free cooling from the electrons. We show that the accretion flow has an extended settling region which can be described by means of two analytical self-similar solutions: a two-temperature solution which is valid in an inner zone, $r10^{2.5}$. In both zones the density varies as $\\rho\\propto r^{-2}$ and the angular velocity as $\\Omega\\propto r^{-3/2}$. We solve the flow equations numerically and confirm that the analytical solutions are accurate. The self-similar settling solution differs from the advection-dominated accretion flow discussed in the context of black hole accretion. The settling flow radiates the energy dissipated by viscosity; so it is not advection-dominated. Except for the radial velocity, all other gas properties - density, angular velocity, temperature, luminosity, angular momentum flux - are independent of the mass accretion ...

  3. Detecting gravitational wave emission from the known accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, Anna; Bildsten, Lars; Schutz, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Detection of gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars (NSs) in our galaxy, due to ellipticity or internal oscillation, would be a breakthrough in our understanding of compact objects and explain the absence of NSs rotating near the break-up limit. Direct detection, however, poses a formidable challenge. Using the current data available on the properties of the accreting NSs in Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXBs), we quantify the detectability for the known accreting NSs, considering various emission scenarios and taking into account the negative impact of parameter uncertainty on the data analysis process. Only a few of the persistently bright NSs accreting at rates near the Eddington limit are detectable by Advanced LIGO if they are emitting gravitational waves at a rate matching the torque from accretion. A larger fraction of the known population is detectable if the spin and orbital parameters are known in advance, especially with the narrow-band Advanced LIGO. We identify the most promising targets, a...

  4. Self-Similar Hot Accretion Flow onto a Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, M V

    2001-01-01

    We present analytical and numerical solutions which describe a hot, viscous, two-temperature accretion flow onto a neutron star or any other compact star with a surface. We assume Coulomb coupling between the protons and electrons, and free-free cooling from the electrons. Outside a thin boundary layer, where the accretion flow meets the star, we show that there is an extended settling region which is well-described by two self-similar solutions: (1) a two-temperature solution which is valid in an inner zone $r\\le10^{2.5}$ ($r$ is in Schwarzchild units), and (2) a one-temperature solution at larger radii. In both zones, $\\rho\\propto r^{-2}, \\Omega\\propto r^{-3/2}, v\\propto r^0,\\ T_p\\propto r^{-1}$; in the two-temperature zone, $T_e\\propto r^{-1/2}$. The luminosity of the settling zone arises from the rotational energy of the star as the star is braked by viscosity; hence the luminosity is independent of $\\dot M$. The settling solution is convectively and viscously stable and is unlikely to have strong winds o...

  5. Gravitational Waves from Fallback Accretion onto Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Anthony L

    2012-01-01

    Massive stars generally end their lives as neutron stars (NSs) or black holes (BHs), with NS formation typically occurring at the low mass end and collapse to a BH more likely at the high mass end. In an intermediate regime, with a mass range that depends on the uncertain details of rotation and mass loss during the star's life, a NS is initially formed which then experiences fallback accretion and collapse to a BH. The electromagnetic consequence of such an event is not clear. Depending on the progenitor's structure, possibilities range from a long gamma-ray burst to a Type II supernova (that may or may not be jet-powered) to a collapse with a weak electromagnetic signature. Gravitational waves (GWs) provide the exciting opportunity to peer through the envelope of a dying massive star and directly probe what is occurring inside. We explore whether fallback onto young NSs can be detected by ground-based interferometers. When the incoming material has sufficient angular momentum to form a disk, the accretion s...

  6. Mechanical Properties of non-accreting Neutron Star Crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kelsey

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a neutron star crust, such as breaking strain and shear modulus, have implications for the detection of gravitational waves from a neutron star as well as bursts from Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs). These properties are calculated here for three different crustal compositions for a non-accreting neutron star that results from three different cooling histories, as well as for a pure iron crust. A simple shear is simulated using molecular dynamics to the crustal compositions by deforming the simulation box. The breaking strain and shear modulus are found to be similar in the four cases, with a breaking strain of ~0.1 and a shear modulus of ~10^{30} dyne cm^{-2} at a density of \\rho = 10^{14} g cm^{-3} for simulations with an initially perfect BCC lattice. With these crustal properties and the observed properties of {PSR J2124-3358} the predicted strain amplitude of gravitational waves for a maximally deformed crust is found to be greater than the observational upper limits from LIG...

  7. Compression of matter in the center of accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bejger, M; Haensel, P; Fortin, M

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the feasibility of dense-matter phase transition, we study the evolution of central density and baryon chemical potential of accreting neutron stars. The thin-disk accretion with and without the magnetic field torque is compared with the spin-down scenario for a selection of recent equations of state. We compare the prevalent (in the recycled-pulsar context) Keplerian thin-disk model, in which the matter is accreted from the marginally-stable circular orbit, with the recent magnetic-torque model that takes into account the influence of stellar magnetic field on the effective inner boundary of the disk. Calculations are performed using a multi-domain spectral methods code in the framework of General Relativity. We consider three equations of state consistent with recently measured mass of PSR J1614-2230, 1.97+-0.04 Msun (one of them softened by the appearance of hyperons). In the case of no magnetic torque and efficient angular momentum transfer from the disk to the star, substantial centr...

  8. Low-level accretion in neutron star X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Armas Padilla, M.; Altamirano, D.; Cavecchi, Y.; Linares, M.; Bahramian, A.; Heinke, C.O.

    2015-01-01

    We search the literature for reports on the spectral properties of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries when they have accretion luminosities between 1034 and 1036 erg s−1, corresponding to roughly 0.01-1 per cent of the Eddington accretion rate for a neutron star. We found that in this luminosity r

  9. A Survey of Chemical Separation in Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinven, Ryan; Cumming, Andrew; Medin, Zach; Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    The heavy element ashes of rp-process hydrogen and helium burning in accreting neutron stars are compressed to high density where they freeze, forming the outer crust of the star. We calculate the chemical separation on freezing for a number of different nuclear mixtures resulting from a range of burning conditions for the rp-process. We confirm the generic result that light nuclei are preferentially retained in the liquid and heavy nuclei in the solid. This is in agreement with the previous study of a 17-component mixture of rp-process ashes by Horowitz et al., but extends that result to a much larger range of compositions. We also find an alternative phase separation regime for the lightest ash mixtures which does not demonstrate this generic behavior. With a few exceptions, we find that chemical separation reduces the expected {Q}{{imp}} in the outer crust compared to the initial rp-process ash, where {Q}{{imp}} measures the mean-square dispersion in atomic number Z of the nuclei in the mixture. We find that the fractional spread of Z plays a role in setting the amount of chemical separation and is strongly correlated to the divergence between the two/three-component approximations and the full component model. The contrast in Y e between the initial rp-process ashes and the equilibrium liquid composition is similar to that assumed in earlier two-component models of compositionally driven convection, except for very light compositions which produce nearly negligible convective driving. We discuss the implications of these results for observations of accreting neutron stars.

  10. General relativistic spectra of accretion disks around rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, S; Thampan, A V

    2000-01-01

    General relativistic spectra from accretion disks around rotating neutron stars in the appropriate space-time geometry for several different equation of state, spin rates and mass of the compact object have been computed. The analysis involves the computation of the relativistically corrected radial temperature profiles and the effect of Doppler and gravitational red-shifts on the spectra. Light bending effects have been omitted for simplicity. The relativistic spectrum is compared with the Newtonian one and it is shown that the difference between the two is primarily due to the different radial temperature profile for the relativistic and Newtonian disk solutions. To facilitate direct comparison with observations, a simple empirical function has been presented which describes the numerically computed relativistic spectra well. This empirical function (which has three parameters including normalization) also describes the Newtonian spectrum adequately. Thus the function can in principle be used to distinguish...

  11. Tuning up for Gravitational Wave Detection in Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Duncan; Steeghs, Danny; Ransom, Scott

    Rapidly-rotating neutron stars are the only candidates for persistent gravitational wave emis-sion, for which a targeted search can be performed based on the spin period measured from electromagnetic (e.g. radio and X-ray) observations. Apart from the expected weakness of the emission, the principal difficulty for such searches is the lack of precision in measurements of the spin as well as the other physical parameters of the system. I present a pilot program of optical and infra-red observations of the stellar counterparts to X-ray bright accreting neutron stars, in order to measure (or improve the precision of) the binary parameters. These measurements will allow optimisation of future gravitational wave searches, and will also facilitate searches of the extensive X-ray timing data from NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, to measure the spin frequency (for those systems where it is not precisely known). Observations such as these will provide the best possible chance for detecting the gravitational wave emission from these systems.

  12. A Survey of Chemical Separation in Accreting Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mckinven, Ryan; Medin, Zach; Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The heavy element ashes of rp-process hydrogen and helium burning in accreting neutron stars are compressed to high density where they freeze, forming the outer crust of the star. We calculate the chemical separation on freezing for a number of different nuclear mixtures resulting from a range of burning conditions for the rp-process. We confirm the generic result that light nuclei are preferentially retained in the liquid and heavy nuclei in the solid. This is in agreement with the previous study of a 17-component mixture of rp-process ashes by Horowitz et al. (2007), but extends that result to a much larger range of compositions. We also find an alternate phase separation regime for the lightest ash mixtures which does not demonstrate this generic behaviour. With a few exceptions, we find that chemical separation reduces the expected $Q_{\\rm imp}$ in the outer crust compared to the initial rp-process ash, where $Q_{\\rm imp}$ measures the mean-square dispersion in atomic number $Z$ of the nuclei in the mixtu...

  13. Accretion to a Magnetized Neutron Star in the "Propeller" Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Toropina, O D; Lovelace, R V E

    2006-01-01

    We investigate spherical accretion to a rotating magnetized star in the "propeller" regime using axisymmetric resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The regime is predicted to occur if the magnetospheric radius is larger than the corotation radius and smaller than the light cylinder radius. The simulations show that accreting matter is expelled from the equatorial region of the magnetosphere and that it moves away from the star in a supersonic, disk-shaped outflow. At larger radial distances the outflow slows down and becomes subsonic. The equatorial matter outflow is initially driven by the centrifugal force, but at larger distances the pressure gradient force becomes significant. We find the fraction of the Bondi accretion rate which accretes to the surface of the star.

  14. Gravitational radiation and gamma-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera Cuesta, H.J.; Araujo, J.C.N. de; Aguiar, O.D. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica]. E-mail: herman@das.inpe.br; jcarlos@das.inpe.br; odylio@das.inpe.br; Horvath, J.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico]. E-mail: foton@orion.iagusp.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that hydrodynamic instabilities can be induced in rapidly rotating low magnetic field neutron stars, which accrete mass from a companion in both high and low mass X-ray binaries. (author)

  15. Accretion by a Neutron Star Moving at a High Kick Velocity in the Supernova Ejecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhang; Ye Lu; Yong-Heng Zhao

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a two-dimensional time dependent analytic model to describe the accretion of matter onto a neutron star moving at a high speed across the ejecta left in the aftermath of a supernova explosion. The formation of a strange star resulting from the accretion is also addressed. The newborn neutron star is assumed to move outward at a kick velocity of vns ~ 103 km s-1, and the accretion flow is treated as a dust flow. When the neutron star travels across the ejecta with high speed, it sweeps up material, and when the accreted mass has reached a critical value, the neutron star will undergo a phase transition,for instance, to become a strange star. Our results show that the accretion rate decreases in a complicated way in time, not just a power law dependence: it drops much faster than the power law derived by Colpi et al. We also found that the total accreted mass and the phase transition of the neutron star depend sensitively on the velocity of supernova ejecta.

  16. An ultraluminous X-ray source powered by an accreting neutron star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.;

    2014-01-01

    the Eddington limit for a 1.4-solar-mass object, or more than ten times brighter than any known accreting pulsar. This implies that neutron stars may not be rare in the ultraluminous X-ray population, and it challenges physical models for the accretion of matter onto magnetized compact objects....

  17. A strong shallow heat source in the accreting neutron star MAXI J0556-332

    CERN Document Server

    Deibel, Alex; Brown, Edward F; Page, Dany

    2015-01-01

    An accretion outburst in an X-ray transient deposits material onto the neutron star primary; this accumulation of matter induces reactions in the neutron star's crust. During the accretion outburst these reactions heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core. When accretion halts, the crust cools to its long-term equilibrium temperature on observable timescales. Here we examine the accreting neutron star transient MAXI J0556-332, which is the hottest transient, at the start of quiescence, observed to date. Models of the quiescent light curve require a large deposition of heat in the shallow outer crust from an unknown source. The additional heat injected is $\\approx 4\\textrm{-}10\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$ per accreted nucleon; when the observed decline in accretion rate at the end of the outburst is accounted for, the required heating increases to $\\approx 6\\textrm{-}16\\,\\mathrm{MeV}$. This shallow heating is still required to fit the lightcurve even after taking into account a second accretion episode, uncer...

  18. Hypercritical Accretion onto a Newborn Neutron Star and Magnetic Field Submergence

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, Cristian G; Lee, William H

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the late post-supernova hypercritical accretion to understand its effect on the magnetic field of the new-born neutron star. We consider as an example the case of a magnetic field loop protruding from the star's surface. The accreting matter is assumed to be non magnetized and, due to the high accretion rate, matter pressure dominates over magnetic pressure. We find that an accretion envelope develops very rapidly and once it becomes convectively stable the magnetic field is easily buried and pushed into the newly forming neutron star crust. However, for low enough accretion rates the accretion envelope remains convective for an extended period of time and only partial submergence of the magnetic field occurs due to a residual field that is maintained at the interface between the forming crust and the convective envelope. In this latter case, the outcome should be a weakly magnetized neutron star with a likely complicated field geometry. In our simulatio...

  19. Relativistic lines and reflection from the inner accretion disks around neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cackett, E.M.; Miller, J.M.; Ballantyne, D.R.; Barret, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Boutelier, M.; Miller, M.C.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Wijnands, R.

    2010-01-01

    A number of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) have recently been discovered to show broad, asymmetric Fe K emission lines in their X-ray spectra. These lines are generally thought to be the most prominent part of a reflection spectrum, originating in the inner part of the accretion disk w

  20. Cyclotron line signatures of thermal and magnetic mountains from accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Priymak, Maxim; Lasky, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance scattering features (CRSFs) in the X-ray spectrum of an accreting neutron star are modified differently by accretion mounds sustained by magnetic and thermocompositional gradients. It is shown that one can discriminate, in principle, between mounds of different physical origins by studying how the line energy, width, and depth of a CRSF depend on the orientation of the neutron star, accreted mass, surface temperature distribution, and equation of state. CRSF signatures including gravitational light bending are computed for both phase-resolved and phase-averaged spectra on the basis of self-consistent Grad-Shafranov mound equilibria satisfying a global flux-freezing constraint. The prospects of multimessenger X-ray and gravitational-wave observations with future instruments are canvassed briefly.

  1. Clumpy wind accretion in supergiant neutron star high mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, E.; Oskinova, L.; Feldmeier, A.; Falanga, M.

    2016-05-01

    The accretion of the stellar wind material by a compact object represents the main mechanism powering the X-ray emission in classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. In this work we present the first attempt to simulate the accretion process of a fast and dense massive star wind onto a neutron star, taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion ("gating") due to the spin and magnetic field of the compact object. We made use of a radiative hydrodynamical code to model the nonstationary radiatively driven wind of an O-B supergiant star and then place a neutron star characterized by a fixed magnetic field and spin period at a certain distance from the massive companion. Our calculations follow, as a function of time (on a total timescale of several hours), the transitions of the system through all different accretion regimes that are triggered by the intrinsic variations in the density and velocity of the nonstationary wind. The X-ray luminosity released by the system is computed at each time step by taking into account the relevant physical processes occurring in the different accretion regimes. Synthetic lightcurves are derived and qualitatively compared with those observed from classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. Although a number of simplifications are assumed in these calculations, we show that taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion significantly reduces the average X-ray luminosity expected for any neutron star wind-fed binary. The present model calculations suggest that long spin periods and stronger magnetic fields are favored in order to reproduce the peculiar behavior of supergiant fast X-ray transients in the X-ray domain.

  2. 3D MHD Simulations of accreting neutron stars: evidence of QPO emission from the surface

    CERN Document Server

    Bachetti, Matteo; Kulkarni, Akshay; Burderi, Luciano; di Salvo, Tiziana; .,

    2009-01-01

    3D Magnetohydrodynamic simulations show that when matter accretes onto neutron stars, in particular if the misalignment angle is small, it does not constantly fall at a fixed spot. Instead, the location at which matter reaches the star moves. These moving hot spots can be produced both during stable accretion, where matter falls near the magnetic poles of the star, and unstable accretion, characterized by the presence of several tongues of matter which fall on the star near the equator, due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Precise modeling with Monte Carlo simulations shows that those movements could be observed as high frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations. We performed a number of new simulation runs with a much wider set of parameters, focusing on neutron stars with a small misalignment angle. In most cases we observe oscillations whose frequency is correlated with the mass accretion rate $\\dot{M}$. Moreover, in some cases double QPOs appear, each of them showing the same correlation with $\\dot{M}$.

  3. Accretion disk assembly and survival during the disruption of a neutron star by a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Lee, William H.

    2003-01-01

    We study the formation of accretion disks resulting from dynamical three dimensional binary coalescence calculations, where a neutron star is tidally disrupted before being swallowed by its black hole companion. By subsequently assuming azimuthal symmetry we are able to follow the time dependence of the disk structure for a few tenths of a second. Although the disruption of a neutron star leads to a situation where violent instabilities redistribute mass and angular momentum within a few dynamical timescales, enough gas mass remains in the orbiting debris to catalyse the extraction of energy from the hole at a rate adequate to power a short-lived gamma ray burst.

  4. Appearance of innermost stable circular orbits of accretion discs around rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Torok, G; Adamek, K; Urbancova, G

    2014-01-01

    The innermost stable cicular orbit (ISCO) of an accretion disc orbiting a neutron star (NS) is often assumed a unique prediction of general relativity. However, it has been argued that ISCO also appears around highly elliptic bodies described by Newtonian theory. In this sense, the behaviour of an ISCO around a rotating oblate neutron star is formed by the interplay between relativistic and Newtonian effects. Here we briefly explore the consequences of this interplay using a straightforward analytic approach as well as numerical models that involve modern NS equations of state. We examine the ratio K between the ISCO radius and the radius of the neutron star. We find that, with growing NS spin, the ratio K first decreases, but then starts to increase. This non-monotonic behaviour of K can give rise to a neutron star spin interval in which ISCO appears for two very different ranges of NS mass. This may strongly affect the distribution of neutron stars that have an ISCO (ISCO-NS). When (all) neutron stars are d...

  5. Clumpy wind accretion in supergiant neutron star high mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Feldmeier, A; Falanga, M

    2016-01-01

    The accretion of the stellar wind material by a compact object represents the main mechanism powering the X-ray emission in classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. In this work we present the first attempt to simulate the accretion process of a fast and dense massive star wind onto a neutron star, taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion ("gating") due to the spin and magnetic field of the compact object. We made use of a radiative hydrodynamical code to model the non-stationary radiatively driven wind of an O-B supergiant star and then place a neutron star characterized by a fixed magnetic field and spin period at a certain distance from the massive companion. Our calculations follow, as a function of time (on a total time scale of several hours), the transition of the system through all different accretion regimes that are triggered by the intrinsic variations in the density and velocity of the non-stationary wind. Th...

  6. ANISOTROPY OF X-RAY BURSTS FROM NEUTRON STARS WITH CONCAVE ACCRETION DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.-C. [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Keek, L., E-mail: jordanhe1994@gmail.com [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Emission from neutron stars and accretion disks in low-mass X-ray binaries is anisotropic. The non-spherical shape of the disk as well as blocking of the neutron star by the disk make the observed flux dependent on the inclination angle of the disk with respect to the line of sight. This is of importance for the interpretation of thermonuclear X-ray bursts from neutron stars. Because part of the X-ray burst is reflected off the disk, the observed burst flux depends on the anisotropies for both direct emission from the neutron star and reflection off the disk. This influences measurements of source distance, mass accretion rate, and constraints on the neutron star’s equation of state. Previous predictions of the anisotropy factors assumed a geometrically flat disk. Detailed observations of two so-called superbursts allowed for the direct and the reflected burst fluxes to each be measured separately. The reflection fraction was much higher than what the anisotropies of a flat disk can account for. We create numerical models to calculate the anisotropy factors for different disk shapes, including concave disks. We present the anisotropy factors of the direct and reflected burst fluxes separately, as well as the anisotropy of the persistent flux. Reflection fractions substantially larger than unity are produced in the case where the inner accretion disk increases steeply in height, such that part of the star is blocked from view. Such a geometry could possibly be induced by the X-ray burst if X-ray heating causes the inner disk to puff up.

  7. Magnetic Field Effect on β+ Decay in the Crusts of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; LIU Men-Quan; LUO Zhi-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Based on shell model of nuclei,the influence of a high magnetic field on ββ+ decay in the crusts of accreting neutron stars is analyzed.The magnetic field effect on 54Mn is discussed.The results show that a weak magnetic field makes little effect on β+ decay but a strong magnetic field (B > 1011 G) improves β+ decay rates obviously.The conclusion derived will benefit to develop further research on nuclear astrophysics in the future.

  8. High energy signatures of quasi-spherical accretion onto rotating, magnetized neutron star in the ejector-accretor intermediate state

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2015-01-01

    We consider a simple scenario for the accretion of matter onto a neutron star in order to understand processes in the inner pulsar magnetosphere during the transition stage between different accretion modes. A simple quasi-spherical accretion process onto rotating, magnetized compact object is analyzed in order to search for the radiative signatures which could appear during transition between ejecting and accreting modes. It is argued that different accretion modes can be present in a single neutron star along different magnetic field lines for specific range of parameters characterising the pulsar (rotational period, surface magnetic field strength) and the density of surrounding medium. The radiation processes characteristic for the ejecting pulsar, i.e. curvature and synchrotron radiation produced by primary electrons in the pulsar outer gap, are expected to be modified by the presence of additional thermal radiation from the neutron star surface. We predict that during the transition from the pure ejecto...

  9. Time-dependent, compositionally driven convection in the oceans of accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Medin, Zach

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the effect of chemical separation as matter freezes at the base of the ocean of an accreting neutron star, and the subsequent enrichment of the ocean in light elements and inward transport of heat through convective mixing. We extend the steady-state results of Medin & Cumming 2011 to transiently accreting neutron stars, by considering the time-dependent cases of heating during accretion outbursts and cooling during quiescence. Convective mixing is extremely efficient, flattening the composition profile in about one convective turnover time (weeks to months at the base of the ocean). During accretion outbursts, inward heat transport has only a small effect on the temperature profile in the outer layers until the ocean is strongly enriched in light elements, a process that takes hundreds of years to complete. During quiescence, however, inward heat transport rapidly cools the outer layers of the ocean while keeping the inner layers hot. We find that this leads to a sharp drop in surface emission...

  10. The inner disc radius in the propeller phase and accretion-propeller transition of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Ünal

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated the critical conditions required for a steady propeller effect for magnetized neutron stars with optically thick, geometrically thin accretion discs. We have shown through simple analytical calculations that a steady-state propeller mechanism cannot be sustained at an inner disc radius where the viscous and magnetic stresses are balanced. The radius calculated by equating these stresses is usually found to be close to the conventional Alfvén radius for spherical accretion, rA. Our results show that: (1) a steady propeller phase can be established with a maximum inner disc radius that is at least ∼15 times smaller than rA depending on the mass-flow rate of the disc, rotational period and strength of the magnetic dipole field of the star, (2) the critical accretion rate corresponding to the accretion-propeller transition is orders of magnitude lower than the rate estimated by equating rA to the co-rotation radius. Our results are consistent with the properties of the transitional millisecond pulsars that show transitions between the accretion powered X-ray pulsar and the rotational powered radio-pulsar states.

  11. Probing the effects of a thermonuclear X-ray burst on the neutron star accretion flow with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Chakrabarty, D; Kara, E; Altamirano, D; Miller, J M; Fabian, A C

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence has been accumulating that thermonuclear X-ray bursts ignited on the surface of neutron stars influence the surrounding accretion flow. Here, we exploit the excellent sensitivity of NuSTAR up to 79 keV to analyze the impact of an X-ray burst on the accretion emission of the neutron star LMXB 4U 1608-52. The ~200 s long X-ray burst occurred during a hard X-ray spectral state, and had a peak intensity of ~30-50 per cent of the Eddington limit with no signs of photospheric radius expansion. Spectral analysis suggests that the accretion emission was enhanced up to a factor of ~5 during the X-ray burst. We also applied a linear unsupervised decomposition method, namely non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), to study this X-ray burst. We find that the NMF performs well in characterizing the evolution of the burst emission and is a promising technique to study changes in the underlying accretion emission in more detail than is possible through conventional spectral fitting. For the burst of ...

  12. Low-level accretion in neutron-star X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, R; Padilla, M Armas; Altamirano, D; Cavecchi, Y; Linares, M; Bahramian, A; Heinke, C O

    2014-01-01

    We search the literature for reports on the spectral properties of neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries when they have accretion luminosities between 1E34 and 1E36 ergs/s. We found that in this luminosity range the photon index (obtained from fitting a simple absorbed power-law in the 0.5-10 keV range) increases with decreasing 0.5-10 keV X-ray luminosity (i.e., the spectrum softens). Such behaviour has been reported before for individual sources, but here we demonstrate that very likely most (if not all) neutron-star systems behave in a similar manner and possibly even follow a universal relation. When comparing the neutron-star systems with black-hole systems, it is clear that most black-hole binaries have significantly harder spectra at luminosities of 1E34 - 1E35 erg/s. Despite a limited number of data points, there are indications that these spectral differences also extend to the 1E35 - 1E36 erg/s range. We note, however, that the system in our sample which has the hardest spectra is in fact a neutron-s...

  13. Carbon production on accreting neutron stars in a new regime of stable nuclear burning

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L

    2015-01-01

    Accreting neutron stars exhibit Type I X-ray bursts from both frequent hydrogen/helium flashes as well as rare carbon flashes. The latter (superbursts) ignite in the ashes of the former. Hydrogen/helium bursts, however, are thought to produce insufficient carbon to power superbursts. Stable burning could create the required carbon, but this was predicted to only occur at much larger accretion rates than where superbursts are observed. We present models of a new steady-state regime of stable hydrogen and helium burning that produces pure carbon ashes. Hot CNO burning of hydrogen heats the neutron star envelope and causes helium to burn before the conditions of a helium flash are reached. This takes place when the mass accretion rate is around 10% of the Eddington limit: close to the rate where most superbursts occur. We find that increased heating at the base of the envelope sustains steady-state burning by steepening the temperature profile, which increases the amount of helium that burns before a runaway can...

  14. Helium Ignition on Accreting Neutron Stars with a New Triple-α Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang; Ott, Christian D.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the effect of a new triple-α reaction rate from Ogata et al. on helium ignition conditions on accreting neutron stars and on the properties of the subsequent type I X-ray burst. We find that the new rate leads to significantly lower ignition column density for accreting neutron stars at low accretion rates. We compare the results of our ignition models for a pure helium accretor to observations of bursts in ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs), which are believed to have nearly pure helium donors. For \\dot{m}> 0.001 \\dot{m}_{{Edd}}, the new triple-α reaction rate from Ogata et al. predicts a maximum helium ignition column of ~3 × 109 g cm-2, corresponding to a burst energy of ~4 × 1040 erg. For \\dot{m}˜ 0.01 \\dot{m}_{{Edd}} at which intermediate long bursts occur, the predicted burst energies are at least a factor of 10 too low to explain the observed energies of such bursts in UCXBs. This finding adds to the doubts cast on the triple-α reaction rate of Ogata et al. by the low-mass stellar evolution results of Dotter & Paxton.

  15. Helium Ignition on Accreting Neutron Stars with a New Triple-alpha Reaction Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Fang

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a new triple-alpha reaction rate from Ogata et al. (2009) on helium ignition conditions on accreting neutron stars and on the properties of the subsequent type I X-ray burst. We find that the new rate leads to significantly lower ignition column density for accreting neutron stars at low accretion rates. We compare the results of our ignition models for a pure helium accretor to observations of bursts in ultra-compact X-ray binary (UCXBs), which are believed to have nearly pure helium donors. For mdot > 0.001 mdot_Edd, the new triple-alpha reaction rate from Ogata et al. (2009) predicts a maximum helium ignition column of ~ 3 x 10^9 g cm^{-2}, corresponding to a burst energy of ~ 4 x 10^{40} ergs. For mdot ~ 0.01 mdot_Edd at which intermediate long bursts occur, the predicted burst energies are at least a factor of 10 too low to explain the observed energies of such bursts in UCXBs. This finding adds to the doubts cast on the triple-alpha reaction rate of Ogata et al. (2009) by th...

  16. Accreting Neutron Stars in Low-Mass X-Ray Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Frederick K

    2007-01-01

    Using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RossiXTE), astronomers have discovered that disk-accreting neutron stars with weak magnetic fields produce three distinct types of high-frequency X-ray oscillations. These oscillations are powered by release of the binding energy of matter falling into the strong gravitational field of the star or by the sudden nuclear burning of matter that has accumulated in the outermost layers of the star. The frequencies of the oscillations reflect the orbital frequencies of gas deep in the gravitational field of the star and/or the spin frequency of the star. These oscillations can therefore be used to explore fundamental physics, such as strong-field gravity and the properties of matter under extreme conditions, and important astrophysical questions, such as the formation and evolution of millisecond pulsars. Observations using RossiXTE have shown that some two dozen neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binary systems have the spin rates and magnetic fields required to become milliseco...

  17. Self-Similar Hot Accretion Flow onto a Rotating Neutron Star Structure and Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, M V; Medvedev, Mikhail; Narayan, Ramesh

    2001-01-01

    We present analytical and numerical solutions which describe a hot, viscous, two-temperature accretion flow onto a rotating neutron star or any other rotating compact star with a surface. We assume Coulomb coupling between the protons and electrons, and free-free cooling from the electrons. Outside a thin boundary layer, where the accretion flow meets the star, we show that there is an extended settling region which is well-described by two self-similar solutions: (i) a two-temperature solution which is valid in an inner zone $r\\le10^{2.5}$ ($r$ is in Schwarzchild units), and (ii) a one-temperature solution at larger radii. In both zones, $\\rho\\propto r^{-2}, \\Omega\\propto r^{-3/2}, v\\propto r^0, T_p\\propto r^{-1}$; in the two-temperature zone, $T_e\\propto r^{-1/2}$. The luminosity of the settling zone arises from the rotational energy of the star as the star is braked by viscosity. Hence the luminosity and the flow parameters (density, temperature, angular velocity) are independent of $\\dot M$. The settling ...

  18. Critical condition for the propeller effect in systems with magnetized neutron stars accreting from geometrically thin accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Unal

    2016-07-01

    The inner disk radius around a magnetized neutron star in the spin-down phase is usually assumed to be close to the radius at which the viscous and magnetic stresses are balanced. With different assumptions, this radius is estimated to be very close the Alfven radius. Furthermore, it is commonly assumed that the propeller mechanism can expel the matter from the system when this radius is found to be greater than the co-rotation radius. In the present work, we have shown with simple analytical calculations from the first principles that a steady-state propeller mechanism cannot be established at the radius where the viscous and the magnetic torques are balanced. We have found that a steady-state propeller phase can be built up with an inner disk radius that is at least ~10 - 30 times smaller than the Alfven radius depending on the current mass-flow rate of the disk, the field strength and the rotational period of the source. This result also indicates that the critical accretion rate for the accretion-propeller transition is orders of magnitude smaller than the rate found by equating the Alfven and the co-rotation radii. Our results are consistent with the properties of recently discovered transitional millisecond pulsars which show transitions between the rotational powered radio pulsar and the accretion powered X-ray pulsar states.

  19. Outflows from accretion disks formed in neutron star mergers: effect of black hole spin

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D; Quataert, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    The accretion disk that forms after a neutron star merger is a source of neutron-rich ejecta. The ejected material contributes to a radioactively-powered electromagnetic transient, with properties that depend sensitively on the composition of the outflow. Here we investigate how the spin of the black hole remnant influences mass ejection on the thermal and viscous timescales. To this end, we carry out two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of merger remnant accretion disks including viscous angular momentum transport and approximate neutrino self-irradiation. The gravity of the spinning black hole is included via a pseudo-Newtonian potential. We find that a disk around a spinning black hole ejects more mass, up to a factor of several, relative to the non-spinning case. The enhanced mass loss is due to energy release by accretion occurring deeper in the gravitational potential, raising the disk temperature and hence the rate of viscous heating in regions where neutrino cooling is ineffective....

  20. Carbon Synthesis in Steady-State Hydrogen and Helium Burning On Accreting Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Jeremy; Cumming, Andrew; Cyburt, Richard; Schatz, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Superbursts from accreting neutron stars probe nuclear reactions at extreme densities ($\\rho \\approx 10^{9}~g\\,cm^{-3}$) and temperatures ($T>10^9~K$). These bursts ($\\sim$1000 times more energetic than type I X-ray bursts) are most likely triggered by unstable ignition of carbon in a sea of heavy nuclei made during the rp-process of regular type I X-ray bursts (where the accumulated hydrogen and helium are burned). An open question is the origin of sufficient amounts of carbon, which is largely destroyed during the rp-process in X-ray bursts. We explore carbon production in steady-state burning via the rp-process, which might occur together with unstable burning in systems showing superbursts. We find that for a wide range of accretion rates and accreted helium mass fractions large amounts of carbon are produced, even for systems that accrete solar composition. This makes stable hydrogen and helium burning a viable source of carbon to trigger superbursts. We also investigate the sensitivity of the results to...

  1. Compositionally-driven convection in the oceans of accreting neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Medin, Zach

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the effect of chemical separation as matter freezes at the base of the ocean of an accreting neutron star, and argue that the retention of light elements in the liquid acts as a source of buoyancy that drives a slow but continual mixing of the ocean, enriching it substantially in light elements, and leading to a relatively uniform composition with depth. We first consider the timescales associated with different processes that can redistribute elements in the ocean, including convection, sedimentation, crystallization, and diffusion. We then calculate the steady state structure of the ocean of a neutron star for an illustrative model in which the accreted hydrogen and helium burns to produce a mixture of O and Se. Even though the H/He burning produces only 2% oxygen by mass, the steady state ocean has an oxygen abundance more than ten times larger, almost 40% by mass. Furthermore, we show that the convective motions transport heat inwards, with a flux of ~ 0.2 MeV per nucleon for an O-Se ocean, hea...

  2. GRB060602B = Swift J1749.4-2807: an unusual transiently accreting neutron-star X-ray binary

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnands, R.; Rol, E.; Cackett, E.; Starling, R. L. C.; Remillard, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Swift BAT and XRT data of GRB060602B, which is most likely an accreting neutron star in a binary system and not a gamma-ray burst. Our analysis shows that the BAT burst spectrum is consistent with a thermonuclear flash (type-I X-ray burst) from the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary system. The X-ray binary nature is further confirmed by the report of a detection of a faint point source at the position of the XRT counterpart of the burst in archival...

  3. A Direct Measurement of the Heat Release in the Outer Crust of the Transiently Accreting Neutron Star XTE J1709-267

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; R. Wijnands; J.M. Miller

    2013-01-01

    The heating and cooling of transiently accreting neutron stars provides a powerful probe of the structure and composition of their crust. Observations of superbursts and cooling of accretion-heated neutron stars require more heat release than is accounted for in current models. Obtaining firm constr

  4. Effects of a New Triple-alpha Reaction on X-ray Bursts of a Helium Accreting Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuo, Y; Noda, T; Saruwatari, M; Ono, M; Hashimoto, M; Fujimoto, M

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a new triple-$\\alpha$ reaction rate (OKK rate) on the helium flash of a helium accreting neutron star in a binary system have been investigated. Since the ignition points determine the properties of a thermonuclear flash of type I X-ray bursts, we examine the cases of different accretion rates, $dM/dt (\\dot{M})$, of helium from $3\\times10^{-10} M_{\\odot} \\rm yr^{-1}$ to $3\\times10^{-8} M_{\\odot} \\rm yr^{-1}$, which could cover the observed accretion rates. We find that for the cases of low accretion rates, nuclear burnings are ignited at the helium layers of rather low densities. As a consequence, helium deflagration would be triggered for all cases of lower accretion rate than $\\dot{M}\\simeq 3\\times10^{-8} M_{\\odot} \\rm yr^{-1}$. We find that OKK rate could be barely consistent with the available observations of the X-ray bursts on the helium accreting neutron star. However this coincidence is found to depend on the properties of crustal heating and the neutron star model.We suggest that OKK r...

  5. Dichotomy Between Black Hole and Neutron Star Accretion: Effect of Hard Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhang, Prasun; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-07-01

    Estimates of accretion rate on to compact objects have been explored based on the well-known, spherically symmetric, inviscid, steady-state solution given by Bondi. This solution assumes that there is a sink of mass at the center -- which in case of a black hole (BH) corresponds to the advection of matter across the event horizon. Other stars, such as a neutron star (NS), have surfaces and hence the infalling matter has to come to rest at the surface. We study the initial value problem in which the matter distribution is uniform and at rest at time t=0 with different inner radial boundary conditions for BHs and NSs: inflow boundary condition valid for BHs; and reflective or settling boundary condition for NSs. We obtain a similarity solution for the flow with inner inflow and reflective boundary conditions (assuming a cold ambient medium) and compare with numerical simulations of the Euler equations. One-dimensional simulations show the formation of an outward propagating and a standing shock in NS system for reflective and settling boundary conditions respectively. Two-dimensional simulations show that both these flows are unstable (locally to convection and globally to a standing shock instability). Numerical simulations show that in steady state, spherical accretion rate on to a NS for reflective boundary condition is suppressed by orders of magnitude compared to that on to a BH.

  6. Physical processes in the strong magnetic fields of accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical formulae are fitted to observational data on physical processes occurring in strong magnetic fields surrounding accreting neutron stars. The propagation of normal modes in the presence of a quantizing magnetic field is discussed in terms of a wave equation in Fourier space, quantum electrodynamic effects, polarization and mode ellipticity. The results are applied to calculating the Thomson scattering, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering cross-sections, which are a function of the frequency, angle and polarization of the magnetic field. Numerical procedures are explored for solving the radiative transfer equations. When applied to modeling X ray pulsars, a problem arises in the necessity to couple the magnetic angle and frequency dependence of the cross-sections with the hydrodynamic equations. The use of time-dependent averaging and approximation techniques is indicated.

  7. Reflection spectra from an accretion disc illuminated by a neutron star X-ray burst

    CERN Document Server

    Ballantyne, D R

    2004-01-01

    Recent time-resolved X-ray spectra of a neutron star undergoing a superburst revealed an Fe K line and edge consistent with reprocessing from the surrounding accretion disc. Here, we present models of X-ray reflection from a constant density slab illuminated by a blackbody, the spectrum emitted by a neutron star burst. The calculations predict a prominent Fe K line and a rich soft X-ray line spectrum which is superimposed on a strong free-free continuum. The lines slowly vanish as the ionization parameter of the slab is increased, but the free-free continuum remains dominant at energiesless than 1 keV. The reflection spectrum has a quasi-blackbody shape only at energies greater than 3 keV. If the incident blackbody is added to the reflection spectrum, the Fe K equivalent width varies between 100 and 300 eV depending on the ionization parameter and the temperature, kT, of the blackbody. The equivalent width is correlated with kT, and therefore we predict a strong Fe K line when an X-ray burst is at its brighte...

  8. The g-mode Excitation in the Proto Neutron Star by the Standing Accretion Shock Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, S; Yamada, S; Yoshida, Shijun; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Yamada, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    The so-called "acoustic revival mechanism" of core-collapse supernova proposed recently by the Arizona group is an interesting new possibility. Aiming to understand the elementary processes involved in the mechanism, we have calculated the eigen frequencies and eigen functions for the g-mode oscillations of a non-rotating proto neutron star. The possible excitation of these modes by the standing accretion shock instability, or SASI, is discussed based on these eigen functions. We have formulated the forced oscillations of $g$-modes by the external pressure perturbations exerted on the proto neutron star surface. The driving pressure fluctuations have been adopted from our previous computations of the axisymmetric SASI in the non-linear regime. We have paid particular attention to low l modes, since these are the modes that are dominant in SASI and that the Arizona group claimed played an important role in their acoustic revival scenario. Here l is the index of the spherical harmonic functions, $Y_l^m$. Althou...

  9. Long-term evolution of accretion disks around the neutron star in Be/X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hayasaki, K; Hayasaki, Kimitake; Okazaki, Atsuo T.

    2005-01-01

    we study the long-term evolution of the accretion disk around the neutron star in Be/X-ray binaries. We confirm the earlier result by Hayasaki & Okazaki (2004) that the disk evolves via a two-stage process, which consists of the initial developing stage and the later developed stage. The peak mass-accretion rate is distributed around apastron after the disk is fully developed. This indicates that the modulation of the mass accretion rate is essentially caused by an inward propagation of the one-armed spiral wave. The X-ray luminosity peak around the apastron could provide circumstatial evidence for an persistent disk around the neutron star in Be/X-ray binaries.

  10. A Compton reflection dominated spectrum in a peculiar accreting neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, N; Israel, G L; Matt, G; Zane, S; Segreto, A; Oosterbroek, T; Orlandini, M; Rea, Nanda; Stella, Luigi; Israel, Gian Luca; Matt, Giorgio; Zane, Silvia; Segreto, Alberto; Oosterbroek, Tim

    2005-01-01

    We report on a puzzling event occurred during a long BeppoSAX observation of the slow-rotating binary pulsar GX 1+4. During this event, lasting about 1 day, the source X-ray flux was over a factor 10 lower than normal. The low-energy pulsations disappeared while at higher energies they were shifted in phase. The spectrum taken outside this low-intensity event was well fitted by an absorbed cut-off power law, and exhibited a broad iron line at ~6.5 keV probably due to the blending of the neutral (6.4 keV) and ionised (6.7 keV) K_alpha iron lines. The spectrum during the event was Compton reflection dominated and it showed two narrow iron lines at ~6.4 keV and ~7.0 keV, the latter never revealed before in this source. We also present a possible model for this event in which a variation of the accretion rate thickens a torus-like accretion disc which hides for a while the direct neutron star emission from our line of sight. In this scenario the Compton reflected emission observed during the event is well explain...

  11. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields), white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron stars and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  12. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  13. Spread of Matter over a Neutron-Star Surface During Disk Accretion: Deceleration of Rapid Rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Sunyaev, R A

    2011-01-01

    The problem of disk accretion onto the surface of a neutron star with a weak magnetic field at a luminosity exceeding several percent of Eddington is reduced to the problem of the braking of a hypersonic flow with a velocity that is 0.4-0.5 of the speed of light above the base of the spreading layer -- a dense atmosphere made up of previously fallen matter. We show that turbulent braking in the Prandtl-Karman model with universally accepted coefficients for terrestrial conditions and laboratory experiments and a ladder of interacting gravity waves in a stratified quasi-exponential atmosphere at standard Richardson numbers lead to a spin-up of the massive zone that extends to the ocean made up of a plasma with degenerate electrons. Turbulent braking in the ocean at the boundary with the outer solid crust reduces the rotation velocity to the solid-body rotation velocity of the star. This situation should lead to strong heating of deep atmospheric layers and to the switch-off of the explosive helium burning mech...

  14. Numerical Solution of the Radiative Transfer Equation: X-Ray Spectral Formation from Cylindrical Accretion onto a Magnetized Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairnelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.; Romano, P.; Titarchuk, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the emerging X-ray spectra in several astrophysical objects is of great importance, in particular when the observational data are compared with theoretical models. This requires developing numerical routines for the solution of the radiative transfer equation according to the expected physical conditions of the systems under study. Aims. We have developed an algorithm solving the radiative transfer equation in the Fokker-Planck approximation when both thermal and bulk Comptonization take place. The algorithm is essentially a relaxation method, where stable solutions are obtained when the system has reached its steady-state equilibrium. Methods. We obtained the solution of the radiative transfer equation in the two-dimensional domain defined by the photon energy E and optical depth of the system pi using finite-differences for the partial derivatives, and imposing specific boundary conditions for the solutions. We treated the case of cylindrical accretion onto a magnetized neutron star. Results. We considered a blackbody seed spectrum of photons with exponential distribution across the accretion column and for an accretion where the velocity reaches its maximum at the stellar surface and at the top of the accretion column, respectively. In both cases higher values of the electron temperature and of the optical depth pi produce flatter and harder spectra. Other parameters contributing to the spectral formation are the steepness of the vertical velocity profile, the albedo at the star surface, and the radius of the accretion column. The latter parameter modifies the emerging spectra in a specular way for the two assumed accretion profiles. Conclusions. The algorithm has been implemented in the XPEC package for X-ray fitting and is specifically dedicated to the physical framework of accretion at the polar cap of a neutron star with a high magnetic field (approx > 10(exp 12) G). This latter case is expected to be of typical accreting systems such as X

  15. Measurement of Hard Lags and Coherences in the X-Ray Flux of Accreting Neutron Stars and Comparison with Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Eric C.; Van Der Klis, Michiel; Mendez, Mariano; van Paradijs, Jan; Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    Using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer we have measured lags of the 9 to 33 keV photons relative to the 2 to 9 keV photons in the timing noise between 0.01 and 100 Hz in the accreting neutron stars 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44. We performed similar measurements on the accreting black hole candidates Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4 as a comparison. During the observations these sources were all in low (hard) states. We find phase lags of between 0.03 and 0.2 radians in all these sources, with a variation in...

  16. Quasi-periodic accretion and gravitational waves from oscillating "toroidal neutron stars" around a Schwarzschild black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, O; Font, J A

    2003-01-01

    We present general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of constant specific angular momentum tori orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. These tori are expected to form as a result of stellar gravitational collapse, binary neutron star merger or disruption, can reach very high rest-mass densities and behave effectively as neutron stars but with a toroidal topology (i.e. ``toroidal neutron stars''). Our attention is here focussed on the dynamical response of these objects to axisymmetric perturbations. We show that, upon the introduction of perturbations, these systems either become unstable to the runaway instability or exhibit a regular oscillatory behaviour resulting in a quasi-periodic variation of the accretion rate as well as of the mass quadrupole. The latter, in particular, is responsible for the emission of intense gravitational radiation whose signal-to-noise ratio at the detector is comparable or larger than the typical one expected in stellar-core collapse, making these new sources of gravitationa...

  17. On Self-Ignition and the Propagation of Flame Fronts on the Surfaces of Accreting Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, A.; Sandquist, E. L.; Taam, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    The behavior of nuclear burning in the accreted layer of a neutron star is investigated for helium and hydrogen-helium mixtures. Attention is focused on the propagation of a thermal wave due to electron conduction or radiative diffusion in the lateral direction. The fully time-dependent calculations reveal that a steady state flame front is not necessarily applicable at high mass accretion rates (dM/dt > (dM/dt)Edd). In particular, there are parameter regimes in which a steady state structure is never attained within physically relevant timescales because the gas ahead of a front self-ignites. Hence, a thermonuclear flash may take place on a timescale unrelated to the timescale for a steady state front to propagate over a homogeneous region. The existence of irregular burst activity in highly luminous neutron star X-ray binary systems may provide some observational support for this theoretical picture.

  18. An Ultraluminous X-ray Source Powered by An Accreting Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Bachetti, M; Walton, D J; Grefenstette, B W; Chakrabarty, D; Fürst, F; Barret, D; Beloborodov, A; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Hailey, C J; Hornschemeier, A; Kaspi, V; Kulkarni, S R; Maccarone, T; Miller, J M; Rana, V; Stern, D; Tendulkar, S P; Tomsick, J; Webb, N A; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) are off-nuclear point sources in nearby galaxies whose X-ray luminosity exceeds the theoretical maximum for spherical infall (the Eddington limit) onto stellar-mass black holes. Their luminosity ranges from $10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1} $10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$), which require black hole masses MBH >50 solar masses and/or significant departures from the standard thin disk accretion that powers bright Galactic X-ray binaries. Here we report broadband X-ray observations of the nuclear region of the galaxy M82, which contains two bright ULXs. The observations reveal pulsations of average period 1.37 s with a 2.5-day sinusoidal modulation. The pulsations result from the rotation of a magnetized neutron star, and the modulation arises from its binary orbit. The pulsed flux alone corresponds to $L_X$(3 - 30 keV) = $4.9 \\times 10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The pulsating source is spatially coincident with a variable ULX which can reach $L_X$ (0.3 - 10 keV) = $1.8 \\times 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This ...

  19. Numerical Experiments for Nuclear Flashes toward Superbursts in an Accreting Neutron Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa-aki Hashimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the superburst would be originated from thermonuclear burning ignited by accumulated fuels in the deep layers compared to normal X-ray bursts. Two cases are investigated for models related to superbursts by following thermal evolution of a realistic neutron star: helium flash and carbon flash accompanied with many normal bursts. For a helium flash, the burst shows the long duration when the accretion rate is low compared with the observation. The flash could become a superburst if the burning develops to the deflagration and/or detonation. For a carbon flash accompanied with many normal bursts, after successive 2786 normal bursts during 1.81 × 109 s, the temperature reaches the deflagration temperature. This is due to the produced carbon which amount reaches to ≈0.1 in the mass fraction. The flash will develop to dynamical phenomena of the deflagration and/or detonation, which may lead to a superburst.

  20. Production of all $r$-process nuclides by black hole accretion disk outflows from neutron star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    We consider $r$-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion disks formed in double neutron star and neutron star - black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important -- and in some cases dominant -- contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disk outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second $r$-process peak (mass number $A \\sim 130$), independent of model parameters, with significant production of $A < 130$ nuclei. This implies that dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of $r$-process elements in metal poor stars. Disk outflows reach the third peak ($ A \\sim 195$) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the ...

  1. GRB060602B = Swift J1749.4-2807: an unusual transiently accreting neutron-star X-ray binary

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Ed M; Starling, Rhaana L C; Remillard, Ron A

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Swift BAT and XRT data of GRB060602B, which is most likely an accreting neutron star in a binary system and not a gamma-ray burst. Our analysis shows that the BAT burst spectrum is consistent with a thermonuclear flash (type-I X-ray burst) from the surface of an accreting neutron star in a binary system. The X-ray binary nature is further confirmed by the report of a detection of a faint point source at the position of the XRT counterpart of the burst in archival XMM-Newton data approximately 6 years before the burst and in more recent XMM-Newton data obtained at the end of September 2006 (nearly 4 months after the burst). Since the source is very likely not a gamma-ray burst, we rename the source Swift J1749.4-2807, based on the Swift/BAT discovery coordinates. Using the BAT data of the type-I X-ray burst we determined that the source is at most at a distance of 6.7+-1.3 kpc. For a transiently accreting X-ray binary its soft X-ray behaviour is atypical: its 2-10 keV X-ray lumino...

  2. Inner disk radius, accretion and the propeller effect in the spin-down phase of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ertan, Unal

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the critical conditions required for an efficient steady propeller mechanism in the spin-down phases of magnetized neutron stars with optically thick accretion disks. We have shown through simple analytical calculations that: (1) the strength of the dipole field at the Alfven radius is not sufficient to sustain an efficient mass-outflow even when the magnetic dipole field lines rotate much faster than the escape speed, (2) in the spin-down phase, mass accretion onto the star could persist above a minimum disk mass-flow rate that is orders of magnitude lower than the rate corresponding to the transition between the spin-up and the spin-down states, (3) below this critical mass-flow rate, a steady propeller state could be established with a maximum inner disk radius about 25 times smaller than the Alfven radius. Our results indicate that only for spherical accretion, the inner disk radius is likely to approach the Alfven radius, and for all realistic cases, the accretion-propeller transitio...

  3. Neutron star crust cooling in KS 1731-260: the influence of accretion outburst variability on the crustal temperature evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ootes, Laura S; Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Using a theoretical model, we track the thermal evolution of a cooling neutron star crust after an accretion induced heating period with the goal of constraining the crustal parameters. We present for the first time a crust cooling model $-\\text{ } NSCool\\text{ } -$ that takes into account detailed variability during the full outburst based on the observed light curve. We apply our model to KS 1731-260. The source was in outburst for $\\sim$12 years during which it was observed to undergo variations on both long (years) and short (days-weeks) timescales. Our results show that KS 1731-260 does not reach a steady state profile during the outburst due to fluctuations in the derived accretion rate. Additionally, long time-scale outburst variability mildly affects the complete crust cooling phase, while variations in the final months of the outburst strongly influence the first $\\sim$40 days of the calculated cooling curve. We discuss the consequences for estimates of the neutron star crust parameters, and argue th...

  4. Neutron star crust cooling in KS 1731-260: the influence of accretion outburst variability on the crustal temperature evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootes, Laura S.; Page, Dany; Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Using a theoretical model, we track the thermal evolution of a cooling neutron star crust after an accretion-induced heating period with the goal of constraining the crustal parameters. We present for the first time a crust cooling model - NSCOOL - that takes into account detailed variability during the full outburst based on the observed light curve. We apply our model to KS 1731-260. The source was in outburst for ˜12 yr during which it was observed to undergo variations on both long (years) and short (days-weeks) time-scales. Our results show that KS 1731-260 does not reach a steady state profile during the outburst due to fluctuations in the derived accretion rate. Additionally, long time-scale outburst variability mildly affects the complete crust cooling phase, while variations in the final months of the outburst strongly influence the first ˜40 d of the calculated cooling curve. We discuss the consequences for estimates of the neutron star crust parameters, and argue that detailed modelling of the final phase of the outburst is key to constraining the origin of the shallow heat source.

  5. Contrasting Behaviour from Two Be/X-ray Binary Pulsars: Insights into Differing Neutron Star Accretion Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. J.; Drave, S. P.; Hill, A. B.; Coe, M. J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Bird, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the identification of two periodic X-ray signals coming from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). On detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the 175.4 s and 85.4 s pulsations were considered to originate from new Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsars with unknown locations. Using rapid follow-up INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations, we show the first pulsar (designated SXP175) to be coincident with a candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) in the northern bar region of the SMC undergoing a small Type II outburst. The orbital period (87d) and spectral class (B0-B0.5IIIe) of this system are determined and presented here for the first time. The second pulsar is shown not to be new at all, but is consistent with being SXP91.1 - a pulsar discovered at the very beginning of the 13 year long RXTE key monitoring programme of the SMC. Whilst it is theoretically possible for accreting neutron stars to change spin period so dramatically over such a short time, the X-ray and optical data available for this source suggest this spin-up is continuous during long phases of X-ray quiescence, where accretion driven spin-up of the neutron star should be minimal.

  6. An in-depth study of a neutron star accreting at low Eddington rate: on the possibility of a truncated disc and an outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Pinto, C.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Paerels, F.; Fabian, A. C.; Chakrabarty, D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to observational challenges, our knowledge of low-level accretion flows around neutron stars is limited. We present NuSTAR, Swift and Chandra observations of the low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143, which has been persistently accreting at ≃0.1 per cent of the Eddington limit since 2006. Our simultaneous NuSTAR/Swift observations show that the 0.5-79 keV spectrum can be described by a combination of a power law with a photon index of Γ ≃ 2, a blackbody with a temperature of kTbb ≃ 0.5 keV (presumably arising from the neutron star surface) and disc reflection. Modelling the reflection spectrum suggests that the inner accretion disc was located at Rin ≳ 100 GM/c2 (≳225 km) from the neutron star. The apparent truncation may be due to evaporation of the inner disc into a radiatively-inefficient accretion flow, or due to the pressure of the neutron star magnetic field. Our Chandra gratings data reveal possible narrow emission lines near 1 keV that can be modelled as reflection or collisionally ionized gas, and possible low-energy absorption features that could point to the presence of an outflow. We consider a scenario in which this neutron star has been able to sustain its low accretion rate through magnetic inhibition of the accretion flow, which gives some constraints on its magnetic field strength and spin period. In this configuration, IGR J17062-6143 could exhibit a strong radio jet as well as a (propeller-driven) wind-like outflow.

  7. Production of the entire range of r-process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-12-01

    We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of r-process elements in metal poor stars. Disc outflows reach the third peak (A ˜ 195) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the disc viscosity, initial mass or entropy of the torus, and nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.

  8. Monitoring of persistent accreting pulsating neutron stars observed during the INTEGRAL Core Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidoli, L.; Wilms, J.; Paizis, A.; Larsson, S.; Burki, G.; Bourban, G.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T.; Di Cocco, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Mereghetti, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Santangelo, A.; Segreto, A.; Staubert, R.; Westergaard, N.J

    2004-06-01

    The INTEGRAL satellite is performing regular scans of the Galactic plane (GPS) every 12 days together with a deep exposure of the Galactic Center region (GCDE). Our collaboration is processing the data from this survey on a regular basis in order to monitor the evolution of the spectral and timing properties of the pulsating persistent neutron star sources observed. We present here an overview over the whole monitoring program and the status of the project and we report on the preliminary results of the analysis of the few scans already performed.

  9. An in-depth study of a neutron star accreting at low Eddington rate: On the possibility of a truncated disk and an outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Miller, J M; Wijnands, R; Altamirano, D; Paerels, F; Fabian, A C; Chakrabarty, D

    2016-01-01

    Due to observational challenges our knowledge of low-level accretion flows around neutron stars is limited. We present Nustar, Swift and Chandra observations of the low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143, which has been persistently accreting at ~0.1 per cent of the Eddington limit since 2006. Our simultaneous Nustar/Swift observations show that the 0.5-79 keV spectrum can be described by a combination of a power law with a photon index of Gamma~2, a black body with a temperature of kT_bb~0.5 keV (presumably arising from the neutron star surface), and disk reflection. Modeling the reflection spectrum suggests that the inner accretion disk was located at R_in>100 GM/c2 (>225 km) from the neutron star. The apparent truncation may be due to evaporation of the inner disk into a radiatively-inefficient accretion flow, or due to the pressure of the neutron star magnetic field. Our Chandra gratings data reveal possible narrow emission lines near 1 keV that can be modeled as reflection or collisionally-ionized gas, an...

  10. GRB060602B = Swift J1749.4−2807: an unusual transiently accreting neutron-star X-ray binary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Rol, E.; Cackett, E.; Starling, R.L.C.; Remillard, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray telescope (XRT) data of GRB060602B, which is most likely an accreting neutron star in a binary system and not a gamma-ray burst. Our analysis shows that the BAT burst spectrum is consistent with a thermonuclear flash (type I X

  11. Constraints on the Neutron Star and Inner Accretion Flow in Serpens X-1 Using NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Fuerst, F; Bachetti, M; Barret, D; Grefenstette, B W; Tendulkar, S; Harrison, F A; Boggs, S E; Chakrabarty, D; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Hailey, C J; Natalucci, L; Paerels, F; Rana, V; Stern, D K; Tomsick, J A; Zhang, W W

    2013-01-01

    We report on an observation of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Serpens X-1, made with NuSTAR. The extraordinary sensitivity afforded by NuSTAR facilitated the detection of a clear, robust, relativistic Fe K emission line from the inner disk. A relativistic profile is required over a single Gaussian line from any charge state of Fe at the 5-sigma level of confidence, and any two Gaussians of equal width at the same confidence. The Compton back-scattering "hump" peaking in the 10-20 keV band is detected for the first time in a neutron star X-ray binary. Fits with relativistically-blurred disk reflection models suggest that the disk likely extends close to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) or stellar surface. The best-fit blurred reflection models constrain the gravitational redshift from the stellar surface to be z > 0.16. The data are broadly compatible with the disk extending to the ISCO; in that case, z > 0.22 and R < 12.6 km (assuming M = 1.4 Msun and a=0, where a = cJ/GM^2). If the star ...

  12. The imprint of carbon combustion on a superburst from the accreting neutron star 4U 1636-536

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L; Wolf, Z; Ballantyne, D R; Suleimanov, V F; Kuulkers, E; Strohmayer, T E

    2015-01-01

    Superbursts are hours-long X-ray flares attributed to the thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon-rich material in the envelope of accreting neutron stars. By studying the details of the X-ray light curve, properties of carbon combustion can be determined. In particular, we show that the shape of the rise of the light curve is set by the the slope of the temperature profile left behind by the carbon flame. We analyse RXTE/PCA observations of 4U 1636-536 and separate the direct neutron star emission from evolving photoionized reflection and persistent spectral components. This procedure results in the highest quality light curve ever produced for the superburst rise and peak, and interesting behaviour is found in the tail. The rising light curve between 100 and 1000 seconds is inconsistent with the idea that the fuel burned locally and instantaneously everywhere, as assumed in some previous models. By fitting improved cooling models, we measure for the first time the radial temperature profile of the superburs...

  13. Simultaneous observations of a pair of kilohertz QPOs and a plausible 1860 Hz QPO from an accreting neutron star system

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2009-01-01

    We report an indication (3.22 sigma) of ~ 1860 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations from a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. If confirmed, this will be by far the highest frequency feature observed from an accreting neutron star system, and hence could be very useful to understand such systems. This plausible timing feature was observed simultaneously with lower (~ 585 Hz) and upper (~ 904 Hz) kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations. The two kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies had the ratio of ~ 1.5, and the frequency of the alleged ~ 1860 Hz feature was close to the triple and the double of these frequencies. This can be useful to constrain the models of all the three features. In particular, the ~ 1860 Hz feature could be (1) from a new and heretofore unknown class of quasi-periodic oscillations, or (2) the first observed overtone of lower or upper kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations. Finally we note that, although the relatively low significance of the ~ 1860 Hz feature argues for caut...

  14. The Thermal Evolution following a Superburst on an Accreting Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Cumming, A; Cumming, Andrew; Macbeth, Jared

    2004-01-01

    Superbursts are very energetic Type I X-ray bursts discovered in recent years by long term monitoring of X-ray bursters, and believed to be due to unstable ignition of carbon in the deep ocean of the neutron star. In this Letter, we follow the thermal evolution of the surface layers as they cool following the burst. The resulting lightcurves agree very well with observations for layer masses and energy releases in the range expected from ignition calculations. At late times, the cooling flux from the layer decays as a power law in time, giving timescales for quenching of normal Type I bursting of weeks, in good agreement with observational limits. We show that simultaneous modelling of superburst lightcurves and quenching times promises to constrain both the thickness of the fuel layer and the energy deposited.

  15. Improved estimate of the detectability of gravitational radiation from a magnetically confined mountain on an accreting neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Vigelius, M

    2009-01-01

    We give an improved estimate of the detectability of gravitational waves from magnetically confined mountains on accreting neutron stars. The improved estimate includes the following effects for the first time: three-dimensional hydromagnetic ("fast") relaxation, three-dimensional resistive ("slow") relaxation, realistic accreted masses $M_a \\la 2 \\times 10^{-3} M_\\odot$, (where the mountain is grown ab initio by injection), and verification of the curvature rescaling transformation employed in previous work. Typically, a mountain does not relax appreciably over the lifetime of a low-mass X-ray binary. The ellipticity reaches $\\epsilon \\approx 2 \\times 10^{-5}$ for $M_a=2\\times 10^{-3} M_\\odot$. The gravitational wave spectrum for triaxial equilibria contains an additional line, which, although weak, provides valuable information about the mountain shape. We evaluate the detectability of magnetic mountains with Initial and Advanced LIGO. For a standard, coherent matched filter search, we find a signal-to-nois...

  16. Potential cooling of an accretion-heated neutron star crust in the low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058

    CERN Document Server

    Parikh, Aastha S; Degenaar, Nathalie; Ootes, Laura S; Page, Dany; Altamirano, Diego; Cackett, Edward M; Deller, Adam T; Gusinskaia, Nina; Hessels, Jason W T; Homan, Jeroen; Linares, Manuel; Miller, Jon M; Miller-Jones, James C A

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058 in quiescence after the end of its ~4.5 month outburst in 2015. The source has been observed 34 times using Swift and once using XMM-Newton in order to study the cooling of an accretion heated neutron star crust. During both the Swift and the XMM-Newton observations the X-ray spectra were dominated by a thermal component. The thermal evolution showed a gradual decay in the X-ray luminosity from ~18x10^32 to ~4x10^32 (D/5.8 kpc)^2 erg s^{-1} and the inferred neutron star surface temperature (for an observer at infinity) decreased from ~100 to ~72 eV between ~8 to ~379 days after the end of outburst. This can be interpreted as cooling of a neutron star crust that had been heated due to accretion during the preceding outburst. Modeling the observed temperature curve with the thermal evolution code NSCool indicated that the source required ~1.9 MeV per accreted nucleon of shallow heating in addition to the standard deep crust...

  17. Time-of-flight mass measurements of neutron-rich chromium isotopes up to N = 40 and implications for the accreted neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Ahn, S; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Browne, J; Carpino, J F; Chung, H; Cyburt, R H; Estradé, A; Famiano, M; Gade, A; Langer, C; Matoš, M; Mittig, W; Montes, F; Morrissey, D J; Pereira, J; Schatz, H; Schatz, J; Scott, M; Shapira, D; Sieja, K; Smith, K; Stevens, J; Tan, W; Tarasov, O; Towers, S; Wimmer, K; Winkelbauer, J R; Yurkon, J; Zegers, R G T

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass excesses of 59-64Cr, obtained from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The mass of 64Cr is determined for the first time, with an atomic mass excess of -33.48(44) MeV. We find a significantly different two-neutron separation energy S2n trend for neutron-rich isotopes of chromium, removing the previously observed enhancement in binding at N=38. Additionally, we extend the S2n trend for chromium to N=40, revealing behavior consistent with the previously identified island of inversion in this region. We compare our results to state-of-the-art shell-model calculations performed with a modified Lenzi-Nowacki-Poves-Sieja interaction in the fp shell, including the g9/2 and d5/2 orbits for the neutron valence space. We employ our result for the mass of 64Cr in accreted neutron star crust network calculations and find a reduction in the strength and depth of electron-capture heating from the A=64 isobaric...

  18. A POPULATION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES WITH AN ACCRETING NEUTRON STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: lixd@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are believed to be X-ray binary systems, but previous observational and theoretical studies tend to prefer a black hole rather than a neutron star (NS) accretor. The recent discovery of 1.37 s pulsations from the ULX M82 X-2 has established its nature as a magnetized NS. In this work we model the formation history of NS ULXs in an M82- or Milky Way (MW)-like Galaxy, by use of both binary population synthesis and detailed binary evolution calculations. We find that the birth rate is around 10{sup −4} yr{sup −1} for the incipient X-ray binaries in both cases. We demonstrate the distribution of the ULX population in the donor mass–orbital period plane. Our results suggest that, compared with black hole X-ray binaries, NS X-ray binaries may significantly contribute to the ULX population, and high-mass and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries dominate the NS ULX population in M82- and MW-like Galaxies, respectively.

  19. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  20. Potential cooling of an accretion-heated neutron star crust in the low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, A. S.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L. S.; Page, D.; Altamirano, D.; Cackett, E. M.; Deller, A. T.; Gusinskaia, N.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Homan, J.; Linares, M.; Miller, J. M.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have monitored the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 1RXS J180408.9-342058 in quiescence after its ˜4.5 month outburst in 2015. The source has been observed using Swift and XMM-Newton. Its X-ray spectra were dominated by a thermal component. The thermal evolution showed a gradual X-ray luminosity decay from ˜18 × 1032 to ˜4 × 1032 (D/5.8 kpc)2 erg s-1 between ˜8 to ˜379 days in quiescence and the inferred neutron star surface temperature (for an observer at infinity; using a neutron star atmosphere model) decreased from ˜100 to ˜71 eV. This can be interpreted as cooling of an accretion heated neutron star crust. Modeling the observed temperature curve (using NSCOOL) indicated that the source required ˜1.9 MeV per accreted nucleon of shallow heating in addition to the standard deep crustal heating to explain its thermal evolution. Alternatively, the decay could also be modelled without the presence of deep crustal heating, only having a shallow heat source (again ˜1.9 MeV per accreted nucleon was required). However, the XMM-Newton data statistically required an additional power-law component. This component contributed ˜30 per cent of the total unabsorbed flux in 0.5 - 10 keV energy range. The physical origin of this component is unknown. One possibility is that it arises from low-level accretion. The presence of this component in the spectrum complicates our cooling crust interpretation because it might indicate that the smooth luminosity and temperature decay curves we observed may not be due to crust cooling but due to some other process.

  1. The neutron star transient and millisecond pulsar in M28: from sub-luminous accretion to rotation-powered quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Linares, Manuel; Heinke, Craig; Wijnands, Rudy; Patruno, Alessandro; Altamirano, Diego; Homan, Jeroen; Bogdanov, Slavko; Pooley, David

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray transient IGR J18245-2452 in the globular cluster M28 contains the first neutron star (NS) seen to switch between rotation-powered and accretion-powered pulsations. We analyse its 2013 March-April 25d-long outburst as observed by Swift, which had a peak bolometric luminosity of ~6% of the Eddington limit (L$_{E}$), and give detailed properties of the thermonuclear burst observed on 2013 April 7. We also present a detailed analysis of new and archival Chandra data, which we use to study quiescent emission from IGR J18245-2452 between 2002 and 2013. Together, these observations cover almost five orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity (L$_X$, 0.5-10 keV). The Swift spectrum softens during the outburst decay (photon index $\\Gamma$ from 1.3 above L$_X$/L$_{E}$=10$^{-2}$ to ~2.5 at L$_X$/L$_{E}$=10$^{-4}$), similar to other NS and black hole (BH) transients. At even lower luminosities, deep Chandra observations reveal hard ($\\Gamma$=1-1.5), purely non-thermal and highly variable X-ray emission in quiesce...

  2. Contrasting behaviour from two Be/X-ray binary pulsars: insights into differing neutron star accretion modes

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, L J; Hill, A B; Coe, M J; Corbet, R H D; Bird, A J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the identification of two periodic X-ray signals coming from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). On detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the 175.4s and 85.4s pulsations were considered to originate from new Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsars with unknown locations. Using rapid follow-up INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations, we show the first pulsar (designated SXP175) to be coincident with a candidate high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) in the northern bar region of the SMC undergoing a small Type II outburst. The orbital period (87d) and spectral class (B0-B0.5IIIe) of this system are determined and presented here for the first time. The second pulsar is shown not to be new at all, but is consistent with being SXP91.1 - a pulsar discovered at the very beginning of the 13 year long RXTE key monitoring programme of the SMC. Whilst it is theoretically possible for accreting neutron stars to change spin period so dramatically over such a short time, the X-ray and ...

  3. Testing Rate Dependent corrections on timing mode EPIC-pn spectra of the accreting Neutron Star GX 13+1

    CERN Document Server

    Pintore, F; di Salvo, T; Guainazzi, M; D'Aì, A; Riggio, A; Burderi, L; Iaria, R; Robba, N R

    2014-01-01

    When the EPIC-pn instrument on board XMM-Newton is operated in Timing mode, high count rates (>100 cts/s) of bright sources may affect the calibration of the energy scale, resulting in a modification of the real spectral shape. The corrections related to this effect are then strongly important in the study of the spectral properties. Tests of these calibrations are more suitable in sources which spectra are characterised by a large number of discrete features. Therefore, in this work, we carried out a spectral analysis of the accreting Neutron Star GX 13+1, which is a dipping source with several narrow absorption lines and a broad emission line in its spectrum. We tested two different correction approaches on an XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observation taken in Timing mode: the standard Rate Dependent CTI (RDCTI or epfast) and the new, Rate Dependent Pulse Height Amplitude (RDPHA) corrections. We found that, in general, the two corrections marginally affect the properties of the overall broadband continuum, while hints...

  4. Thermal structures of accreting neutron stars with neutrino losses due to strong pion condensations

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuo, Yasuhide; Hayashida, Koutarou; Liu, Helei; Noda, Tsuneo; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2016-01-01

    Quiescent X-ray luminosities are presented in low mass X-ray binaries with use of evolutionary calculations. The calculated luminosities are compared with observed ones in terms of timeaveraged mass accretion rate. It is shown that neutrino emission by strong pion condensation can explain quiescent X-ray luminosity of SAX J1808.4-3658 and we do not need direct Urca processes concerning nucleons and/or hyperons.

  5. HYPERCRITICAL ACCRETION ONTO A MAGNETIZED NEUTRON STAR SURFACE: A NUMERICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Bernal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La acreción sobre una proto-estrella de neutrones en las horas que siguen al colapso del núcleo de la estrella masiva que le dio origen puede afectar sus propiedades observables. Este fenómeno se da en el régimen denominado hipercrítico (Chevalier 1989, donde el enfriamiento por neutrinos es crucial para la evolución termodin ámica. En este trabajo presentamos un estudio en este contexto en una dimensión con simetría esférica y llevamos a cabo simulaciones numéricas en dos dimensiones dentro de una columna de acreción sobre una estrella de neutrones. Consideramos procesos microfísicos detallados, enfriamiento por neutrinos y la presencia de campos magnéticos en la aproximación de magnetohidrodinámica ideal. Comparamos nuestros resultados numéricos con las soluciones analíticas e investigamos cómo las soluciones, tanto hidrodinámicas como magnetohidrodinámicas, difieren de éstas. Iniciamos también una exploración de cómo este proceso puede afectar la aparición del remanente como un pulsar típico en radio.

  6. Spin Evolution of Accreting Neutron Stars: Nonlinear Development of the R-mode Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Wasserman, Ira

    2007-01-01

    The nonlinear saturation of the r-mode instability and its effects on the spin evolution of Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) are modeled using the triplet of modes at the lowest parametric instability threshold. We solve numerically the coupled equations for the three mode amplitudes in conjunction with the spin and temperature evolution equations. We observe that very quickly the mode amplitudes settle into quasi-stationary states. Once these states are reached, the mode amplitudes can be found algebraically and the system of equations is reduced from eight to two equations: spin and temperature evolution. Eventually, the system may reach thermal equilibrium and either (1) undergo a cyclic evolution with a frequency change of at most 10%, (2) evolve toward a full equilibrium state in which the accretion torque balances the gravitational radiation emission, or (3) enter a thermogravitational runaway on a very long timescale of about $10^6$ years. Alternatively, a faster thermal runaway (timescale of about 100 ...

  7. A cold neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455 after 10 years of active accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Reynolds, M T; Wijnands, R; Page, D

    2016-01-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and intermittent millisecond X-ray pulsar HETE J1900.1-2455 returned to quiescence in late 2015, after a prolonged accretion outburst of ~10 yr. Using a Chandra observation taken ~180 d into quiescence we detect the source at a luminosity of ~4.5E31 (D/4.7 kpc)^2 erg/s (0.5-10 keV). The X-ray spectrum can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of ~54 eV for an observer at infinity. We perform thermal evolution calculations based on the 2016 quiescent data and a <98 eV temperature upper limit inferred from a Swift observation taken during an unusually brief (<2 weeks) quiescent episode in 2007. We find no evidence in the present data that the thermal properties of the crust, such as the heating rate and thermal conductivity, are different than those of non-pulsating neutron stars. Finding this neutron star so cold after its long outburst imposes interesting constraints on the heat capacity of the stellar core; these become even stronger i...

  8. A cold neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary HETE J1900.1-2455 after 10 yr of active accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Ootes, L. S.; Reynolds, M. T.; Wijnands, R.; Page, D.

    2017-02-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and intermittent millisecond X-ray pulsar HETE J1900.1-2455 returned to quiescence in late 2015, after a prolonged accretion outburst of ≃10 yr. Using a Chandra observation taken ≃180 d into quiescence, we detect the source at a luminosity of ≃4.5 × 1031 (D/4.7 kpc)2 erg s-1 (0.5-10 keV). The X-ray spectrum can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of ≃54 eV for an observer at infinity. We perform thermal evolution calculations based on the 2016 quiescent data and a ≲98 eV temperature upper limit inferred from a Swift observation taken during an unusually brief (≲2 weeks) quiescent episode in 2007. We find no evidence in the present data that the thermal properties of the crust, such as the heating rate and thermal conductivity, are different than those of non-pulsating neutron stars. Finding this neutron star so cold after its long outburst imposes interesting constraints on the heat capacity of the stellar core; these become even stronger if further cooling were to occur.

  9. JD3 - Neutron Stars: Timing in Extreme Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, Tomaso M.; Méndez, Mariano; Zhang, Chengmin

    2009-01-01

    The space-time around Neutron Stars is indeed an extreme environment. Whether they are in accreting binary systems, isolated or in non-accreting binaries (perhaps with another Neutron Star), Neutron Stars provide a window onto physical processes not accessible by other means. In particular, the stud

  10. JD3 - Neutron Stars: Timing in Extreme Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, Tomaso M.; Méndez, Mariano; Zhang, Chengmin

    2010-01-01

    The space-time around Neutron Stars is indeed an extreme environment. Whether they are in accreting binary systems, isolated or in non-accreting binaries (perhaps with another Neutron Star), Neutron Stars provide a window onto physical processes not accessible by other means. In particular, the stud

  11. The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baykal, Altan; Inam, Sitki C; Grebenev, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Neutron stars hold a central place in astrophysics, not only because they are made up of the most extreme states of the condensed matter, but also because they are, along with white dwarfs and black holes, one of the stable configurations that stars reach at the end of stellar evolution. Neutron stars posses the highest rotation rates and strongest magnetic fields among all stars. They radiate prolifically, in high energy electromagnetic radiation and in the radio band. This book is devoted to the selected lectures presented in the 6th NATO-ASI series entitled "The Electromagnetic Spectrum of Neutron Stars" in Marmaris, Turkey, on 7-18 June 2004. This ASI is devoted to the spectral properties of neutron stars. Spectral observations of neutron stars help us to understand the magnetospheric emission processes of isolated radio pulsars and the emission processes of accreting neutron stars. This volume includes spectral information from the neutron stars in broadest sense, namely neutrino and gravitational radiat...

  12. On the nature of the first transient Z-source XTE J1701-462: its accretion disk structure, neutron star magnetic field strength, and hard tail

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, G Q; Wang, N; Qu, J L; Yan, S P

    2011-01-01

    Using the data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, we investigate the spectral evolution along a "Z" track and a "v" track on the hardness-intensity diagrams of the first transient Z source XTE J1701-462. The spectral analyses suggest that the inner disk radius depends on the mass accretion rate, in agreement with the model prediction, R_in \\propto ((dM/dt)_disk)^{2/7}, for a radiation pressure dominated accretion disk interacting with the magnetosphere of a neutron star (NS). The changes in the disk mass accretion rate (dM/dt)_disk are responsible for the evolution of the "Z" or "v" track. The radiation pressure thickens the disk considerably, and also produces significant outflows. The NS surface magnetic field strength, derived from the interaction between the magnetosphere and the radiation pressure dominated accretion disk, is ~(1--3)X10^9 G, which is possibly between normal atoll and Z sources. A significant hard tail is detected in the horizontal branches and we discuss several possible ori...

  13. On the new braking index of PSR B0540-69: further support for magnetic field growth of neutron stars following submergence by fallback accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Ekşi, K Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic fields of the nascent neutron stars could be submerged to the crust by rapid fallback accretion and could diffuse to the surface later in life. According to this field burial scenario young pulsars may have growing magnetic fields which is known to result in less-than-three braking indices; larger braking indices implying longer field-growth time-scales. A nascent neutron star with a larger kick velocity would accrete less amount of matter and would have a rapidly growing magnetic field, leading to a larger discrepancy with the braking index expected from a constant field. Such an inverse relation between the field growth time-scale inferred from the braking indices and space velocity of pulsars was claimed in the past as a prediction of the field-burial scenario. With a braking index of $n\\sim 2$ and large space velocity PSR B0540-69 was then an outlier in the claimed relation. The recently measured small braking index of the object as $n \\sim 0.03$ implies a much shorter time-scale for the fiel...

  14. NSCool: Neutron star cooling code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Dany

    2016-09-01

    NSCool is a 1D (i.e., spherically symmetric) neutron star cooling code written in Fortran 77. The package also contains a series of EOSs (equation of state) to build stars, a series of pre-built stars, and a TOV (Tolman- Oppenheimer-Volkoff) integrator to build stars from an EOS. It can also handle “strange stars” that have a huge density discontinuity between the quark matter and the covering thin baryonic crust. NSCool solves the heat transport and energy balance equations in whole GR, resulting in a time sequence of temperature profiles (and, in particular, a Teff - age curve). Several heating processes are included, and more can easily be incorporated. In particular it can evolve a star undergoing accretion with the resulting deep crustal heating, under a steady or time-variable accretion rate. NSCool is robust, very fast, and highly modular, making it easy to add new subroutines for new processes.

  15. The Neutron Star Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  16. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  17. Swift/BAT measurements of the cyclotron line energy decay in the accreting neutron star Her X-1: indication of an evolution of the magnetic field?

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkov, D; Postnov, K; Wilms, J; Rothschild, R E; Santangelo, A

    2015-01-01

    Context: The magnetic field is a crucial ingredient of neutron stars. It governs the physics of accretion and of the resulting high-energy emission in accreting pulsars. Studies of the cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) seen as absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the pulsars permit direct measuremets of the field strength. Aims: From an analysis of a number of pointed observations with different instruments, the energy of CRSF, Ecyc, has recently been found to decay in Her X-1, which is one of the best-studied accreting pulsars. We present our analysis of a homogeneous and almost uninterrupted monitoring of the line energy with Swift/BAT. Methods: We analyzed the archival Swift/BAT observations of Her X-1 from 2005 to 2014. The data were used to measure the CRSF energy averaged over several months. Results: The analysis confirms the long-term decay of the line energy. The downward trend is highly significant and consistent with the trend measured with the pointed observations: dEcyc/dt ~-0.3 ...

  18. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  19. Time dependent models of accretion disks with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Margalit, Ben

    2016-01-01

    We construct time-dependent one-dimensional (vertically averaged) models of accretion disks produced by the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a binary neutron star (NS) companion. Nuclear reactions in the disk midplane burn the WD matter to increasingly heavier elements at sequentially smaller radii, releasing substantial energy which can impact the disk dynamics. A model for disk outflows is employed, by which cooling from the outflow balances other sources of heating (viscous, nuclear) in regulating the Bernoulli parameter of the midplane to a fixed value $\\lesssim 0$. We perform a comprehensive parameter study of the compositional yields and velocity distributions of the disk outflows for WDs of different initial compositions. For C/O WDs, the radial composition profile of the disk evolves self-similarly in a quasi-steady-state manner, and is remarkably robust to model parameters. The nucleosynthesis in helium WD disks does not exhibit this behavior, which instead depends sensitively on factors con...

  20. Search for Orbital Motion of the Pulsar 4U 1626-67: Candidate for a Neutron Star with a Supernova Fall-back Accretion Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chetana Jain; Biswajit Paul; Kaustubh Joshi; Anjan Dutta; Harsha Raichur

    2007-12-01

    We report here results from a new search for orbital motion of the accretion powered X-ray pulsar 4U 1626-67 using two different analysis techniques. X-ray light curve obtained with the Proportional Counter Array of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during a long observation carried out in February 1996, was used in this work. The spin period and the local period derivative were first determined from the broad 2–60 keV energy band light curve and these were used for all subsequent timing analysis. In the first technique, the orbital phase dependent pulse arrival times were determined for different trial orbital periods in the range of 500 to 10,000 s. We have determined a 3 upper limit of 13 lt-ms on the projected semimajor axis of the orbit of the neutron star for most of the orbital period range, while in some narrow orbital period ranges, covering about 10% of the total orbital period range, it is 20 lt-ms. In the second method, we have measured the pulse arrival times at intervals of 100 s over the entire duration of the observation. The pulse arrival time data were used to put an upper limit on any periodic arrival time delay using the Lomb–Scargle periodogram. We have obtained a similar upper limit of 10 lt-ms using the second method over the orbital period range of 500–10,000 s. This puts very stringent upper limits for the mass of the compact object except for the unlikely case of a complete face-on orientation of the binary system with respect to our line-of-sight. In the light of this measurement and the earlier reports, we discuss the possibility of this system being a neutron star with a supernovae fall-back accretion disk.

  1. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose–Einstein condensate stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dănilă, Bogdan, E-mail: bogdan.danila22@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Kogalniceanu Street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Harko, Tiberiu, E-mail: t.harko@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT, London (United Kingdom); Kovács, Zoltán, E-mail: kovacsz2013@yahoo.com [Max-Fiedler-Str. 7, 45128, Essen (Germany)

    2015-05-09

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars.

  2. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose-Einstein condensate stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danila, Bogdan [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Kovacs, Zoltan

    2015-05-15

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars. (orig.)

  3. Isolated neutron stars in the galaxy: from magnetars to antimagnetars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldin, P. A., E-mail: boldin.pavel@gmail.com [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Popov, S. B., E-mail: polar@sai.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-15

    Using the model with decaying magnetic fields it is possible to describe with one smooth (log-Gaussian) initial magnetic field distribution three types of isolated neutron stars: radiopulsar, magnetars, and cooling close-by compact objects. The same model is used here to make predictions for old accreting isolated neutron stars. It is shown that using the updated field distribution we predict a significant fraction of isolated neutron stars at the stage of accretion despite long subsonic propeller stage.

  4. Massive star formation by accretion I. Disc accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Meynet, Georges; Maeder, André; Charbonnel, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the HR diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the acc...

  5. Daily, multiwavelength Swift monitoring of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4: evidence for accretion and reprocessing during quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, F; Brown, E F; Degenaar, C D'Angelo N; Miller, J M; Reynolds, M; Wijnands, R

    2013-01-01

    The physics of accretion during quiescence in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) is poorly understood, yet there are signs that accretion must be happening. Several LMXBs show variability during quiescence, particularly striking is the case of the nearby neutron star Cen X-4. With the goal of unveiling the real nature of its quiescent variability we conducted the first long-term, multiwavelength simultaneous monitoring of Cen X-4, thanks to 60 observations performed by Swift on a daily basis. During those observations, Cen X-4 is highly variable in all energy bands on timescales from days to months, with the strongest quiescent short-term variability detected in the X-ray band, a factor of 22 drop in only 4 days. The X-ray and the UV and optical emission are correlated on timescales down to less than 110 s. The shape of the correlation is a power law with index 0.2-0.6. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a hydrogen NS atmosphere (kT=59-80 eV) and a power law (spectral index 1.4-2.0). The spectral shape remains...

  6. Mass measurement of 56Sc reveals a small A=56 odd-even mass staggering, implying a cooler accreted neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Meisel, Z; Ahn, S; Bazin, D; Brown, B A; Browne, J; Carpino, J F; Chung, H; Cole, A L; Cyburt, R H; Estradé, A; Famiano, M; Gade, A; Langer, C; Matoš, M; Mittig, W; Montes, F; Morrissey, D J; Pereira, J; Schatz, H; Schatz, J; Scott, M; Shapira, D; Smith, K; Stevens, J; Tan, W; Tarasov, O; Towers, S; Wimmer, K; Winkelbauer, J R; Yurkon, J; Zegers, R G T

    2015-01-01

    We present the mass excesses of 52-57Sc, obtained from recent time-of-flight nuclear mass measurements at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. The masses of 56Sc and 57Sc were determined for the first time with atomic mass excesses of -24.85(59)(+0 -54) MeV and -21.0(1.3) MeV, respectively, where the asymmetric uncertainty for 56Sc was included due to possible contamination from a long-lived isomer. The 56Sc mass indicates a small odd-even mass staggering in the A = 56 mass-chain towards the neutron drip line, significantly deviating from trends predicted by the global FRDM mass model and favoring trends predicted by the UNEDF0 and UNEDF1 density functional calculations. Together with new shell-model calculations of the electron-capture strength function of 56Sc, our results strongly reduce uncertainties in model calculations of the heating and cooling at the 56Ti electron-capture layer in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars. We found that, in contrast to prev...

  7. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  8. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    2002-03-01

    This paper reviews the current status of the theoretical models of the evolution of the magnetic fields of neutron stars other than magnetars. It appears that the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay significantly only if they are in binary systems. Three major physical models for this, namely spindown-induced flux expulsion, ohmic evolution of crustal field and diamagnetic screening of the field by accreted plasma, are reviewed.

  9. Study of the reflection spectrum of the accreting neutron star GX 3+1 using XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Pintore, Fabio; Bozzo, Enrico; Sanna, Andrea; Burderi, Luciano; D'Aì, Antonino; Riggio, Alessandro; Scarano, Fabiana; Iaria, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Broad emission features of abundant chemical elements, such as Iron, are commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of accreting compact objects and their studies can provide useful information about the geometry of the accretion processes. In this work, we focus our attention on GX 3+1, a bright, persistent accreting low mass X-ray binary, classified as an atoll source. Its spectrum is well described by an accretion disc plus a stable comptonizing, optically thick corona which dominates the X-ray emission in the 0.3-20 keV energy band. In addition, four broad emission lines are found and we associate them with reflection of hard photons from the inner regions of the accretion disc where doppler and relativistic effects are important. We used self-consistent reflection models to fit the spectra of the 2010 XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of the whole datasets of 2010 INTEGRAL observations. We conclude that the spectra are consistent with reflection produced at ~10 gravitational radii by an accretion disc with...

  10. Short-Term Variability of X-rays from Accreting Neutron Star Vela X-1: II. Monte-Carlo Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Makishima, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    We develop a Monte Carlo Comptonization model for the X-ray spectrum of accretion-powered pulsars. Simple, spherical, thermal Comptonization models give harder spectra for higher optical depth, while the observational data from Vela X-1 show that the spectra are harder at higher luminosity. This suggests a physical interpretation where the optical depth of the accreting plasma increases with mass accretion rate. We develop a detailed Monte-Carlo model of the accretion flow, including the effects of the strong magnetic field ($\\sim 10^{12}$ G) both in geometrically constraining the flow into an accretion column, and in reducing the cross section. We treat bulk-motion Comptonization of the infalling material as well as thermal Comptonization. These model spectra can match the observed broad-band {\\it Suzaku} data from Vela X-1 over a wide range of mass accretion rates. The model can also explain the so-called "low state", in which the uminosity decreases by an order of magnitude. Here, thermal Comptonization sh...

  11. Meta-stable low-level accretion rate states or neutron star crust cooling in the Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    The Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63 exhibited giant, type-II outbursts in 2015. Here we present Swift/XRT follow-up observations at the end of those outbursts. Surprisingly, the sources did not decay back to their known quiescent levels but stalled at a (slowly decaying) meta-stable state with luminosities ~10 times that observed in quiescence. The spectra in these states are considerably softer than the outburst spectra and appear to soften in time when the luminosity decreases. The physical mechanism behind these meta-stable states is unclear and they could be due to low-level accretion (either direct accretion onto the neutron stars or on to their magnetospheres) or due to cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crusts. Based on the spectra, the slowly decreasing luminosities, and the spectral softening, we favour the crust cooling hypothesis but we cannot exclude the accretion scenarios. On top of this meta-stable state, weak accretion events were observed that occurred at periastron pass...

  12. Time-dependent models of accretion discs with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-09-01

    We construct time-dependent one-dimensional (vertically averaged) models of accretion discs produced by the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a binary neutron star (NS) companion. Nuclear reactions in the disc mid-plane burn the WD matter to increasingly heavier elements at sequentially smaller radii, releasing substantial energy which can impact the disc dynamics. A model for disc outflows is employed, by which cooling from the outflow balances other sources of heating (viscous, nuclear) in regulating the Bernoulli parameter of the mid-plane to a fixed value ≲0. We perform a comprehensive parameter study of the compositional yields and velocity distributions of the disc outflows for WDs of different initial compositions. For C/O WDs, the radial composition profile of the disc evolves self-similarly in a quasi-steady-state manner, and is remarkably robust to model parameters. The nucleosynthesis in helium WD discs does not exhibit this behaviour, which instead depends sensitively on factors controlling the disc mid-plane density (e.g. the strength of the viscosity, α). By the end of the simulation, a substantial fraction of the WD mass is unbound in outflows at characteristic velocities of ˜109 cm s-1. The outflows from WD-NS merger discs contain 10-4-3 × 10-3 M⊙ of radioactive 56Ni, resulting in fast (˜ week long) dim (˜1040 erg s-1) optical transients; shock heating of the ejecta by late-time outflows may increase the peak luminosity to ˜1043 erg s-1. The accreted mass on to the NS is probably not sufficient to induce gravitational collapse, but may be capable of spinning up the NS to periods of ˜10 ms, illustrating the feasibility of this channel in forming isolated millisecond pulsars.

  13. On the Fe K absorption - accretion state connection in the Galactic center neutron star X-ray binary AX J1745.6-2901

    CERN Document Server

    Ponti, G; Munoz-Darias, T; DeMarco, B; Dwelly, T; Fender, R P; Nandra, K; Rea, N; Mori, K; Haggard, D; Heinke, C O; Degenaar, N; Aramaki, T; Clavel, M; Goldwurm, A; Hailey, C J; Israel, G L; Morris, M R; Rushton, A; Terrier, R

    2014-01-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) located less than ~1.5 arcmin from Sgr A*. Ongoing monitoring campaigns have targeted Sgr A* frequently and these observations also cover AX J1745.6-2901. We present here an X-ray analysis of AX J1745.6-2901 using a large dataset of 38 XMM-Newton observations, including eleven which caught AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Fe K absorption is clearly seen when AX J1745.6-2901 is in the soft state, but disappears during the hard state. The variability of these absorption features does not appear to be due to changes in the ionizing continuum. The small Kalpha/Kbeta ratio of the equivalent widths of the Fe xxv and Fe xxvi lines suggests that the column densities and turbulent velocities of the absorbing ionised plasma are in excess of N_H ~ 10^23 cm^-2 and v_turb >~ 500 km s^-1. These findings strongly support a connection between the wind (Fe K absorber) and the accretion state of the binary. These results reveal strong simil...

  14. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    radiated away in gravitational waves, the hypermassive neutron star loses its support and collapses to a black hole.Plasma velocities turn around (51.5 ms)Initially the plasma was falling inward, but as the disk of neutron-star debris is accreted onto the black hole, energy is released. This turns the plasma near the black hole poles around and flings it outward.Magnetic field forms a helical funnel (62.5 ms)The fields near the poles of the black hole amplify as they are wound around, creating a funnel that provides the wall of the jet.Jet outflow extends to heights greater than 445 km (64.5 ms)The disk is all accreted and, since the fuel is exhausted, the outflow shuts off (within 100ms)Neutron-Star SuccessPlot showing the gravitational wave signature for one of the authors simulations. The moments of merger of the neutron stars and collapse to a black hole are marked. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]These simulations show that no initial black hole is needed to launch outflows; a merger of two neutron stars can result in an sGRB-like jet. Another interesting result is that the magnetic field configuration doesnt affect the formation of a jet: neutron stars with magnetic fields confined to their interiors launch jets as effectively as those with pulsar-like magnetic fields. The accretion timescale for both cases is consistent with the duration of an sGRB.While this simulation models milliseconds of real time, its enormously computationally challenging and takes months to simulate. The successes of this simulation represent exciting advances in numerical relativity, as well as in our understanding of the electromagnetic counterparts that may accompany gravitational waves.BonusCheck out this awesome video of the authors simulations. The colors differentiate the plasma density and the white lines depict the pulsar-like magnetic field that initially threads the two merging neutron stars. Watch as the neutron stars evolve through the different stages outlined above, eventually

  15. Temperature of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Sachiko

    2016-07-01

    We start with a brief introduction to the historical background in the early pioneering days when the first neutron star thermal evolution calculations predicted the presence of neutron stars hot enough to be observable. We then report on the first detection of neutron star temperatures by ROSAT X-ray satellite, which vindicated the earlier prediction of hot neutron stars. We proceed to present subsequent developments, both in theory and observation, up to today. We then discuss the current status and the future prospect, which will offer useful insight to the understanding of basic properties of ultra-high density matter beyond the nuclear density, such as the possible presence of such exotic particles as pion condensates.

  16. Neutron Stars Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Heiselberg, H

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in neutron star theory and observation are discussed. Based on modern nucleon-nucleon potentials more reliable equations of state for dense nuclear matter have been constructed. Furthermore, phase transitions such as pion, kaon and hyperon condensation, superfluidity and quark matter can occur in cores of neutron stars. Specifically, the nuclear to quark matter phase transition and its mixed phases with intriguing structures is treated. Rotating neutron stars with and without phase transitions are discussed and compared to observed masses, radii and glitches. The observations of possible heavy $\\sim 2M_\\odot$ neutron stars in X-ray binaries and QPO's require relatively stiff equation of states and restrict strong phase transitions to occur at very high nuclear densities only.

  17. Meta-stable low-level accretion rate states or neutron star crust cooling in the Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2016-11-01

    The Be/X-ray transients V0332+53 and 4U 0115+63 exhibited giant, type-II outbursts in 2015. Here we present Swift/XRT follow-up observations at the end of those outbursts. Surprisingly, the sources did not decay back to their known quiescent levels but stalled at a (slowly decaying) meta-stable state with luminosities a factor ˜10 above that observed in quiescence. The spectra in these states are considerably softer than the outburst spectra and appear to soften in time when the luminosity decreases. The physical mechanism behind these meta-stable states is unclear and they could be due to low-level accretion (either directly on to the neutron stars or on to their magnetospheres) or due to cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crusts. Based on the spectra, the slowly decreasing luminosities, and the spectral softening, we favour the crust cooling hypothesis but we cannot exclude the accretion scenarios. On top of this meta-stable state, weak accretion events were observed that occurred at periastron passage and may thus be related to regular type-I outbursts.

  18. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  19. Axion Cooling of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Cooling simulations of neutron stars and their comparison with the data from thermally emitting X-ray sources puts constraints on the properties of axions, and by extension of any light pseudo-scalar dark matter particles, whose existence has been postulated to solve the strong-CP problem of QCD. We incorporate the axion emission by pair-breaking and formation processes by $S$- and $P$-wave nucleonic condensates in a benchmark code for cooling simulations as well as provide fit formulae for the rates of these processes. Axion cooling of neutron stars has been simulated for 24 models covering the mass range 1 to 1.8 solar masses, featuring non-accreted iron and accreted light element envelopes, and a range of nucleon-axion coupling. The models are based on an equation state predicting conservative physics of superdense nuclear matter that does not allow for onset of fast cooling processes induced by phase transitions to non-nucleonic forms of matter or high proton concentration. The cooling tracks in the tempe...

  20. Optically thick envelopes around ULXs powered by accreating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Ingram, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Magnetized neutron stars power at least some ultra-luminous X-ray sources. The accretion flow in these cases is interrupted at the magnetospheric radius and then reaches the surface of a neutron star following magnetic field lines. Accreting matter moving along magnetic field lines forms the accretion envelope around the central object. We show that, in case of high mass accretion rates ≳ 1019 g s-1 the envelope becomes closed and optically thick, which influences the dynamics of the accretion flow and the observational manifestation of the neutron star hidden behind the envelope. Particularly, the optically thick accretion envelope results in a multi-color black-body spectrum originating from the magnetospheric surface. The spectrum and photon energy flux vary with the viewing angle, which gives rise to pulsations characterized by high pulsed fraction and typically smooth pulse profiles. The reprocessing of radiation due to interaction with the envelope leads to the disappearance of cyclotron scattering features from the spectrum. We speculate that the super-orbital variability of ultra-luminous X-ray sources powered by accreting neutron stars can be attributed to precession of the neutron star due to interaction of magnetic dipole with the accretion disc.

  1. Carbon neutron star atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V F; Pavlov, G G; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, atmospheres of thermally - emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in CasA, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho & Heinke (2009). To test such a composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed such a grid using the standard LTE approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10^8 G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra.

  2. Uniformly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...

  3. Mixing and Accretion in lambda Bootis Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2002-01-01

    Strong evidence for deep mixing has been uncovered for slowly rotating F, and A stars of the main sequence. As the accretion/diffusion model for the formation of lboo stars is heavily dependent on mixing in superficial regions, such deep mixing may have important repercussions on our understanding of these stars. It is shown that deep mixing at a level similar to that of FmAm stars increases the amount of matter that needs to be accreted by the stars with respect with the standard models by some three orders of magnitude. It is also shown that significantly larger accretion rates have to be maintained, as high as $10^{-11}$~M$_\\sun yr^{-1}$, to prevent meridional circulation from canceling the effect of accretion. The existence of old ($\\approx 1$~Gyr) is not a likely outcome of the present models for accretion/diffusion with or without deep mixing. It is argued that lboo stars are potentially very good diagnostics of mixing mechanisms in moderately fast rotators.

  4. Accretion Rates in Herbig Ae stars

    CERN Document Server

    López, R G; Testi, L; Habart, E

    2006-01-01

    Accretion rates from disks around pre-main sequence stars are of importance for our understanding of planetary formation and disk evolution. We provide in this paper estimates of the mass accretion rates in the disks around a large sample of Herbig Ae stars. We obtained medium resolution 2 micron spectra and used the results to compute values of Macc from the measured luminosity of the Br_gamma emission line, using a well established correlation between L(Br_gamma) and the accretion luminosity Lacc. We find that 80% of the stars, all of which have evidence of an associated circumstellar disk, are accreting matter, with rates 3x10^{-9} 10^{-7} Msun/yr. In most HAe stars the accretion rate is sufficiently low that the gas in the inner disk, inside the dust evaporation radius, is optically thin and does not prevent the formation of a puffed-up rim, where dust is directly exposed to the stellar radiation. When compared to the Macc values found for lower-mass stars in the star forming regions Taurus and Ophiuchus,...

  5. A low-level accretion flare during the quiescent state of the neutron-star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a series of Swift/X-ray telescope observations, performed between 2012 February and 22 March, during the quiescent state of the neutron-star X-ray binary SAX J1750.8−2900. In these observations, the source was either just detected or undetected, depending on the exposure length (which r

  6. The Final Fates of Accreting Supermassive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Umeda, Hideyuki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) via rapid mass accretion and their direct collapse into black holes (BHs) is a promising pathway for sowing seeds of supermassive BHs in the early universe. We calculate the evolution of rapidly accreting SMSs by solving the stellar structure equations including nuclear burning as well as general relativistic (GR) effects up to the onset of the collapse. We find that such SMSs have less concentrated structure than fully-convective counterpart, which is often postulated for non-accreting ones. This effect stabilizes the stars against GR instability even above the classical upper mass limit $\\gtrsim 10^5~M_\\odot$ derived for the fully-convective stars. The accreting SMS begins to collapse at the higher mass with the higher accretion rate. The collapse occurs when the nuclear fuel is exhausted only for cases with $\\dot M \\lesssim 0.1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$. With $\\dot{M} \\simeq 0.3 - 1~M_\\odot~{\\rm yr}^{-1}$, the star becomes GR-unstable during the helium-burning stage ...

  7. Planetesimal accretion in binary star systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marzari, Francesco; Scholl, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulations of planetesimal accretion in circumprimary and circumbinary orbits are described. The secular perturbations by the com- panion star and gas drag are included in our models. We derive limits on the parameters of the binary system for which accretion and then planetary forma- tion are possible. In the circumbinary case we also outline the radial distance from the baricenter of the stars beyond which accumulation always occurs. Hy- drodynamical simulations are also presented to validate our N-body approach based on the axisymmetric approximation for the gas of the disk.

  8. Massive Star Formation: Accreting from Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Chen; J. S. Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We report the possible accretion from companion in the massive star forming region (G350.69–0.49). This region seems to be a binary system composed of a diffuse object (possible nebulae or UC HII region) and a Massive Young Stellar Object (MYSO) seen in Spitzer IRAC image. The diffuse object and MYSO are connected by the shock-excited 4.5 m emission, suggesting that the massive star may form through accreting material from the companion in this system.

  9. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Romanova, M M

    2016-01-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars...

  10. Viscosity in accretion discs. [for binary stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    1980-01-01

    Both HerX-1 and SS433 may contain accretion disks slaved to a precessing companion star. If so, it is possible to bound the effective viscosity in these disks. The results, in terms of the disk parameter alpha, are lower bounds of 0.01 for HerX-1 and of 0.1 for SS433.

  11. Focused study of thermonuclear bursts on neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme

    X-ray bursters are a class of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries where accreted material from a donor star undergoes rapid thermonuclear burning in the surface layers of a neutron star. The flux released can temporarily exceed the Eddington limit and drive the photosphere to large radii. Such photospheric...... detection would thus probe the nuclear burning as well as the gravitational redshift from the neutron star. Moreover, likely observations of atomic X-ray spectral components reflected from the inner accretion disk have been reported. The high spectral resolution capabilities of Simbol X may therefore make...

  12. Limits on Self-Interacting Dark Matter from Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.

    2012-01-01

    We impose new severe constraints on the self-interactions of fermionic asymmetric dark matter based on observations of nearby old neutron stars. Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) self-interactions mediated by Yukawa-type interactions can lower significantly the number of WIMPs necessary...... for gravitational collapse of the WIMP population accumulated in a neutron star. Even nearby neutron stars located at regions of low dark matter density can accrete a sufficient number of WIMPs that can potentially collapse, form a mini black hole, and destroy the host star. Based on this, we derive constraints...

  13. Ocean gravitational-modes in transient neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Deibel, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The neutron star ocean is a plasma of ions and electrons that extends from the base of the neutron star's envelope to a depth where the plasma crystallizes into a solid crust. During an accretion outburst in an X-ray transient, material accumulates in the envelope of the neutron star primary. This accumulation compresses the neutron star's outer layers and induces nuclear reactions in the ocean and crust. Accretion-driven heating raises the ocean's temperature and increases the frequencies of g-modes in the ocean; when accretion halts, the ocean cools and ocean g-mode frequencies decrease. If the observed low frequency quasi-periodic oscillations on accreting neutron stars are g-modes in the ocean, the observed quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies will increase during outburst --- reaching a maximum when the ocean temperature reaches steady state --- and subsequently decrease during quiescence. For time-averaged accretion rates during outburst between $\\langle \\dot{M} \\rangle = 0.1 \\textrm{--} 1.0\\, \\dot{\\r...

  14. Spin equilibrium in strongly-magnetized accreting stars

    CERN Document Server

    D'Angelo, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The spin rate of a strongly-magnetized accreting star is regulated by the interaction between the star's magnetic field and the accreting gas. These systems are often hypothesized to be in `spin equilibrium' with their surrounding accretion flows such that the net spin change of the star as a result of accretion is very small. This condition requires that the accretion rate changes more slowly than it takes the star to reach spin equilibrium. However, this is not true for most magnetically accreting stars, which have strongly variable accretion outbursts (by one to many orders of magnitude) on timescales much shorter than the time it would take to reach spin equilibrium. This paper examines how accretion outbursts affect the time a star takes to reach spin equilibrium and its final equilibrium spin period. I consider several different models for angular momentum loss -- where angular momentum is carried away in an outflow (the standard `propeller', centrifugally-launched outflow), where most angular momentum ...

  15. On Magnetized Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Luiz L

    2014-01-01

    In this work we review the formalism normally used in the literature about the effects of density-dependent magnetic fields on the properties of neutron stars, expose some ambiguities that arise and propose a way to solve the related problem. Our approach uses a different prescription for the calculation of the pressure based on the chaotic field formalism for the stress tensor and also a different way of introducing a variable magnetic field, which depends on the energy density rather than on the baryonic density.

  16. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  17. Mapping the QCD Phase Transition with Accreting Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Blaschke, David; Grigorian, Hovik

    2008-01-01

    We discuss an idea for how accreting millisecond pulsars could contribute to the understanding of the QCD phase transition in the high-density nuclear matter equation of state (EoS). It is based on two ingredients, the first one being a ``phase diagram'' of rapidly rotating compact star configurations in the plane of spin frequency and mass, determined with state-of-the-art hybrid equations of state, allowing for a transition to color superconducting quark matter. The second is the study of spin-up and accretion evolution in this phase diagram. We show that the quark matter phase transition leads to a characteristic line in the Omega-M plane, the phase border between neutron stars and hybrid stars with a quark matter core. Along this line a change in the pulsar's moment of inertia entails a waiting point phenomenon in the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) evolution: most of these objects should therefore be found along the phase border in the Omega-M plane, which may be viewed as the AMXP analog of th...

  18. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  19. Axion emission from neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, N.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that axion emission from neutron stars is the dominant energy-loss mechanism for a range of values of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale (F) not excluded by previous constraints. This gives the possibility of obtaining a better bound on F from measurements of surface temperature of neutron stars.

  20. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  1. Grand unification of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  2. Grand Unification in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to `isolated neutron stars,' from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, in celebration of its tenth anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical `grand unification' of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  3. Chandra Spectroscopy of a Remarkable Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon

    2013-09-01

    IGR J17062-6143 is one of only 5 sources that have displayed a super-expansion burst. This requires a special mode of continuous low-level accretion that allows material to accumulate on the stellar surface, without triggering smaller bursts. Swift spectroscopy of a super-expansion burst in IGR J17062-6143 revealed the only strong detections of atomic emission and absorption lines in a burst observed at CCD or gratings resolution. Whereas atomic features from the stellar surface have not been detected in other neutron stars, the accretion mode in IGR J17062-6143 may provide the right conditions. To search for lines from the surface, and to better understand the nature of low-level accretion, we request a 100 ksec HETGS observation of IGR J17062-6143.

  4. Of Mountains and Molehills : Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Konar, Sushan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Sarkar, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Surface asymmetries of accreting neutron stars are investigated for their mass quadrupole moment content. Though the amplitude of the gravitational waves from such asymmetries seem to be beyond the limit of detectability of the present generation of detectors, it appears that rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields residing in HMXBs would be worth considering for targeted search for continuous gravitational waves with the next generation of instruments.

  5. Gravitational waves from surface inhomogeneities of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Sushan; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Sarkar, Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Surface asymmetries of accreting neutron stars are investigated for their mass quadrupole moment content. Though the amplitude of the gravitational waves from such asymmetries seems to be beyond the limit of detectability of the present generation of detectors, it appears that rapidly rotating neutron stars with strong magnetic fields residing in high-mass x-ray binaries would be worth considering for a targeted search for continuous gravitational waves with the next generation of instruments.

  6. Observational Constraints on Neutron Star Masses and Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star -- black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method...

  7. Observational constraints on neutron star masses and radii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman Miller, M. [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD (United States); Lamb, Frederick K. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Astronomy, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Precise and reliable measurements of the masses and radii of neutron stars with a variety of masses would provide valuable guidance for improving models of the properties of cold matter with densities above the saturation density of nuclear matter. Several different approaches for measuring the masses and radii of neutron stars have been tried or proposed, including analyzing the X-ray fluxes and spectra of the emission from neutron stars in quiescent low-mass X-ray binary systems and thermonuclear burst sources; fitting the energy-dependent X-ray waveforms of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, burst oscillations with millisecond periods, and accretion-powered millisecond pulsars; and modeling the gravitational radiation waveforms of coalescing double neutron star and neutron star - black hole binary systems. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, most of which currently have substantial systematic errors, and discuss the prospects for decreasing the systematic errors in each method. (orig.)

  8. Properties of Rotating Neutron Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh K. Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the nuclear equation of states for a large variety of relativistic and non-relativistic force parameters, we calculate the static and rotating masses and radii of neutron stars. From these equation of states, we evaluate the properties of rotating neutron stars, such as rotational frequencies, moment of inertia, quadrupole deformation parameter, rotational ellipticity and gravitational wave strain amplitude. The estimated gravitational wave strain amplitude of the star is found to be~sim 10-23.

  9. A neutron star with a carbon atmosphere in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wynn C G; Heinke, Craig O

    2009-11-05

    The surface of hot neutron stars is covered by a thin atmosphere. If there is accretion after neutron-star formation, the atmosphere could be composed of light elements (H or He); if no accretion takes place or if thermonuclear reactions occur after accretion, heavy elements (for example, Fe) are expected. Despite detailed searches, observations have been unable to confirm the atmospheric composition of isolated neutron stars. Here we report an analysis of archival observations of the compact X-ray source in the centre of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant. We show that a carbon atmosphere neutron star (with low magnetic field) produces a good fit to the spectrum. Our emission model, in contrast with others, implies an emission size consistent with theoretical predictions for the radius of neutron stars. This result suggests that there is nuclear burning in the surface layers and also identifies the compact source as a very young ( approximately 330-year-old) neutron star.

  10. ULXs: Neutron Stars vs Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We consider ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) where the accretor is a neutron star rather than a black hole. We show that the recently-discovered example (M82 X-2) fits naturally into the simple picture of ULXs as beamed X-ray sources fed at super-Eddington rates, provided that its magnetic field is weaker ($\\simeq 10^{11}{\\rm G}$) than a new-born X-ray pulsar, as expected if there has been mass gain. Continuing accretion is likely to weaken the field to the point that pulsing stops, and make the system indistinguishable from a ULX containing a black hole. Accordingly we suggest that a significant fraction of all ULXs may actually contain neutron star accretors rather than black holes, reflecting the neutron-star fraction among their X-ray binary progenitors. We emphasize that neutron-star ULXs are likely to have {\\it higher} apparent luminosities than black hole ULXs for a given mass transfer rate, as their tighter beaming outweighs their lower Eddington luminosities. This further increases the likely propo...

  11. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in ’t Zand, J.J.M.; Altamirano, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.;

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars. For a summary, we refer to the paper.......This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars. For a summary, we refer to the paper....

  12. Neutron star structure from QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurkela, Aleksi [PH-TH, Case C01600, CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Stavanger, Faculty of Science Technology, Stavanger (Norway); Vuorinen, Aleksi [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities. (orig.)

  13. Neutron Star Physics and EOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattimer James M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron stars are important because measurement of their masses and radii will determine the dense matter equation of state. They will constrain the nuclear matter symmetry energy, which controls the neutron star matter pressure and the interior composition, and will influence the interpretation of nuclear experiments. Astrophysical observations include pulsar timing, X-ray bursts, quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries, pulse profiles from millisecond pulsars, neutrino observations from gravitational collapse supernovae,and gravitational radiation from compact object mergers. These observations will also constrain the neutron star interior, including the properties of superfluidity there, and determine the existence of a possible QCD phase transition.

  14. Neutron star structure from QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  15. Neutron star structure from QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Eduardo S; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  16. Life extinctions by neutron star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Shaviv, N J; Dar, Arnon; Laor, Ari; Shaviv, Nir J.

    1997-01-01

    High energy cosmic ray jets from nearby mergers or accretion induced collapse (AIC) of neutron stars (NS) that hit the atmosphere can produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground level, underground and underwater, destroy the ozone layer and radioactivate the environment. They could have caused most of the massive life extinctions on planet Earth in the past 600 My. Biological mutations due to ionizing radiations could have caused the fast appearance of new species after the massive extinctions. An early warning of future extinctions due to NS mergers may be obtained by identifying, mapping and timing all the nearby binary neutron stars systems. A warning of an approaching cosmic ray burst from a nearby NS merger/AIC may be provided by a very intense gamma ray burst which preceeds it.

  17. Demonstrating the likely neutron star nature of five M31 globular cluster sources with Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Hornschemeier, Ann

    2016-01-01

    for which neutron stars are in hard states. We show that these two sources are likely to be Z-sources (i.e. low magnetic field neutron stars accreting near their Eddington limits), or perhaps bright atoll sources (low magnetic field neutron stars which are just a bit fainter than this level) on the basis...

  18. Observations of Type I Bursts from Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Swank, J H

    2000-01-01

    Observations of Type I X-ray bursts have long been taken as evidence that the sources are neutron stars. Black body models approximate the spectral data and imply a suddenly heated neutron star cooling over characteristic times of seconds to minutes. The phenomena are convincingly explained in terms of nuclear burning of accreted gas on neutron stars with low mass companion stars. Prospects are promising that detailed theory and data from RXTE and future missions will lead to better determinations of important physical parameters (neutron star mass and radius, composition of the accreting gas, distance of the source). Among the variety of bursts observed, there are probably representatives of different kinds of explosive burning. RXTE's discovery of a 2.5 ms persistent coherent period from one Type I burster has now linked bursters indisputably to the epitome of a neutron star, a fast spinning magnetic compact object. Oscillations in some bursts had already been thought to arise from the neutron stars' rotati...

  19. Non-identical neutron star twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.; Kettner, Christiane

    1998-07-01

    The work of J. A. Wheeler in the mid 1960's showed that forsmooth equations of state no stable stellar configurations with centraldensities above that corresponding to the limiting mass of 'neutronstars' (in the generic sense) were stable against acoustical vibrationalmodes. A perturbation would cause any such star to collapse to a blackhole or explode. Accordingly, there has been no reason to expect that astable degenerate family of stars with higher density than the knownwhite dwarfs and neutron stars might exist. We have found a class ofexceptions corresponding to certain equations of state that describe afirst order phase transition. We discuss how such a higher density familyof stars could be formed in nature, and how the promising new explorationof oscillations in the X-ray brightness of accreting neutron stars mightprovide a means of identifying them. Our proof of the possible existenceof a third family of degenerate stars is one of principle and rests ongeneral principles like causality, microstability of matter and GeneralRelativity.

  20. Formation scenarios and mass-radius relation for neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zdunik, J L

    2011-01-01

    Neutron star crust, formed via accretion of matter from a companion in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), has an equation of state (EOS) stiffer than that of catalyzed matter. At a given neutron star mass, M, the radius of a star with an accreted crust is therefore larger, by DR(M), than for usually considered star built of catalyzed matter. Using a compressible liquid drop model of nuclei, we calculate, within the one-component plasma approximation, the EOSs corresponding to different nuclear compositions of ashes of X-ray bursts in LMXB. These EOSs are then applied for studying the effect of different formation scenarios on the neutron-star mass-radius relation. Assuming the SLy EOS for neutron star's liquid core, derived by Douchin & Haensel (2001), we find that at M=1.4 M_sun the star with accreted crust has a radius more than 100 m larger that for the crust of catalyzed matter. Using smallness of the crust mass compared to M, we derive a formula that relates DR(M) to the difference in the crust EOS. Thi...

  1. Theory of neutron star magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis Michel, F

    1990-01-01

    An incomparable reference for astrophysicists studying pulsars and other kinds of neutron stars, "Theory of Neutron Star Magnetospheres" sums up two decades of astrophysical research. It provides in one volume the most important findings to date on this topic, essential to astrophysicists faced with a huge and widely scattered literature. F. Curtis Michel, who was among the first theorists to propose a neutron star model for radio pulsars, analyzes competing models of pulsars, radio emission models, winds and jets from pulsars, pulsating X-ray sources, gamma-ray burst sources, and other neutron-star driven phenomena. Although the book places primary emphasis on theoretical essentials, it also provides a considerable introduction to the observational data and its organization. Michel emphasizes the problems and uncertainties that have arisen in the research as well as the considerable progress that has been made to date.

  2. Model Atmospheres for X-ray Bursting Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Medin, Zach; Calder, Alan C; Fontes, Christopher J; Fryer, Chris L; Hungerford, Aimee L

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen and helium accreted by X-ray bursting neutron stars is periodically consumed in runaway thermonuclear reactions that cause the entire surface to glow brightly in X-rays for a few seconds. With models of the emission, the mass and radius of the neutron star can be inferred from the observations. By simultaneously probing neutron star masses and radii, X-ray bursts are one of the strongest diagnostics of the nature of matter at extremely high densities. Accurate determinations of these parameters are difficult, however, due to the highly non-ideal nature of the atmospheres where X-ray bursts occur. Observations from X-ray telescopes such as RXTE and NuStar can potentially place strong constraints on nuclear matter once uncertainties in atmosphere models have been reduced. Here we discuss current progress on modeling atmospheres of X-ray bursting neutron stars and some of the challenges still to be overcome.

  3. Neutron Star News and Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-01-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. In this article, I give a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Recent and on-going research on neutron stars in which the group built from scratch by Gerry at Stony Brook has made significant strides are reviewed. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  4. Neutron star news and puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-08-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  5. Cooling of neutron stars with diffusive envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Beznogov, M V; Haensel, P; Yakovlev, D G; Zdunik, J L

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars on their cooling. To this aim, we perform cooling simulations using newly constructed models of the envelopes composed of binary ion mixtures (H--He, He--C, C--Fe) varying the mass of lighter ions (H, He or C) in the envelope. The results are compared with those calculated using the standard models of the envelopes which contain the layers of lighter (accreted) elements (H, He and C) on top of the Fe layer, varying the mass of accreted elements. The main effect is that the chemical composition of the envelopes influences their thermal conductivity and, hence, thermal insulation of the star. For illustration, we apply these results to estimate the internal temperature of the Vela pulsar and to study the cooling of neutron stars of ages of 0.1 - 1 Myr at the photon cooling stage. The uncertainties of the cooling models associated with our poor knowledge of chemical composition of the heat insulating envelopes strongly complicate theoretical reco...

  6. Nuclear Masses and Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Lunney, David; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Precision mass spectrometry of neutron-rich nuclei is of great relevance for astrophysics. Masses of exotic nuclides impose constraints on models for the nuclear interaction and thus affect the description of the equation of state of nuclear matter, which can be extended to describe neutron-star matter. With knowledge of the masses of nuclides near shell closures, one can also derive the neutron-star crustal composition. The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE has recently achieved a breakthrough measuring the mass of 82Zn, which allowed constraining neutron-star crust composition to deeper layers (Wolf et al., PRL 110, 2013). We perform a more detailed study on the sequence of nuclei in the outer crust of neutron stars with input from different nuclear models to illustrate the sensitivity to masses and the robustness of neutron-star models. The dominant role of the N=50 and N=82 closed neutron shells for the crustal composition is confirmed.

  7. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In this paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE (Binary Star Evolution) population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 yr. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1-1 per cent of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  8. Magnetic and spin evolution of neutron stars in close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Urpin, V; Konenkov, D Y

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of neutron stars in close binary systems with a low-mass companion is considered assuming the magnetic field to be confined within the solid crust. We adopt the standard scenario of the evolution in a close binary system in accordance with which the neutron star passes throughout four evolutionary phases ("isolated pulsar" -- "propeller" -- accretion from the wind of a companion -- accretion due to Roche-lobe overflow). Calculations have been performed for a great variety of parameters characterizing the properties both of the neutron star and low-mass companion. We find that neutron stars with more or less standard magnetic field and spin period being processed in low-mass binaries can evolve to low-field rapidly rotating pulsars. Even if the main-sequence life of a companion is as long as $10^{10}$ yr, the neutron star can maintain a relatively strong magnetic field to the end of the accretion phase. The considered model can well account for the origin of millisecond pulsars.

  9. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  10. Instability windows and evolution of rapidly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gusakov, Mikhail E; Kantor, Elena M

    2013-01-01

    We consider an instability of rapidly rotating neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with respect to excitation of r-modes (which are analogous to Earth's Rossby waves controlled by the Coriolis force). We argue that finite temperature effects in the superfluid core of a neutron star lead to a resonance coupling and enhanced damping (and hence stability) of oscillation modes at certain stellar temperatures. We demonstrate that neutron stars with high spin frequency spend a substantial amount of time at these `resonance' temperatures. This finding allows us to explain puzzling observations of hot rapidly rotating neutron stars in LMXBs and to predict a new class of hot non-accreting rapidly rotating neutron stars, some of which may have already been observed and tentatively identified as quiescent LMXB (qLMXB) candidates. We also impose a new theoretical limit on the neutron star spin frequency, explaining the cut-off spin frequency ~730 Hz, following from the statistical analysis of accreting milli...

  11. The evolution of low mass, close binary systems with a neutron star component: a detailed grid

    CERN Document Server

    De Vito, M A

    2012-01-01

    In close binary systems composed of a normal, donor star and an accreting neutron star, the amount of material received by the accreting component is, so far, a real intrigue. In the literature there are available models that link the accretion disk surrounding the neutron star with the amount of material it receives, but there is no model linking the amount of matter lost by the donor star to that falling onto the neutron star. In this paper we explore the evolutionary response of these close binary systems when we vary the amount of material accreted by the neutron star. We consider a parameter \\beta, which represents the fraction of material lost by the normal star that can be accreted by the neutron star. \\beta is considered as constant throughout evolution. We have computed the evolution of a set of models considering initial donor star masses (in solar units) between 0.5 and 3.50, initial orbital periods (in days) between 0.175 and 12, initial masses of neutron stars (in solar units) of 0.80, 1.00, 1.20...

  12. The LOFT perspective on neutron star thermonuclear bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Zand, J J M in 't; Ballantyne, D R; Bhattacharyya, S; Brown, E F; Cavecchi, Y; Chakrabarty, D; Chenevez, J; Cumming, A; Degenaar, N; Falanga, M; Galloway, D K; Heger, A; José, J; Keek, L; Linares, M; Mahmoodifar, S; Malone, C M; Méndez, M; Miller, M C; Paerels, F B S; Poutanen, J; Rózanska, A; Schatz, H; Serino, M; Strohmayer, T E; Suleimanov, V F; Thielemann, F -K; Watts, A L; Weinberg, N N; Woosley, S E; Yu, W; Zhang, S; Zingale, M

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on accreting neutron stars. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  13. Can dark matter explain the braking index of neutron stars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Perez-Garcia, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard n similar to 3 of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged...... dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations....

  14. Proton Fraction in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丰收; 陈列文

    2001-01-01

    The proton fraction in β-stable neutron stars is investigated within the framework of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock theory using the extended Skyrme effective interaction for the first time. The calculated results show that the proton fraction disappears at high density, which implies that the pure neutron matter may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The incompressibility of the nuclear equation-of-state is shown to be more important to determine the proton fraction. Meanwhile, it is indicated that the addition of muons in neutron stars will change the proton fraction. It is also found that the higher-order terms of the nuclear symmetry energy have obvious effects on the proton fraction and the parabolic law of the nuclear symmetry energy is not enough to determine the proton fraction.

  15. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Vazquez, R; Wereszczynski, A

    2014-01-01

    The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) led to an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather obvious proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide an excellent description of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is several solar masses, the precise value...

  16. Neutron star moments of inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.

  17. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In the present paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 years. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1 - 1% of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  18. The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  19. Neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in a neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Ofengeim, D D; Yakovlev, D G

    2014-01-01

    Based on the formalism by Kaminker et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 343 (1999) 1009) we derive an analytic approximation for neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung emissivity due to scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei in the neutron star crust of any realistic composition. The emissivity is expressed through generalized Coulomb logarithm which we fit by introducing an effective potential of electron-nucleus scattering. In addition, we study the conditions at which the neutrino bremsstrahlung in the crust is affected by strong magnetic fields. The results can be applied for modelling of many phenomena in neutron stars, such as thermal relaxation in young isolated neutron stars and in accreting neutron stars with overheated crust in soft X-ray transients.

  20. Accretion Disks around Young Low Mass Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola D´Alessio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, it has become clear that almost half of the low mass pre-main sequence stars are surrounded by disks, which are responsible for the observed infrared and optical-UV excess emission. The characterization of the structure of circumstellar disks is a crucial step towards understanding the early stellar evolution and planet formation. The thesis summarized here presents physical models of the detailed structure of accretion disks surrounding T Tauri stars. The disks are assumed to be in steady state, in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, and with a turbulent viscosity described by the alpha-prescription. We consider different heating mechanisms: viscous dissipation, heating by cosmic rays and radioactive decay, irradiation by the central star or irradiation by an infalling envelope. The energy is transported in the vertical direction by radiation, convection and the turbulent flux. Give n the disk structure, we calculate its emission by integrating the radiative transfer equation for an arbitrary orientation of the disk relative to the line of sight. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs and images are compared with observations, and disk properties can be inferred or constrained.

  1. Creation of a dense torus in the coalescence of a black hole with a neutron star

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We used a newtonian SPH (smooth-particle hydrodynamics) code to follow the final stages of evolution of a coalescing binary system of a neutron star and a black hole. We find that the outcome of the "merger" is very sensitive to the equation of state describing the neutron star. A neutron star with a soft equation of state (polytrope with index Gamma=5/3) is completely disrupted, and a fairly large and long-lived accretion torus is formed.

  2. Magnetic fields of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reisenegger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Neutron stars contain the strongest magnetic fields known in the Universe. In this paper, I discuss briefly how these magnetic fields are inferred from observations, as well as the evidence for their time-evolution. I show how these extremely strong fields are actually weak in terms of their effects on the stellar structure, as is also the case for magnetic stars on the upper main sequence and magnetic white dwarfs, which have similar total magnetic fluxes. I propose a scenario in which a stable hydromagnetic equilibrium (containing a poloidal and a toroidal field component) is established soon after the birth of the neutron star, aided by the strong compositional stratification of neutron star matter, and this state is slowly eroded by non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic processes such as beta decays and ambipolar diffusion in the core of the star and Hall drift and breaking of the solid in its crust. Over sufficiently long time scales, the fluid in the neutron star core will behave as if it were barotropic, becau...

  3. Growth of black holes in the interior of rotating neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Tinyakov, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mini-black holes made of dark matter that can potentially form in the interior of neutron stars always have been thought to grow by accreting the matter of the core of the star via a spherical Bondi accretion. However, neutron stars have sometimes significant angular velocities that can...... in principle stall the spherical accretion and potentially change the conclusions derived about the time it takes for black holes to destroy a star. We study the effect of the star rotation on the growth of such black holes and the evolution of the black hole spin. Assuming no mechanisms of angular momentum...... evacuation, we find that even moderate rotation rates can in fact destroy spherical accretion at the early stages of the black hole growth. However, we demonstrate that the viscosity of nuclear matter can alleviate the effect of rotation, making it possible for the black hole to maintain spherical accretion...

  4. Neutron stars are gold mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, James M.

    Neutron stars are not only mines for clues to dense matter physics but may also be the auspicious sources of half of all nuclei heavier than A = 60 in the universe, including the auric isotopes. Although the cold dense matter above the nuclear saturation density cannot be directly explored in the laboratory, gilded constraints on the properties of matter from 1 to 10 times higher density can now be panned from neutron star observations. We show how upcoming observations, such as gravitational wave from mergers, precision timing of pulsars, neutrinos from neutron star birth and X-rays from bursts and thermal emissions, will provide the bullion from which further advances can be smelted.

  5. Neutron Stars in the Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Graber, Vanessa; Hogg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neutron stars are astrophysical laboratories of many extremes of physics. Their rich phenomenology provides insights into the state and composition of matter at densities which cannot be reached in terrestrial experiments. Since the core of a mature neutron star is expected to be dominated by superfluid and superconducting components, observations also probe the dynamics of large-scale quantum condensates. The testing and understanding of the relevant theory tends to focus on the interface between the astrophysics phenomenology and nuclear physics. The connections with low-temperature experiments tend to be ignored. However, there has been dramatic progress in understanding laboratory condensates (from the different phases of superfluid helium to the entire range of superconductors and cold atom condensates). In this review, we provide an overview of these developments, compare and contrast the mathematical descriptions of laboratory condensates and neutron stars and summarise the current experimental state-o...

  6. A propelling neutron star in the enigmatic Be-star γ Cassiopeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, K.; Oskinova, L.; Torrejón, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    γ Cassiopeia (γ Cas), is known to be a binary system consisting of a Be-type star and a low-mass (M ˜ 1 M⊙) companion of unknown nature orbiting in the Be-disc plane. Here, we apply the quasi-spherical accretion theory on to a compact magnetized star and show that if the low-mass companion of γ Cas is a fast spinning neutron star, the key observational signatures of γ Cas are remarkably well reproduced. Direct accretion on to this fast rotating neutron star is impeded by the propeller mechanism. In this case, around the neutron star magnetosphere a hot shell is formed which emits thermal X-rays in qualitative and quantitative agreement with observed properties of the X-ray emission from γ Cas. We suggest that γ Cas and its analogues constitute a new subclass of Be-type X-ray binaries hosting rapidly rotating neutron stars formed in supernova explosions with small kicks. The subsequent evolutionary stage of γ Cas and its analogues should be the X Per-type binaries comprising low-luminosity slowly rotating X-ray pulsars. The model explains the enigmatic X-ray emission from γ Cas, and also establishes evolutionary connections between various types of rotating magnetized neutron stars in Be-binaries.

  7. Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of these lectures is to introduce basic processes responsible for cooling of neutron stars and to show how to calculate the neutrino production rate in dense strongly interacting nuclear medium. The formalism is presented that treats on equal footing one-nucleon and multiple-nucleon processes and reactions with virtual bosonic modes and condensates. We demonstrate that neutrino emission from dense hadronic component in neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in the nuclear matter. With the most important in-medium processes incorporated in the cooling code an overall agreement with available soft X ray data can be easily achieved. With these findings the so-called “standard” and “non-standard” cooling scenarios are replaced by one general “nuclear medium cooling scenario” which relates slow and rapid neutron star coolings to the star masses (interior densities). The lectures are split in four parts. Part I: After short introduction to the neutron star cooling problem we show how to calculate neutrino reaction rates of the most efficient one-nucleon and two-nucleon processes. No medium effects are taken into account in this instance. The effects of a possible nucleon pairing are discussed. We demonstrate that the data on neutron star cooling cannot be described without inclusion of medium effects. It motivates an assumption that masses of the neutron stars are different and that neutrino reaction rates should be strongly density dependent. Part II: We introduce the Green’s function diagram technique for systems in and out of equilibrium and the optical theorem formalism. The latter allows to perform calculations of production rates with full Green’s functions including all off-mass-shell effects. We demonstrate how this formalism works within the quasiparticle approximation. Part III: The basic concepts of the nuclear Fermi liquid approach are introduced. We show how strong interaction effects can be

  8. The masses of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, J E

    2016-01-01

    We present in this article an overview of the problem of neutron star masses. After a brief appraisal of the methods employed to determine the masses of neutron stars in binary systems, the existing sample of measured masses is presented, with a highlight on some very well-determined cases. We discuss the analysis made to uncover the underlying distribution and a few robust results that stand out from them. The issues related to some particular groups of neutron stars originated from different channels of stellar evolution are shown. Our conclusions are that last century's paradigm that there a single, $1.4 M_{\\odot}$ scale is too simple. A bimodal or even more complex distribution is actually present. It is confirmed that some neutron stars have masses of $\\sim 2 M_{\\odot}$, and, while there is still no firm conclusion on the maximum and minimum values produced in nature, the field has entered a mature stage in which all these and related questions can soon be given an answer.

  9. Accretion-disc model spectra for dwarf-nova stars

    OpenAIRE

    Idan, Irit; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Hameury, Jean-Marie; Shaviv, Giora

    2008-01-01

    Radiation from accretion discs in cataclysmic variable stars (CVs) provides fundamental information about the properties of these close binary systems and about the physics of accretion in general. The detailed diagnostics of accretion disc structure can be achieved by including in its description all the relevant heating and cooling physical mechanism, in particular the convective energy transport that, although dominant at temperatures less than about 10 000 K, is usually not taken into acc...

  10. Forming an O Star via Disk Accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Qizhou; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-09-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ~105 L ⊙ star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ~80 M ⊙ and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 ± 50 K and a mass of ~13 M ⊙. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M ⊙ and a dynamical timescale of 8 × 103 yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH3OH and CH3CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the 13CO and C18O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass ~10 M ⊙ embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  11. FORMING AN O STAR VIA DISK ACCRETION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Keping [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra, E-mail: kqiu@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-09-10

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a {approx}10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of {approx}80 M{sub Sun} and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 {+-} 50 K and a mass of {approx}13 M{sub Sun }. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical timescale of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH{sub 3}OH and CH{sub 3}CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  12. Accretion of Supersonic Winds on Boson Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Linares, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the evolution of a supersonic wind interacting with a Boson Star (BS) and compare the resulting wind density profile with that of the shock cone formed when the wind is accreted by a non-rotating Black Hole (BH) of the same mass. The physical differences between these accretors are that a BS, unlike a BH has no horizon, it does not have a mechanical surface either and thus the wind is expected to trespass the BS. Despite these conditions, on the BS space-time the gas achieves a stationary flux with the gas accumulating in a high density elongated structure comparable to the shock cone formed behind a BH. The highest density resides in the center of the BS whereas in the case of the BH it is found on the downstream part of the BH near the event horizon. The maximum density of the gas is smaller in the BS than in the BH case. Our results indicate that the highest density of the wind is more similar on the BS to that on the BH when the BS has high self-interaction, when it is more compact and when the...

  13. A propelling neutron star in the enigmatic Be-star $\\gamma$~Cassiopeia

    CERN Document Server

    Postnov, K; Torrejón, J M

    2016-01-01

    The enigmatic X-ray emission from the bright optical star, $\\gamma$ Cassiopeia, is a long-standing problem. $\\gamma$ Cas is known to be a binary system consisting of a Be-type star and a low-mass ($M\\sim 1\\,M_\\odot$) companion of unknown nature orbiting in the Be-disk plane. Here we apply the quasi-spherical accretion theory onto a compact magnetized star and show that if the low-mass companion of $\\gamma$ Cas is a fast spinning neutron star, the key observational signatures of $\\gamma$ Cas are remarkably well reproduced. Direct accretion onto this fast rotating neutron star is impeded by the propeller mechanism. In this case, around the neutron star magnetosphere a hot shell is formed that emits thermal X-rays in qualitative and quantitative agreement with observed properties of the X-ray emission from $\\gamma$ Cas. We suggest that $\\gamma$ Cas and its analogs constitute a new subclass of Be-type X-ray binaries hosting rapidly rotating neutron stars formed in supernova explosions with small kicks. The subseq...

  14. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  15. SPIN EVOLUTION OF ACCRETING YOUNG STARS. II. EFFECT OF ACCRETION-POWERED STELLAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Sean P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pinzon, Giovanni [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: sean.matt@cea.fr, E-mail: thomas.p.greene@nasa.gov, E-mail: gapinzone@unal.edu.co, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-01-20

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh and Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

  16. Single neutron star systems evolving with fallback discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Unal; Caliskan, Sirin; Alpar, Mehmet Ali; Benli, Onur; Trümper, Joachim E.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the long-term evolution of the young neutron star systems, namely anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), dim isolated neutron stars (XDINs), and the so-called "high-B radio pulsars" in the frame of the fallback disk disc model. We have shown that the X-ray luminosities and the rotational properties of individual sources in these different populations can be achieved by neutron stars evolving with fallback disks and with conventional dipole magnetic fields of young neutron stars. Presence of small-scale magnetar fields in the higher multi-poles which are likely to be responsible for soft gamma bursts observed from these systems is compatible with the fallback disk model, since the rotational evolution of the star is governed by the interaction between the large-scale dipole field and the disc. The results of our model is self-consistent in that (1) the X-ray luminosity, period and period derivative of individual sources are produced simultaneously, and (2) these results are obtained with very similar set of main disk parameters for all these systems with rather different properties. Our results indicate that all known AXPs, except two sources, are in the accretion phase at present. The 6 XDINs with confirmed period and period derivatives reached their long periods in the accretion epochs in the past. At present, XDINs are evolving in the propeller phase without accretion, but they are still slowing down under effect of the disk torques. For the "high-B radio pulsars", the source properties are obtained in the phases when accretion is not allowed, which is consistent with the radio pulsar property of these sources.

  17. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 {\\mu}m (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and HI (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and HI in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  18. Fab Four Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Horndeski's theory of gravity is the most general scalar-tensor theory with a single scalar whose equations of motion contain at most second-order derivatives. A subsector of Horndeski's theory known as "Fab Four" gravity allows for dynamical self-tuning of the quantum vacuum energy, and therefore it has received particular attention in cosmology as a possible alternative to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. Here we study compact stars in Fab Four gravity, which includes as special cases general relativity ("George"), Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity ("Ringo"), theories with a nonminimal coupling with the Einstein tensor ("John") and theories involving the double-dual of the Riemann tensor ("Paul"). We generalize and extend previous results in theories of the John class and we show that there are no viable compact star solutions in theories of the Paul class.

  19. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Frensel, Maik; Volpe, Cristina; Perego, Albino

    2016-01-01

    We study the neutrino flavor evolution in the neutrino-driven wind from a binary neutron star merger remnant consisting of a massive neutron star surrounded by an accretion disk. With the neutrino emission characteristics and the hydrodynamical profile of the remnant consistently extracted from a three-dimensional simulation, we compute the flavor evolution by taking into account neutrino coherent forward scattering off ordinary matter and neutrinos themselves. We employ a "single-trajectory" approach to investigate the dependence of the flavor evolution on the neutrino emission location and angle. We also show that the flavor conversion in the merger remnant can affect the (anti-)neutrino absorption rates on free nucleons and may thus impact the $r$-process nucleosynthesis in the wind. We discuss the sensitivity of such results on the change of neutrino emission characteristics, also from different neutron star merger simulations.

  20. Evolution of low mass close binary systems with a neutron star: its dependence with the initial neutron star mass

    CERN Document Server

    De Vito, M A

    2012-01-01

    We construct a set of binary evolutionary sequences for systems composed by a normal, solar composition, donor star together with a neutron star. We consider a variety of masses for each star as well as for the initial orbital period corresponding to systems that evolve to ultra-compact or millisecond pulsar-helium white dwarf pairs. Specifically, we select a set of donor star masses of 0.50, 0.65, 0.80, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25, 2.50, 3.00, and 3.50 solar masses, whereas for the accreting neutron star we consider initial masses values of 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 solar masses. The considered initial orbital period interval ranges from 0.5 to 12 days. It is found that the evolution of systems, with fixed initial values for the orbital period and the mass of the normal donor star, heavily depends upon the mass of the neutron star. In some cases, varying the initial value of the neutron star mass, we obtain evolved configurations ranging from ultra-compact to widely separated objects. We also analyse the...

  1. Close stars and accretion in Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, S

    2004-01-01

    Quasar accretion disks are believed to form stars by self-gravity. Low Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (LLAGN) are much dimmer galactic centers, and are often believed to be quasars that ran out of gaseous fuel. LLAGN accretion disks should thus co-exist with thousands to millions of stars or proto-stars left from the previous stronger accretion activity. In principle, these stars may produce several important effects: (i) contribute to the optical/UV spectra of some LLAGN; (ii) reprocessing of the stellar radiation in the dusty disks could dominate the LLAGN infra-red spectra; (iii) deplete the (accretion) gas disk much faster than it can accrete onto the supper-massive black hole (SMBH); (iv) stars, individually or in groups, may slow down and modulate the accretion flow significantly due to their inertia. In this way they may produce the LLAGN cut-off disks; (v) alternatively, frequent enough stellar collisions and resulting stellar disruptions could keep the inner disk empty. Here we explore these ideas...

  2. Observations on the Formation of Massive Stars by Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Keto, E; Keto, Eric; Wood, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Observations of the H66a recombination line from the ionized gas in the cluster of newly formed massive stars, G10.6-0.4, show that most of the continuum emission derives from the dense gas in an ionized accretion flow that forms an ionized disk or torus around a group of stars in the center of the cluster. The inward motion observed in the accretion flow suggests that despite the equivalent luminosity and ionizing radiation of several O stars, neither radiation pressure nor thermal pressure has reversed the accretion flow. The observations indicate why the radiation pressure of the stars and the thermal pressure of the HII region are not effective in reversing the accretion flow. The observed rate of the accretion flow, 0.001 solar masses/yr, is sufficient to form massive stars within the time scale imposed by their short main sequence lifetimes. A simple model of disk accretion relates quenched HII regions, trapped hypercompact HII regions, and photo-evaporating disks in an evolutionary sequence.

  3. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Thomas; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  4. Genetic selection of neutron star structure matching the X-ray observations

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Torok, Gabriel; Urbanec, Martin; Bakala, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Assuming a resonant origin of the quasiperiodic oscillations observed in the X-ray neutron star binary systems, we apply a genetic algorithm method for selection of neutron star models. It was suggested that pairs of kilo-Hertz peaks in the X-ray Fourier power density spectra of some neutron stars reflect a non-linear resonance between two modes of accretion disk oscillations. In several specific models, the two modes are related to physically plausible combinations of Keplerian, vertical and radial frequencies of geodesic orbital motion. We investigate this concept for a specific neutron star source, a fixed pair of modes and various neutron star equations of state. Each neutron star model is characterized by the equation of state (EOS), rotation frequency ($\\Omega$) and central energy density ($\\rho_\\mathrm c$). These determine the spacetime structure governing geodesic motion and position dependent radial and vertical epicyclic oscillations related to the stable circular geodesics. When the parameters of n...

  5. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Postnov, K A; Kolesnikov, D A; Popov, S B; Porayko, N K

    2016-01-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In the present paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, $\\tau_c$. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations ...

  6. Nuclear fusion and carbon flashes on neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taam, R. E.; Picklum, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on detailed calculations of the thermal evolution of the carbon-burning shells in the envelopes of accreting neutron stars for mass-accretion rates of 1 hundred-billionth to 2 billionths of a solar mass per yr and neutron-star masses of 0.56 and 1.41 solar masses. The work of Hansen and Van Horn (1975) is extended to higher densities, and a more detailed treatment of nuclear processing in the hydrogen- and helium-burning regions is included. Results of steady-state calculations are presented, and results of time-dependent computations are examined for accretion rates of 3 ten-billionths and 1 billionth of solar mass per yr. It is found that two evolutionary sequences lead to carbon flashes and that the carbon abundance at the base of the helium shell is a strong function of accretion rate. Upper limits are placed on the accretion rates at which carbon flashes will be important.

  7. Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomeitsev E.E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these lectures is to introduce basic processes responsible for cooling of neutron stars and to show how to calculate the neutrino production rate in dense strongly interacting nuclear medium. The formalism is presented that treats on equal footing one-nucleon and multiple-nucleon processes and reactions with virtual bosonic modes and condensates. We demonstrate that neutrino emission from dense hadronic component in neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in the nuclear matter. With the most important in-medium processes incorporated in the cooling code an overall agreement with available soft X ray data can be easily achieved. With these findings the so-called “standard” and “non-standard” cooling scenarios are replaced by one general “nuclear medium cooling scenario” which relates slow and rapid neutron star coolings to the star masses (interior densities. The lectures are split in four parts. Part I: After short introduction to the neutron star cooling problem we show how to calculate neutrino reaction rates of the most efficient one-nucleon and two-nucleon processes. No medium effects are taken into account in this instance. The effects of a possible nucleon pairing are discussed. We demonstrate that the data on neutron star cooling cannot be described without inclusion of medium effects. It motivates an assumption that masses of the neutron stars are different and that neutrino reaction rates should be strongly density dependent. Part II: We introduce the Green’s function diagram technique for systems in and out of equilibrium and the optical theorem formalism. The latter allows to perform calculations of production rates with full Green’s functions including all off-mass-shell effects. We demonstrate how this formalism works within the quasiparticle approximation. Part III: The basic concepts of the nuclear Fermi liquid approach are introduced. We show how strong

  8. Magnetospheres and Disk Accretion in Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Muzerolle, J; Calvet, N; Hartmann, L

    2004-01-01

    We present evidence of magnetically-mediated disk accretion in Herbig Ae/Be stars. Magnetospheric accretion models of Balmer and sodium profiles calculated with appropriate stellar and rotational parameters are in qualitative agreement with the observed profiles of the Herbig Ae star UX Ori, and yield a mass accretion rate of ~ 10^{-8} Msun/yr. If more recent indications of an extremely large rotation rate for this object are correct, the magnetic field geometry must deviate from that of a standard dipole in order to produce line emission consistent with observed flux levels. Models of the associated accretion shock qualitatively explain the observed distribution of excess fluxes in the Balmer discontinuity for a large ensemble of Herbig Ae/Be stars, and imply typically small mass accretion rates, < 10^{-7} Msun/yr. In order for accretion to proceed onto the star, significant amounts of gas must exist inside the dust destruction radius, which is potentially problematic for recently advocated scenarios of "...

  9. Evolution of Neutron Stars and Observational Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattimer J.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure and evolution of neutron stars is discussed with a view towards constraining the properties of high density matter through observations. The structure of neutron stars is illuminated through the use of several analytical solutions of Einstein’s equations which, together with the maximally compact equation of state, establish extreme limits for neutron stars and approximations for binding energies, moments of inertia and crustal properties as a function of compactness. The role of the nuclear symmetry energy is highlighted and constraints from laboratory experiments such as nuclear masses and heavy ion collisions are presented. Observed neutron star masses and radius limits from several techniques, such as thermal emissions, X-ray bursts, gammaray flares, pulsar spins and glitches, spin-orbit coupling in binary pulsars, and neutron star cooling, are discussed. The lectures conclude with a discusson of proto-neutron stars and their neutrino signatures.

  10. Magnetized accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaerts, J.

    This lecture reviews in simple terms the general subject of large scale magnetic field coupling to plasma flows in the vicinity of accreting compact stars. The relevant astrophysical phenomenology is summarized. Disk interaction with the magnetosphere of accreting stars is first discussed, in particular the structure of the magnetopause, its stability and plasma ejection in so-called propeller systems. The physics of accretion/ejection is then considered. Acceleration and focusing mechanisms of jets from accretion disks around compact stars or black holes and the question of the self-consistency of accretion and ejection are described. By contrast, small scale MHD turbulence in disks is not discussed, neither are accretion columns near the polar caps of neutron stars or white dwarfs. The reader is only assumed to have some basic knowledge of astrophysics and of fluid mechanics and electromagnetism.

  11. SMBH Spherically Symmetric Accretion Regulated by Violent Star Formation Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, S; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2008-01-01

    The mounting evidence for violent nuclear star formation in Seyfert galaxies has led us to consider the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted by massive stars through strong stellar winds and supernovae, under the presence of a central massive BH. We show that in all cases there is a bimodal solution strongly weighted by the location of the stagnation radius (Rst), which splits the star cluster into two different zones. Matter reinserted within the stagnation volume is to be accreted by the BH while its outer counterpart would composed a star cluster wind. The mechanical power of the latter, ensures that there is no accretion of the ISM into the BH and thus the BH accretion and its luminosity is regulated by the star formation feedback. The location of the stagnation radius is a function of three parameters: the BH mass, the mechanical power (or mass) of the star formation event and the size of the star forming region. Here we present our self-consistent, stationary solution, discuss the accretion rates and ...

  12. Neutron Star Motion in the Disk Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-Chun; A.Taani; PAN Yuan-Yue; WANG Jing; CAI Yan; LIU Gao-Chao; LUO A-Li; ZHANG Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yong-Heng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The neutron star motions are based on the undisturbed finitely thick galactic disk gravitational potential model.Two initial conditions,I.e.the locations and velocities,are considered.The Monte Carlo method is employed to separate rich diversities of the orbits of neutron stars into several sorts.The Poincaré section has the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of the neutron star motion.It has been observed that the increasing ratio of the motion range vertical to the galactic plane to that parallel to the galactic plane results in the irregularity of neutron star motion.

  13. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  14. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gareth F.; Meiron, Yohai; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterized by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical capability, we find that the stellar accretion rate converges for models with N ≥ 32k. The eccentricity distribution of accreted stars, however, does not converge. We find that there are two competing effects at work when improving the resolution: larger particle number leads to a smaller fraction of stars accreted on nearly circular orbits, while higher spatial resolution increases this fraction. We scale our simulations to some nearby galaxies and find that the expected boost in stellar accretion (or tidal disruption, which could be observed as X-ray flares) in the presence of a gas disc is about a factor of 10. Even with this boost, the accretion of mass from stars is still a factor of ˜100 slower than the accretion of gas from the disc. Thus, it seems accretion of stars is not a major contributor to black hole mass growth.

  15. Antikaon condensation in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, S; Greiner, W

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the condensation of charged K sup - meson and neutral anti-K sup 0 meson in dense neutron star matter. Calculations are performed in relativistic mean field models in which both the baryon-baryon and (anti)kaon-baryon interactions are mediated by meson exchange. It is found that anti-K sup 0 condensation is quite sensitive to the antikaon optical potential and depends more strongly on the nucleonic equation of state. For moderate values of antikaon potential and a rather stiff equation of state, a significant region of maximum mass star will contain anti-K sup 0 meson. The critical density of anti-K sup 0 condensation is always higher than that of K sup - condensation. With the appearance of K sup - and anti-K sup 0 condensates, pairs of p-K sup - and n-Kbar sup 0 are produced with equal proportion leading to a perfectly symmetric matter of nucleons and antikaons in neutron stars. Along with K sup - condensate, anti-K sup 0 condensate makes the equation of state much softer resulting in smaller...

  16. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Viganò, Daniele; Miralles, Juan A; Rea, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

  17. Spectra of the spreading layers on the neutron star surface and constraints on the neutron star equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V; Suleimanov, Valery; Poutanen, Juri

    2006-01-01

    Spectra of the spreading layers on the neutron star surface are calculated on the basis of the Inogamov-Sunyaev model taking into account general relativity correction to the surface gravity and considering various chemical composition of the accreting matter. Local (at a given latitude) spectra are similar to the X-ray burst spectra and are described by a diluted black body. Total spreading layer spectra are integrated accounting for the light bending, gravitational redshift, and the relativistic Doppler effect and aberration. They depend slightly on the inclination angle of the neutron star and on the luminosity. These spectra also can be fitted by a diluted black body with the color temperature depending mainly on a neutron star compactness. Constraints on the neutron star compactness were obtained by comparing the theoretical spreading layer spectra with the observed boundary layer spectrum described by a black body of color temperature 2.4 +- 0.1 keV. We obtain the neutron star radius R=15+-1.5 km (for a...

  18. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be eectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate...... in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates....

  19. The Dark Side of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kouvaris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review severe constraints on asymmetric bosonic dark matter based on observations of old neutron stars. Under certain conditions, dark matter particles in the form of asymmetric bosonic WIMPs can be effectively trapped onto nearby neutron stars, where they can rapidly thermalize and concentrate in the core of the star. If some conditions are met, the WIMP population can collapse gravitationally and form a black hole that can eventually destroy the star. Based on the existence of old nearby neutron stars, we can exclude certain classes of dark matter candidates.

  20. The Formation of Massive Star Systems by Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Krumholz, Mark R; McKee, Christopher F; Offner, Stella S R; Cunningham, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Massive stars produce so much light that the radiation pressure they exert on the gas and dust around them is stronger than their gravitational attraction, a condition that has long been expected to prevent them from growing by accretion. We present three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of a massive prestellar core and find that radiation pressure does not halt accretion. Instead, gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities channel gas onto the star system through non-axisymmetric disks and filaments that self-shield against radiation, while allowing radiation to escape through optically-thin bubbles. Gravitational instabilities cause the disk to fragment and form a massive companion to the primary star. Radiation pressure does not limit stellar masses, but the instabilities that allow accretion to continue lead to small multiple systems.

  1. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by burst accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Y; Yoshida, N; Yorke, H W

    2015-01-01

    A promising formation channel of SMBHs at redshift 6 is the so-called DC model, which posits that a massive seed BH forms through gravitational collapse of a $\\sim 10^5~M_\\odot$ SMS. We study the evolution of such a SMS growing by rapid mass accretion. In particular, we examine the impact of time-dependent mass accretion of repeating burst and quiescent phases that are expected to occur with a self-gravitating circumstellar disk. We show that the stellar evolution with such episodic accretion differs qualitatively from that expected with a constant accretion rate, even if the mean accretion rate is the same. Unlike the case of constant mass accretion, whereby the star expands roughly following $R_* \\simeq 2.6 \\times 10^3 R_\\odot (M_*/100~M_\\odot)^{1/2}$, the protostar can substantially contract during the quiescent phases between accretion bursts. The stellar effective temperature and ionizing photon emissivity increase accordingly as the star contracts, which can cause strong ionizing feedback and halt the m...

  2. Formation and Evolution of Neutron Star Binaries: Masses of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chang-Hwan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutron star (NS is one of the most interesting astrophysical compact objects for hardronic physics. It is believed that the central density of NS can reach several times the normal nuclear matter density (ρ0. Hence, the inner part of NS is the ultimate testing place for the physics of dense matter. Recently, the mass of NS in a NS-white dwarf (WD binary PSR J1614-2230 has been estimated to be 1.97 ± 0.04M๏ [1]. Since this estimate is based on the observed Shapiro delay, it can give the lower limit of the maximum NS mass and rules out many soft equations of state. On the other hand, all the well-measured NS masses in NS-NS binaries are smaller than 1.5M๏. In this work, by introducing the supercritical accretion during the binary evolution, we propose a possibility of forming higher mass NS in NS-WD binaries. In this scenario, the lifetimes of NS and WD progenitors are significantly different, and NS in NS-WD binary can accrete > 0.5M๏ after NS formation during the giant phase of the progenitor of WD. On the other hand, for the binary system with NS and heavier (> 8M๏ giants, the first-born NS will accrete more from the companion and can collapse into black hole. The only way to avoid the supercritical accretion is that the initial masses of progenitors of NS binary should be very close so that they evolve almost at the same time and don’t have time to accrete after NS formation.

  3. Outflows from neutron star merger remnant disks: nucleosynthesis and kilonovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Foucart, Francois; Metzger, Brian; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot

    2016-03-01

    The accretion disk formed in a neutron star merger can drive powerful winds on timescales of 100ms to seconds after coalescence. The wind material is more strongly irradiated by neutrinos than the dynamical ejecta, and hence has a less neutron-rich composition, with implications for r-process element synthesis and the radioactively-powered kilonova transient. This talk will present preliminary results from projects aimed at quantifying (1) the nucleosynthesis yield from disks around hypermassive neutron stars, (2) the effect of MHD turbulence on mass ejection when a black hole sits at the center, and (3) the interaction between disk wind and dynamical ejecta when the relative masses of these components vary.

  4. Accretion disc flows around FU Orionis stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C. J.; Lin, D. N. C.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    1989-01-01

    The accretion disk model of FU Orionis systems in outburst is investigated by examining the time-dependent behavior of a disk around a low-mass protostar that accretes at 0.00001-0.0001 solar masses/yr. It is found that the disk may be stabilized against the thermal ionization instability by the effect of advective heat transport and that it may therefore exist in the quasi-steady-state observed in post-outburst FU Orionis systems. The disk models are used to discuss the cosmochemical consequences of possible FU Ori events during the evolution of the primordial solar nebula.

  5. Hydromagnetic Instabilities in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lasky, Paul D; Kokkotas, Kostas D; Glampedakis, Kostas

    2011-01-01

    We model the non-linear ideal magnetohydrodynamics of poloidal magnetic fields in neutron stars in general relativity assuming a polytropic equation of state. We identify familiar hydromagnetic modes, in particular the 'sausage/varicose' mode and 'kink' instability inherent to poloidal magnetic fields. The evolution is dominated by the kink instability, which causes a cataclysmic reconfiguration of the magnetic field. The system subsequently evolves to new, non-axisymmetric, quasi-equilibrium end-states. The existence of this branch of stable quasi-equilibria may have consequences for magnetar physics, including flare generation mechanisms and interpretations of quasi-periodic oscillations.

  6. Neutron Stars in Rastall Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, A M; Fabris, J C; Casarini, L

    2015-01-01

    We calculate static and spherically symmetric solutions for the Rastall modification of gravity to describe Neutron Stars (NS). The key feature of the Rastall gravity is the non-conservation of the energy-momentum tensor proportionally to the space-time curvature. Using realistic equations of state for the NS interior we place a bound on the non-GR behaviour of the Rastall theory which should be $\\lesssim 0.1\\%$ level. This work presents the more stringent contraints on the deviations of GR caused by the Rastall proposal.

  7. Spin Evolution of Accreting Young Stars. II. Effect of Accretion-Powered Stellar Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, Sean P; Greene, Thomas P; Pudritz, Ralph E

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind. For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1--10 days in the age range of 1--3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to s...

  8. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, E. P. J. van den

    2007-01-01

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (< 0.27) indicating that their second-born neutron stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the neutron stars received hardly any velocity kick at birth (Pfahl et al. 2002). The masses of the second-born neutron stars in five of the six low-eccentricity double neutron stars are remarkably low (...

  9. Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars

    CERN Document Server

    Geroux, C; Viallet, M; Goffrey, T; Pratt, J; Constantino, T; Folini, D; Popov, M V; Walder, R

    2016-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to describe the multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars based on fully compressible time implicit multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations. One major motivation is to analyse the validity of accretion treatment used in previous 1D stellar evolution studies. We analyse the effect of accretion on the structure of a realistic stellar model of the young Sun. Our work is inspired by the numerical work of Kley \\& Lin (1996, ApJ, 461, 933) devoted to the structure of the boundary layer in accretion disks. We analyse the redistribution of accreted material with a range of values of specific entropy relative to the bulk specific entropy of the material in the accreting object's convective envelope. A primary goal is to understand whether and how accreted energy deposited onto a stellar surface is redistributed in the interior. This study focusses on the high accretion rates characteristic of FU Ori systems. We find that the highest entropy cases produce a distinctive ...

  10. Life Extinctions due to Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon; Shaviv, N J; Dar, Arnon; Laor, Ari; Shaviv, Nir J.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent paper, Shaviv and Dar have shown that highly relativistic ejecta of high Z material from merger or accretion induced collapse of neutron stars can boost and beam star-light in dense stellar regions into cosmological gamma ray bursts (GRBs) whose predicted properties reproduce remarkably well the observed properties of GRBs. Generally, only a small fraction of the relativistic kinetic energy of the ejecta is converted into gamma rays and most of it is injected into the interstellar medium as a very powerful cosmic ray burst (CRB). Here we show that such CRBs can extinct life on Earth-like planets if they are closer than $\\sim 1 ~kpc$ from the merger/explosion. Such CRBs produce lethal fluxes of atmospheric muons at ground, underground and underwater. They also destroy the ozone layer, radioactivate the atmosphere and the surface of the planet and induce large climatic changes. They are enormously more violent than the GRBs alone or supernova explosions. In Milky-Way like galaxies they destroy life ...

  11. Mass and Radius of Neutron Stars Constrained by Photospheric Radius Expansion X-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyujin; Kim, Myungkuk; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    Simultaneous measurement of mass and radius of a neutron star is important because it provides strong constraint on the equation of state for nuclear matter inside a neutron star. Type I X-ray Bursts (XRBs) that have been observed in low-mass X-ray binaries sometimes show photospheric radius expansion (PRE). By combining observed fluxes, X-ray spectra, and distances of PRE XRBs and using a statistical analysis, it is possible to simultaneously constrain the mass and radius of a neutron star. However, the mass and radius of a neutron star estimated in this method depends on the opacity of accreted material. We investigate the effect of the opacity on the mass and radius estimation by taking into account the cases that the hydrogen mass fraction of accreted material has narrowly-distributed values. We present preliminary results that are investigated with three different values of hydrogen mass fraction and compare our results with previous studies.

  12. Modeling the Spin Equilibrium of Neutron Stars in LMXBs Without Gravitational Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N.; Glampedakis, K.; Haskell, B.; Watts, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the spin-equilibrium of accreting neutron stars in LMXBs. We demonstrate that, when combined with a naive spin-up torque, the observed data leads to inferred magnetic fields which are at variance with those of galactic millisecond radiopulsars. This indicates the need for either additional spin-down torques (eg. gravitational radiation) or an improved accretion model. We show that a simple consistent accretion model can be arrived at by accounting for radiation pressure in rapidly accreting systems (above a few percent of the Eddington accretion rate). In our model the inner disk region is thick and significantly sub-Keplerian, and the estimated equilibrium periods are such that the LMXB neutron stars have properties that accord well with the galactic millisecond radiopulsar sample. The implications for future gravitational-wave observations are also discussed briefly.

  13. Magnetised Neutron Stars An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, A

    2003-01-01

    In the presence of strong magnetic field reported to have been observed on the surface of some neutron stars and on what are called Magnetars, a host of physical phenomenon from the birth of a neutron star to free streaming neutrino cooling phase will be modified. In this review I will discuss the effect of magnetic field on the equation of state of high density nuclear matter by including the anomalous magnetic moment of the nucleons into consideration. I would then go over to discuss the neutrino interaction processes in strong as well as in weak magnetic fields. The neutrino processes are important in studying the propagation of neutrinos and in studying the energy loss, Their study is a prerequisite for the understanding of actual dynamics of supernova explosion and on the stabilization of radial pulsation modes through the effect on bulk viscosity. The anisotropy introduced in the neutrino emission and through the modification of the shape of the neutrino sphere may explain the observed pulsar kicks.

  14. Cooling of young stars growing by disk accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman

    2007-01-01

    In the initial formation stages young stars must acquire a significant fraction of their mass by accretion from a circumstellar disk that forms in the center of a collapsing protostellar cloud. Throughout this period mass accretion rates through the disk can reach 10^{-6}-10^{-5} M_Sun/yr leading to substantial energy release in the vicinity of stellar surface. We study the impact of irradiation of the stellar surface produced by the hot inner disk on properties of accreting fully convective low-mass stars, and also look at objects such as young brown dwarfs and giant planets. At high accretion rates irradiation raises the surface temperature of the equatorial region above the photospheric temperature T_0 that a star would have in the absence of accretion. The high-latitude (polar) parts of the stellar surface, where disk irradiation is weak, preserve their temperature at the level of T_0. In strongly irradiated regions an almost isothermal outer radiative zone forms on top of the fully convective interior, l...

  15. Excited nuclei in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Takibayev, Nurgali; Nasirova, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers the chains of successive electron capture reactions by nuclei of the iron group which take place in the crystal structures of neutron star envelopes. It is shown that as a result of such reactions the daughter nuclei in excited states accumulate within certain layers of neutron star crusts. The phonon model of interactions is proposed between the excited nuclei in the crystalline structure, as well as formation of highly excited nuclear states which emit neutrons and higher energy photons.

  16. Neutron star properties and the equation of state for the core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdunik, J. L.; Fortin, M.; Haensel, P.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Few unified equations of state for neutron star matter, in which core and crust are described using the same nuclear model, are available. However the use of non-unified equations of state with simplified matching between the crust and core has been shown to introduce uncertainties in the radius determination, which can be larger than the expected precision of the next generation of X-ray satellites. Aims: We aim to eliminate the dependence of the radius and mass of neutron stars on the detailed model for the crust and on the crust-core matching procedure. Methods: We solved the approximate equations of the hydrostatic equilibrium for the crust of neutron stars and obtained a precise formula for the radius that only depends on the core mass and radius, the baryon chemical potential at the core-crust interface, and at the crust surface. For a fully accreted crust one needs, additionally, the value of the total deep crustal heating per one accreted nucleon. Results: For typical neutron star masses, the approximate approach allows us to determine the neutron star radius with an error 0.1% ( 10 m, equivalent to a 1% inaccuracy in the crust thickness). The formalism applies to neutron stars with a catalyzed or a fully accreted crust. The difference in the neutron star radius between the two models is proportional to the total energy release due to deep crustal heating. Conclusions: For a given model of dense matter describing the neutron star core, the radius of a neutron star can be accurately determined independent of the crust model with a precision much better than the 5% precision expected from the next generation of X-ray satellites. This allows us to circumvent the problem of the radius uncertainty that may arise when non-unified equations of state for the crust and core are used.

  17. The Masses and Spins of Neutron Stars and Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M Coleman

    2014-01-01

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. ...

  18. Ways to constrain neutron star equation of state models using relativistic disc lines

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic spectral lines from the accretion disc of a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary can be modelled to infer the disc inner edge radius. A small value of this radius tentatively implies that the disc terminates either at the neutron star hard surface, or at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO). Therefore an inferred disc inner edge radius either provides the stellar radius, or can directly constrain stellar equation of state (EoS) models using the theoretically computed ISCO radius for the spacetime of a rapidly spinning neutron star. However, this procedure requires numerical computation of stellar and ISCO radii for various EoS models and neutron star configurations using an appropriate rapidly spinning stellar spacetime. We have fully general relativistically calculated about 16000 stable neutron star structures to explore and establish the above mentioned procedure, and to show that the Kerr spacetime is inadequate for this purpose. Our work systematically studies the methods to constrain Eo...

  19. Polar kicks and the spin period - eccentricity relation in double neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Willems, B; Kalogera, V; Belczynski, K

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a population synthesis study aimed at examining the role of spin-kick alignment in producing a correlation between the spin period of the first-born neutron star and the orbital eccentricity of observed double neutron star binaries in the Galactic disk. We find spin-kick alignment to be compatible with the observed correlation, but not to alleviate the requirements for low kick velocities suggested in previous population synthesis studies. Our results furthermore suggest low- and high-eccentricity systems may form through two distinct formation channels distinguished by the presence or absence of a stable mass transfer phase before the formation of the second neutron star. The presence of highly eccentric systems in the observed sample of double neutron stars may furthermore support the notion that neutron stars accrete matter when moving through the envelope of a giant companion.

  20. Neutron Star Crust and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Schneider, A; Berry, D K

    2011-01-01

    In this book chapter we review plasma crystals in the laboratory, in the interior of white dwarf stars, and in the crust of neutron stars. We describe a molecular dynamics formalism and show results for many neutron star crust properties including phase separation upon freezing, diffusion, breaking strain, shear viscosity and dynamics response of nuclear pasta. We end with a summary and discuss open questions and challenges for the future.

  1. Quark Deconfinement in Rotating Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Mellinger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a three flavor non-local Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model, an improved effective model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD at low energies, to investigate the existence of deconfined quarks in the cores of neutron stars. Particular emphasis is put on the possible existence of quark matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars (pulsars. In contrast to non-rotating neutron stars, whose particle compositions do not change with time (are frozen in, the type and structure of the matter in the cores of rotating neutron stars depends on the spin frequencies of these stars, which opens up a possible new window on the nature of matter deep in the cores of neutron stars. Our study shows that, depending on mass and rotational frequency, up to around 8% of the mass of a massive neutron star may be in the mixed quark-hadron phase, if the phase transition is treated as a Gibbs transition. We also find that the gravitational mass at which quark deconfinement occurs in rotating neutron stars varies quadratically with spin frequency, which can be fitted by a simple formula.

  2. Urca cooling pairs in the neutron star ocean and their effect on superbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Deibel, Alex; Schatz, Hendrik; Brown, Edward F; Cumming, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    An accretion outburst onto a neutron star deposits hydrogen-rich and/or helium-rich material into the neutron star's envelope. Thermonuclear burning of accreted material robustly produces Urca pairs --- pairs of nuclei that undergo cycles of electron-capture and beta-decay. The strong T^5 dependence of the Urca cooling neutrino luminosity means that Urca pairs in the neutron star interior potentially remove heat from accretion-driven nuclear reactions. In this study, we identify Urca pairs in the neutron star's ocean --- a plasma of ions and electrons overlaying the neutron star crust --- and demonstrate that Urca cooling occurs at all depths in the ocean. We find that Urca pairs in the ocean and crust lower the ocean's steady state temperature during an accretion outburst and unstable carbon ignition, which is thought to trigger superbursts, occurs deeper than it would otherwise. Cooling superburst light curves, however, are only marginally impacted by cooling from Urca pairs because the superburst peak lumi...

  3. Binary neutron star merger simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegmann, Bernd [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Our research focuses on the numerical tools necessary to solve Einstein's equations. In recent years we have been particularly interested in spacetimes consisting of two neutron stars in the final stages of their evolution. Because of the emission of gravitational radiation, the objects are driven together to merge; the emitted gravitational wave signal is visualized. This emitted gravitational radiation carries energy and momentum away from the system and contains information about the system. Late last year the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) began searches for these gravitational wave signals at a sensitivity at which detections are expected. Although such systems can radiate a significant amount of their total mass-energy in gravitational waves, the gravitational wave signals one expects to receive on Earth are not strong, since sources of gravitational waves are often many millions of light years away. Therefore one needs accurate templates for the radiation one expects from such systems in order to be able to extract them out of the detector's noise. Although analytical models exist for compact binary systems when the constituents are well separated, we need numerical simulation to investigate the last orbits before merger to obtain accurate templates and validate analytical approximations. Due to the strong nonlinearity of the equations and the large separation of length scales, these simulations are computationally demanding and need to be run on large supercomputers. When matter is present the computational cost as compared to pure black hole (vacuum) simulations increases even more due to the additional matter fields. But also more interesting astrophysical phenomena can happen. In fact, there is the possibility for a strong electromagnetic signal from the merger (e.g., a short gamma-ray burst or lower-energy electromagnetic signatures from the ejecta) and significant neutrino emission. Additionally, we can expect that

  4. Nucleosynthesis in the Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Dirk; Arcones, Almudena; Korobkin, Oleg; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2015-01-01

    Heavy elements like gold, platinum or uranium are produced in the r-process, which needs neutron-rich and explosive environments. Neutron star mergers are a promising candidate for an r-process site. They exhibit three different channels for matter ejection fulfilling these conditions: dynamic ejecta due to tidal torques, neutrino-driven winds and evaporating matter from the accretion disk. We present a first study of the integrated nucleosynthesis for a neutrino-driven wind from a neutron star merger with a hyper-massive neutron star. Trajectories from a recent hydrodynamical simulation are divided into four different angle regions and post-processed with a reaction network. We find that the electron fraction varies around $Y_e \\approx 0.1 - 0.4$, but its distribution differs for every angle of ejection. Hence, the wind ejecta do not undergo a robust r-process, but rather possess distinct nucleosynthesis yields depending on the angle range. Compared to the dynamic ejecta, a smaller amount of neutron-rich mat...

  5. Neutron Star Mass-Radius Constraints using Evolutionary Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, A L; Leahy, D A; Morsink, S M

    2016-01-01

    The equation of state of cold supra-nuclear-density matter, such as in neutron stars, is an open question in astrophysics. A promising method for constraining the neutron star equation of state is modelling pulse profiles of thermonuclear X-ray burst oscillations from hotspots on accreting neutron stars. The pulse profiles, constructed using spherical and oblate neutron star models, are comparable to what would be observed by a next-generation X-ray timing instrument like ASTROSAT, NICER, or LOFT. In this paper we showcase the use of an evolutionary optimization algorithm to fit pulse profiles to determine the best-fitting masses and radii. By fitting synthetic data, we assess how well the optimization algorithm can recover the input parameters. Multiple Poisson realizations of the synthetic pulse profiles were fitted with the Ferret Genetic Algorithm to analyze both statistical and systematic uncertainty, and to explore how the goodness-of-fit depends on the input parameters. The best-determined parameter is...

  6. Vertical Structure of Magnetized Accretion Disks around Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lizano, S; Boehler, Y; D'Alessio, P

    2015-01-01

    We model the vertical structure of magnetized accretion disks subject to viscous and resistive heating, and irradiation by the central star. We apply our formalism to the radial structure of magnetized accretion disks threaded by a poloidal magnetic field dragged during the process of star formation developed by Shu and coworkers. We consider disks around low mass protostars, T Tauri, and FU Orionis stars. We consider two levels of disk magnetization, $\\lambda_{sys} = 4$ (strongly magnetized disks), and $\\lambda_{sys} = 12$ (weakly magnetized disks). The rotation rates of strongly magnetized disks have large deviations from Keplerian rotation. In these models, resistive heating dominates the thermal structure for the FU Ori disk. The T Tauri disk is very thin and cold because it is strongly compressed by magnetic pressure; it may be too thin compared with observations. Instead, in the weakly magnetized disks, rotation velocities are close to Keplerian, and resistive heating is always less than 7\\% of the visc...

  7. A G2-QCD neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Hajizadeh, Ouraman

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the properties of neutron stars from the underlying theory, QCD, is still an unsolved problem. This is mainly due to the difficulty to obtain reliable results for the equation of state for cold, dense QCD. As an alternative route to obtain qualitative insights, we determine the structure of a neutron star for a modified version of QCD: By replacing the gauge group SU(3) with the exceptional Lie group G2, it is possible to perform lattice simulations at finite density, while still retaining neutrons. Here, results of these lattice simulations are used to determine the mass-radius relation of a neutron star for this theory. The results show that phase changes express themselves in this relation. Also, the radius of the most massive neutron stars is found to vary very little, which would make radius determinations much simpler if this would also be true in QCD.

  8. Accretion of dark matter by stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-09-11

    Searches for dark matter imprints are one of the most active areas of current research. We focus here on light fields with mass m_{B}, such as axions and axionlike candidates. Using perturbative techniques and full-blown nonlinear numerical relativity methods, we show the following. (i) Dark matter can pile up in the center of stars, leading to configurations and geometries oscillating with a frequency that is a multiple of f=2.5×10^{14}(m_{B}c^{2}/eV)  Hz. These configurations are stable throughout most of the parameter space, and arise out of credible mechanisms for dark-matter capture. Stars with bosonic cores may also develop in other theories with effective mass couplings, such as (massless) scalar-tensor theories. We also show that (ii) collapse of the host star to a black hole is avoided by efficient gravitational cooling mechanisms.

  9. Accretion of dark matter by stars

    CERN Document Server

    Brito, Richard; Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-01-01

    Searches for dark matter imprints are one of the most active areas of current research. We focus here on light fields with mass $m_B$, such as axions and axion-like candidates. Using perturbative techniques and full-blown nonlinear Numerical Relativity methods, we show that (i) dark matter can pile up in the center of stars, leading to configurations and geometries oscillating with frequency which is a multiple of f=$2.5 10^{14}$ $m_B c^2$/eV Hz. These configurations are stable throughout most of the parameter space, and arise out of credible mechanisms for dark-matter capture. Stars with bosonic cores may also develop in other theories with effective mass couplings, such as (massless) scalar-tensor theories. We also show that (ii) collapse of the host star to a black hole is avoided by efficient gravitational cooling mechanisms.

  10. Non-Spherical Models of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zubairi, O; Romero, A; Mellinger, R; Weber, F; Orsaria, M; Contrera, G

    2015-01-01

    Non-rotating neutron stars are generally treated in theoretical studies as perfect spheres. Such a treatment, however, may not be correct if strong magnetic fields are present (such as for magnetars) and/or the pressure of the matter in the cores of neutron stars is non-isotropic (e.g., color superconducting). In this paper, we investigate the structure of non-spherical neutron stars in the framework of general relativity. Using a parameterized metric to model non-spherical mass distributions, we first derive a stellar structure equation for deformed neutron stars. Numerical investigations of this model equation show that the gravitational masses of deformed neutron stars depend rather strongly on the degree and type (oblate or prolate) of stellar deformation. In particular, we find that the mass of a neutron star increases with increasing oblateness but decreases with increasing prolateness. If this feature carries over to a full two-dimensional treatment of deformed neutron stars, this opens up the possibil...

  11. MRI-driven Accretion onto Magnetized stars: Axisymmetric MHD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V; Lovelace, Richard V E

    2011-01-01

    We present the first results of a global axisymmetric simulation of accretion onto rotating magnetized stars from a turbulent, MRI-driven disk. The angular momentum is transported outward by the magnetic stress of the turbulent flow with a rate corresponding to a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter alpha\\approx 0.01-0.04. The result of the disk-magnetosphere interaction depends on the orientation of the poloidal field in the disk relative to that of the star at the disk-magnetosphere boundary. If fields have the same polarity, then the magnetic flux is accumulated at the boundary and blocks the accretion which leads to the accumulation of matter at the boundary. Subsequently, this matter accretes to the star in outburst before accumulating again. Hence, the cycling, `bursty' accretion is observed. If the disc and stellar fields have opposite polarity, then the field reconnection enhances the penetration of the disk matter towards the deeper field lines of the magnetosphere. However, the magnetic stress at the...

  12. Magnetically Controlled Spasmodic Accretion during Star Formation. II. Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the late accretion phase of the evolution of an axisymmetric, isothermal magnetic disk surrounding a forming star has been formulated in a companion paper. The ``central sink approximation'' is used to circumvent the problem of describing the evolution inside the opaque central region for densities greater than 1011 cm-3 and radii smaller than a few AU. Only the electrons are assumed to be attached to the magnetic field lines, and the effects of both negatively and positively charged grains are accounted for. After a mass of 0.1 Msolar accumulates in the central cell (forming star), a series of magnetically driven outflows and associated outward-propagating shocks form in a quasi-periodic fashion. As a result, mass accretion onto the protostar occurs in magnetically controlled bursts. We refer to this process as spasmodic accretion. The shocks propagate outward with supermagnetosonic speeds. The period of dissipation and revival of the outflow decreases in time, as the mass accumulated in the central sink increases. We evaluate the contribution of ambipolar diffusion to the resolution of the magnetic flux problem of star formation during the accretion phase, and we find it to be very significant albeit not sufficient to resolve the entire problem yet. Ohmic dissipation is completely negligible in the disk during this phase of the evolution. The protostellar disk is found to be stable against interchange-like instabilities, despite the fact that the mass-to-flux ratio has temporary local maxima.

  13. The magnetic field evolution of ULX NuSTAR J095551+6940.8 in M82 - a legacy of accreting magnetar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y. Y.; Song, L. M.; Zhang, C. M.; Tong, H.

    2016-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are usually believed to be black holes with mass about 102-3 M⊙. However, the recent discovery of NuSTAR J095551+6940.8 in M82 by Bachetti et al. shows that it holds the spin period P = 1.37 s and period derivative dot{P}≈ -2× 10^{-10} s s^{-1}, which provides a strong evidence that some ultraluminous X-ray sources could be neutron stars. We obtain that the source may be an evolved magnetar according to our simulation by employing the model of accretion induced the polar magnetic field decay and standard spin-up torque of an accreting neutron star. The results show that NuSTAR J095551+6940.8 is still in the spin-up process, and the polar magnetic field decays to about 4.5 × 1012 G after accreting ˜10-2.5 M⊙, while the strong magnetic field exists in the out-polar region, which could be responsible for the observed low field magnetar. The ultra luminosity of the source can be explained by the beaming effect and two kinds of accretion-radial random accretion and disc accretion. Since the birth rate of magnetars is about ten per cent of the normal neutron stars, we guess that several ultraluminous X-ray sources should share the similar properties to that of NuSTAR J095551+6940.8.

  14. Can Neutron stars constrain Dark Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We argue that observations of old neutron stars can impose constraints on dark matter candidates even with very small elastic or inelastic cross section, and self-annihilation cross section. We find that old neutron stars close to the galactic center or in globular clusters can maintain a surface...... temperature that could in principle be detected. Due to their compactness, neutron stars can acrete WIMPs efficiently even if the WIMP-to-nucleon cross section obeys the current limits from direct dark matter searches, and therefore they could constrain a wide range of dark matter candidates....

  15. Evolutions of Neutron Stars and their Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G S

    2016-01-01

    Estimations of magnetic fields of neutron stars, observed as radio and X-ray pulsars, are discussed. It is shown, that theoretical and observational values for different types of radiopulsars are in good correspondence. Radiopulsars in close binaries and millisecond pulsars, which have passed the stage of disk accretion (recycled radiopulsars), have magnetic fields 2-4 orders of magnitude smaller than ordinary single pulsars. Most probably, the magnetic field of the neutron star was screened by the infalling material. Several screening models are considered. Formation of single recycled pulsars loosing its companion is discussed. Magnetic fields of some X-ray pulsars are estimated from the cyclotron line energy. In the case of Her X-1 this estimation exceeds considerably the value of its magnetic field obtained from long term observational data related to the beam structure evolution. Another interpretation of the cyclotron feature, based on the relativistic dipole radiation mechanism, could remove this discr...

  16. Constraining the neutron star equation of state with gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Agathos, Michalis; Del Pozzo, Walter; Li, Tjonnie G F; Tompitak, Marco; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore; Broeck, Chris Van Den

    2015-01-01

    Recently exploratory studies were performed on the possibility of constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS) using signals from coalescing binary neutron stars, or neutron star-black hole systems, as they will be seen in upcoming advanced gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. In particular, it was estimated to what extent the combined information from multiple detections would enable one to distinguish between different equations of state through hypothesis ranking or parameter estimation. Under the assumption of zero neutron star spins both in signals and in template waveforms and considering tidal effects to 1PN order, it was found that O(20) sources would suffice to distinguish between a hard, moderate, and soft equation of state. Here we revisit these results, this time including neutron star tidal effects to the highest order currently known, termination of gravitational waveforms at the contact frequency, neutron star spins, and the resulting quadrupole-monopo...

  17. The Quiescent Neutron Star and Hierarchical Triple, 4U2129+47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilms, Joern; Kühnel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    4U 2129+47 is a quiescent, eclipsing neutron star that 35 years ago showed typical "Accretion Disk Corona" (ADC) behavior akin to the prototype of the class, X1822-371. Now faded, 4U 2129+47 provides tests of neutron star quiescent emission. It has shown low temperature thermal emission (the neutron star surface), a power law tail (of unknown origin, although possibly due to a pulsar wind interacting with an incoming accretion stream; Campana et al. 1998), and sinusoidally modulated absorption (the disk) as well as periodic X-ray eclipses. Subsequent XMM-Newton and Chandra observations, taken 2007 through Fall 2015, indicate that the hard tail and sinusoidal modulation disappeared, as if the accretion stream and disk have vanished. With the intiial loss of the hard tail, the soft X-ray flux also dropped, but since has remained steady, showing no signs of further neutron star cooling in the subsequent 8 years. We compare this behavior to recent NuSTAR observations of the quiescent neutron star Cen X-4, where the hard tail seems to persist over a wider range of quiescent flux, and correlate with the soft X-ray. It also has been speculated that 4U 2129+47 is part of a hierarchical triple system, with the third body in a much longer orbit. We use the Chandra and XMM-Newton eclipse ephemeris residuals to describe this third body orbit.

  18. Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP226, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pearson, J. M. [Dépt. de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec), H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-02-24

    In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations.

  19. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  20. Gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jocelyn; Cullen, Torrey; Flynn, Eric; Lockett-Ruiz, Veronica; Park, Conner; Vong, Susan

    2016-03-01

    The inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars is expected to provide many signals for Advanced LIGO at design sensitivity. The waveform models currently used to search for and parameterize these signals ignore effects near the merger: as the stars coalesce, the gravitational waves depend additionally on the properties of matter in the core of the stars. In this talk, I will discuss potential systematic error from neglecting these features and present phenomenological waveform models currently being developed to capture the dynamics of merging neutron stars.

  1. 2D Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Many thermally emitting isolated neutron stars have magnetic fields larger than 10^{13}G. A realistic cooling model should be reconsidered including the presence of high magnetic fields. Aims: We investigate the effects of anisotropic temperature distribution and Joule heating on the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Methods: The 2D heat transfer equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor and including all relevant neutrino emission processes is solved for realistic models of the neutron star interior and crust. Results: The presence of the magnetic field affects significantly the thermal surface distribution and the cooling history during both, the early neutrino cooling era and the late photon cooling era. Conclusions: There is a huge effect of the Joule heating on the thermal evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars. Magnetic fields and Joule heating play a key role in maintaining magnetars warm for a long time. Moreover, this effect is also important for intermediate field neu...

  2. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...

  3. Probing neutron stars with gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Benjamin J

    2009-01-01

    Within the next decade gravitational-wave (GW) observations by Advanced LIGO in the United States, Advanced Virgo and GEO HF in Europe, and possibly other ground-based instruments will provide unprecedented opportunities to look directly into the dense interiors of neutron stars which are opaque to all forms of electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The 10-10000 Hz frequency band available to these ground-based interferometers is inhabited by many neutron star mode frequencies, spin frequencies, and inverse dynamical timescales. GWs can provide information on bulk properties of neutron stars (masses, radii, locations...) as well as microphysics of their substance (crystalline structure, viscosity, composition...), some of which is difficult or impossible to obtain by EM observations alone. The former will tell us about the astrophysics of neutron stars, and the latter will illuminate fundamental issues in nuclear and particle physics and the physics of extremely condensed matter. Although GW searches can be done "bl...

  4. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolos, Laura [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Frankfurt Institute for Advances Studies. Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Manuel, Cristina [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (IEEC/CSIC) Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarkar, Sreemoyee [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhaba Road, Mumbai-400005 (India); Tarrus, Jaume [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  5. Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tolos, Laura; Sarkar, Sreemoyee; Tarrus, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.

  6. Forming an O Star via Disk Accretion?

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Keping; Zhang, Qizhou; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ~10^5 Lsun (solar luminosity) star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array (SMA) and IRAM 30m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ~80 Msun (solar mass) and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2--1) and SiO (5--4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320+/-50...

  7. GR-AMRVAC code applications: accretion onto compact objects, boson stars versus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliani, Z.; Grandclément, P.; Casse, F.; Vincent, F. H.; Straub, O.; Dauvergne, F.

    2016-08-01

    In the close vicinity of a compact object strong gravity imprints its signature onto matter. Systems that contain at least one compact object are observed to exhibit extreme physical properties and typically emit highly energetic radiation. The nature of the compact objects that produce the strongest gravitational fields is to date not settled. General relativistic numerical simulations of fluid dynamics around black holes, neutron stars, and other compact objects such as boson stars (BSs) may give invaluable insights into this fundamental question. In order to study the behavior of fluid in the strong gravity regime of an arbitrary compact object we develop a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code. To this end we extend the existing versatile adaptive mesh refinement code MPI-AMRVAC into a general relativistic hydrodynamics framework and adapt it for the use of numerically given spacetime metrics. In the present article we study accretion flows in the vicinity of various types of BSs whose numerical metrics are calculated by the KADATH spectral solver library. We design specific tests to check the reliability of any code intending to study BSs and compare the solutions with those obtained in the context of Schwarzschild black holes. We perform the first ever general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of gas accretion by a BS. The behavior of matter at small distances from the center of a BS differs notably from the black hole case. In particular we demonstrate that in the context of Bondi spherical accretion the mass accretion rate onto non-rotating BSs remains constant whereas it increases for Schwarzschild black holes. We also address the scenario of non-spherical accretion onto BSs and show that this may trigger mass ejection from the interior of the BS. This striking feature opens the door to forthcoming investigations regarding accretion-ejection flows around such types of compact objects.

  8. Effect of Gas Accretion Disc Profile on Orbital Parameters of the Accreted Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet T.; Panamarev, Taras P.; Naurzbaeva, Aisha Zh.; Kalambay, Mukhagali T.; Makukov, Maxim A.; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.; Omarov, Chingis T.; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    The results of studies of the effect of the gas disk and its profile on the dynamics of active galactic nuclei are presented. The study was conducted with a numerical model of galactic nucleus based on phiGRAPE+GPU comprising three subsystems - a central supermassive black hole, gaseous accretion disc, and compact stellar cluster. The evolution of the compact stellar cluster is modeled with direct integration (N-body simulation), while the black hole and gaseous disc are represented phenomenologically: the black hole is introduced as an external potential (fixed in space but variable in time due to black hole mass growth), and the gaseous disc is introduced as spatial time-independent density distribution. We examined and compared with each other orbital parameters of accreting stars for model of the galactic nucleus with gas disc of constant and variable thickness, as well as without gas. It was found that in the presence of a gaseous disk almost half of the accreted particles interact strongly with the gas and are captured by the disc before accretion, while more than 85% of particles are affected to some extent by the disc prior to accretion. This suggests that interaction of the stellar cluster with the gas disk in the galactic nucleus might lead to the formation of stellar disk in the central part of the nucleus.

  9. From nuclear structure to neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum Monte Carlo with modern nucleon-nucleon interactions have enabled the successful description of properties of light nuclei and neutron-rich matter. As a demonstration, we show that the agreement between theoretical calculations of the charge form factor of 12C and the experimental data is excellent. Applying similar methods to isospin-asymmetric systems allows one to describe neutrons confined in an external potential and homogeneous neutron-rich matter. Of particular interest is the nuclear symmetry energy, the energy cost of creating an isospin asymmetry. Combining these advances with recent observations of neutron star masses and radii gives insight into the equation of state of neutron-rich matter near and above the saturation density. In particular, neutron star radius measurements constrain the derivative of the symmetry energy.

  10. Progenitor neutron stars of the lightest and heaviest millisecond pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Fortin, M; Haensel, P; Zdunik, J L

    2014-01-01

    Recent mass measurements of two binary millisecond pulsars, PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 with a mass M=1.97+/-0.04 Msun and M=1.26+/-0.14 Msun respectively indicate a large span of masses for such objects, and possibly also a broad spectrum of neutron star masses born in core-collapse supernovae. Starting from a zero-age main sequence binary stage, we aim at inferring the masses of the progenitor neutron star of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807 by taking into account the differences in the evolutionary stages preceding their formation. Using simulations for the evolution of binary stars we reconstruct the evolutionary tracks leading to the formation of PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0751+1807. We analyse in detail the spin evolution due to the accretion of matter from a disk in the medium-mass/low-mass X-ray binary. General relativistic effects and the damping of surface magnetic field associated with accretion are accounted for. We consider two equations of state of dense matter, one for purely nucleonic matt...

  11. Accretion phenomena in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Cignoni, M.; Ciotti, L.; Cusano, F.; Nipoti, C.; Sacchi, E.; Paris, D.; Romano, D.

    2017-03-01

    We present two pilot studies for the search and characterization of accretion events in star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our strategy consists of two complementary approaches: i) the direct search for stellar substructures around dwarf galaxies through deep wide-field imaging, and ii) the characterization of the chemical properties in these systems up to large galacto-centric distances. We show our results for two star-forming dwarf galaxies, the starburst irregular NGC 4449, and the extremely metal-poor dwarf DDO 68.

  12. Suzaku spectroscopy of the neutron star transient 4U 1608-52 during its outburst decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Ueda, Y.; Hori, T.; Shidatsu, M.; Muñoz-Darias, T.

    2017-01-01

    We test the proposed 3-component spectral model for neutron star low mass X-ray binaries using broad-band X-ray data. We have analysed 4 X-ray spectra (0.8-30 keV) obtained with Suzaku during the 2010 outburst of 4U 1608-52, which have allowed us to perform a comprehensive spectral study covering all the classical spectral states. We use a thermally Comptonized continuum component to account for the hard emission, as well as two thermal components to constrain the accretion disc and neutron star surface contributions. We find that the proposed combination of multicolor disc, single-temperature black body and Comptonization components successfully reproduces the data from soft to hard states. In the soft state, our study supports the neutron star surface (or boundary layer) as the dominant source for the Comptonization seed photons yielding the observed weak hard emission, while in the hard state both solutions, either the disc or the neutron star surface, are equally favoured. The obtained spectral parameters as well as the spectral/timing correlations are comparable to those observed in accreting black holes, which support the idea that black hole and neutron star low mass X-ray binaries undergo a similar state evolution during their accretion episodes.

  13. NuSTAR discovery of a cyclotron line in the accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643

    CERN Document Server

    Bodaghee, Arash; Fornasini, Francesca A; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Mori, Kaya; Rahoui, Farid; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Zhang, William W

    2016-01-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary and accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 was observed by NuSTAR in the 3-79 keV energy band for a net exposure time of 50 ks. We present the results of this observation which enabled the discovery of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with a centroid energy of 29.3(+1.1/-1.3) keV. This allowed us to measure the magnetic field strength of the neutron star for the first time: B = (2.5+/-0.1)e12 G. The known pulsation period is now observed at 904.0+/-0.1 s. Since 2006, the neutron star has undergone a long-term spin-up trend at a rate of P' = -2e-8 s/s (-0.6 s per year, or a frequency derivative of nu' = 3e-14 Hz/s ). In the power density spectrum, a break appears at the pulse frequency which separates the zero slope at low frequency from the steeper slope at high frequency. This addition of angular momentum to the neutron star could be due to the accretion of a quasi-spherical wind, or it could be caused by the transient appearance of a prograde accretion disk that is nearly i...

  14. Super-Massive Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, Paulo C C

    2007-01-01

    We present here the results of Arecibo timing of PSR B1516+02B, a 7.95-ms pulsar in a binary system with a ~0.17 solar mass companion and an orbital period of 6.85 days located in the globular cluster M5. The eccentricity of the orbit (e = 0.14) has allowed a measurement of the rate of advance of periastron: (0.0136 +/- 0.0007) degrees per year. It is very likely that the periastron advance is due to the effects of general relativity; the total mass of the binary system is (2.14 +/-0.16) solar masses. The small measured mass function implies, in a statistical sense, that a very large fraction of this total mass is contained in the pulsar: (1.94+0.17 -0.19) solar masses (1-sigma); there is a 5% probability that the mass of this object is below 1.59 solar masses. With the possible exception of PSR J1748-2021B, this is the largest neutron star mass measured to date. When combined with similar measurements made previously for Terzan 5 I and J, we can exclude, in a statistical sense, the ``soft'' equations of stat...

  15. Forming an O Star via Disk Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Keping; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ~10^5 Lsun (solar luminosity) star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array (SMA) and IRAM 30m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ~80 Msun (solar mass) and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2--1) and SiO (5--4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320+/-50 K and a mass of ~13 Msun. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 Msun and a dynamical timescale of 8,000 yr. The kinematics of the HMC is probed by high-excitation CH3OH and CH3CN lines, which are detected at sub-arcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P-Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5x10^{-3} Msun/yr, is well comparable to ...

  16. Spin Evolution of Neutron Stars in OB/X-ray Binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhang; Xiang-Dong Li; Zhen-Ru Wang

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the relation between the orbital period Porb and the spin period Ps of neutron stars in OB/X-ray binaries.By simulating the timedevelopment of the mass loss rate and radius expansion of a 20M(◎)donor star,we have calculated the detailed spin evolution of the neutron star before steady wind accretion occurs(that is,when the break spin period is reached),or when the OB star begins evolving off the main sequence or has filled its Roche lobe.Our results are compatible with the observations of OB/X-ray binaries.We find that in relatively narrow systems with orbital periods less than tens of days,neutron stars with initial magnetic field B0 stronger than about 3 × 1012 G can reach the break spin period to allow steady wind accretion in the main sequence time,whereas neutron stars with B0 < 3 × 1012 G and/or in wide systems would still be in one of the pulsar,rapid rotator or propeller phases when the companion evolves off the main sequence or fills its Roche lobe.Our results may help understand the various characteristics of the observed OB/neutron star binaries along with their distributions in the Ps -Porb diagram.

  17. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (< 0.27) indicating that their second-born neutron stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the ne

  18. Axion star collisions with Neutron stars and Fast Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Raby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Axions may make a significant contribution to the dark matter of the universe. It has been suggested that these dark matter axions may condense into localized clumps, called "axion stars." In this paper we argue that collisions of dilute axion stars with neutron stars may be the origin of most of the observed fast radio bursts. This idea is a variation of an idea originally proposed by Iwazaki. However, instead of the surface effect of Iwazaki, we propose a perhaps stronger volume effect caused by the induced time dependent electric dipole moment of neutrons.

  19. Axion star collisions with neutron stars and fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Axions may make a significant contribution to the dark matter of the Universe. It has been suggested that these dark matter axions may condense into localized clumps, called "axion stars." In this paper we argue that collisions of dilute axion stars with neutron stars, of the type known as "magnetars," may be the origin of most of the observed fast radio bursts. This idea is a variation of an idea originally proposed by Iwazaki. However, instead of the surface effect of Iwazaki, we propose a perhaps stronger volume effect caused by the induced time dependent electric dipole moment of neutrons.

  20. Limiting rotational period of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    1992-11-01

    We seek an absolute limit on the rotational period for a neutron star as a function of its mass, based on the minimal constraints imposed by Einstein's theory of relativity, Le Chatelier's principle, causality, and a low-density equation of state, uncertainties in which can be evaluated as to their effect on the result. This establishes a limiting curve in the mass-period plane below which no pulsar that is a neutron star can lie. For example, the minimum possible Kepler period, which is an absolute limit on rotation below which mass shedding would occur, is 0.33 ms for a M=1.442Msolar neutron star (the mass of PSR1913+16). A still lower curve, based only on the structure of Einstein's equations, limits any star whatsoever to lie in the plane above it. Hypothetical stars such as strange stars, if the matter of which they are made is self-bound in bulk at a sufficiently large equilibrium energy density, can lie in the region above the general-relativistic forbidden region, and in the region forbidden to neutron stars.

  1. Keplerian frequency of uniformly rotating neutron stars and quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Haensel, P; Bejger, M; Lattimer, J M

    2009-01-01

    We calculate Keplerian (mass shedding) configurations of rigidly rotating neutron stars and quark stars with crusts. We check the validity of empirical formula for Keplerian frequency, f_K, proposed by Lattimer & Prakash, f_K(M)=C (M/M_sun)^1/2 (R/10km)^-3/2, where M is the (gravitational) mass of Keplerian configuration, R is the (circumferential) radius of the non-rotating configuration of the same gravitational mass, and C = 1.04 kHz. Numerical calculations are performed using precise 2-D codes based on the multi-domain spectral methods. We use a representative set of equations of state (EOSs) of neutron stars and quark stars. We show that the empirical formula for f_K(M) holds within a few percent for neutron stars with realistic EOSs, provided 0.5 M_sun < M < 0.9 M_max,stat, where M_max,stat is the maximum allowable mass of non-rotating neutron stars for an EOS, and C=C_NS=1.08 kHz. Similar precision is obtained for quark stars with 0.5 M_sun < M < 0.9 M_max,stat. For maximal crust masses...

  2. Rapidly Evolving and Luminous Transients Driven by Newly Born Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2015-01-01

    We provide a general analysis on the properties of emitting material of some rapidly evolving and luminous transients discovered recently with the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. It is found that these transients are probably produced by a low-mass non-relativistic outflow that is continuously powered by a newly born, rapidly spinning, and highly magnetized neutron star. Such a system could originate from an accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf or a merger of a neutron star-neutron star binary. Therefore, observations to these transients would be helpful for constraining white dwarf and neutron star physics and/or for searching and identifying gravitational wave signals from the mergers.

  3. Magnetically Controlled Spasmodic Accretion During Star Formation. II. Results

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, K; Tassis, Konstantinos; Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of the late accretion phase of the evolution of an axisymmetric, isothermal magnetic disk surrounding a forming star has been formulated in a companion paper. The "central sink approximation" is used to circumvent the problem of describing the evolution inside the opaque central region for densities greater than 10^11 cm^-3 and radii smaller than a few AUs. Only the electrons are assumed to be attached to the magnetic field lines, and the effects of both negatively and positively charged grains are accounted for. After a mass of 0.1 solar mass accumulates in the central cell (forming star), a series of magnetically driven outflows and associated outward propagating shocks form in a quasi-periodic fashion. As a result, mass accretion onto the protostar occurs in magnetically controlled bursts. We refer to this process as spasmodic accretion. The shocks propagate outward with supermagnetosonic speeds. The period of dissipation and revival of the outflow decreases in time, as the mass accumulated in ...

  4. Quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in LMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    Turlione, Anabela; Pons, José A

    2013-01-01

    The quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries after active periods of intense activity in x-rays (outbursts) has been monitored. The theoretical modeling of the thermal relaxation of the neutron star crust may be used to establish constraints on the crust and envelope composition and transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed. We perform numerical simulations of the neutron star crust thermal evolution and compare them with inferred surface temperatures for five sources: MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260, EXO 0748-676, XTE J1701-462 and IGR J17480-2446. We also present stationary envelope models to be used as a boundary condition for the crustal cooling models. We obtain a relation between the mass accretion rate and the temperature reached at the crust-envelope interface at the end of the active phase that accounts for early observations and reduces the number of free parameters of the problem. With this relation we are also able to set constraints to the env...

  5. Recycling of Neutron Stars in Common Envelopes and Hypernova Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Barkov, Maxim V

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new plausable mechanism of supernova explosions specific to close binary systems. The starting point is the common envelope phase in the evolution of a binary consisting of a red super giant and a neutron star. As the neutron star spirals towards the center of its companion it spins up via disk accretion. Depending on the specific angular momentum of gas captured by the neutron star via the Bondi-Hoyle mechanism, it may reach millisecond periods either when it is still inside the common envelope or after it has merged with the companion core. Then it can generate magnetar strength magnetic field via becoming unstable to emission of gravitational waves and developing strong differential rotation, as this has been recently proposed by H.Spruit. The magnetar wind can blow away the common envelope if its magnetic field is as strong as $10^{15}\\,$G, and can destroy the entire companion if it is as strong as $10^{16}\\,$G. The total explosion energy can be comparable to the rotational ener...

  6. Do electron-capture supernovae make neutron stars? First multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the oxygen deflagration

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel; Pakmor, Ruediger; Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Edelmann, Philipp V F

    2016-01-01

    In the classical picture, electron-capture supernovae and the accretion-induced collapse of oxygen-neon white dwarfs undergo an oxygen deflagration phase before gravitational collapse produces a neutron star. Such core collapse events are postulated to explain several astronomical phenomena. In this work, the oxygen deflagration phase is simulated for the first time using multidimensional hydrodynamics. By simulating the oxygen deflagration with multidimensional hydrodynamics and a level-set based flame approach, new insights can be gained into the explosive deaths of 8--10 solar-mass stars and oxygen-neon white dwarfs accreting material from a binary companion star. The main aim is to determine whether these events are thermonuclear or core-collapse supernova explosions, and hence whether neutron stars are formed by such phenomena. The oxygen deflagration is simulated in oxygen-neon cores with three different central ignition densities. The intermediate density case is perhaps the most realistic based on rec...

  7. Doppler Probe of Accretion onto a T Tauri star

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Peter P; Herczeg, Gregory J; Stempels, Henricus C; Walter, Frederick M

    2014-01-01

    The YY Ori stars are T Tauri stars with prominent time-variable redshifted absorption components that flank certain emission lines. One of the brightest in this class is S CrA, a visual double star. We have obtained a series of high-resolution spectra of the two components during four nights with the UVES spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We followed the spectral changes occurring in S CrA to derive the physical structure of the accreting gas. We found that both stars are very similar with regard to surface temperature, radius, and mass. Variable redshifted absorption components are particularly prominent in the SE component. During one night, this star developed a spectrum unique among the T Tauri stars: extremely strong and broad redshifted absorption components appeared in many lines of neutral and ionized metals, in addition to those of hydrogen and helium. The absorption depths of cooler, low ionization lines peak at low velocities - while more highly ionized lines have peak absorption depths at ...

  8. Low-energy collective excitations in the neutron star inner crust

    CERN Document Server

    Chamel, N; Reddy, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the low-energy collective excitations of the neutron star inner crust, where a neutron superfluid coexists with a Coulomb lattice of nuclei. The dispersion relation of the modes is calculated systematically from a microscopic theory including neutron band structure effects. These effects are shown to lead to a strong mixing between the Bogoliubov-Anderson bosons of the neutron superfluid and the longitudinal crystal lattice phonons. In addition, the speed of the transverse shear mode is greatly reduced as a large fraction of superfluid neutrons are entrained by nuclei. Not only does the much smaller velocity of the transverse mode increase the specific heat of the inner crust, but it also decreases its electron thermal conductivity. These results may impact our interpretation of the thermal relaxation in accreting neutron stars. Due to strong mixing, the mean free path of the superfluid mode is found to be greatly reduced. Our results for the collective mode dispersion relations and their damping may...

  9. Spin Evolution of Accreting Young Stars. I. Effect of Magnetic Star-Disk Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, Sean P; de la Reza, Ramiro; Greene, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar mass star interacting with an accretion disk. The model incorporates a description of the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk due to a magnetic connection, and includes changes in the star's mass and radius and a decreasing accretion rate. The model also includes, for the first time in a spin evolution model, the opening of the stellar magnetic field lines, as expected to arise from twisting via star-disk differential rotation. In order to isolate the effect that this has on the star-disk interaction torques, we neglect the influence of torques that may arise from open field regions connected to the star or disk. For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, and initial spin rates, we compute the stellar spin rates of pre-main-sequence stars as they evolve on the Hayashi track to an age of 3~Myr. How much the field opening affects the spin depends on the strength of the coupling of the magnetic field to the disk. For...

  10. Dark matter seeding and the kinematics and rotation of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles, E-mail: mperezga@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: j.silk1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique, UPMC, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    Self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars may significantly affect their kinematical properties, namely velocity kicks and rotation patterns. We find that if a stable long-lived single or multiple strangelet off-center seed forms leading to an asymmetric ejection of matter and radiation, there is a significant modification in linear and angular momentum observables of the star.

  11. Roche Accretion of stars close to massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lixin,; Blandford, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider Roche accretion in an Extreme Mass-Ratio Inspiral (EMRI) binary system formed by a star orbiting a massive black hole. The ultimate goal is to detect the mass and spin of the black hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. Before accretion starts, the stellar orbit is presumed to be circular and equatorial, and shrinks due to gravitational radiation. New fitting formulae are presented for the inspiral time and the radiation-reaction torque in the relativistic regime. If the inspiralling star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) of the hole, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1) to the hole. We give new relativistic interpolation formulae for the volume enclosed by the Roche lobe. If this mass-transfer happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will re...

  12. Forming an Early O-type Star Through Gas Accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Luis A; HO, Paul; Schilke, Peter; Garrod, Robin T; Rodriguez, Luis F; Menten, Karl

    2007-01-01

    We present high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 3$''$) and sensitive 1.3 mm continuum, cyanogen (CN) and vinyl cyanide (C$_2$H$_3$CN) line observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward one of most highly obscured objects of the W51 IRS2 region, W51 North. We find that the CN line exhibits a pronounced inverse P-Cygni profile indicating that the molecular gas is infalling inwards this object with a mass accretion rate between 4 and 7 $\\times$ 10$^{-2}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. The C$_2$H$_3$CN traces an east-west rotating molecular envelope that surrounds either a single obscured (proto)star with a kinematic mass of 40 M$_{\\odot}$ or a small central cluster of B-type stars and that is associated with a compact high velocity bipolar outflow traced by H$_2$O masers and SiO molecular emission. We thus confirm that the W51 North region is part of the growing list of young massive star forming regions that have been associated with infalling motions and with large mass accretion rates ($\\sim$ 10$^{-2}$ -- 10$^...

  13. Observational constraints on quarks in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nana, P; Nana, Pan; Xiaoping, Zheng

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the constraints of observational mass and redshift on the properties of equations of state for quarks in the compact stars. We discuss two scenarios: strange stars and hybrid stars. We construct the equations of state utilizing MIT bag model taking medium effect into account for quark matter and relativistic mean field theory for hadron matter. We find that quark may exist in strange stars and the interior of neutron stars, and only these quark matters with stiff equations of state could be consistent with both constraints. The bag constant is main one parameter that affects the mass strongly for strange stars and only the intermediate coupling constant may be the best choice for compatibility with observational constraints in hybrid stars.

  14. Charged Ising Model of Neutron Star Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hasnaoui, K H O

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inner crust of a neutron star is believed to consist of Coulomb-frustrated complex structures known as "nuclear pasta" that display interesting and unique low-energy dynamics. Purpose: To elucidate the structure and composition of the neutron-star crust as a function of temperature, density, and proton fraction. Methods: A new lattice-gas model, the "Charged-Ising Model" (CIM), is introduced to simulate the behavior of neutron-star matter. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations on 30^3 lattices are performed for a variety of temperatures, densities, and proton fractions. Results: Results are obtained for the heat capacity, pair-correlation function, and static structure factor for a variety of conditions appropriate to the inner stellar crust. Conclusions: Although relatively simple, the CIM captures the essence of Coulomb frustration that is required to simulate the subtle dynamics of the inner stellar crust. Moreover, the computationally demanding long-range Coulomb interactions have been pre-c...

  15. Exploring fundamental physics with neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzochero, Pierre M

    2016-01-01

    In this lecture, we give a first introduction to neutron stars, based on fundamental physical principles. After outlining their outstanding macroscopic properties, as obtained from observations, we infer the extreme conditions of matter in their interiors. We then describe two crucial physical phenomena which characterize compact stars, namely the gravitational stability of strongly degenerate matter and the neutronization of nuclear matter with increasing density, and explain how the formation and properties of neutron stars are a direct consequence of the extreme compression of matter under strong gravity. Finally, we describe how multi-wavelength observations of different external macroscopic features (e.g. maximum mass, surface temperature, pulsar glitches) can give invaluable information about the exotic internal microscopic scenario: super-dense, isospin-asymmetric, superfluid, bulk hadronic matter (probably deconfined in the most central regions) which can be found nowhere else in the Universe. Indeed,...

  16. Neutron Stars in Supernovae and Their Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic fields of neutron stars have a large range (~3e10 - 1e15 G). There may be a tendency for more highly magnetized neutron stars to come from more massive stellar progenitors, but other factors must also play a role. When combined with the likely initial periods of neutron stars, the magnetic fields imply a spindown power that covers a large range and is typically dominated by other power sources in supernovae. Distinctive features of power input from pulsar spindown are the time dependence of power and the creation of a low density bubble in the interior of the supernova; line profiles in the late phases are not centrally peaked after significant pulsar rotational energy has been deposited. Clear evidence for pulsar power in objects <300 years old is lacking, which can be attributed to large typical pulsar rotation periods at birth.

  17. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyakov, D; Pethick, C J

    2014-03-21

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that, at densities above that for neutron drip (∼ 4 × 1 0(11)  g cm(-3) or roughly one-thousandth of nuclear matter density), the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO3. As a consequence, the properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated, and we mention possible consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  18. Towards a metallurgy of neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Kobyakov, D

    2013-01-01

    In the standard picture of the crust of a neutron star, matter there is simple: a body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice of nuclei immersed in an essentially uniform electron gas. We show that at densities above that for neutron drip ($\\sim4\\times10^11$) g cm$^{-3}$ or roughly one thousandth of nuclear matter density, the interstitial neutrons give rise to an attractive interaction between nuclei that renders the lattice unstable. We argue that the likely equilibrium structure is similar to that in displacive ferroelectric materials such as BaTiO$_3$. As a consequence, properties of matter in the inner crust are expected to be much richer than previously appreciated and we mention consequences for observable neutron star properties.

  19. The Burst Mode of Accretion in Primordial Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    DeSouza, A L; Basu, S

    2012-01-01

    We present simulation results for the formation and long-term evolution of a primordial protostellar disk harbored by a first star. Using a 2+1D nonaxisymmetric thin disk numerical simulation, together with a barotropic relation for the gas, we are able to probe ~20 kyr of the disk's evolution. During this time period we observe fragmentation leading to loosely bound gaseous clumps within the disk. These are then torqued inward and accreted onto the growing protostar, giving rise to a burst phenomenon. The luminous feedback produced by this mechanism may have important consequences for the subsequent growth of the protostar.

  20. Constraints on neutron-star theories from nearby neutron star observations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhäuser, Ralph; Tetzlaff, Nina; Hohle, Markus M; Eisenbeiss, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We try to constrain the nuclear Equation-of-State (EoS) and supernova ejecta models by observations of young neutron stars in our galactic neighbourhood. There are seven thermally emitting isolated neutron stars known from X-ray and optical observations, the so-called Magnificent Seven, which are young (few Myrs), nearby (few hundred pc), and radio-quiet with blackbody-like X-ray spectra, so that - by observing their surface - we can determine their luminosity, distance, and temperature, hence, their radius. We also see the possibility to determine their current neutron star masses and the masses of their progenitor stars by studying their origin. It is even feasible to find the neutron star which was born in the supernova, from which those Fe60 atoms were ejected, which were recently found in the Earth crust.

  1. Quark matter and the astrophysics of neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, M.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the means through which the possible presence of nearly deconfined quarks in neutron stars can be detected by astrophysical observations of neutron stars from their birth to old age are highlighted.

  2. Massive neutron stars and their implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T K Jha; Keshab C Panda

    2014-05-01

    Recent observations of high mass pulsar PSRJ1614-2230 has raised serious debate over the possible role of exotics in the dense core of neutron stars. The precise measurement of mass of the pulsar may play a very important role in limiting equation of state (EoS) of dense matter and its composition. Indirectly, it may also shape our understanding of the nucleon–hyperon or hyperon–hyperon interactions which is not well known. Within the framework of an effective chiral model, we compute models of neutron stars and analyse the hyperon composition in them. Further related implications are also discussed.

  3. An instability in neutron stars at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam; Fryxell, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation show that a generic Raleigh-Taylor-like instability occurs in the mantles of nascent neutron stars, that it is possibly violent, and that the standard spherically symmetric models of neutron star birth and supernova explosion may be inadequate. Whether this 'convective' instability is pivotal to the supernova mechanism, pulsar nagnetic fields, or a host of other important issues that attend stellar collapse remains to be seen, but its existence promises to modify all questions concerning this most energetic of astronomical phenomena.

  4. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  5. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Gareth F; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterised by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical cap...

  6. Gravitational wave background from rotating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo A.

    2012-11-01

    The background of gravitational waves produced by the ensemble of rotating neutron stars (which includes pulsars, magnetars, and gravitars) is investigated. A formula for Ω(f) (a function that is commonly used to quantify the background, and is directly related to its energy density) is derived, without making the usual assumption that each radiating system evolves on a short time scale compared to the Hubble time; the time evolution of the systems since their formation until the present day is properly taken into account. Moreover, the formula allows one to distinguish the different parts of the background: the unresolvable (which forms a stochastic background or confusion noise, since the waveforms composing it cannot be either individually observed or subtracted out of the data of a detector) and the resolvable. Several estimations of the background are obtained, for different assumptions on the parameters that characterize neutron stars and their population. In particular, different initial spin period distributions lead to very different results. For one of the models, with slow initial spins, the detection of the background by present or planned detectors can be rejected. However, other models do predict the detection of the background, that would be unresolvable, by the future ground-based gravitational wave detector ET. A robust upper limit for the background of rotating neutron stars is obtained; it does not exceed the detection threshold of two cross-correlated Advanced LIGO interferometers. If gravitars exist and constitute more than a few percent of the neutron star population, then they produce an unresolvable background that could be detected by ET. Under the most reasonable assumptions on the parameters characterizing a neutron star, the background is too faint to be detected. Previous papers have suggested neutron star models in which large magnetic fields (like the ones that characterize magnetars) induce big deformations in the star, which

  7. Circumstellar Disks of the Most Vigorously Accreting Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs) may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. We report our high angular resolution, coronagraphic near-infrared polarization imaging observations using the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) of the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope, towards four YSOs which are undergoing luminous accretion outbursts. The obtained infrared images have verified the presence of several hundred AUs scale arms and arcs surrounding these YSOs. In addition, our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models further demonstrate that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation p...

  8. Are strange stars distinguishable from neutron stars by their cooling behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Schaab, Ch.; Hermann, B.; Weber, F.; Weigel, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    The general statement that strange stars cool more rapidly than neutron stars is investigated in greater detail. It is found that the direct Urca process could be forbidden not only in neutron stars but also in strange stars. If so, strange stars would be slowly cooling and their surface temperatures would be more or less indistinguishable from those of slowly cooling neutron stars. The case of enhanced cooling is reinvestigated as well. It is found that strange stars cool significantly more ...

  9. Approximate Universal Relations for Neutron Stars and Quark Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Neutron stars and quark stars are ideal laboratories to study fundamental physics at supra nuclear densities and strong gravitational fields. Astrophysical observables, however, depend strongly on the star's internal structure, which is currently unknown due to uncertainties in the equation of state. Universal relations, however, exist among certain stellar observables that do not depend sensitively on the star's internal structure. One such set of relations is between the star's moment of inertia ($I$), its tidal Love number (Love) and its quadrupole moment ($Q$), the so-called I-Love-Q relations. Similar relations hold among the star's multipole moments, which resemble the well-known black hole no-hair theorems. Universal relations break degeneracies among astrophysical observables, leading to a variety of applications: (i) X-ray measurements of the nuclear matter equation of state, (ii) gravitational wave measurements of the intrinsic spin of inspiraling compact objects, and (iii) gravitational and astroph...

  10. Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.

  11. Constraining neutron star matter with quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, Aleksi [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vuorinen, Aleksi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-10

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.

  12. Constraining Neutron Star Matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Fraga, Eduardo S.; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount—or even presence—of quark matter inside the stars.

  13. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Adhya, Souvik Priyam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  14. How neutron stars constrain the nuclear equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Hell; Weise, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model.

  15. Outflow and Accretion in Massive Star Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D

    2007-01-01

    In order to distinguish between the various components of massive star forming regions (i.e. infalling, outflowing and rotating gas structures) within our own Galaxy, we require high angular resolution observations which are sensitive to structures on all size scales. To this end, we present observations of the molecular and ionized gas towards massive star forming regions at 230 GHz from the SMA (with zero spacing from the JCMT) and at 22 and 23 GHz from the VLA at arcsecond or better resolution. These observations (of sources such as NGC7538, W51e2 and K3-50A) form an integral part of a multi-resolution study of the molecular and ionized gas dynamics of massive star forming regions (i.e. Klaassen & Wilson 2007). Through comparison of these observations with 3D radiative transfer models, we hope to be able to distinguish between various modes of massive star formation, such as ionized or halted accretion (i.e Keto 2003 or Klaassen et al. 2006 respectively).

  16. Electrical conductivity of warm neutron star crust in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Harutyunyan, Arus

    2016-01-01

    We study the electrical conductivity of finite-temperature crust of a warm compact star which may be formed in the aftermath of a supernova explosion or a binary neutron star merger as well as when a cold neutron star is heated by accretion of material from a companion. We focus on the temperature-density regime where plasma is in the liquid state and, therefore, the conductivity is dominated by the electron scattering off correlated nuclei. The dynamical screening of this interaction is implemented in terms of polarization tensor computed in the hard-thermal-loop effective field theory of QED plasma. The correlations of the background ionic component are accounted for via a structure factor derived from Monte-Carlo simulations of one-component-plasma. With this input we solve the Boltzmann kinetic equation in relaxation time approximation taking into account the anisotropy of transport due to the magnetic field. The electrical conductivity tensor is studied numerically as a function of temperature and densit...

  17. A strongly heated neutron star in the transient z source MAXI J0556-332

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Jeroen; Remillard, Ronald A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-582D, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fridriksson, Joel K.; Wijnands, Rudy [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St., Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Degenaar, Nathalie [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Linares, Manuel [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/ Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lin, Dacheng, E-mail: jeroen@space.mit.edu [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the quiescent neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556-332. Observations of the source made during outburst (with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) reveal tracks in its X-ray color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams that closely resemble those of the neutron-star Z sources, suggesting that MAXI J0556-332 had near- or super-Eddington luminosities for a large part of its ∼16 month outburst. A comparison of these diagrams with those of other Z sources suggests a source distance of 46 ± 15 kpc. Fits to the quiescent spectra of MAXI J0556-332 with a neutron-star atmosphere model (with or without a power-law component) result in distance estimates of 45 ± 3 kpc, for a neutron-star radius of 10 km and a mass of 1.4 M {sub ☉}. The spectra show the effective surface temperature of the neutron star decreasing monotonically over the first ∼500 days of quiescence, except for two observations that were likely affected by enhanced low-level accretion. The temperatures we obtain for the fits that include a power law (kT{sub eff}{sup ∞} = 184-308 eV) are much higher than those seen for any other neutron star heated by accretion, while the inferred cooling (e-folding) timescale (∼200 days) is similar to other sources. Fits without a power law yield higher temperatures (kT{sub eff}{sup ∞} = 190-336 eV) and a shorter e-folding time (∼160 days). Our results suggest that the heating of the neutron-star crust in MAXI J0556-332 was considerably more efficient than for other systems, possibly indicating additional or more efficient shallow heat sources in its crust.

  18. A Strongly Heated Neutron Star in the Transient Z Source MAXI J0556-332

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jeroen; Fridriksson, Joel K.; Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Edward M.; Degenaar, Nathalie; Linares, Manuel; Lin, Dacheng; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2014-11-01

    We present Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the quiescent neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556-332. Observations of the source made during outburst (with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) reveal tracks in its X-ray color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams that closely resemble those of the neutron-star Z sources, suggesting that MAXI J0556-332 had near- or super-Eddington luminosities for a large part of its ~16 month outburst. A comparison of these diagrams with those of other Z sources suggests a source distance of 46 ± 15 kpc. Fits to the quiescent spectra of MAXI J0556-332 with a neutron-star atmosphere model (with or without a power-law component) result in distance estimates of 45 ± 3 kpc, for a neutron-star radius of 10 km and a mass of 1.4 M ⊙. The spectra show the effective surface temperature of the neutron star decreasing monotonically over the first ~500 days of quiescence, except for two observations that were likely affected by enhanced low-level accretion. The temperatures we obtain for the fits that include a power law (kT_eff∞ = 184-308 eV) are much higher than those seen for any other neutron star heated by accretion, while the inferred cooling (e-folding) timescale (~200 days) is similar to other sources. Fits without a power law yield higher temperatures (kT_eff∞ = 190-336 eV) and a shorter e-folding time (~160 days). Our results suggest that the heating of the neutron-star crust in MAXI J0556-332 was considerably more efficient than for other systems, possibly indicating additional or more efficient shallow heat sources in its crust.

  19. Demonstrating the likely neutron star nature of five M31 globular cluster sources with Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarone, Thomas J; Hornschemeier, Ann; Lehmer, Bret D; Antoniou, Vallia; Ptak, Andrew; Wik, Daniel R; Zezas, Andreas; Boyd, Padi; Kennea, Jamie; Page, Kim; Eracleous, Mike; Williams, Benjamin F; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Dan; Zhang, William W

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a joint Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy campaign on M31. We focus on the five brightest globular cluster X-ray sources in our fields. Two of these had previously been argued to be black hole candidates on the basis of apparent hard-state spectra at luminosities above those for which neutron stars are in hard states. We show that these two sources are likely to be Z-sources (i.e. low magnetic field neutron stars accreting near their Eddington limits), or perhaps bright atoll sources (low magnetic field neutron stars which are just a bit fainter than this level) on the basis of simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR spectra which cover a broader range of energies. These new observations reveal spectral curvature above 6-8 keV that would be hard to detect without the broader energy coverage the NuSTAR data provide relative to Chandra and XMM-Newton. We show that the other three sources are also likely to be bright neutron star X-ray binaries, rather than black hole X-ray binaries. We discuss why it sh...

  20. Neutron Star Interiors and Topology Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. F. Kuhfittig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quark matter is believed to exist in the center of neutron stars. A combined model consisting of quark matter and ordinary matter is used to show that the extreme conditions existing in the center could result in a topology change, that is, in the formation of wormholes.

  1. Neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Reisenegger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Neutron stars have the strongest magnetic fields known anywhere in the Universe. In this review, I intend to give a pedagogical discussion of some of the related physics. Neutron stars exist because of Pauli's exclusion principle, in two senses: 1) It makes it difficult to squeeze particles too close together, in this way allowing a mechanical equilibrium state in the presence of extremely strong gravity. 2) The occupation of low-energy proton and electron states makes it impossible for low-energy neutrons to beta decay. A corollary of the second statement is that charged particles are necessarily present inside a neutron star, allowing currents to flow. Since these particles are degenerate, they collide very little, and therefore make it possible for the star to support strong, organized magnetic fields over long times. These show themselves in pulsars and are the most likely energy source for the high X-ray and gamma-ray luminosity ``magnetars''. I briefly discuss the possible origin of this field and some ...

  2. ON THE MASSES OF NEUTRON-STARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKERKWIJK, MH; VANPARADIJS, J; ZUIDERWIJK, EJ

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the currently available observations of X-ray binaries in a consistent way, to re-determine the masses of the neutron stars in these systems. In particular, our attention is focussed on a realistic and consistent assessment of observational uncertainties and sources of systematic error. C

  3. MHD Simulations of Magnetized Stars in the Propeller Regime of Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lii Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accreting magnetized stars may be in the propeller regime of disc accretion in which the angular velocity of the stellar magnetosphere exceeds that of the inner disc. In these systems, the stellar magnetosphere acts as a centrifugal barrier and inhibits matter accretion onto the rapidly rotating star. Instead, the matter accreting through the disc accumulates at the disc-magnetosphere interface where it picks up angular momentum and is ejected from the system as a wide-angled outflow which gradually collimates at larger distances from the star. If the ejection rate is lower than the accretion rate, the matter will accumulate at the boundary faster than it can be ejected; in this case, accretion onto the star proceeds through an episodic accretion instability in which the episodes of matter accumulation are followed by a brief episode of simultaneous ejection and accretion of matter onto the star. In addition to the matter dominated wind component, the propeller outflow also exhibits a well-collimated, magnetically-dominated Poynting jet which transports energy and angular momentum away from the star. The propeller mechanism may explain some of the weakly-collimated jets and winds observed around some T Tauri stars as well as the episodic variability present in their light curves. It may also explain some of the quasi-periodic variability observed in cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars and other magnetized stars.

  4. Structures of Rotating Traditional Neutron Stars and Hyperon Stars in the Relativistic $\\sigma-\\omega$ Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, D; Wang, X; Ai, B; Liu, G; Dong, D; Liu, L; Wen, De-hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xian-ju; Ai, Bao-quan; Liu, Guo-tao; Dong, Dong-qiao; Liu, Liang-gang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the rotation on the total masses and radii of the neutron stars are calculated by the Hartle's slow rotation formalism, while the equation of state is considered in a relativistic $\\sigma-\\omega$ model. Comparing with the observation, the calculating result shows that the double neutron star binaries are more like hyperon stars and the neutron stars of X-ray binaries are more like traditional neutron stars. As the changes of the mass and radius to a real neutron star caused by the rotation are very small comparing with the total mass and radius, one can see that Hartle's approximate method is rational to deal with the rotating neutron stars. If three property values: mass, radius and period are observed to the same neutron star, then the EOS of this neutron star could be decided entirely.

  5. General relativistic neutron stars with twisted magnetosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Pili, A G; Del Zanna, L

    2014-01-01

    Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars are extreme manifestations of the most magnetized neutron stars: magnetars. The phenomenology of their emission and spectral properties strongly support the idea that the magnetospheres of these astrophysical objects are tightly twisted in the vicinity of the star. Previous studies on equilibrium configurations have so far focused on either the internal or the external magnetic field configuration, without considering a real coupling between the two fields. Here we investigate numerical equilibrium models of magnetized neutron stars endowed with a confined twisted magnetosphere, solving the general relativistic Grad-Shafranov equation both in the interior and in the exterior of the compact object. A comprehensive study of the parameters space is provided to investigate the effects of different current distributions on the overall magnetic field structure.

  6. Can SGRs/AXPs originate from neutron star binaries?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J

    2013-01-01

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are two groups of enigmatic objects, which have been extensively investigated in past few decades. Based on the ample information about their timing behaviors, spectra, and variability properties, it was proposed that SGRs/AXPs are isolated neutron stars (NSs) with extremely strong magnetic fields, the so-called magnetars. Nonetheless, some alternative models are probably equally convincing such as those proposing that they are accreting NSs with a fall-back disk or rotation-powered magnetized and massive white dwarfs. The nature and nurture of SGRs/AXPs remain controversial. In this paper, we propose that SGRs/AXPs can originate from normal NSs in binary systems. SGRs are a class of objects containing a neutron-drip core and denser crust with a stiffer equation of state, which is formed from re-explosion of normal NSs in binary systems. It is the accretion onto the denser crust that contributes to the observed hard emissions. AXPs are a group of ...

  7. The Peculiar Galactic Center Neutron Star X-Ray Binary XMM J174457-2850.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M.; Altamirano, D.; Kennea, J.; Gehrels, N.; Haggard, D.; Ponti, G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent discovery of a milli-second radio pulsar experiencing an accretion outburst similar to those seen in low mass X-ray binaries, has opened up a new opportunity to investigate the evolutionary link between these two different neutron star manifestations. The remarkable X-ray variability and hard X-ray spectrum of this object can potentially serve as a template to search for other X-ray binary radio pulsar transitional objects. Here we demonstrate that the transient X-ray source XMM J174457-2850.3 near the Galactic center displays similar X-ray properties. We report on the detection of an energetic thermonuclear burst with an estimated duration of 2 hr and a radiated energy output of 5E40 erg, which unambiguously demonstrates that the source harbors an accreting neutron star. It has a quiescent X-ray luminosity of Lx5E32 ergs and exhibits occasional accretion outbursts during which it brightens to Lx1E35-1E36 ergs for a few weeks (2-10 keV). However, the source often lingers in between outburst and quiescence at Lx1E33-1E34 ergs. This unusual X-ray flux behavior and its relatively hard X-ray spectrum, a power law with an index of 1.4, could possibly be explained in terms of the interaction between the accretion flow and the magnetic field of the neutron star.

  8. Differences in the Cooling Behavior of Strange Quark Matter Stars and Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Schaab, Christoph; Hermann, Bernd; Weber, Fridolin; Weigel, Manfred K.

    1997-01-01

    The general statement that hypothetical strange (quark matter) stars cool more rapidly than neutron stars is investigated in greater detail. It is found that the direct Urca process could be forbidden not only in neutron stars but also in strange stars. In this case, strange stars are slowly cooling, and their surface temperatures are more or less indistinguishable from those of slowly cooling neutron stars. Furthermore the case of enhanced cooling is reinvestigated. It shows that strange sta...

  9. Hiding a neutron star inside a wormhole

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    We consider neutron-star-plus-wormhole configurations supported by a massless ghost scalar field. The neutron fluid is modeled by an anisotropic equation of state. When the central energy density of the fluid is of comparable magnitude to the one of the scalar field, configurations with an equator at the center and a double-throat arise. These double-throat wormholes can be either partially or completely filled by the neutron fluid. In the latter case, the passage of light - radiated by the neutron matter - through these wormholes is studied. A stability analysis indicates that all considered configurations are unstable with respect to linear perturbations, independent of whether the fluid is isotropic or anisotropic.

  10. `Tail-end' Bondi-Hoyle accretion in young star clusters: Implications for disks, planets, and stars

    CERN Document Server

    Throop, Henry B

    2008-01-01

    Young stars orbiting in the gravitational potential well of forming star clusters pass through the cluster's dense molecular gas and can experience Bondi-Hoyle accretion from reservoirs outside their individual protostellar cloud cores. Accretion can occur for several million years after the stars form, but before the cluster disperses. This accretion is predominantly onto the disk and not the star. N-body simulations of stars orbiting in three young model clusters containing 30, 300, and 3000 stars are presented. The simulations include the gravitational potential of the molecular gas which smoothly disperses over time. The clusters have a star formation efficiency of 33% and a radius of 0.22 pc. We find that the disks surrounding solar-mass stars in the N=30 cluster accretes ~0.01 M_sol (~1 minimum-mass solar nebula, MMSN) per Myr. The accretion rate scales as M^2.1 for stars of mass M. The accretion rate is ~5 times lower for N=3000 cluster, due to its higher stellar velocities and higher temperature. The ...

  11. Topics in theoretical astrophysics: Precession of warped disks, oscillations of presupernova stars, and thermal evolution and nucleosynthesis of young neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Akiko

    This thesis consists of three parts. In the first part, we study the magnetically driven precession of warped disks. An accretion disk around a rotating magnetized star is subjected to the magnetic torques that induce warping and precession of the disk. We study the global hydrodynamical warping/ precession modes of the disk under the combined influences of the magnetic torques, relativistic frame dragging, and the classical precession due to oblateness of the neutron star. We apply our analysis to two types of accreting systems: low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and accreting X-ray pulsars. We argue that some features of low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in LMXBs and milli-Hertz QPOs in accreting X-ray pulsars can be explained by the magnetically driven precession of warped disks. The second part is related to the hydrodynamically-driven mechanism for asymmetric supernova explosions/neutron star kicks. We explore the possibility that the gravity modes in the core of a presupernova star may be amplified in the silicon burning shell to produce the global asymmetric perturbations that lead to an asymmetric supernova explosion. By performing a linear analysis of the oscillations in the cores of presupernova stars, we estimate the growth/ damping rates of the modes. We find that most of the modes are damping modes with a few exceptions. We also find that, even for a growing mode, the timescale of mode growth is much longer than the remaining time before the core collapse. We conclude that the gravity modes in a presupernova core cannot provide the global asymmetric perturbations that lead to an asymmetric supernova explosion. In the last part, we attempt to predict the innate chemical composition of a neutron star atmosphere. There has been great progress in X-ray observations and now thermal radiation from neutron stars is being studied in detail. There has also been significant progress in modeling thermal spectra from neutron stars. However, the unknown

  12. He-Accreting WDs: AM CVn stars with WD Donors

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, Luciano; Tornambe', Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    We study the physical and evolutionary properties of the "WD family" of AM CVn stars by computing realistic models of IDD systems. We evaluate self-consistently both the mass transfer rate from the donor, as determined by GW emission and interaction with the binary companion, and the thermal response of the accretor to mass deposition. We find that, after the onset of mass transfer, all the considered systems undergo a strong non-dynamical He-flash. However, due to the compactness of these systems, the expanding accretors fill their Roche lobe very soon, thus preventing the efficient heating of the external layers of the accreted CO WDs. Moreover, due to the loss of matter from the systems, the orbital separations enlarge and mass transfer comes to a halt. The further evolution depends on the value of \\mdot\\, after the donors fill again their lobe. On one hand, if the accretion rate, as determined by the actual value of (M_don,M_acc), is high enough, the accretors experience several He-flashes of decreasing s...

  13. Tidal Love numbers of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hinderer, Tanja

    2007-01-01

    For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k2. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n~0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l=2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g_tt, and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to ~24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron sta...

  14. The Magnetic Field Evolution of ULX NuSTAR J095551+6940.8 in M82--A Legacy of Accreting Magnetar

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Y Y; Zhang, C M; Tong, H

    2015-01-01

    Ultra luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are usually believed to be black holes with mass about 10^{2--3}M_{sun}. However, the recent discovery of ULX NuSTAR J095551+6940.8 in M82 with the spin period P=1.37s and period derivation P_{dot}=-2*10^{-10} ss^{-1} provides a strong evidence that some ULXs are accreting neutron stars (NSs). To investigate such a particular accreting neutron star, we ascribe it as an evolved magnetar in the accretion binary system. By means of the model of accretion induced the NS magnetic evolution and standard spinup torque, we calculate the magnetic field decay and spin-up of M82 X-2, and show that its magnetic field is now 4.5*10^{12} G, which is evolved from a magnetar in a high mass Xray binary system (HMXB) with the initial values of magnetic field B~10^{14.5} G and spin period P~100 s by accreting ~10^{-3}M_{sun}, while the mass accretion rate for spin-up is set as 5.0*10^{18} gs^{-1}. The evolutionary track of magnetic field and spin period of M82 X-2 is simulated and plotted in ...

  15. Colloquium: Measuring the neutron star equation of state using x-ray timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Anna L.; Andersson, Nils; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Hebeler, Kai; Israel, Gianluca; Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman; Morsink, Sharon; Özel, Feryal; Patruno, Alessandro; Poutanen, Juri; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Schwenk, Achim; Steiner, Andrew W.; Stella, Luigi; Tolos, Laura; van der Klis, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    One of the primary science goals of the next generation of hard x-ray timing instruments is to determine the equation of state of matter at supranuclear densities inside neutron stars by measuring the radius of neutron stars with different masses to accuracies of a few percent. Three main techniques can be used to achieve this goal. The first involves waveform modeling. The flux observed from a hotspot on the neutron star surface offset from the rotational pole will be modulated by the star's rotation, and this periodic modulation at the spin frequency is called a pulsation. As the photons propagate through the curved spacetime of the star, information about mass and radius is encoded into the shape of the waveform (pulse profile) via special and general-relativistic effects. Using pulsations from known sources (which have hotspots that develop either during thermonuclear bursts or due to channeled accretion) it is possible to obtain tight constraints on mass and radius. The second technique involves characterizing the spin distribution of accreting neutron stars. A large collecting area enables highly sensitive searches for weak or intermittent pulsations (which yield spin) from the many accreting neutron stars whose spin rates are not yet known. The most rapidly rotating stars provide a clean constraint, since the limiting spin rate where the equatorial surface velocity is comparable to the local orbital velocity, at which mass shedding occurs, is a function of mass and radius. However, the overall spin distribution also provides a guide to the torque mechanisms in operation and the moment of inertia, both of which can depend sensitively on dense matter physics. The third technique is to search for quasiperiodic oscillations in x-ray flux associated with global seismic vibrations of magnetars (the most highly magnetized neutron stars), triggered by magnetic explosions. The vibrational frequencies depend on stellar parameters including the dense matter equation of

  16. Superfluid Neutrons in the Core of the Neutron Star in Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Dany; Lattimer, James M; Steiner, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    The supernova remnant Cassiopeia A contains the youngest known neutron star which is also the first one for which real time cooling has ever been observed. In order to explain the rapid cooling of this neutron star, we first present the fundamental properties of neutron stars that control their thermal evolution with emphasis on the neutrino emission processes and neutron/proton superfluidity/superconductivity. Equipped with these results, we present a scenario in which the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is interpreted as being due to the recent onset of neutron superfluidity in the core of the star. The manner in which the earlier occurrence of proton superconductivity determines the observed rapidity of this neutron star's cooling is highlighted. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars.

  17. Free fall onto magnetized neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpeter, E. E.

    Some compact X-ray sources show evidence of cyclotron line radiation from excited electron Landau orbits, powered by hydrogen and helium falling onto a neutron star atmosphere along the magnetic field. The slowing of the incident matter is discussed, including the spread in energy loss due to Coulomb scattering and direct nuclear reactions for disintegrating the α particles. The α disintegrations, followed by neutron capture, lead to nuclear γ rays; the γ-ray intensity is (indirectly) coupled to the Coulomb energy loss and the cyclotron line emission.

  18. Fast rotation of neutron stars and equation of state of dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Haensel, P; Bejger, M

    2008-01-01

    Fast rotation of compact stars (at submillisecond period) and, in particular, their stability, are sensitive to the equation of state (EOS) of dense matter. Recent observations of XTE J1739-285 suggest that it contains a neutron star rotating at 1122 Hz (Kaaret et al. 2007). At such rotational frequency the effects of rotation on star's structure are significant. We study the interplay of fast rotation, EOS and gravitational mass of a submillisecond pulsar. We discuss the EOS dependence of spin-up to a submillisecond period, via mass accretion from a disk in a low-mass X-ray binary.

  19. Accretion Rates for T Tauri Stars Using Nearly Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ingleby, Laura; Herczeg, Gregory; Blaty, Alex; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low mass T Tauri stars using a dataset of contemporaneous near ultraviolet (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the ground based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), a unique dataset because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our dataset includes accreting T Tauri stars (CTTS) in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, $\\eta$ Chamaeleon and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high density, low filling factor accretion spots co-exist with low density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra wi...

  20. Binary Neutron Star Mergers: A Jet Engine for Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Milton; Lang, Ryan N.; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2016-06-01

    We perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity (GRMHD) of quasi-circular, equal-mass, binary neutron stars that undergo merger. The initial stars are irrotational, n = 1 polytropes and are magnetized. We explore two types of magnetic-field geometries: one where each star is endowed with a dipole magnetic field extending from the interior into the exterior, as in a pulsar, and the other where the dipole field is initially confined to the interior. In both cases the adopted magnetic fields are initially dynamically unimportant. The merger outcome is a hypermassive neutron star that undergoes delayed collapse to a black hole (spin parameter a/M BH ˜ 0.74) immersed in a magnetized accretion disk. About 4000M ˜ 60(M NS/1.625 M ⊙) ms following merger, the region above the black hole poles becomes strongly magnetized, and a collimated, mildly relativistic outflow—an incipient jet—is launched. The lifetime of the accretion disk, which likely equals the lifetime of the jet, is Δ t ˜ 0.1 (M NS/1.625 M ⊙) s. In contrast to black hole-neutron star mergers, we find that incipient jets are launched even when the initial magnetic field is confined to the interior of the stars.

  1. Neutron stars in Horndeski gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Andrea; Silva, Hector O.; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-06-01

    Horndeski's theory of gravity is the most general scalar-tensor theory with a single scalar whose equations of motion contain at most second-order derivatives. A subsector of Horndeski's theory known as "Fab Four" gravity allows for dynamical self-tuning of the quantum vacuum energy, and therefore it has received particular attention in cosmology as a possible alternative to the Λ CDM model. Here we study compact stars in Fab Four gravity, which includes as special cases general relativity ("George"), Einstein-dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity ("Ringo"), theories with a nonminimal coupling with the Einstein tensor ("John"), and theories involving the double-dual of the Riemann tensor ("Paul"). We generalize and extend previous results in theories of the John class and were not able to find realistic compact stars in theories involving the Paul class.

  2. Hyperaccreting Disks around Neutrons Stars and Magnetars for GRBs: Neutrino Annihilation and Strong Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaccreting disks around neutron stars or magnetars cooled via neutrino emission can be the potential central engine of GRBs. The neutron-star disk can cool more efficiently, produce much higher neutrino luminosity and neutrino annihilation luminosity than its black hole counterpart with the same accretion rate. The neutron star surface boundary layer could increase the annihilation luminosity as well. An ultra relativistic jet via neutrino annihilation can be produced along the stellar poles. Moreover, we investigate the effects of strong fields on the disks around magnetars. In general, stronger fields give higher disk densities, pressures, temperatures and neutrino luminosity; the neutrino annihilation mechanism and the magnetically-driven pulsar wind which extracts the stellar rotational energy can work together to generate and feed an even stronger ultra-relativistic jet along the stellar magnetic poles.

  3. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  4. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhya Souvik Priyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  5. Modeling magnetized neutron stars using resistive MHD

    CERN Document Server

    Palenzuela, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an implementation of the resistive MHD equations for a generic algebraic Ohm's law which includes the effects of finite resistivity within full General Relativity. The implementation naturally accounts for magnetic-field-induced anisotropies and, by adopting a phenomenological current, is able to accurately describe electromagnetic fields in the star and in its magnetosphere. We illustrate the application of this approach in interesting systems with astrophysical implications; the aligned rotator solution and the collapse of a magnetized rotating neutron star to a black hole.

  6. Gamma-ray lines from neutron stars as probes of fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.

    1978-01-01

    The detection of gamma-ray lines produced at the surface of neutron stars will serve to test both the strong and gravitational interactions under conditions unavailable in terrestrial laboratories. Observation of a single redshifted gamma-ray line, combined with an estimate of the mass of the star will serve as a strong constraint on allowable equations of state of matter at supernuclear densities. Detection of two redshifted lines arising from different physical processes at the neutron star surface can provide a test of the strong principle of equivalence. Expected fluxes of nuclear gamma-ray lines from accreting neutron stars were calculated, including threshold, radiative transfer and redshift effects. The most promising probes of neutron star structure are the deuterium formation line and the positron annihilation line. Detection of sharp redshifted gamma-ray lines from X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1 would argue strongly in favor of a neutron star rather than black hole identification for the object.

  7. The Deconfinement Phase Transition in the Interior of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xia

    2010-01-01

    The decon?nement phase transition which happens in the interior of neutron stars are investigated. Coupled with the spin evolution of the stars, the effect of entropy production and deconfinement heat generation during the deconfinement phase transition in the mixed phase of the neutron stars are discussed. The entropy production of deconfinement phase transition can be act as a signature of phase transition, but less important and does not significantly change the thermal evolution of neutron stars. The deconfinement heat can change the thermal evolution of neutron star distinctly.

  8. Thermal radiation from magnetic neutron star surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Azorin, J F; Pons, J A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the thermal emission from magnetic neutron star surfaces in which the cohesive effects of the magnetic field have produced the condensation of the atmosphere and the external layers. This may happen for sufficiently cool atmospheres with moderately intense magnetic fields. The thermal emission from an isothermal bare surface of a neutron star shows no remarkable spectral features, but it is significantly depressed at energies below some threshold energy. However, since the thermal conductivity is very different in the normal and parallel directions to the magnetic field lines, the presence of the magnetic field is expected to produce a highly anisotropic temperature distribution, depending on the magnetic field geometry. In this case, the observed flux of such an object looks very similar to a BB spectrum, but depressed in a nearly constant factor at all energies. This results in a systematic underestimation of the area of the emitter (and therefore its size) by a factor 5-10 (2-3).

  9. A dynamical description of neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    de la Mota, V; Eudes, Ph

    2012-01-01

    Neutron Stars are natural laboratories where fundamental properties of matter under extreme conditions can be explored. Modern nuclear physics input as well as many-body theories are valuable tools which may allow us to improve our understanding of the physics of those compact objects. In this work the occurrence of exotic structures in the outermost layers of neutron stars is investigated within the framework of a microscopic model. In this approach the nucleonic dynamics is described by a time-dependent mean field approach at around zero temperature. Starting from an initial crystalline lattice of nuclei at subnuclear densities the system evolves toward a manifold of self-organized structures with different shapes and similar energies. These structures are studied in terms of a phase diagram in density and the corresponding sensitivity to the isospin-dependent part of the equation of state and to the isotopic composition is investigated.

  10. Electromagnetic multipole fields of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    A formalism is developed for treating general multipole electromagnetic fields of neutron stars. The electric multipoles induced in a neutron star by its rotation with an arbitrary magnetic multipole at its center are presented. It is shown how to express a family of off-centered multipoles having the same l weight as an infinite array of centered multipoles of increasing l weight referred to the rotational axis. General expressions are given for the linear momentum present in the superposition of arbitrary multipole fields, and the results are combined to compute the radiation rate of linear momentum by an off-centered dipole to zeroth order in the parameter Omega x R/c. The general Deutsch (1955) solution is then rederived in a clear consistent manner, and some minor additions and corrections are provided.

  11. Dissipation in relativistic superfluid neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gusakov, M E; Chugunov, A I; Gualtieri, L

    2012-01-01

    We analyze damping of oscillations of general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. To this aim we extend the method of decoupling of superfluid and normal oscillation modes first suggested in [Gusakov & Kantor PRD 83, 081304(R) (2011)]. All calculations are made self-consistently within the finite temperature superfluid hydrodynamics. The general analytic formulas are derived for damping times due to the shear and bulk viscosities. These formulas describe both normal and superfluid neutron stars and are valid for oscillation modes of arbitrary multipolarity. We show that: (i) use of the ordinary one-fluid hydrodynamics is a good approximation, for most of the stellar temperatures, if one is interested in calculation of the damping times of normal f-modes; (ii) for radial and p-modes such an approximation is poor; (iii) the temperature dependence of damping times undergoes a set of rapid changes associated with resonance coupling of neighboring oscillation modes. The latter effect can substantially accel...

  12. Nuclear pasta in supernovae and neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Gentaro

    2011-01-01

    In supernova cores and neutron star crusts, nuclei with exotic shapes such as rod-like and slab-like nuclei are expected to exist. These nuclei are collectively called nuclear "pasta". For the past decades, existence of the pasta phases in the equilibrium state has been studied using various methods. Recently, the formation process of the pasta phases, which has been a long-standing problem, has been unveiled using molecular dynamics simulations. In this review, we first provide the astrophysical background of supernovae and neutron stars and overview the history of the study of the pasta phases. We then focus on the recent study on the formation process of the pasta phases. Finally, we discuss future important issues related to the pasta phases: their astrophysical evidence and consequences.

  13. On the compactness of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wei-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the determination of both masses and radii of neutron stars are starting to place stringent constraints on the dense matter equation of state. In particular, new theoretical developments together with improved statistical tools seem to favor stellar radii that are significantly smaller than those predicted by models using purely nucleonic equations of state. Given that the underlying equation of state must also account for the observation of $2M_{\\odot}$ neutron stars, theoretical approaches to the study of the dense matter equation of state are facing serious challenges. In response to this challenge, we compute in a model-independent way the underlying equation of state associated with an assumed mass-radius template similar to the "common radius" assumption used in recent studies. Once such a mass-radius template is adopted, the equation of state follows directly from the implementation of Lindblom's algorithm; assumptions on the nature or composition of the dense stellar core are not re...

  14. The Fascinating World of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarewicz, J.

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the EOS of cold baryonic matter with special emphasis on its impact on the structure and dynamics of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss the many fascinating phases that one encounters in the journey from the low-density crust to the high-density core.

  15. Physical Conditions of Accreting Gas in T Tauri Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bary, Jeffrey S; Skrutskie, Michael F; Wilson, John C; Peterson, Dawn E; Nelson, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a low resolution (R~300) near-infrared spectroscopic variability survey of actively accreting T Tauri stars (TTS) in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region. Paschen and Brackett series H I recombination lines were detected in 73 spectra of 15 classical T Tauri systems. The values of the Pan/PaB, Brn/BrG, and BrG/Pan H I line ratios for all observations exhibit a scatter of < 20% about the weighted mean, not only from source to source, but also for epoch-to-epoch variations in the same source. A representative or `global' value was determined for each ratio in both the Paschen and Brackett series as well as the BrG/Pan line ratios. A comparison of observed line ratio values was made to those predicted by the temperature and electron density dependent models of Case B hydrogen recombination line theory. The measured line ratios are statistically well-fit by a tightly constrained range of temperatures (T < 2000 K) and electron densities 1e9 < n_e < 1e10 cm^-3. A comparison of t...

  16. Black hole accretion versus star formation rate: theory confronts observations

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We use a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers to compare star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) for galaxies before the interaction ('stochastic' phase), during the 'merger' proper, lasting ~0.2-0.3 Gyr, and in the 'remnant' phase. We calculate the bi-variate distribution of SFR and BHAR and define the regions in the SFR-BHAR plane that the three phases occupy. No strong correlation between BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR is found. A possible exception are galaxies with the highest SFR and the highest BHAR. We also bin the data in the same way used in several observational studies, by either measuring the mean SFR for AGN in different luminosity bins, or the mean BHAR for galaxies in bins of SFR. We find that the apparent contradiction or SFR versus BHAR for observed samples of AGN and star forming galaxies is actually caused by binning effects. The two types of samples use different projections of the full bi-variate distribution, and the full information would lead to unamb...

  17. High Mass X-ray Binaries: Progenitors of double neutron star systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In this review I briefly describe the nature of the three kinds of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), accreting through: (i) Be circumstellar disc, (ii) supergiant stellar wind, and (iii) Roche lobe filling supergiants. A previously unknown population of HMXBs hosting supergiant stars has been revealed in the last years, with multi-wavelength campaigns including high energy (INTEGRAL, Swift, XMM, Chandra) and optical/infrared (mainly ESO) observations. This population is divided between obscured supergiant HMXBs, and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs), characterized by short and intense X-ray flares. I discuss the characteristics of these types of supergiant HMXBs, propose a scenario describing the properties of these high-energy sources, and finally show how the observations can constrain the accretion models (e.g. clumpy winds, magneto-centrifugal barrier, transitory accretion disc, etc). Because they are the likely progenitors of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), and also of double neutron star systems,...

  18. Topological characterization of neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Dorso, C O; López, J A

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star crusts are studied using a classical molecular dynamics model developed for heavy ion reactions. After the model is shown to produce a plethora of the so-called "pasta" shapes, a series of techniques borrowed from nuclear physics, condensed matter physics and topology are used to craft a method that can be used to characterize the shape of the pasta structures in an unequivocal way.

  19. SELF-TRAPPING OF DISKOSEISMIC CORRUGATION MODES IN NEUTRON STAR SPACETIMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, David [Center for Theory and Computation, Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Pappas, George [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We examine the effects of higher-order multipole contributions of rotating neutron star (NS) spacetimes on the propagation of corrugation (c-)modes within a thin accretion disk. We find that the Lense–Thirring precession frequency, which determines the propagation region of the low-frequency fundamental corrugation modes, can experience a turnover allowing for c-modes to become self-trapped for sufficiently high dimensionless spin j and quadrupole rotational deformability α. If such self-trapping c-modes can be detected, e.g., through phase-resolved spectroscopy of the iron line for a high-spin low-mass accreting neutron star, this could potentially constrain the spin-induced NS quadrupole and the NS equation of state.

  20. Magneto--thermal evolution of neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pons, J A; Geppert, U

    2008-01-01

    We study the mutual influence of thermal and magnetic evolution in a neutron star's crust in axial symmetry. Taking into account realistic microphysical inputs, we find the heat released by Joule effect consistent with the circulation of currents in the crust, and we incorporate its effects in 2D cooling calculations. We solve the induction equation numerically using a hybrid method (spectral in angles, but a finite--differences scheme in the radial direction), coupled to the thermal diffusion equation. We present the first long term 2D simulations of the coupled magneto-thermal evolution of neutron stars. This substantially improves previous works in which a very crude approximation in at least one of the parts (thermal or magnetic diffusion) has been adopted. Our results show that the feedback between Joule heating and magnetic diffusion is strong, resulting in a faster dissipation of the stronger fields during the first million years of a NS's life. As a consequence, all neutron stars born with fields larg...

  1. Magnetars: neutron stars with huge magnetic storms

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Nanda

    2012-01-01

    Among the many different classes of stellar objects, neutron stars provide a unique environment where we can test (at the same time) our understanding of matter with extreme density, temperature, and magnetic field. In particular, the properties of matter under the influence of magnetic fields and the role of electromagnetism in physical processes are key areas of research in physics. However, despite decades of research, our limited knowledge on the physics of strong magnetic fields is clear: we only need to note that the strongest steady magnetic field achieved in terrestrial labs is some millions of Gauss, only thousands of times stronger than a common refrigerator magnet. In this general context, I will review here the state of the art of our research on the most magnetic objects in the Universe, a small sample of neutron stars called magnetars. The study of the large high-energy emission, and the flares from these strongly magnetized (~10^{15} Gauss) neutron stars is providing crucial information about t...

  2. Slowly Rotating General Relativistic Superfluid Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2001-01-01

    We present a general formalism to treat slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. As a first approximation, their matter content can be described in terms of a two-fluid model, where one fluid is the neutron superfluid, which is believed to exist in the core and inner crust of mature neutron stars, and the other fluid represents a conglomerate of all other constituents (crust nuclei, protons, electrons, etc.). We obtain a system of equations, good to second-order in the rotational velocities, that determines the metric and the matter variables, irrespective of the equation of state for the two fluids. In particular, allowance is made for the so-called entrainment effect, whereby the momentum of one constituent (e.g. the neutrons) carries along part of the mass of the other constituent. As an illustration of the developed framework, we consider a simplified equation of state for which the two fluids are described by different polytropes. We determine numerically the effects of the two flui...

  3. Neutron stars interiors: Theory and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.R. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-03-15

    There are many fascinating processes in the universe which we observe in more detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in a core-collapse supernova explosion, one of the most violent events in the universe. As a result, the densest objects in the universe, neutron stars and/or black holes, are created. The physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. Unfortunately, available data do not provide adequate constraints for many theoretical models of dense matter. One of the most open areas of research is the composition of matter in the cores of neutron stars. Unambiguous fingerprints for the appearance and evolution of particular components, such as strange baryons and mesons, with increasing density, have not been identified. In particular, the hadron-quark phase transition remains a subject of intensive research. In this contribution we briefly survey the most promising observational and theoretical directions leading to progress in understanding high density matter in neutron stars. A possible way forward in modeling high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model makes connection between hadronic structure and the underlying quark make-up. It offers a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear force and treats high-density matter, containing the full baryon octet, in terms of four uniquely defined parameters adjusted to properties of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation. (orig.)

  4. Neutron stars interiors: Theory and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    There are many fascinating processes in the universe which we observe in more detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in a core-collapse supernova explosion, one of the most violent events in the universe. As a result, the densest objects in the universe, neutron stars and/or black holes, are created. The physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. Unfortunately, available data do not provide adequate constraints for many theoretical models of dense matter. One of the most open areas of research is the composition of matter in the cores of neutron stars. Unambiguous fingerprints for the appearance and evolution of particular components, such as strange baryons and mesons, with increasing density, have not been identified. In particular, the hadron-quark phase transition remains a subject of intensive research. In this contribution we briefly survey the most promising observational and theoretical directions leading to progress in understanding high density matter in neutron stars. A possible way forward in modeling high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC). This model makes connection between hadronic structure and the underlying quark make-up. It offers a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear force and treats high-density matter, containing the full baryon octet, in terms of four uniquely defined parameters adjusted to properties of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation.

  5. Neutron star crust cooling in the Terzan 5 X-ray transient Swift J174805.3-244637

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Bahramian, A; Sivakoff, G R; Heinke, C O; Brown, E F; Fridriksson, J K; Homan, J; Cackett, E M; Cumming, A; Miller, J M; Altamirano, D; Pooley, D

    2015-01-01

    When neutron stars reside in transient X-ray binaries, their crustal layers become heated during accretion outbursts and subsequently cool in quiescence. Observing and modeling this thermal response has yielded valuable insight into the physics of neutron star crusts. However, one unresolved problem is the evidence in several neutron stars for an extra energy source, located at shallow depth in the crust, that is not accounted for by standard heating models. Its origin remains puzzling, and it is currently unclear whether this additional heating occurs in all neutron stars, and if the magnitude is always the same. Here, we report on Chandra observations that cover two years after the 2012 outburst of the transient neutron star X-ray binary Swift J174805.3-244637 in the globular cluster Terzan 5. The temperature of the neutron star was elevated during the first two months following its ~8 week accretion episode, but had decayed to the pre-outburst level within ~100 days. Interpreting this as rapid cooling of t...

  6. Light curves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Numata, Kazutoshi

    2010-01-01

    We calculate light curves produced by a hot spot of a rapidly rotating neutron star, assuming that the spot is perturbed by a core $r$-mode, which is destabilized by emitting gravitational waves. To calculate light curves, we take account of relativistic effects such as the Doppler boost due to the rapid rotation and light bending assuming the Schwarzschild metric around the neutron star. We assume that the core $r$-modes penetrate to the surface fluid ocean to have sufficiently large amplitudes to disturb the spot. For a $l'=m$ core $r$-mode, the oscillation frequency $\\omega\\approx2m\\Omega/[l'(l'+1)]$ defined in the co-rotating frame of the star will be detected by a distant observer, where $l'$ and $m$ are respectively the spherical harmonic degree and the azimuthal wave number of the mode, and $\\Omega$ is the spin frequency of the star. In a linear theory of oscillation, using a parameter $A$ we parametrize the mode amplitudes such that ${\\rm max}\\left(|\\xi_\\theta|,|\\xi_\\phi|\\right)/R=A$ at the surface, w...

  7. From neutron stars to quark stars in mimetic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2016-09-01

    Realistic models of neutron and quark stars in the framework of mimetic gravity with a Lagrange multiplier constraint are presented. We discuss the effect of a mimetic scalar aiming to describe dark matter on the mass-radius relation and the moment of inertia for slowly rotating relativistic stars. The mass-radius relation and moment of inertia depend on the value of the mimetic scalar in the center of the star. This fact leads to the ambiguity in the mass-radius relation for a given equation of state. Such ambiguity allows us to explain some observational facts better than in standard general relativity. The case of mimetic potential V (ϕ )˜A eC ϕ2 is considered in detail. The relative deviation of the maximal moment of inertia is approximately twice as large as the relative deviation of the maximal stellar mass. We also briefly discuss the mimetic f (R ) gravity. In the case of f (R )=R +a R2 mimetic gravity, it is expected that the increase of maximal mass and maximal moment of inertia due to the mimetic scalar becomes much stronger with bigger parameter a . The influence of the scalar field in mimetic gravity can lead to the possible existence of extreme neutron stars with large masses.

  8. Evolution of Close Neutron Star Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawaguchi, W

    1996-01-01

    We have calculated evolution of neutron star binaries towards the coalescence driven by gravitational radiation. The hydrodynamical effects as well as the general relativistic effects are important in the final phase. All corrections up to post$^{2.5}$-Newtonian order and the tidal effect are included in the orbital motion. The star is approximated by a simple Newtonian stellar model called affine star model. Stellar spins and angular momentum are assumed to be aligned. We have showed how the internal stellar structure affects the stellar deformation, variations of the spins, and the orbital motion of the binary just before the contact. The gravitational wave forms from the last a few revolutions significantly depend on the stellar structure.

  9. Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Rasio, F A; Corongiu, A; D'Antona, F; Fabbiano, G; Fregeau, J M; Gebhardt, K; Heinke, C O; Hut, P; Ivanova, N; Maccarone, T J; Ransom, S M; Webb, N A

    2006-01-01

    This article was co-authored by all invited speakers at the Joint Discussion on `Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Star Clusters,' which took place during the IAU General Assembly in Prague, Czech Republic, on August 17 and 18, 2006. Each section presents a short summary of recent developments in a key area of research, incorporating the main ideas expressed during the corresponding panel discussion at the meeting. Our meeting, which had close to 300 registered participants, was broadly aimed at the large community of astronomers around the world working on the formation and evolution of compact objects and interacting binary systems in dense star clusters, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. Great advances have occurred in this field during the past few years, including the introduction of fundamentally new theoretical paradigms for the formation and evolution of compact objects in binaries as well as countless new discoveries by astronomers that have challenged many accepted models. Some of the hi...

  10. Nucleosynthesis in decompressing neutron star matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jaikumar, P; Otsuki, K; Ouyed, R; Jaikumar, Prashanth; Meyer, Bradley S.; Otsuki, Kaori; Ouyed, Rachid

    2006-01-01

    We explore heavy-element nucleosynthesis by rapid neutron capture (r-process) in the decompressing ejecta from the surface of a neutron star. The decompression is triggered by a violent phase transition to strange quark matter (quark-nova scenario). The presence of neutron-rich large Z nuclei (40,95)<(Z,A)<(70,177), the large neutron-to-seed ratio, and the low electron fraction Ye ~ 0.03 in the decompressing ejecta present favorable conditions for the r-process. We perform network calculations that are adapted to the quark-nova conditions, and which mimic usual (n-\\gamma) equilibrium r-process calculations during the initially cold decompression phase. They match to dynamical r-process calculations at densities below neutron drip (4x10^11 g/cc). We present results for the final element abundance distribution with and without heating from nuclear reactions, and compare to the solar abundance pattern of r-process elements. We highlight the distinguishing features of quark-novae by contrasting it with conv...

  11. Does the neutron star in Her X-1 really show free precession?

    CERN Document Server

    Staubert, R; Vasco, D; Postnov, K; Shakura, N; Rothschild, R; Wilms, J

    2011-01-01

    The accreting X-ray pulsar Her X-1 shows two types of long-term variations, both with a period of 35 days: 1) A modulation of the flux with a ten day long Main-On and a 5 d long Short-On, separated by two Off-states, and 2) A systematic variation of the shape of the 1.24 s pulse profile. While there is general consensus that the flux modulation is due to variable shading of the X-ray emitting regions on the surface of the neutron star by the precessing accretion disk, the physical reason for the variation of the pulse profiles had remained controversial. Following the suggestion by Truemper et al. (1986) that free precession of the neutron star may be responsible for the variation of the pulse profiles, we had developed physical models of strong feedback interaction between the neutron star and the accretion disk in order to explain the seemingly identical values for the periods of the two types of variations. In a deep analysis of pulse profiles observed by several different satellites over the last three de...

  12. Further X-ray observations of EXO 0748-676 in quiescence: evidence for a cooling neutron star crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; M.T. Wolff; P.S. Ray; K.S. Wood; J. Homan; W.H.G. Lewin; P.G. Jonker; E.M. Cackett; J.M. Miller; E.F. Brown; R. Wijnands

    2011-01-01

    In late 2008, the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748−676 started a transition from outburst to quiescence, after it actively accreted for more than 24 yr. In a previous work, we discussed Chandra and Swift observations obtained during the first 5 months of th

  13. Constraining the properties of neutron star crusts with the transient low-mass X-ray binary Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Waterhouse, A C; Wijnands, R; Brown, E F; Miller, J M; Altamirano, D; Linares, M

    2015-01-01

    Aql X-1 is a prolific transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that exhibits an accretion outburst approximately once every year. Whether the thermal X-rays detected in intervening quiescent episodes are the result of cooling of the neutron star or due to continued low-level accretion remains unclear. In this work we use Swift data obtained after the long and bright 2011 and 2013 outbursts, as well as the short and faint 2015 outburst, to investigate the hypothesis that cooling of the accretion-heated neutron star crust dominates the quiescent thermal emission in Aql X-1. We demonstrate that the X-ray light curves and measured neutron star surface temperatures are consistent with the expectations of the crust cooling paradigm. By using a thermal evolution code, we find that ~1.2-3.2 MeV/nucleon of shallow heat release describes the observational data well, depending on the assumed mass-accretion rate and temperature of the stellar core. We find no evidence for varying strengths of this shallow heating aft...

  14. Evidence for a jet contribution to the optical/infrared light of neutron star X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Fender, R.P.; Jonker, P.G.

    2007-01-01

    Optical/near-infrared (optical/NIR, OIR) light from low-mass neutron star X-ray binaries (NSXBs) in outburst is traditionally thought to be thermal emission from the accretion disc. Here we present a comprehensive collection of quasi-simultaneous OIR and X-ray data from 19 low magnetic field NSXBs,

  15. Chandra and Swift observations of the quasi-persistent neutron star transient EXO 0748−676 back to quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Degenaar; R. Wijnands; M.T. Wolff; P.S. Ray; K.S. Wood; J. Homan; W.H.G. Lewin; P.G. Jonker; E.M. Cackett; J.M. Miller; E.F. Brown

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748-676 recently started the transition to quiescence following an accretion outburst that lasted more than 24 years. We report on two Chandra and 12 Swift observations performed within five months after the end of the outbu

  16. Broad iron line in the fast spinning neutron-star system system 4U 1636-53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanna, Andrea; Hiemstra, Beike; M´endez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Linares, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the X-ray spectra of six observations, simultaneously taken with XMMNewton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636–53. The observations cover several states of the source, and therefore a large range of inferred mass accretion rate. These

  17. Effects of △-Isobars on Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge L.S. Lino; CHEN Yan-Jun; GUO Hua

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of the presence of the deltas in neutron star matter and their effects on neutron stars. △-meson couplings of the theoretical predictions are only restricted in a region where the deltas can be present and even a first-order phase transition may take place, making the EOS softer and the maximum mass of neutron stars smaller. The presence of the deltas leads to the rapid decrease of neutrino mean free paths.

  18. Deconfinement Phase Transition Heating and Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Miao; Wang, Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    The deconfinement phase transition will lead to the release of latent heat during spins down of neutron stars if the transition is the first-order one.We have investigated the thermal evolution of neutron stars undergoing such deconfinement phase transition. The results show that neutron stars may be heated to higher temperature.This feature could be particularly interesting for high temperature of low-magnetic field millisecond pulsar at late stage.

  19. The Effects of δ Meson on the Neutron Star Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许妍; 刘广洲; 吴姚睿; 朱明枫; 喻孜; 王红岩; 赵恩广

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the relativistic mean field theory, the isovector scalar interaction is considered by exchanging δ meson to study the influence of δ meson on the cooling properties of neutron star matter. The calculation results show that with the inclusion of δ meson, the neutrino emissivity of the direct Urca processes increases, and thus enhances the cooling of neutron star matter. When strong proton superfluidity is considered, the theoretical cooling curves agree with the observed thermal radiation for isolated neutron stars.

  20. A strongly-heated neutron star in the transient Z source MAXI J0556-332

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Cackett, Edward M; Degenaar, Nathalie; Linares, Manuel; Lin, Dacheng; Remillard, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    We present Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the quiescent neutron star in the transient low-mass X-ray binary MAXI J0556-332. Observations of the source made during outburst (with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer) reveal tracks in its X-ray color-color and hardness-intensity diagrams that closely resemble those of the neutron-star Z sources, suggesting that MAXI J0556-332 had near- or super-Eddington luminosities for a large part of its ~16 month outburst. A comparison of these diagrams with those of other Z sources suggests a source distance of 46+/-15 kpc. Fits to the quiescent spectra of MAXI J0556-332 with a neutron-star atmosphere model (with or without a power-law component) result in distance estimates of 45+/-3 kpc, for a neutron-star radius of 10 km and a mass of 1.4 Msun. The spectra show the effective surface temperature of the neutron star decreasing monotonically over the first ~500 days of quiescence, except for two observations that were likely affected by enhanced low-level accret...

  1. The masses and spins of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: miller@astro.umd.edu [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. As we discuss, major inroads have been made in black hole spin estimates via analysis of iron lines and continuum emission, with reasonable agreement when both types of estimate are possible for individual objects, and future X-ray polarization measurements may provide additional independent information. We conclude by exploring the exciting prospects for mass and spin measurements from future gravitational wave detections, which are expected to revolutionize our understanding of strong gravity and compact objects.

  2. Photospheric radius expansion in superburst precursors from neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Keek, L

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data was of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the PCA instrument on RXTE, we perform the first detailed time resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the lacking energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our techniq...

  3. Neutron stars as probes of extreme energy density matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madappa Prakash

    2015-05-01

    Neutron stars have long been regarded as extraterrestrial laboratories from which we can learn about extreme energy density matter at low temperatures. In this article, some of the recent advances made in astrophysical observations and related theory are highlighted. Although the focus is on the much needed information on masses and radii of several individual neutron stars, the need for additional knowledge about the many facets of neutron stars is stressed. The extent to which quark matter can be present in neutron stars is summarized with emphasis on the requirement of non-perturbative treatments. Some longstanding and new questions, answers to which will advance our current status of knowledge, are posed.

  4. The Ultraviolet Spectral Energy Distributions of Quiescent Black Holes and Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, R. I.; Robinson, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys ultraviolet photometry of three quiescent black hole X-ray transients, X-ray Nova Muscae 1991 (GU Mus), GRO J0422+32 (V518 Per), and X-ray Nova Vel 1993 (MM Vel), and one neutron star system, Aql X-1. These are the first quiescent UV detections of these objects. All are detected at a much higher level than expected from their companion stars alone and are significant detections of the accretion flow. Three of the four UV excesses can be characterized by a blackbody of temperature 5000-13, 000 K, hotter than expected for the quiescent outer disk. A good fit could not be found for MM Vel. The source of the blackbody-like emission is most likely a heated region of the inner disk. Contrary to initial indications from spectroscopy, there does not appear to be a systematic difference in the UV luminosity or spectral shape between black holes and neutron star systems. However, combining our new data with earlier spectroscopy and published X-ray luminosities, there is a significant difference in the X-ray to UV flux ratios, with the neutron stars exhibiting L X/L UV about 10 times higher than the black hole systems. This is consistent with earlier comparisons based on estimating non-stellar optical light, but since both bandpasses we use are expected to be dominated by accretion light, we present a cleaner comparison. This suggests that the difference in X-ray luminosities cannot simply reflect differences in quiescent accretion rates and so the UV/X-ray ratio is a more robust discriminator between the black hole and neutron star populations than the comparison of X-ray luminosities alone.

  5. Measuring the neutron star equation of state using X-ray timing

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, Anna L; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Hebeler, Kai; Israel, Gianluca; Lamb, Frederick K; Miller, M Coleman; Morsink, Sharon; Özel, Feryal; Patruno, Alessandro; Poutanen, Juri; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Schwenk, Achim; Steiner, Andrew W; Stella, Luigi; Tolos, Laura; van der Klis, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary science goals of the next generation of hard X-ray timing instruments is to determine the equation of state of the matter at supranuclear densities inside neutron stars, by measuring the radius of neutron stars with different masses to accuracies of a few percent. Three main techniques can be used to achieve this goal. The first involves waveform modelling. The flux we observe from a hotspot on the neutron star surface offset from the rotational pole will be modulated by the star's rotation, giving rise to a pulsation. Information about mass and radius is encoded into the pulse profile via relativistic effects, and tight constraints on mass and radius can be obtained. The second technique involves characterising the spin distribution of accreting neutron stars. The most rapidly rotating stars provide a very clean constraint, since the mass-shedding limit is a function of mass and radius. However the overall spin distribution also provides a guide to the torque mechanisms in operation and th...

  6. A Continuum of Accretion Burst Behavior in Young Stars Observed by K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; David, Trevor J.; Carpenter, John M.; Everett, Mark E.; Howell, Steve B.

    2017-02-01

    We present 29 likely members of the young ρ Oph or Upper Sco regions of recent star formation that exhibit “accretion burst” type light curves in K2 time series photometry. The bursters were identified by visual examination of their ∼80-day light curves, though all satisfy the Mtheory of pre-main sequence accretion history.

  7. Unstable Disk Accretion to Magnetized Stars: First Global 3D MHD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanova, Marina M; Lovelace, Richard V E

    2007-01-01

    We report the first global three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of disk accretion onto a rotating magnetized star through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In this regime, the accreting matter typically forms 2 to 7 vertically elongated "tongues" which penetrate deep into the magnetosphere, until they are stopped by the strong field. Subsequently, the matter is channeled along the field lines to the surface of the star, forming hot spots. The number, position and shape of the hot spots vary with time, so that the light-curves associated with the hot spots are stochastic. A magnetized star may be in the stable (with funnel streams) or unstable (with random tongues) regime of accretion, and consequently have significantly different observational properties. A star may switch between these two regimes depending on the accretion rate.

  8. MN Lup: X-rays from a weakly accreting T Tauri star

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, H M; Robrade, J; Wolk, S J

    2013-01-01

    Young T Tauri stars (TTS) are surrounded by an accretion disk, which over time disperses due to photoevaporation, accretion, and possibly planet formation. The accretion shock on the central star produces an UV/optical veiling continuum, line emission, and X-ray signatures. As the accretion rate decreases, the impact on the central star must change. In this article we study MN Lup, a young star where no indications of a disk are seen in IR observations. We present XMM-Newton and VLT/UVES observations, some of them taken simultaneously. The X-ray data show that MN Lup is an active star with L_X/L_bol close to the saturation limit. However, we find high densities (n_e > 3e10 /cm^3) in the X-ray grating spectrum. This can be well fitted using an accretion shock model with an accretion rate of 2e-11 M_sun/yr. Despite the simple Halpha line profile which has a broad component, but no absorption signatures as typically seen on accreting TTS, we find rotational modulation in Ca II K and in photospheric absorption li...

  9. A search for the lasts gasps of disk accretion in Orion T Tauri stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Catherine; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Hernandez, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    Using the echelle mode of the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) on the Magellan/Clay telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, we obtained high resolution spectra (R~35000) of a sample of ~4 - 10 Myr old T Tauri stars distributed in ten 0.5 deg diameter fields in the Orion OB1 association.We present here a search for accretion signatures among a sample of weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTS). These are young stars that on the basis of their classification in low-resolution spectra, are assumed to lack a primordial disk and therefore should not be actively accreting. We look for signatures of disk accretion at modest or low levels by measuring the width at 10% height of the H-alpha profile, and looking for a redshifted absorption feature. In parallel, we determine which WTTS among the M2FS sample have infrared excesses indicating a circumstellar disk, to see which disk-bearing WTTS also show indications of accretion. We propose that such WTTS accreting at low levels are T Tauri stars at or nearing the end of their accretion phase. Our goal is to build a large sample of these objects so that we can place statistical contraints on how long the accretion phase lasts in solar-like and low-mass stars.

  10. Gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Haskell, Brynmor; D`Angelo, Caroline; Degenaar, Nathalie; Glampedakis, Kostas; Ho, Wynn C G; Lasky, Paul D; Melatos, Andrew; Oppenoorth, Manuel; Patruno, Alessandro; Priymak, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars in Low Mass X-ray Binaries have been proposed as an interesting source of gravitational waves. In this chapter we present estimates of the gravitational wave emission for various scenarios, given the (electromagnetically) observed characteristics of these systems. First of all we focus on the r-mode instability and show that a 'minimal' neutron star model (which does not incorporate exotica in the core, dynamically important magnetic fields or superfluid degrees of freedom), is not consistent with observations. We then present estimates of both thermally induced and magnetically sustained mountains in the crust. In general magnetic mountains are likely to be detectable only if the buried magnetic field of the star is of the order of $B\\approx 10^{12}$ G. In the thermal mountain case we find that gravitational wave emission from persistent systems may be detected by ground based interferometers. Finally we re-asses the idea that gravitational wave emission may be balancing the ac...

  11. The lowest-mass stellar black holes: catastrophic death of neutron stars in gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, K; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F; Taam, R; Bulik, T

    2007-01-01

    Mergers of double neutron stars are considered the most likely progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts. Indeed such a merger can produce a black hole with a transient accreting torus of nuclear matter and the conversion of the torus mass-energy to radiation can power a gamma-ray burst. Using available binary pulsar observations supported by our extensive evolutionary calculations of double neutron star formation, we demonstrate that the fraction of mergers that can form a black hole -- torus system depends very sensitively on the (largely unknown) maximum neutron star mass. We show that the available observations and models put a very stringent constraint on this maximum mass under the assumption that a majority of short gamma-ray bursts originate in double neutron star mergers. Specifically, we find that the maximum neutron star mass must be within 2--2.5 Msun. Moreover, a single unambiguous measurement of a neutron star mass above 2.5 Msun would exclude double neutron star mergers as short gamma-ray burst pr...

  12. Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Seveso, Stefano; Grill, Fabrizio; Haskell, Brynmor

    2014-01-01

    The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model is the maximum pinning force that the lattice can exert on the vortices, as this allows us to estimate the angular momentum that can be exchanged during a glitch. In this paper we perform, for the first time, a detailed and quantitative calculation of the pinning force \\emph{per unit length} acting on a vortex immersed in the crust and resulting from the mesoscopic vortex-lattice interaction. We consider realistic vortex tensions, allow for displacement of the nuclei and average over all possible orientation of the crystal with respect to...

  13. Neutron star properties and the equation of state for its core

    CERN Document Server

    Zdunik, J L; Haensel, P

    2016-01-01

    Few unified equations of state for neutron star matter where core and crust are described using the same nuclear model are available. However the use of non-unified equations of state with a simplified matching between the crust and the core has been shown to introduce uncertainties in the radius determination which can be larger than the expected precision of the next generation of X-ray satellites. We aim at eliminating the dependence of the radius and mass of neutron staron the detailed model for the crust and on the crust-core matching procedure. We solve the approximate equations of the hydrostatic equilibrium for the crust of neutron stars obtaining a precise formula for the radius which depends only on the core mass and radius, and on the baryon chemical potential at the core-crust interface and on the crust surface. For a fully accreted crust one needs additionally the value of the total deep crustal heating per one accreted nucleon. For typical neutron star masses the approximate approach allows to d...

  14. Relativistic superfluid models for rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, B

    2001-01-01

    This article starts by providing an introductory overview of the theoretical mechanics of rotating neutron stars as developped to account for the frequency variations, and particularly the discontinuous glitches, observed in pulsars. The theory suggests, and the observations seem to confirm, that an essential role is played by the interaction between the solid crust and inner layers whose superfluid nature allows them to rotate independently. However many significant details remain to be clarified, even in much studied cases such as the Crab and Vela. The second part of this article is more technical, concentrating on just one of the many physical aspects that needs further development, namely the provision of a satisfactorily relativistic (local but not microscopic) treatment of the effects of the neutron superfluidity that is involved.

  15. Rotating proto-neutron stars under strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Franzon, B; Schramm, S

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the effects of magnetic fields and rotation on the structure and composition of proto-neutron stars (PNSs). A hadronic chiral SU(3) model is applied to cold neutron stars (NS) and proto-neutron stars with trapped neutrinos and at fixed entropy per baryon. We obtain general relativistic solutions for neutron and proto-neutron stars endowed with a poloidal magnetic field by solving Einstein-Maxwell field equations in a self-consistent way. As the neutrino chemical potential decreases in value over time, this alters the chemical equilibrium and the composition inside the star, leading to a change in the structure and in the particle population of these objects. We find that the magnetic field deforms the star and significantly alters the number of trapped neutrinos in the stellar interior, together with strangeness content and temperature in each evolution stage.

  16. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAKISHIMA, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1–7) × 108 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  17. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1-7) × 10(8) T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states.

  18. Time-of-flight mass measurements for nuclear processes in neutron star crusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrade, Alfredo [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; Schatz, Hendrik [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Amthor, A. M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beard, Mary [University of Notre Dame, IN; Becerril, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Brown, Edward [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Elliot, T [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Gade, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galaviz, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); George, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Gupta, Sanjib [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur; Hix, William Raphael [ORNL; Lau, Rita [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Moeller, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pereira, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Portillo, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Rogers, A. M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Shapira, Dan [ORNL; Smith, E. [Ohio State University; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wallace, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wiescher, Michael [University of Notre Dame, IN

    2011-01-01

    The location of electron capture heat sources in the crust of accreting neutron stars depends on the masses of extremely neutron-rich nuclei. We present first results from a new implementation of the time-of-flight technique to measure nuclear masses of rare isotopes at the National Supercon- ducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The masses of 16 neutron-rich nuclei in the Sc Ni element range were determined simultaneously, improving the accuracy compared to previous data in 12 cases. The masses of 61V, 63Cr, 66Mn, and 74Ni were measured for the first time with mass excesses of 30.510(890) MeV, 35.280(650) MeV, 36.900(790) MeV, and 49.210(990) MeV, respectively. With the measurement of the 66Mn mass, the location of the two dominant heat sources in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars, which exhibit so called superbursts, is now experimentally constrained. We find that the location of the 66Fe 66Mn electron capture transition occurs sig- nificantly closer to the surface than previously assumed because our new experimental Q-value is 2.1 MeV smaller than predicted by the FRDM mass model. The results also provide new insights into the structure of neutron-rich nuclei around N = 40.

  19. Holographic quark matter and neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding Equation of State (EoS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first order phase transition at densities between two and seven times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EoSs, we find maximal stellar masses in the excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EoSs.

  20. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  1. Coalescence of Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ponce, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We present simulations of the merger of binary neutron star systems calculated with full general relativity and incorporating the global magnetic field structure for the stars evolved with resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Our simulation tools have recently been improved to incorporate the effects of neutrino cooling and have been generalized to allow for tabular equations of state to describe the degenerate matter. Of particular interest are possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational radiation that emerges from these systems. We focus on magnetospheric interactions that ultimately tap into the gravitational potential energy of the binary to power a Poynting flux and deposition of energy through Joule heating and magnetic reconnection. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA through the Astrophysics Theory Program grant NNX13AH01G.

  2. Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshua Faber; Phillippe Grandclément; Frederic Rasio

    2004-10-01

    We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and quasi-circular orbits of equilibrium solutions. By adding a radiation reaction treatment, we compute the full evolution of a coalescing binary neutron star system. We find that the amount of mass ejected from the system, much less than a per cent, is greatly reduced by the inclusion of relativistic gravitation. The gravity wave energy spectrum shows a clear divergence away from the Newtonian point-mass form, consistent with the form derived from relativistic quasi-equilibrium fluid sequences.

  3. The Neutron Star Mass-Radius Relation and the Equation of State of Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, Andrew W; Brown, Edward F

    2012-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of dense matter has been a long-sought goal of nuclear physics. Equations of state generate unique mass versus radius (M-R) relations for neutron stars, the ultra-dense remnants of stellar evolution. In this work, we determine the neutron star mass-radius relation and, based on recent observations of both transiently accreting and bursting sources, we show that the radius of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star lies between 10.4 and 12.9 km, independent of assumptions about the composition of the core. We show, for the first time, that these constraints remain valid upon removal from our sample of the most extreme transient sources or of the entire set of bursting sources; our constraints also apply even if deconfined quark matter exists in the neutron star core. Our results significantly constrain the dense matter EOS and are, furthermore, consistent with constraints from both heavy-ion collisions and theoretical studies of neutron matter. We predict a relatively weak dependence of the s...

  4. The EOS of neutron matter, and the effect of Lambda hyperons to neutron star structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandolfi, Stefano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The following topics are addressed: the model and the method; equation of state of neutron matter, role of three-neutron force; symmetry energy; Λ-hypernuclei; Λ-neutron matter; and neutron star structure. In summary, quantum Monte Carlo methods are useful to study nuclear systems in a coherent framework; the three-neutron force is the bridge between Esym and neutron star structure; and neutron star observations are becoming competitive with experiments. Λ-nucleon data are very limited, but ΛNN is very important. The role of Λ in neutron stars is far from understood; more ΛN data are needed. The author's conclusion: We cannot conclude anything with present models.

  5. Can SGRs/AXPs Originate from Neutron Star Binaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Jing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs are two groups of enigmatic objects, which have been extensively investigated in past few decades. Based on the ample information about their timing behaviors, spectra, and variability properties, it was proposed that SGRs/AXPs are isolated neutron stars (NSs with extremely strong magnetic fields, the so-called magnetars. Nonetheless, some alternative models are probably equally convincing such as those proposing that they are accreting NSs with a fall-back disk or rotation-powered magnetized and massive white dwarfs. The nature and nurture of SGRs/AXPs remain controversial. In this paper, we propose that SGRs/AXPs can, alternatively, originate from normal NSs in binary systems, which resorts to the reexplosion of normal NS induced by instant contraction of the massive star envelope in a Thorne-Żytkow object (TZO. The spin-period clustering is due to either the brake of a slowly rotating envelope or the frictional drag during the common-envelope phase.

  6. The Structure of the Accretion Flow on pre-main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Nuria

    1999-07-01

    We propose to test an essential prediction of the magnetospheric accretion model for T Tauri stars. STIS echelle spectra will be used to search for the relatively narrow high-temperature emission lines that must result from the magnetospheric accretion shock, but are not expected in the previous, alternative boundary layer model. By combining the results from high temperature {10^5 K} lines, accessible only with HST, with optical lines and optical-UV continuum emission, we will develop physically self-consistent models of accretion shock structure. The geometrically distribution of the emitting gas as derived from our results will test theories of mass-loading of magnetic field lines at the magnetosphere-disk interface. Analysis of the UV emission lines will also provide improved calibrations between ultraviolet continuum emission and accretion luminosities, and thus improve estimates of mass accretion rates for T Tauri stars.

  7. Magnetically elevated accretion disks in active galactic nuclei: broad emission line regions and associated star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    We propose that the accretion disks fueling active galactic nuclei are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal ($\\phi-$direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disk dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at $R$ to large heights $z > 0.1 R$ and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass --- but contributing very little accretion --- around the equator. We show that such a disk model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disk models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disk models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: th...

  8. Magnetic Fields in neutron stars : A theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reisenegger, A.; Prieto, J.; Benguria, R.; Lai, D.; Araya, P.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present our view of the main physical ingredients determining the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields. This includes the basic properties of neutron star matter, possible scenarios for the origin of the magnetic field, constraints and mechanisms for its evolution, and a discussion

  9. The Thermodynamic Functions in Curved Space of Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, N. A.; Eisa, D. A.; Sayed, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article is to calculate the thermodynamic functions of a neutron star in curved space. We obtained equation of state (EOS) and the excess free energy for a neutron star in curved space up to order n4, where n is the density of particles.

  10. Isolated neutron stars and studies of their interiors

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, S. B.

    2011-01-01

    In these lectures presented at Baikal summer school on physics of elementary particles and astrophysics 2011, I present a wide view of neutron star astrophysics with special attention paid to young isolated compact objects and studies of the properties of neutron star interiors using astronomical methods.

  11. Relativistic Processes and the Internal Structure of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Castillo, D E

    2011-01-01

    Models for the internal composition of Dense Compact Stars are reviewed as well as macroscopic properties derived by observations of relativistic processes. Modeling of pure neutron matter Neutron Stars is presented and crust properties are studied by means of a two fluid model.

  12. Accretion Shocks in the Laboratory: Using the OMEGA Laser to Study Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Li, C. K.; Hartigan, P.; Froula, D.; Fiksel, G.; Ross, J. S.; Chang, P. Y.; Klein, S.; Zylstra, A.; Sio, H. W.; Liao, A.; Barnak, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present an on-going series of experiments using the OMEGA laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) to study star formation. Spectra of young stars show evidence of hotspots created when streams of accreting material impact at the surface of the star to create accretion shocks. These accretion shocks are poorly understood, as the surfaces of young stars cannot be spatially resolved. Our experiment series creates a scaled ``accretion shock'' on the OMEGA laser by driving a plasma jet (the ``accretion stream'') into a solid block (the ``stellar surface''), in the presence of a parallel magnetic field analogous to the star's local field. Thus far, visible image data from this experimental series either shows very thin accretion shocks forming or does not show them forming at all. We intend to present this data, provide possible explanations for why shocks may not have formed, and discuss potential improvements to the experimental design. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the National Laser User Facility Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719.

  13. CSI 2264: Accretion process in classical T Tauri stars in the young cluster NGC 2264

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Alana; Bouvier, Jérôme; Stauffer, John; Venuti, Laura; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Cody, Ann Marie; Teixeira, Paula; Guimarães, Marcelo; McGinnis, Pauline; Rebull, Luisa; Flaccomio, Ettore; Fürész, Gabor; Micela, Giuseppina; Gameiro, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Our goal is to relate the photometric and spectroscopic variability of classical T Tauri stars, of the star-forming cluster NGC 2264, to the physical processes acting in the stellar and circumstellar environment, within a few stellar radii from the star. NGC 2264 was the target of a multiwavelength observational campaign with CoRoT, MOST, Spitzer, and Chandra satellites and observations from the ground. We classified the CoRoT light curves of accreting systems according to their morphology and compared our classification to several accretion diagnostics and disk parameters. The morphology of the CoRoT light curve reflects the evolution of the accretion process and of the inner disk region. Accretion burst stars present high mass-accretion rates and optically thick inner disks. AA Tau-like systems, whose light curves are dominated by circumstellar dust obscuration, show intermediate mass-accretion rates and are located in the transition of thick to anemic disks. Classical T Tauri stars with spot-like light cur...

  14. Old pre-main-sequence Stars: Disc reformation by Bondi-Hoyle accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Scicluna, P; Dale, J E; Testi, L

    2014-01-01

    Young stars show evidence of accretion discs which evolve quickly and disperse with an e-folding time of $\\sim$ 3Myr. This is in striking contrast with recent observations that suggest evidence for numerous $>30$ Myr old stars with an accretion disc in large star-forming complexes. We consider whether these observations of apparently old accretors could be explained by invoking Bondi-Hoyle accretion to rebuild a new disc around these stars during passage through a clumpy molecular cloud. We combine a simple Monte Carlo model to explore the capture of mass by such systems with a viscous evolution model to infer the levels of accretion that would be observed. We find that a significant fraction of stars may capture enough material via the Bondi-Hoyle mechanism to rebuild a disc of mass $\\gtrsim$ 1 minimum-mass solar nebula, and $\\lesssim 10\\%$ accrete at observable levels at any given time. A significant fraction of the observed old accretors may be explained with our proposed mechanism. Such accretion may prov...

  15. Do hyperons exist in the interior of neutron stars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Debarati [Universite Paris Diderot, LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Meudon (France); Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, ENSICAEN, Caen Cedex (France); Vidana, Isaac [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Department of Physics, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2016-02-15

    In this work we review the role of hyperons on the properties of neutron and proto-neutron stars. In particular, we revise the so-called ''hyperon puzzle'', go over some of the solutions proposed to tackle it, and discuss the implications that the recent measurements of unusually high neutron star masses have on our present knowledge of hypernuclear physics. We re-examine also the role of hyperons on the cooling properties of newly born neutron stars and on the so-called r-mode instability. (orig.)

  16. How Loud Are Neutron Star Mergers?

    CERN Document Server

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Ott, Christian D; Roberts, Luke F; Moesta, Philipp; Galeazzi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate neutron star merger dynamics using fully general relativistic simulations of equal and unequal-mass binaries sampling the galactic population, and including neutrino cooling and three different temperature-dependent microphysical equations of state. We focus on the emission of energy and angular momentum in gravitational waves in the postmerger phase. Our results reveal that the emitted gravitational-wave energy in the early evolution of the formed hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) is about twice as large as the energy emitted over the entire inspiral history of the binary. The total radiated energy per binary mass is comparable or larger than that of nonspinning black hole mergers. About $0.8-2.5\\%$ of the binary mass-energy is emitted at kHz frequencies in the early HMNS evolution due to the strong nonaxisymmetric deformation of the HMNS. Our results also show that the dimensionless spin of black holes resulting from subsequent HMNS collapse are limited to $\\lesssim0.7-0.8$. This may significa...

  17. How loud are neutron star mergers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Radice, David; Ott, Christian D.; Roberts, Luke F.; Mösta, Philipp; Galeazzi, Filippo

    2016-07-01

    We present results from the first large parameter study of neutron star mergers using fully general relativistic simulations with finite-temperature microphysical equations of state and neutrino cooling. We consider equal and unequal-mass binaries drawn from the galactic population and simulate each binary with three different equations of state. Our focus is on the emission of energy and angular momentum in gravitational waves in the postmerger phase. We find that the emitted gravitational-wave energy in the first ˜10 ms of the life of the resulting hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) is about twice the energy emitted over the entire inspiral history of the binary. The total radiated energy per binary mass is comparable to or larger than that of nonspinning black hole inspiral-mergers. About 0.8-2.5% of the binary mass-energy is emitted at kHz frequencies in the early HMNS evolution. We find a clear dependence of the postmerger gravitational wave emission on binary configuration and equation of state and show that it can be encoded as a broad function of the binary tidal coupling constant κ2T. Our results also demonstrate that the dimensionless spin of black holes resulting from subsequent HMNS collapse are limited to ≲0.7 - 0.8 . This may significantly impact the neutrino pair annihilation mechanism for powering short gamma-ray bursts (sGRB).

  18. Models of magnetized neutron star atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V; Werner, K

    2009-01-01

    We present a new computer code for modeling magnetized neutron star atmospheres in a wide range of magnetic fields (10^{12} - 10^{15} G) and effective temperatures (3 \\times 10^5 - 10^7 K). The atmosphere is assumed to consist either of fully ionized electron-ion plasmas or of partially ionized hydrogen. Vacuum resonance and partial mode conversion are taken into account. Any inclination of the magnetic field relative to the stellar surface is allowed. We use modern opacities of fully or partially ionized plasmas in strong magnetic fields and solve the coupled radiative transfer equations for the normal electromagnetic modes in the plasma. Using this code, we study the possibilities to explain the soft X-ray spectra of isolated neutron stars by different atmosphere models. In particular, the outgoing spectrum using the "sandwich" model (thin atmosphere with a hydrogen layer above a helium layer) is constructed. Thin partially ionized hydrogen atmospheres with vacuum polarization are shown to be able to improv...

  19. Relativistic density functional theory for finite nuclei and neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present contribution is a pedagogical introduction to the fascinating world of neutron stars by relying on relativistic density functional theory. Density functional theory provides a powerful--and perhaps unique--framework for the calculation of both the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars. Given the enormous densities that may be reached in the core of neutron stars, it is essential that such theoretical framework incorporates from the outset the basic principles of Lorentz covariance and special relativity. After a brief historical perspective, we present the necessary details required to compute the equation of state of dense, neutron-rich matter. As the equation of state is all that is needed to compute the structure of neutron stars, we discuss how nuclear physics--particularly certain kind of laboratory experiments--can provide significant constrains on the behavior of neutron-rich matter.

  20. Rayleigh-Taylor-Unstable Accretion and Variability of Magnetized Stars: Global Three-Dimensional Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Akshay K

    2008-01-01

    We present results of 3D simulations of MHD instabilities at the accretion disk-magnetosphere boundary. The instability is Rayleigh-Taylor, and develops for a fairly broad range of accretion rates and stellar rotation rates and magnetic fields. It produces tall, thin tongues of plasma that penetrate the magnetosphere in the equatorial plane. The shape and number of the tongues changes with time on the inner-disk dynamical timescale. In contrast with funnel flows, which deposit matter mainly in the polar region, the tongues deposit matter much closer to the stellar equator. The instability appears for relatively small misalignment angles, $\\Theta\\lesssim30^\\circ$, between the star's rotation and magnetic axes, and is associated with higher accretion rates. The hot spots and light curves during accretion through instability are generally much more chaotic than during stable accretion. The unstable state of accretion has possible implications for quasi-periodic oscillations and intermittent pulsations from accre...

  1. Accretion to Magnetized Stars through the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability: Global Three-Dimensional Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Akshay K

    2008-01-01

    We present results of 3D simulations of MHD instabilities at the accretion disk-magnetosphere boundary. The instability is Rayleigh-Taylor, and develops for a fairly broad range of accretion rates and stellar rotation rates and magnetic fields. It manifests itself in the form of tall, thin tongues of plasma that penetrate the magnetosphere in the equatorial plane. The shape and number of the tongues changes with time on the inner-disk dynamical timescale. In contrast with funnel flows, which deposit matter mainly in the polar region, the tongues deposit matter much closer to the stellar equator. The instability appears for relatively small misalignment angles, $\\Theta\\lesssim30^\\circ$, between the star's rotation and magnetic axes, and is associated with higher accretion rates. The hot spots and light curves during accretion through instability are generally much more chaotic than during stable accretion. The unstable state of accretion has possible implications for quasi-periodic oscillations and intermitten...

  2. NSMAXG: A new magnetic neutron star spectral model in XSPEC

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Wynn C G

    2013-01-01

    The excellent sensitivity of X-ray telescopes, such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, is ideal for the study of cooling neutron stars, which can emit at these energies. In order to exploit the wealth of information contained in the high quality data, a thorough knowledge of the radiative properties of neutron star atmospheres is necessary. A key factor affecting photon emission is magnetic fields, and neutron stars are known to have strong surface magnetic fields. Here I briefly describe our latest work on constructing magnetic (B >= 10^10 G) atmosphere models of neutron stars and the NSMAXG implementation of these models in XSPEC. Our results allow for more robust extractions of neutron star parameters from observations.

  3. Kaon Condensates, Nuclear Symmetry Energy and Cooling of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, S

    2003-01-01

    The cooling of neutron stars by URCA processes in the kaon-condensed neutron star matter for various forms of nuclear symmetry energy is investigated. The kaon-nucleon interactions are described by a chiral lagrangian. Nuclear matter energy is parametrized in terms of the isoscalar contribution and the nuclear symmetry energy in the isovector sector. High density behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy plays an essential role in determining the composition of the kaon-condensed neutron star matter which in turn affects the cooling properties. We find that the symmetry energy which decreases at higher densities makes the kaon-condensed neutron star matter fully protonized. This effect inhibits strongly direct URCA processes resulting in slower cooling of neutron stars as only kaon-induced URCA cycles are present. In contrast, for increasing symmetry energy direct URCA processes are allowed in the almost whole density range where the kaon condensation exists.

  4. Formation of Massive Primordial Stars: Intermittent UV Feedback with Episodic Mass Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Hirano, Shingo; Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We present coupled stellar evolution (SE) and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the evolution of primordial protostars, their immediate environment, and the dynamic accretion history under the influence of stellar ionizing and dissociating UV feedback. Our coupled SE RHD calculations result in a wide diversity of final stellar masses covering 10 {M}⊙ ≲ M * ≲ 103 {M}⊙ . The formation of very massive (≳250 {M}⊙ ) stars is possible under weak UV feedback, whereas ordinary massive (a few ×10 {M}⊙ ) stars form when UV feedback can efficiently halt the accretion. This may explain the peculiar abundance pattern of a Galactic metal-poor star recently reported by Aoki et al., possibly the observational signature of very massive precursor primordial stars. Weak UV feedback occurs in cases of variable accretion, in particular when repeated short accretion bursts temporarily exceed 0.01 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1, causing the protostar to inflate. In the bloated state, the protostar has low surface temperature and UV feedback is suppressed until the star eventually contracts, on a thermal adjustment timescale, to create an H ii region. If the delay time between successive accretion bursts is sufficiently short, the protostar remains bloated for extended periods, initiating at most only short periods of UV feedback. Disk fragmentation does not necessarily reduce the final stellar mass. Quite the contrary, we find that disk fragmentation enhances episodic accretion as many fragments migrate inward and are accreted onto the star, thus allowing continued stellar mass growth under conditions of intermittent UV feedback. This trend becomes more prominent as we improve the resolution of our simulations. We argue that simulations with significantly higher resolution than reported previously are needed to derive accurate gas mass accretion rates onto primordial protostars.

  5. SUPERNOVAE, NEUTRON STARS, AND TWO KINDS OF NEUTRINO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, H.Y.

    1962-08-15

    The role of neutrinos in the core of a star that has undergone a supernova explosion is discussed. The existence of neutron stars, the Schwarzchild singularity in general relativity, and the meaning of conservation of baryons in the neighborhood of a Schwarzchild singularity are also considered. The problem of detection of neutron stars is discussed. It is concluded that neutron stars are the most plausible alternative for the remnant of the core of a supernova. The neutrino emission processes are divided into two groups: the neutrino associated with the meson (mu) and the production of electron neutrinos. (C.E.S.)

  6. Further X-ray observations of EXO 0748-676 in quiescence: evidence for a cooling neutron star crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, N.; Wolff, M. T.; Ray, P. S.; Wood, K. S.; Homan, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Jonker, P. G.; Cackett, E. M.; Miller, J. M.; Brown, E. F.; Wijnands, R.

    2011-04-01

    In late 2008, the quasi-persistent neutron star X-ray transient and eclipsing binary EXO 0748-676 started a transition from outburst to quiescence, after it actively accreted for more than 24 yr. In a previous work, we discussed Chandra and Swift observations obtained during the first 5 months of this transition. Here, we report on further X-ray observations of EXO 0748-676, extending the quiescent monitoring to 1.6 yr. Chandra and XMM-Newton data reveal quiescent X-ray spectra composed of a soft, thermal component that is well fitted by a neutron star atmosphere model. An additional hard power-law tail is detected that changes non-monotonically over time, contributing between 4 and 20 per cent to the total unabsorbed 0.5-10 keV flux. The combined set of Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift data reveals that the thermal bolometric luminosity fades from ˜ 1 × 1034 to 6 × 1033 (D/7.4 kpc)2 erg s -1, whereas the inferred neutron star effective temperature decreases from ˜124 to 109 eV. We interpret the observed decay as cooling of the neutron star crust and show that the fractional quiescent temperature change of EXO 0748-676 is markedly smaller than observed for three other neutron star X-ray binaries that underwent prolonged accretion outbursts.

  7. ACCRETION RATES ON PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6530

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, Jose; Del Valle, Luciano; Ruiz, Maria Teresa, E-mail: gallardo@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: ldelvall@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: mtruiz@das.uchile.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-01-15

    It is well accepted that during the star formation process, material from a protoplanetary disk is accreted onto the central object during the first {approx}1-5 Myr. Different authors have published measurements of accretion rates for young low- and intermediate-mass stars in several nearby star-forming regions (SFRs). Due to its somewhat larger distance, the SFR M8 (the Lagoon Nebula) has not been studied to the same extent, despite its abundant population of young stellar objects. We have obtained optical band low-resolution spectra of a sample of pre-main-sequence stars in the open cluster NGC 6530 located in the aforementioned nebulae using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph at Gemini-South in multi-object mode. Spectra cover the H{sub {alpha}} emission line used to measure the accretion rate, following the method presented by Natta et al. The observed spectral characteristics are fully consistent with pre-main-sequence stars, showing lithium absorption lines, which are very common in young stellar objects, as well as prominent and broad H{sub {alpha}} emission lines, indicating a T Tauri evolutionary stage. This work presents the first determinations of mass accretion rates of young stellar objects in the open cluster NGC 6530, confirming that they are classical T Tauri stars going through the accretion phase. These observations contribute to a better understanding of the stellar content and evolutionary phase of the very active Lagoon Nebula SFR.

  8. Energy Density Functional for Nuclei and Neutron Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erler, J. [UTK/ORNL/German Cancer Research Center-Heidelberg; Horowitz, C. J. [UTK/ORNL/Indiana University; Nazarewicz, Witold [UTK/ORNL/University of Warsaw; Rafalski, M. [UTK/ORNL; Reinhard, P.-G. [Universitat Erlangen, Germany

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent observational data on neutron star masses and radii provide stringent constraints on the equation of state of neutron rich matter [ Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 62 485 (2012)]. Purpose: We aim to develop a nuclear energy density functional that can be simultaneously applied to finite nuclei and neutron stars. Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory (DFT) with Skyrme energy density functionals and covariance analysis to assess correlations between observables for finite nuclei and neutron stars. In a first step two energy functionals a high density energy functional giving reasonable neutron properties, and a low density functional fitted to nuclear properties are matched. In a second step, we optimize a new functional using exactly the same protocol as in earlier studies pertaining to nuclei but now including neutron star data. This allows direct comparisons of performance of the new functional relative to the standard one. Results: The new functional TOV-min yields results for nuclear bulk properties (energy, rms radius, diffraction radius, and surface thickness) that are of the same quality as those obtained with the established Skyrme functionals, including SV-min. When comparing SV-min and TOV-min, isoscalar nuclear matter indicators vary slightly while isovector properties are changed considerably. We discuss neutron skins, dipole polarizability, separation energies of the heaviest elements, and proton and neutron drip lines. We confirm a correlation between the neutron skin of 208Pb and the neutron star radius. Conclusions: We demonstrate that standard energy density functionals optimized to nuclear data do not carry information on the expected maximum neutron star mass, and that predictions can only be made within an extremely broad uncertainty band. For atomic nuclei, the new functional TOV-min performs at least as well as the standard nuclear functionals, but it also reproduces expected neutron star data

  9. Mass ejection in neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, S.; Liebendörfer, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.; Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Piran, T.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of 3D Newtonian SPH simulations of the merger of a neutron star binary. The microscopic properties of matter are described by the physical equation of state of Lattimer and Swesty (LS-EOS). To check the model dependence of the results we vary the resolution ( ~ 21000 and ~ 50000 particles), the equation of state (stiff and soft polytropes), the artificial viscosity scheme, the stellar masses, we include neutrinos (free-streaming limit), switch off the gravitational backreaction force, and vary the initial stellar spins. In addition we test the influence of the initial configuration, i.e. spherical stars versus corotating equilibrium configurations. The final matter distribution consists of a rapidly spinning central object with 2.5 to 3.1 Msun of baryonic mass that probably collapses to a black hole, a thick disk of 0.1 to 0.3 Msun and an extended low density region. In the case of corotation this low density material forms spiral arms that expand explosively due to an increase of the adiabatic exponent and the release of nuclear binding energy in the case of the LS-EOS, but remain narrow and well defined for the stiff polytropic equation of state. The main and new result is that for the realistic LS-EOS, depending on the initial spin, between 4*10(-3) and 4*10(-2) Msun of material become unbound. If, as suggested, large parts of this matter consist of r-process nuclei, neutron star mergers could account for the whole observed r-process material in the Galaxy.

  10. Investigating Binarity and Active Accretion in a New Class of AGB Stars with FUV Excesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2013-09-01

    We propose a pilot survey for X-ray emission from AGB stars that are candidates for having binary companions with active accretion. These objects were identified via our innovative technique to search for FUV/NUV excesses in AGB stars using GALEX. The detection (or non-detection) of X-rays from this sample will enable us to begin testing models for the origin of the UV-excesses, leading to vital breakthroughs in our understanding of accretion-related phenomena and binarity in AGB stars. A larger survey, optimised using results fron this study, will be proposed in future cycles.

  11. The peculiar galactic center neutron star X-ray binary XMM J174457-2850.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenaar, N.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wijnands, R. [Anton Pannekoek Institute of Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Altamirano, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kennea, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gehrels, N. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Haggard, D. [CIERA, Physics and Astronomy Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ponti, G., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Max Planck Institute fur Extraterrestriche Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    The recent discovery of a millisecond radio pulsar experiencing an accretion outburst similar to those seen in low mass X-ray binaries, has opened up a new opportunity to investigate the evolutionary link between these two different neutron star manifestations. The remarkable X-ray variability and hard X-ray spectrum of this object can potentially serve as a template to search for other X-ray binary/radio pulsar transitional objects. Here we demonstrate that the transient X-ray source XMM J174457-2850.3 near the Galactic center displays similar X-ray properties. We report on the detection of an energetic thermonuclear burst with an estimated duration of ≅2 hr and a radiated energy output of ≅ 5 × 10{sup 40} erg, which unambiguously demonstrates that the source harbors an accreting neutron star. It has a quiescent X-ray luminosity of L {sub X} ≅ 5 × 10{sup 32}(D/6.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1} and exhibits occasional accretion outbursts during which it brightens to L {sub X} ≅ 10{sup 35}-10{sup 36}(D/6.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1} for a few weeks (2-10 keV). However, the source often lingers in between outburst and quiescence at L {sub X} ≅ 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34}(D/6.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1}. This peculiar X-ray flux behavior and its relatively hard X-ray spectrum, a power law with an index of Γ ≅ 1.4, could possibly be explained in terms of the interaction between the accretion flow and the magnetic field of the neutron star.

  12. Magnetic Interactions in Coalescing Neutron Star Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Anthony L

    2012-01-01

    It is expected on both evolutionary and empirical grounds that many merging neutron star (NS) binaries are composed of a highly magnetized NS in orbit with a relatively low magnetic field NS. I study the magnetic interactions of these binaries using the framework of a unipolar inductor model. The e.m.f. generated across the non-magnetic NS as it moves through the magnetosphere sets up a circuit connecting the two stars. The exact features of this circuit depend on the uncertain resistance in the space between the stars R_space. Nevertheless, I show that there are interesting observational and/or dynamical effects irrespective of its exact value. When R_space is large, electric dissipation as great as ~10^{46} erg/s (for magnetar-strength fields) occurs in the magnetosphere, which would exhibit itself as a hard X-ray precursor in the seconds leading up to merger. With less certainty, there may also be an associated radio transient, but this would be observed well past merger (~hrs) because of interstellar disp...

  13. Joule Heating in Neutron Stars under Strong Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Sujan

    2000-01-01

    Considering Joule heating caused by the dissipation of the magnetic field in the neutron star crust to be an efficient mechanism in maintaining a relatively high surface temperature in very old neutron stars, the role of general relativity is investigated. It is found that, although the effect of space-time curvature produced by the intense gravitational field of the star slows down the decay rate of the magnetic field, modification of the initial magnetic field configuration and the initial ...

  14. From neutron stars to quark stars in mimetic gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Astashenok, A V

    2015-01-01

    Realistic models of neutron and quark stars in the framework of mimetic gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint are presented. We discuss the effect of mimetic scalar aiming to describe dark matter on mass-radius relation and the moment of inertia for slowly rotating relativistic stars. The mass-radius relation and moment of inertia depend on the value of mimetic scalar in the center of star. This fact leads to the ambiguity in the mass-radius relation for a given equation of state. {Such ambiguity allows to explain some observational facts better than in standard General Relativity}. The case of two mimetic potentials namely $V(\\phi)\\sim A\\phi^{-2}$ and $V(\\phi)\\sim Ae^{B\\phi^{2}}$ is considered in detail. The relative deviation of maximal moment of inertia is approximately twice larger than the relative deviation of maximal stellar mass. We also briefly discuss the mimetic $f(R)$ gravity. In the case of $f(R)=R+aR^2$ mimetic gravity it is expected that increase of maximal mass and maximal moment of iner...

  15. Magnetically elevated accretion disks in active galactic nuclei: broad emission line regions and associated star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Silk, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    We propose that the accretion disks fueling active galactic nuclei are supported vertically against gravity by a strong toroidal (φ -direction) magnetic field that develops naturally as the result of an accretion disk dynamo. The magnetic pressure elevates most of the gas carrying the accretion flow at R to large heights z ˜ 0.1 R and low densities, while leaving a thin dense layer containing most of the mass - but contributing very little accretion - around the equator. We show that such a disk model leads naturally to the formation of a broad emission line region through thermal instability. Extrapolating to larger radii, we demonstrate that local gravitational instability and associated star formation are strongly suppressed compared to standard disk models for AGN, although star formation in the equatorial zone is predicted for sufficiently high mass supply rates. This new class of accretion disk models thus appears capable of resolving two longstanding puzzles in the theory of AGN fueling: the formation of broad emission line regions and the suppression of fragmentation thought to inhibit accretion at the required rates. We show that the disk of stars that formed in the Galactic Center a few million years ago could have resulted from an episode of magnetically elevated accretion at ˜0.1 of the Eddington limit.

  16. Relativistic Simulations of Eccentric Binary Neutron Star Mergers: One-arm Spiral Instability and Effects of Neutron Star Spin

    CERN Document Server

    East, William E; Pretorius, Frans; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2016-01-01

    We perform general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of dynamical capture binary neutron star mergers, emphasizing the role played by the neutron star spin. Dynamical capture mergers may take place in globular clusters, as well as other dense stellar systems, where most neutron stars have large spins. We find significant variability in the merger outcome as a function of initial neutron star spin. For cases where the spin is aligned with the orbital angular momentum, the additional centrifugal support in the remnant hypermassive neutron star can prevent the prompt collapse to a black hole, while for antialigned cases the decreased total angular momentum can facilitate the collapse to a black hole. We show that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of ejected material, including the amount unbound with velocities greater than half the speed of light, leading to brighter electromagnetic signatures associated with kilonovae and interaction of the ejecta with the interstellar medium. Fur...

  17. Limits on thermal variations in a dozen quiescent neutron stars over a decade

    CERN Document Server

    Bahramian, Arash; Degenaar, Nathalie; Chomiuk, Laura; Wijnands, Rudy; Strader, Jay; Ho, Wynn C G; Pooley, David

    2015-01-01

    In quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) containing neutron stars, the origin of the thermal X-ray component may be either release of heat from the core of the neutron star, or continuing low-level accretion. In general, heat from the core should be stable on timescales $<10^4$ years, while continuing accretion may produce variations on a range of timescales. While some quiescent neutron stars (e.g. Cen X-4, Aql X-1) have shown variations in their thermal components on a range of timescales, several others, particularly those in globular clusters with no detectable nonthermal hard X-rays (fit with a powerlaw), have shown no measurable variations. Here, we constrain the spectral variations of 12 low mass X-ray binaries in 3 globular clusters over $\\sim10$ years. We find no evidence of variations in 10 cases, with limits on temperature variations below 11% for the 7 qLMXBs without powerlaw components, and limits on variations below 20% for 3 other qLMXBs that do show non-thermal emission. However, in 2 ...

  18. Broad iron line in the fast spinning neutron-star system 4U 1636-53

    CERN Document Server

    Sanna, Andrea; Mendez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Linares, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the X-ray spectra of six observations, simultaneously taken with XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), of the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-53. The observations cover several states of the source, and therefore a large range of inferred mass accretion rate. These six observations show a broad emission line in the spectrum at around 6.5 keV, likely due to iron. We fitted this line with a set of phenomenological models of a relativistically broadened line, plus a model that accounts for relativistically smeared and ionised reflection from the accretion disc. The latter model includes the incident emission from both the neutron-star surface or boundary layer and the corona that is responsible for the high-energy emission in these systems. From the fits with the reflection model we found that in four out of the six observations the main contribution to the reflected spectrum comes from the neutron-star surface or boundary layer, whereas in the other two observations the main ...

  19. Viscous Boundary Layer Damping of R-Modes in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bildsten, L; Bildsten, Lars; Ushomirsky, Greg

    1999-01-01

    Recent work has raised the exciting possibility that r-modes (Rossby waves) in rotating neutron star cores might be strong gravitational wave sources. We estimate the effect of a solid crust on their viscous damping rate and show that the dissipation rate in the viscous boundary layer between the oscillating fluid and the nearly static crust is >10^5 times higher than that from the shear throughout the interior. This increases the minimum frequency for the onset of the gravitational r-mode instability to at least 500 Hz when the core temperature is less than 10^10 K. It eliminates the conflict of the r-mode instability with the accretion-driven spin-up scenario for millisecond radio pulsars and makes it unlikely that the r-mode instability is active in accreting neutron stars. For newborn neutron stars, the formation of a solid crust shortly after birth affects their gravitational wave spin-down and hence detectability by ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors.

  20. On the existence of accretion-driven bursts in massive star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, D M -A; Kuiper, R; Kley, W

    2016-01-01

    Accretion-driven luminosity outbursts are a vivid manifestation of variable mass accretion onto protostars. They are known as the so-called FU Orionis phenomenon in the context of low-mass protostars. More recently, this process has been found in models of primordial star formation. Using numerical radiation hydrodynamics simulations, we stress that present-day forming massive stars also experience variable accretion and show that this process is accompanied by luminous outbursts induced by the episodic accretion of gaseous clumps falling from the circumstellar disk onto the protostar. Consequently, the process of accretion-induced luminous flares is also conceivable in the high-mass regime of star formation and we propose to regard this phenomenon as a general mechanism that can affect protostars regardless of their mass and/or the chemical properties of the parent environment in which they form. In addition to the commonness of accretion-driven outbursts in the star formation machinery, we conjecture that l...

  1. Time-of-flight mass measurements for nuclear processes in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Estrade, A; Schatz, H; Amthor, A M; Bazin, D; Beard, M; Becerril, A; Brown, E F; Cyburt, R; Elliot, T; Gade, A; Galaviz, D; George, S; Gupta, S S; Hix, W R; Lau, R; Lorusso, G; Moller, P; Pereira, J; Portillo, M; Rogers, A M; Shapira, D; Smith, E; Stolz, A; Wallace, M; Wiescher, M

    2011-01-01

    The location of electron capture heat sources in the crust of accreting neutron stars depends on the masses of extremely neutron-rich nuclei. We present first results from a new implementation of the time-of-flight technique to measure nuclear masses of rare isotopes at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The masses of 16 neutron-rich nuclei in the scandium -- nickel range were determined simultaneously, improving the accuracy compared to previous data in 12 cases. The masses of $^{61}${V}, $^{63}${Cr}, $^{66}${Mn}, and $^{74}${Ni} were measured for the first time with mass excesses of $-30.510(890)$ MeV, $-35.280(650)$ MeV, $-36.900(790)$ MeV, and $-49.210(990)$ MeV, respectively. With the measurement of the $^{66}$Mn mass, the locations of the two dominant electron capture heat sources in the outer crust of accreting neutron stars that exhibit superbursts are now experimentally constrained. We find that the location of the $^{66}$Fe$\\rightarrow^{66}$Mn electron capture transition occurs signi...

  2. CONTINUED NEUTRON STAR CRUST COOLING OF THE 11 Hz X-RAY PULSAR IN TERZAN 5: A CHALLENGE TO HEATING AND COOLING MODELS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Fridriksson, J. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brown, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Homan, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 4-183 CCIS, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Pooley, D., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX (United States)

    2013-09-20

    The transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary and 11 Hz X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 exhibited an 11 week accretion outburst in 2010. Chandra observations performed within five months after the end of the outburst revealed evidence that the crust of the neutron star became substantially heated during the accretion episode and was subsequently cooling in quiescence. This provides the rare opportunity to probe the structure and composition of the crust. Here, we report on new Chandra observations of Terzan 5 that extend the monitoring to ≅2.2 yr into quiescence. We find that the thermal flux and neutron star temperature have continued to decrease, but remain significantly above the values that were measured before the 2010 accretion phase. This suggests that the crust has not thermally relaxed yet, and may continue to cool. Such behavior is difficult to explain within our current understanding of heating and cooling of transiently accreting neutron stars. Alternatively, the quiescent emission may have settled at a higher observed equilibrium level (for the same interior temperature), in which case the neutron star crust may have fully cooled.

  3. The multipolar magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars: B at the inner disk, B along the accretion flow, and B at the accretion shock

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Scott G; Hussain, Gaitee A J

    2016-01-01

    Zeeman-Doppler imaging studies have revealed the complexity of the large-scale magnetic fields of accreting pre-main-sequence stars. All have multipolar magnetic fields with the octupole component being the dominant field mode for many of the stars studied thusfar. Young accreting stars with fully convective interiors often feature simple axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a kilo-Gauss (at least those of mass $\\gtrsim0.5\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$), while those with substantially radiative interiors host more complex non-axisymmetric magnetic fields with dipole components of order a few 0.1 kilo-Gauss. Here, via several simple examples, we demonstrate that i). in most cases, the dipole component alone can be used to estimate the disk truncation radius (but little else); ii) due the presence of higher order magnetic field components, the field strength in the accretion spots is far in excess of that expected if a pure dipole magnetic field is assumed. (Fields of $\\sim$6$\\,{\\rm kG}$ have been mea...

  4. Relativistic Iron Line Emission from the Neutron Star Low-mass X-ray Binary 4U 1636-536

    OpenAIRE

    Pandel, Dirk; Kaaret, Philip; Corbel, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of XMM-Newton and RXTE data from three observations of the neutron star LMXB 4U 1636-536. The X-ray spectra show clear evidence of a broad, asymmetric iron emission line extending over the energy range 4-9 keV. The line profile is consistent with relativistically broadened Fe K-alpha emission from the inner accretion disk. The Fe K-alpha line in 4U 1636-536 is considerably broader than the asymmetric iron lines recently found in other neutron star LMXBs, which indicates...

  5. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: black hole - neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The pioneering observations of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO have ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observations, of which black hole - neutron star (BHNS) binaries form an important subset. GWs from coalescing BHNS systems carry signatures of the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, as well as of its disruption close to merger. In this talk, I will discuss how well we can measure tidal effects from individual and populations of LIGO observations of disruptive BHNS mergers. I will also talk about how our measurements of non-tidal parameters can get affected by ignoring tidal effects in BHNS parameter estimation.

  6. Accretion Rates for T Tauri Stars Using Nearly Simultaneous Ultraviolet and Optical Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Herczeg, Gregory; Blaty, Alex; Walter, Frederick; Ardila, David; Alexander, Richard; Edwards, Suzan; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Brown, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low-mass T Tauri stars using a data set of contemporaneous near-UV (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the ground-based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System, a unique data set because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our data set includes accreting T Tauri stars in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, η Chamaeleon, and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate (\\dot{M}) by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high-density, low filling factor accretion spots coexist with low-density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra with multiple accretion components, we can explain excesses which have been observed in the near-IR. Comparing our estimates of \\dot{M} to previous estimates, we find some discrepancies; however, they may be accounted for when considering assumptions for the amount of extinction and variability in optical spectra. Therefore, we confirm many previous estimates of the accretion rate. Finally, we measure emission line luminosities from the same spectra used for the \\dot{M} estimates, to produce correlations between accretion indicators (Hβ, Ca II K, C II], and Mg II) and accretion properties obtained simultaneously.

  7. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of 1e1743.1-2843: indications of a neutron star LMXB nature of the compact object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Mori, Kaya;

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the persistent X-ray source 1E1743.1-2843, located in the Galactic Center region. The source was observed between 2012 September and October by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, providing almost simultaneous observations in the hard and soft X......-ray bands. The high X-ray luminosity points to the presence of an accreting compact object. We analyze the possibilities of this accreting compact object being either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole, and conclude that the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum from 0.3 to 40 keV fits a blackbody spectrum...

  8. Probing thermonuclear flame spreading on neutron stars using burst rise oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2016-07-01

    Intense X-ray bursts (type-I bursts), originated from runaway thermonuclear processes, are observed from the surfaces of many accreting neutron star Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB) systems and they provide an important tool to constrain the neutron star equation of state. Periodic intensity variations during these bursts, termed burst oscillations, are observed in about 10% of thermonuclear bursts. Oscillations during the rising phases of thermonuclear bursts are hypothesized to originate from an expanding hot-spot on the surface of the neutron star. We studied the evolution of oscillations during the rising phase of a large sample of thermonuclear bursts from 10 bursting neutron stars in order to probe the process of burning front propagation during an X-ray burst. Our results show observational evidences of expanding hot-spot with spin modulated flame speeds, possibly due to the effects of the Coriolis force present as a result of the high stellar spin (270-620 Hz). This implies that the flame propagation is latitude-dependent and we address the factors affecting the detection and non-detection of burst rise oscillations in the light of this Coriolis force modulated flame spreading scenario.

  9. Neutron star crustal cooling in KS 1731-260 14.5 years into quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Rachael L; Brown, Edward F; Page, Dany; Cumming, Andrew; Degenaar, Nathalie; Deibel, Alex; Homan, Jeroen; Miller, Jon M; Wijnands, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    Crustal cooling of accretion-heated neutron stars provides insight into the stellar interior of neutron stars. The neutron star X-ray transient, KS 1731-260, was in outburst for 12.5 years before returning to quiescence in 2001. We have monitored the cooling of this source since then through Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. Here, we present a 150 ks Chandra observation of KS 1731-260 taken in August 2015, about 14.5 years into quiescence, and 6 years after the previous observation. We find that the neutron star surface temperature is consistent with the previous observation, suggesting that crustal cooling has likely stopped and the crust has reached thermal equilibrium with the core. Using a theoretical crust thermal evolution code, we fit the observed cooling curves and constrain the core temperature (T$_c = 9.35\\pm0.25\\times10^7$ K), composition (Q$_{imp} = 4.4^{+2.2}_{-0.5}$) and level of extra shallow heating required (Q$_{sh} = 1.36\\pm0.18$ MeV/nucleon). We find that the presence of a low thermal co...

  10. Late time cooling of neutron star transients and the physics of the inner crust

    CERN Document Server

    Deibel, Alex; Brown, Edward F; Reddy, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    An accretion outburst onto a neutron star transient heats the neutron star's crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core. After the outburst the crust thermally relaxes toward equilibrium with the neutron star core and the surface thermal emission powers the quiescent X-ray light curve. Crust cooling models predict that thermal equilibrium of the crust will be established $\\approx 1000 \\, \\mathrm{d}$ into quiescence. Recent observations of the cooling neutron star transient MXB 1659-29, however, suggest that the crust did not reach thermal equilibrium with the core on the predicted timescale and continued to cool after $\\approx 2500 \\, \\mathrm{d}$ into quiescence. Because the quiescent light curve reveals successively deeper layers of the crust, the observed late time cooling of MXB 1659-29 depends on the thermal transport in the inner crust. In particular, the observed late time cooling is consistent with a low thermal conductivity layer near the depth predicted for nuclear pasta that maintains a temperat...

  11. Photon Bubbles in Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Gammie, Charles F.

    1998-01-01

    We show that radiation dominated accretion discs are likely to suffer from a ``photon bubble'' instability similar to that described by Arons in the context of accretion onto neutron star polar caps. The instability requires a magnetic field for its existence. In an asymptotic regime appropriate to accretion discs, we find that the overstable modes obey the remarkably simple dispersion relation \\omega^2 = -i g k F(B,k). Here g is the vertical gravitational acceleration, B the magnetic field, ...

  12. X-ray Diagnostics of Grain Depletion in Matter Accreting onto T Tauri Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, J J D P T L

    2005-01-01

    Recent analysis of high resolution Chandra X-ray spectra has shown that the Ne/O abundance ratio is remarkably constant in stellar coronae. Based on this result, we point out the utility of the Ne/O ratio as a discriminant for accretion-related X-rays from T Tauri stars, and for probing the measure of grain-depletion of the accreting material in the inner disk. We apply the Ne/O diagnostic to the classical T Tauri stars BP Tau and TW Hya--the two stars found to date whose X-ray emission appears to originate, at least in part, from accretion activity. We show that TW Hya appears to be accreting material which is significantly depleted in O relative to Ne. In constrast, BP Tau has an Ne/O abundance ratio consistent with that observed for post-T Tauri stars. We interpret this result in terms of the different ages and evolutionary states of the circumstellar disks of these stars. In the young BP Tau disk (age 0.6 Myr) dust is still present near the disk corotation radius and can be ionized and accreted, re-releas...

  13. The Beta Pictoris Phenomenon in A-Shell Stars: Detection of Accreting Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Perez, Mario R.; Talavera, A.; McCollum, B.; Rawley, L. A.; England, M. N.; Schlegel, M.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of an expanded survey of A-shell stars using IUE high-dispersion spectra and find accreting, circumstellar gas in the line of sight to nine stars, in addition to the previously identified beta Pic, HR 10, and 131 Tau, which can be followed to between +70 and 100 km/s relative to the star. Two of the program stars, HD 88195 and HD 148283, show variable high-velocity gas. Given the small number of IUE spectra for our program stars, detection of high-velocity, accreting gas in 2/3 of the A-shell stars sampled indicates that accretion is an intrinsic part of the A-shell phenomenon and that beta Pic is not unique among main-sequence A stars in exhibiting such activity. Our program stars, as a group, have smaller column densities of high-velocity gas and smaller near-IR excesses compared with beta Pic. These features are consistent with greater central clearing of a remnant debris disk, compared with beta Pic, and suggest that the majority of field A-shell stars are older than beta Pic.

  14. Rotational and magnetic field instabilities in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkotas, Kostas D. [Theoretical Astrophysics, IAAT, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076 (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    In this short review we present recent results on the dynamics of neutron stars and their magnetic fields. We discuss the progress that has been made, during the last 5 years, in understanding the rotational instabilities with emphasis to the one due to the f-mode, the possibility of using gravitational wave detection in constraining the parameters of neutron stars and revealing the equation of state as well as the detectability of gravitational waves produced during the unstable phase of a neutron star’s life. In addition we discuss the dynamics of extremely strong magnetic fields observed in a class of neutron stars (magnetars). Magnetic fields of that strength are responsible for highly energetic phenomena (giant flares) and we demonstrate that the analysis of the emitted electromagnetic radiation can lead in constraining the parameters of neutron stars. Furthermore, we present our results from the study of such violent phenomena in association with the emission of gravitational radiation.

  15. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of 1E1743.1-2843: indications of a neutron star LMXB nature of the compact object

    CERN Document Server

    Lotti, Simone; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Hong, Jaesub; Krivonos, Roman A; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the persistent X-ray source \\object{1E1743.1-2843}, located in the Galactic Center region. The source was observed between September and October 2012 by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, providing almost simultaneous observations in the hard and soft X-ray bands. The high X-ray luminosity points to the presence of an accreting compact object. We analyze the possibilities of this accreting compact object being either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole, and conclude that the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum from 0.3 to 40 $\\mathrm{keV}$ fits to a black body spectrum with $kT\\sim1.8~\\mathrm{keV}$ emitted from a hot spot or an equatorial strip on a neutron star surface. This spectrum is thermally Comptonized by electrons with $kT_{e}\\sim4.6~\\mathrm{keV}$. Accepting this neutron star hypothesis, we probe the Low Mass (LMXB) or High Mass (HMXB) X-ray Binary nature of the source. While the lack of Type-I bursts can be explained in the LMXB scenario, the abs...

  16. Measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars using model atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleimanov, V.F. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Kazan Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Poutanen, J. [University of Turku, Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Piikkioe (Finland); KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Klochkov, D.; Werner, K. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are nowadays widely used to fit the observed thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars. This fitting is the key element in the method of the neutron star radius determination. Here, we present the basic assumptions used for the neutron star atmosphere modeling as well as the main qualitative features of the stellar atmospheres leading to the deviations of the emergent model spectrum from blackbody. We describe the properties of two of our model atmosphere grids: i) pure carbon atmospheres for relatively cool neutron stars (1-4MK) and ii) hot atmospheres with Compton scattering taken into account. The results obtained by applying these grids to model the X-ray spectra of the central compact object in supernova remnant HESS 1731-347, and two X-ray bursting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries, 4U 1724-307 and 4U 1608-52, are presented. Possible systematic uncertainties associated with the obtained neutron star radii are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Temperature distribution in magnetized neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Geppert, U; Page, D

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the influence of different magnetic field configurations on the temperature distribution in neutron star crusts. We consider axisymmetric dipolar fields which are either restricted to the stellar crust, ``crustal fields'', or allowed to penetrate the core, ``core fields''. By integrating the two-dimensional heat transport equation in the crust, taking into account the classical (Larmor) anisotropy of the heat conductivity, we obtain the crustal temperature distribution, assuming an isothermal core. Including quantum magnetic field effects in the envelope as a boundary condition, we deduce the corresponding surface temperature distributions. We find that core fields result in practically isothermal crusts unless the surface field strength is well above $10^{15}$ G while for crustal fields with surface strength above a few times $10^{12}$ G significant deviations from isothermality occur at core temperatures inferior or equal to $10^8$ K. At the stellar surface, the cold equatorial region produce...

  18. Light Curves of Rapidly Rotating Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Braje, T M; Rauch, K P; Braje, Timothy M.; Romani, Roger W.; Rauch, Kevin P.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the effect of rapid rotation on the light curves of neutron stars with hot polar caps. For $P \\approx 3$ms spin periods, the pulse fractions can be as much as an order of magnitude larger than with simple slowly-rotating (Schwarzschild) estimates. Doppler boosting, in particular, leads to characteristic distortion and ``soft lags'' in the pulse profiles, which are easily measurable in light curves with moderate energy resolution. With $\\sim 10^5$ photons it should also be possible to isolate the more subtle distortions of light travel time variations and frame dragging. Detailed analysis of high quality millisecond pulsar data from upcoming X-ray missions must include these effects.

  19. Deconfinement phase transition in neutron star matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ang; PENG Guang-Xiong; Lombardo U

    2009-01-01

    The transition from hadron phase to strange quark phase in dense matter is investigated. Instead of using the conventional bag model in quark sect, we achieve the confinement by a density-dependent quark mass derived from in-medium chiral condensates, with a thermodynamic problem improved. In nuclear slot,we adopt the equation of state from Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach with three-body force. It is found that the mixed phase can occur, for reasonable confinement parameter, near the normal saturation density,and transit to pure quark matter at 4-5 times the saturation, which is quite different from the previous results from other quark models that pure quark phase can not appear at neutron-star densities.

  20. Binary neutron star mergers: a jet engine for short gamma-ray burst

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Milton; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2016-01-01

    We perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity (GRMHD) of quasicircular, equal-mass, binary neutron stars that undergo merger. The initial stars are irrotational, $n=1$ polytropes and are magnetized. We explore two types of magnetic-field geometries: one where each star is endowed with a dipolar magnetic field extending from the interior into the exterior, as in a pulsar, and the other where the dipolar field is initially confined to the interior. In both cases the adopted magnetic fields are dynamically unimportant initially. The merger outcome is a hypermassive neutron star that undergoes delayed collapse to a black hole (spin parameter $a/M_{\\rm BH} \\sim 0.74$) immersed in a magnetized accretion disk. About $4000M \\sim 60(M_{\\rm NS}/1.625M_\\odot)$ ms following merger, the region above the black hole poles becomes strongly magnetized, and a collimated, mildly relativistic outflow --- an incipient jet --- is launched. The lifetime of the accretion disk, which likely equals the lifetime...

  1. X-ray emission from classical T Tauri stars: Accretion shocks and coronae?

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, H M; Robrade, J; Liefke, C

    2007-01-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) are surrounded by actively accreting disks. According to current models material falls along the magnetic field lines from the disk with more or less free-fall velocity onto the star, where the plasma heats up and generates X-rays. We want to quantitatively explain the observed high energy emission and measure the infall parameters from the data. Absolute flux measurements allow to calculate the filling factor and the mass accretion rate.We use a numerical model of the hot accretion spot and solve the conservation equations. A comparison to data from XMM-Newton and Chandra shows that our model reproduces the main features very well. It yields for TW Hya a filling factor of 0.3% and a mass accretion rate 2e-10 M_sun/yr.

  2. Probing the Internal Composition of Neutron Stars with Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chatziioannou, Katerina; Klein, Antoine; Cornish, Neil; Yunes, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from neutron star binary inspirals contain information about the equation of state of supranuclear matter. In the absence of definitive experimental evidence that determines the correct equation of state, a number of diverse models that give the pressure in a neutron star as function of its density have been proposed. These models differ not only in the approximations and techniques they use to solve the many-body Schr\\"odinger equation, but also in the neutron star composition they assume. We study whether gravitational wave observations of neutron star binaries in quasicircular inspirals will allow us to distinguish between equations of state of differing internal composition, thereby providing important information about the properties of extremely high density matter. We carry out a Bayesian model selection analysis, and find that second generation gravitational wave detectors can heavily constrain equations of state that contain only quark matter, but hybrid stars containing both norm...

  3. Breaking strain of neutron star crust and gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Kadau, Kai

    2009-05-15

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of the neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Because of the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gravitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large-scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in magnetar giant flares and microflares.

  4. (K)0 Condensation in Hyperonic Neutron Star Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wen-Bo; LIU Guang-Zhou; ZHU Ming-Feng; YU Zi; ZHAO En-Guang

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the relativistic mean field theory,we investigate (K)0 condensation along with Kˉcondensation occur well in the core of the maximum mass stars for relatively shallow optical potentials of (K) in the range of-100 MeV~-160 MeV.With the increasing optical potential of (K),the critical densities of (K) decrease and the species of baryons appearing in neutron stars become fewer.The main role of (K)0 condensation is to make the abundances of particles become identical leading to isospin saturated symmetric matter including antikaons,state,which leads to a large reduction in the maximum masses of neutron stars.In the core of massive neutron stars,neutron star matter including rich particle species,such as antikaons,nucleons and hyperons,may exist.

  5. Constraints on the symmetry energy from observational probes of the neutron star crust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, William G.; Hooker, Joshua; Gearheart, Michael; Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Li, Bao-An [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); Murphy, Kyleah [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Oregon (United States); Wen, De-Hua [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Commerce (United States); South China University of Technology, Department of Physics, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    A number of observed phenomena associated with individual neutron star systems or neutron star populations find explanations in models in which the neutron star crust plays an important role. We review recent work examining the sensitivity to the slope of the symmetry energy L of such models, and constraints extracted on L from confronting them with observations. We focus on six sets of observations and proposed explanations: (i) The cooling rate of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A, confronting cooling models which include enhanced cooling in the nuclear pasta regions of the inner crust; (ii) the upper limit of the observed periods of young X-ray pulsars, confronting models of magnetic field decay in the crust caused by the high resistivity of the nuclear pasta layer; (iii) glitches from the Vela pulsar, confronting the paradigm that they arise due to a sudden recoupling of the crustal neutron superfluid to the crustal lattice after a period during which they were decoupled due to vortex pinning; (iv) the frequencies of quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray tail of light curves from giant flares from soft gamma-ray repeaters, confronting models of torsional crust oscillations; (v) the upper limit on the frequency to which millisecond pulsars can be spun-up due to accretion from a binary companion, confronting models of the r-mode instability arising above a threshold frequency determined in part by the viscous dissipation timescale at the crust-core boundary; and (vi) the observations of precursor electromagnetic flares a few seconds before short gamma-ray bursts, confronting a model of crust shattering caused by resonant excitation of a crustal oscillation mode by the tidal gravitational field of a companion neutron star just before merger. (orig.)

  6. Understanding Neutron Stars using Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star = EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts = modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  7. Neutron Stars and Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2007-01-01

    Studies of thermonuclear X-ray bursts can be very useful to constrain the spin rate, mass and radius of a neutron star approaching EOS model of high density cold matter in the neutron star cores. +k Extensive observation and analysis of the data from the rising portions of the bursts - modeling of burst oscillations and thermonuclear flame spreading. +k Theoretical study of thermonuclear flame spreading on the rapidly spinning neutron stars should be done considering all the main physical effects (including magnetic field, nuclear energy generation, Coriolis effect, strong gravity, etc.).

  8. Joule heating governing the cooling of magnetized neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A

    2008-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations for the cooling of neutron stars with strong magnetic fields (B > 1e13 Gauss). We study how the cooling curves are influenced by magnetic field decay. We show that the Joule heating effects are very large and in some cases control the thermal evolution. We characterize the temperature anisotropy induced by the magnetic field and predict the surface temperature distribution for the early and late stages of the evolution of isolated neutron stars, comparing our results with available observational data of isolated neutron stars.

  9. Isolated Neutron Stars: From the Surface to the Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, Silvia; Page, Dany

    2007-01-01

    This book collects the contributions presented at the conference Isolated Neutron Stars: From the Surface to the Interior, held in London in April 2006. Forty years after the discovery of radio pulsars it presents an up-to-date description of the new vision of isolated neutron stars that has emerged in recent years with the advance of multi-wavelength observations. The great variety of isolated neutron stars, from pulsars to magnetars, some of them discovered very recently and many of them not detectable in radio wavelengths, is amply covered by descriptions of recent observational results and presentations of the latest theoretical interpretation of these data.

  10. Energy of Gravitational Field of Static Spherically Symmetric Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENDe-Hua; CHENWei; WANGXian-Ju; AIBao-Quan; LIUGuo-Tao; LIULiang-Gang

    2003-01-01

    By using the Einstein-Tolman expression of the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor, the energy density of the gravitational field of the static spherically symmetric neutron stars is calculated in the Cartesian coordinate system.It is exciting that the energy density of gravitational field is positive and rational The xmmerical results of the energy density of gravitational field of neutron stars are calculated. For neutron stars with M=2M, the ratio of the energy density of gravitational field to the energy density of pure matters would be up to 0.54 at the surface.

  11. The EOS of neutron matter and the effect of $\\Lambda$ hyperons to neutron star structure

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The structure of neutron stars is determined by the equation of state of the matter inside the star, which relies on the knowledge of nuclear interactions. While radii of neutron stars mostly depend on the equation of state of neutron matter at nuclear densities, their maximum mass can be drastically affected by the appearance of hyperons at higher densities in the inner core of the star. We summarize recent quantum Monte Carlo results on the calculation of the equation of state of neutron matter at nuclear and higher densities. We report about the development of realistic hyperon-nucleon interactions based on the available experimental data for light- and medium-heavy hypernuclei and on the effect of $\\Lambda$ hyperons to the neutron star structure.

  12. Enhanced accretion rates of stars on Super-massive Black Holes by star-disk interactions in galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Just, Andreas; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emanuel Y

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a super-massive black hole and a central accretion disk. The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow towards the super-massive black hole and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating accretion disk. The accretion disk is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation t...

  13. I-Love-Q: unexpected universal relations for neutron stars and quark stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2013-07-26

    Neutron stars and quark stars are not only characterized by their mass and radius but also by how fast they spin, through their moment of inertia, and how much they can be deformed, through their Love number and quadrupole moment. These depend sensitively on the star's internal structure and thus on unknown nuclear physics. We find universal relations between the moment of inertia, the Love number, and the quadrupole moment that are independent of the neutron and quark star's internal structure. These can be used to learn about neutron star deformability through observations of the moment of inertia, break degeneracies in gravitational wave detection to measure spin in binary inspirals, distinguish neutron stars from quark stars, and test general relativity in a nuclear structure-independent fashion.

  14. Magnetized Hypermassive Neutron Star Collapse: a candidate central engine for short-hard GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Branson C; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Shibta, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Hypermassive neutron stars (HMNSs) are equilibrium configurations supported against collapse by rapid differential rotation and likely form as transient remnants of binary neutron star mergers. Though HMNSs are dynamically stable, secular effects such as viscosity or magnetic fields tend to bring HMNSs into uniform rotation and thus lead to collapse. We simulate the evolution of magnetized HMNSs in axisymmetry using codes which solve the Einstein-Maxwell-MHD system of equations. We find that magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability (MRI) both contribute to the eventual collapse of HMNSs to rotating black holes surrounded by massive, hot accretion tori and collimated magnetic fields. Such hot tori radiate strongly in neutrinos, and the resulting neutrino-antineutrino annihilation could power short-hard GRBs.

  15. White Paper on GEMS Study of Polarized X-rays from Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Pranab; Baring, Matthew; Baumgartner, Wayne; Black, Kevin; Dotson, Jessie; Harding, Alice; Hill, Joanne; Jahoda, Keith; Kaaret, Phillip; Kallman, Tim; Krawczynski, Henric; Krolik, Julian; Lai, Dong; Markwardt, Craig; Marshall, Herman; Martoff, Jeffrey; Morris, Robin; Okajima, Takashi; Petre, Robert; Poutanen, Juri; Reynolds, Stephen; Scargle, Jeffrey; Schnittman, Jeremy; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod; Swank, Jean; Tawara, Y; Tamagawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    We examine the expected X-ray polarization properties of neutron-star X-ray sources of various types, e.g., accretion and rotation powered pulsars, magnetars, and low-mass X-ray binaries. We summarize the model calculations leading to these expected properties. We describe how a comparison of these with their observed properties, as inferred from GEMS data, will probe the essential dynamical, electromagnetic, plasma, and emission processes in neutron-star binaries, discriminate between models of these processes, and constrain model parameters. An exciting goal is the first observational demonstration in this context of the existence of vacuum resonance, a fundamental quantum electrodynamical phenomenon first described in the 1930s.

  16. Monte Carlo Neutrino Transport Through Remnant Disks from Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Richers, S; O'Connor, Evan; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Ott, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We present Sedonu, a new open source, steady-state, special relativistic Monte Carlo (MC) neutrino transport code, available at bitbucket.org/srichers/sedonu. The code calculates the energy- and angle-dependent neutrino distribution function on fluid backgrounds of any number of spatial dimensions, calculates the rates of change of fluid internal energy and electron fraction, and solves for the equilibrium fluid temperature and electron fraction. We apply this method to snapshots from two dimensional simulations of accretion disks left behind by binary neutron star mergers, varying the input physics and comparing to the results obtained with a leakage scheme for the case of a central black hole and a central hypermassive neutron star. Neutrinos are guided away from the densest regions of the disk and escape preferentially around 45 degrees from the equatorial plane. Neutrino heating is strengthened by MC transport a few scale heights above the disk midplane near the innermost stable circular orbit, potentiall...

  17. Spin paramagnetic deformation of a neutron star

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorov, A G; Melatos, A

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanical corrections to the hydromagnetic force balance equation, derived from the microscopic Schr\\"{o}dinger-Pauli theory of quantum plasmas, modify the equilibrium structure and hence the mass quadrupole moment of a neutron star. It is shown here that the dominant effect --- spin paramagnetism --- is most significant in a magnetar, where one typically has $\\mu_{B}|\\boldsymbol{B}|\\gtrsim k_B T_e$, where $\\mu_{B}$ is the Bohr magneton, $\\boldsymbol{B}$ is the magnetic field, and $T_e$ is the electron temperature. The spin paramagnetic deformation of a nonbarotropic magnetar with a linked poloidal-toroidal magnetic field is calculated to be up to ${{\\sim 10}}$ times greater than the deformation caused solely by the Lorentz force. It depends on the degree of Pauli blocking by conduction electrons and the propensity to form magnetic domains, processes which are incompletely modelled at magnetar field strengths. The star becomes more oblate, as the toroidal field component strengthens. The result impli...

  18. Spin paramagnetic deformation of a neutron star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, A. G.; Mastrano, A.; Melatos, A.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum mechanical corrections to the hydromagnetic force balance equation, derived from the microscopic Schrödinger-Pauli theory of quantum plasmas, modify the equilibrium structure and hence the mass quadrupole moment of a neutron star. It is shown here that the dominant effect - spin paramagnetism - is most significant in a magnetar, where one typically has μ _B|B|≳ k_B T_e, where μB is the Bohr magneton, B is the magnetic field, and Te is the electron temperature. The spin paramagnetic deformation of a non-barotropic magnetar with a linked poloidal-toroidal magnetic field is calculated to be up to ˜10 times greater than the deformation caused solely by the Lorentz force. It depends on the degree of Pauli blocking by conduction electrons and the propensity to form magnetic domains, processes which are incompletely modelled at magnetar field strengths. The star becomes more oblate, as the toroidal field component strengthens. The result implies that existing classical predictions underestimate the maximum strength of the gravitational wave signal from rapidly spinning magnetars at birth. Turning the argument around, future gravitational-wave upper limits of increasing sensitivity will place ever-stricter constraints on the physics of Pauli blocking and magnetic domain formation under magnetar conditions.

  19. X-ray deficiency on strong accreting T Tauri stars - Comparing Orion with Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Manara, Carlo; Ribas, Álvaro; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Depending on whether a T Tauri star accretes material from its circumstellar disk or not, different X-ray emission properties can be found. The accretion shocks produce cool heating of the plasma, contributing to the soft X-ray emission from the star. Using X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultra-deep Project and accretion rates that were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 photometric measurements in the Orion Nebula Cluster, we studied the relation between the accretion processes and the X-ray emissions of a coherent sample of T Tauri sources in the region. We performed regression and correlation analyses of our sample of T Tauri stars between the X-ray parameters, stellar properties, and the accretion measurements. We find that a clear anti-correlation is present between the residual X-ray luminosity and the accretion rates in our samples in Orion that is consistent with that found on the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST) study. We provide a catalog with X-ray lumin...

  20. Supermassive star formation via episodic accretion: protostellar disc instability and radiative feedback efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y.; Vorobyov, E. I.; Hosokawa, T.; Yoshida, N.; Omukai, K.; Yorke, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    The formation of supermassive stars (SMSs) is a potential pathway to seed supermassive black holes in the early universe. A critical issue for forming SMSs is stellar UV feedback, which may limit the stellar mass growth via accretion. In this paper, we study the evolution of an accreting SMS and its UV emissivity with realistic variable accretion from a circumstellar disc. First we conduct a 2D hydrodynamical simulation to follow the protostellar accretion until the stellar mass exceeds 104 M⊙. The disc fragments by gravitational instability, creating many clumps that migrate inward to fall on to the star. The resulting accretion history is highly time-dependent: short episodic accretion bursts are followed by longer quiescent phases. We show that the disc for the direct collapse model is more unstable and generates greater variability than normal Pop III cases. Next, we conduct a stellar evolution calculation using the obtained accretion history. Our results show that, regardless of the variable accretion, the stellar radius monotonically increases with almost constant effective temperature at Teff ≃ 5000 K as the stellar mass increases. The resulting UV feedback is too weak to hinder accretion due to the low flux of stellar UV photons. The insensitivity of stellar evolution to variable accretion is attributed to the fact that time-scales of variability, ≲103 yr, are too short to affect the stellar structure. We argue that this evolution will continue until the SMS collapses to produce a black hole by the general relativistic instability after the mass reaches ≳105 M⊙.